Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 13.512
Filtrar
1.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 6, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33520075

RESUMEN

Novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is spreading rapidly and creating a huge economic, social and public health challenge worldwide. Although currently an effective vaccine is ready, its distribution is limited, and hence the only currently available lever to reduce transmission is to identify and isolate individuals who are contagious. Thus, testing for SARS CoV-2 has a paramount importance. However, testing in many African countries including Ethiopia has multidimensional growing challenges. Here, we tried to identify, categorize and summarize the challenges of COVID-19 testing in Africa from Ethiopian experience.


Asunto(s)
/métodos , /diagnóstico , África , Etiopía , Humanos
2.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0244050, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33566814

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization has declared that infection with SARS-CoV-2 is a pandemic. Experiences with SARS in 2003 and SARS-CoV-2 have shown that health professionals are at higher risk of contracting COVID-19. Hence, it has been recommended that aperiodic wide-scale assessment of the knowledge and preparedness of health professionals regarding the current COVID-19 pandemic is critical. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to assess the knowledge and preparedness of health professionals regarding COVID-19 among selected hospitals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. METHODS: A facility-based cross-sectional study was conducted from the last week of March to early April, 2020. Government (n = 6) and private hospitals (n = 4) were included. The front-line participants with high exposure were proportionally recruited from their departments. The collected data from a self-administered questionnaire were entered using EpiData and analyzed in SPSS software. Both descriptive statistics and inferential statistics (chi-square tests) are presented. RESULTS: A total of 1334 health professionals participated in the study. The majority (675, 50.7%) of the participants were female. Of the total, 532 (39.9%) subjects were nurses/midwives, followed by doctors (397, 29.8%) and pharmacists (193, 14.5%). Of these, one-third had received formal training on COVID-19. The mean knowledge score of participants was 16.45 (±4.4). Regarding knowledge about COVID-19, 783 (58.7%), 354 (26.5%), and 196 (14.7%) participants had moderate, good, and poor knowledge, respectively. Lower scores were seen in younger age groups, females, and non-physicians. Two-thirds (63.2%) of the subjects responded that they had been updated by their hospital on COVID-19. Of the total, 1020 (76.5%) participants responded that television, radio, and newspapers were their primary sources of information. Established hospital preparedness measures were confirmed by 43-57% of participants. CONCLUSION: The current study revealed that health professionals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, already know important facts but had moderate overall knowledge about the COVID-19 pandemic. There were unmet needs in younger age groups, non-physicians, and females. Half of the respondents mentioning inadequate preparedness of their hospitals point to the need for more global solidarity, especially concerning the shortage of consumables and lack of equipment.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Personal de Salud/clasificación , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Etiopía/epidemiología , Femenino , Personal de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Factores Socioeconómicos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
3.
BMC Psychol ; 9(1): 4, 2021 Jan 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33407920

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Internet addiction is a common problem in university students and negatively affects cognitive functioning, leads to poor academic performance and engagement in hazardous activities, and may lead to anxiety and stress. Behavioral addictions operate on a modified principle of the classic addiction model. The problem is not well investigated in Ethiopia. So the present study aimed to assess the prevalence of internet addiction and associated factors among university students in Ethiopia. OBJECTIVES: Main objective of this study was to assess the prevalence and associated factors of internet addiction among University Students in Ethiopia. METHODS: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among Wollo University students from April 10 to May 10, 2019. A total of 603 students were participated in the study using a structured questionnaire. A multistage cluster sampling technique was used to recruit study participants. A binary logistic regression method was used to explore associated factors for internet addiction and variables with a p value < 0.25 in the bivariate analysis were fitted to the multi-variable logistic regression analysis. The strength of association between internet addiction and associated factors was assessed with odds ratio, 95% CI and p value < 0.05 in the final model was considered significant. RESULTS: The prevalence of internet addiction (IA) among the current internet users was 85% (n = 466). Spending more time on the internet (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 10.13, 95% CI 1.33-77.00)), having mental distress (AOR = 2.69, 95% CI 1.02-7.06), playing online games (AOR = 2.40, 95% CI 1.38-4.18), current khat chewing (AOR = 3.34, 95% CI 1.14-9.83) and current alcohol use (AOR = 2.32, 95% CI 1.09-4.92) were associated with internet addiction. CONCLUSIONS: The current study documents a high prevalence of internet addiction among Wollo University students. Factors associated with internet addiction were spending more time, having mental distress, playing online games, current khat chewing, and current alcohol use. As internet addiction becomes an evident public health problem, carrying out public awareness campaigns may be a fruitful strategy to decrease its prevalence and effect. Besides to this, a collaborative work among stakeholders is important to develop other trendy, adaptive, and sustainable countermeasures.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Estudiantes/psicología , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Etiopía/epidemiología , Humanos , Prevalencia , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Universidades
4.
BMJ Open ; 11(1): e043185, 2021 01 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33408210

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has posed several medical, psychosocial and economic impacts among the majority of the society. The ambiguity of its transmission, the intense desire of self-protection, family, and friends, the unknown impact of catching the disease itself, unstoppable spread, the panic and outright misinformation lead to acute stress reaction syndrome. However, reliable data related to this contagion lack the prevalence of acute stress reaction syndrome and associated factors among Jimma University Medical Centre hospital visitors in Southwestern Ethiopia. AIMS: The main objective of the study was to assess the prevalence and factors associated with acute stress reaction syndrome during the COVID-19 outbreak among Jimma University Medical Centre Hospital visitors, Ethiopia. METHODS: An interviewer-administered cross-sectional study was conducted among 247 visitors of the Jimma University Medical Centre in Ethiopia. The study was conducted within 2 weeks of the first COVID-19 cases detected on 13 March 2020 in Ethiopia. Data on demographic and socioeconomic status were collected during the interview using structured questionnaires. The psychological impact was assessed using the Impact of Event Scale-Revised, and symptoms of insomnia were measured using the Insomnia Severity Index. Social support was evaluated using Oslo three-item Social Support Scale. Logistic regression was employed to determine the associations between dependent and independent variables. Besides, psychosocial stress score was generated using principal component analysis. A paired permutation test was also performed to determine the variability of psychosocial stress between groups. RESULTS: The mean age of participants was 30.47 years, and 76.5% of the participants were male. Acute stress reaction syndrome was detected in 44.1% of hospital visitors. Of the participants, 38.5%, 17.4%, 8.5% and 35.6% had a minimal, mild, moderate and severe psychological impact, respectively. Factors positively associated with acute stress reaction syndrome were individuals who perceived that COVID-19 leads to stigma (adjusted OR (AOR): 3.24, 95% CI 1.11 to 9.45), mild insomnia (AOR: 14.74, 95% CI 6.14 to 35.40), moderate to severe insomnia (AOR: 35.1, 95% CI 10.76 to 114.66), low social support (AOR: 4.08, 95% CI 1.31 to 12.67) and governmental employees (AOR: 8.09, 95% CI 1.38 to 47.18). CONCLUSION: The study revealed the existence of a high prevalence of acute stress reaction syndrome during the COVID-19 outbreak among different groups of the community. Therefore, our results will contribute to the global awareness of the psychological impact of the COVID-19 outbreak.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad/psicología , Hospitales Universitarios , Pandemias , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Comorbilidad , Estudios Transversales , Depresión/epidemiología , Etiopía/epidemiología , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Masculino , Salud Mental , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Estudios Retrospectivos , Estigma Social , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
5.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 10(1): 5, 2021 Jan 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33413680

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The pandemic of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused substantial disruptions to health services in the low and middle-income countries with a high burden of other diseases, such as malaria in sub-Saharan Africa. The aim of this study is to assess the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on malaria transmission potential in malaria-endemic countries in Africa. METHODS: We present a data-driven method to quantify the extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as various non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs), could lead to the change of malaria transmission potential in 2020. First, we adopt a particle Markov Chain Monte Carlo method to estimate epidemiological parameters in each country by fitting the time series of the cumulative number of reported COVID-19 cases. Then, we simulate the epidemic dynamics of COVID-19 under two groups of NPIs: (1) contact restriction and social distancing, and (2) early identification and isolation of cases. Based on the simulated epidemic curves, we quantify the impact of COVID-19 epidemic and NPIs on the distribution of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs). Finally, by treating the total number of ITNs available in each country in 2020, we evaluate the negative effects of COVID-19 pandemic on malaria transmission potential based on the notion of vectorial capacity. RESULTS: We conduct case studies in four malaria-endemic countries, Ethiopia, Nigeria, Tanzania, and Zambia, in Africa. The epidemiological parameters (i.e., the basic reproduction number [Formula: see text] and the duration of infection [Formula: see text]) of COVID-19 in each country are estimated as follows: Ethiopia ([Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]), Nigeria ([Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]), Tanzania ([Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]), and Zambia ([Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]). Based on the estimated epidemiological parameters, the epidemic curves simulated under various NPIs indicated that the earlier the interventions are implemented, the better the epidemic is controlled. Moreover, the effect of combined NPIs is better than contact restriction and social distancing only. By treating the total number of ITNs available in each country in 2020 as a baseline, our results show that even with stringent NPIs, malaria transmission potential will remain higher than expected in the second half of 2020. CONCLUSIONS: By quantifying the impact of various NPI response to the COVID-19 pandemic on malaria transmission potential, this study provides a way to jointly address the syndemic between COVID-19 and malaria in malaria-endemic countries in Africa. The results suggest that the early intervention of COVID-19 can effectively reduce the scale of the epidemic and mitigate its impact on malaria transmission potential.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Malaria/epidemiología , Malaria/terapia , /transmisión , Etiopía/epidemiología , Humanos , Malaria/transmisión , Cadenas de Markov , Nigeria/epidemiología , Pandemias , Sindémico , Tanzanía/epidemiología , Zambia/epidemiología
6.
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol ; 80(1): 277-293, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33392776

RESUMEN

The main focus of the present research was to examine the appropriateness of groundwater resources for drinking purposes in the Bilate River Basin of Southern Main Ethiopian Rift, Ethiopia. The groundwater quality index (GWQI), fluoride pollution index (FPI), and human health risk were used to examine the human health risk factors associated with the intake of high fluoride groundwater. For this purpose, 29 groundwater samples were collected from the existing wells and were analyzed for various physicochemical parameters. The dominant cation was Na+, followed by Ca2+, Mg2+, and K+. The dominant anion was HCO3-, followed by Cl-, SO42-, and F-. The Gibbs plot shows that rock-water interactions are the dominant factor controlling the groundwater chemistry. By using the GWQI, the quality of groundwater samples was 31% excellent, 21% good, 31% poor, and 17% very poor. The fluoride concentration in groundwater ranges from 0.2 to 5.60 mg/L (mean, 2.10 mg/L). 59% (i.e., 17 wells) of the groundwater samples were not suitable for drinking, because they surpassed the drinking water quality limit of 1.5 mg/L. The remaining 41% (i.e., 12 wells) of the samples were suitable for drinking. The FPI indicates that 51.72% of the wells were highly polluted by fluoride. The noncarcinogenic health risk varies from 0.75 to 8.44 for children (83%), 0.34-3.84 for women (62%), and 0.27-3.01 for men (52%), which indicates that children are at higher health risk than women and men due to the physiological condition and the rates of ingestion.


Asunto(s)
Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Fluoruros/análisis , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Agua Subterránea/química , Ríos/química , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , Adulto , Altitud , Niño , Agua Potable/análisis , Agua Potable/normas , Etiopía , Femenino , Sistemas de Información Geográfica , Humanos , Masculino , Medición de Riesgo , Calidad del Agua/normas
7.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 1: CD004529, 2021 01 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33459345

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) in 2015 stated atovaquone-proguanil can be used in travellers, and is an option in malaria-endemic areas in combination with artesunate, as an alternative treatment where first-line artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is not available or effective. This review is an update of a Cochrane Review undertaken in 2005. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and safety of atovaquone-proguanil (alone and in combination with artemisinin drugs) versus other antimalarial drugs for treating uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in adults and children. SEARCH METHODS: The date of the last trial search was 30 January 2020. Search locations for published trials included the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, and LILACS. To include recently published and unpublished trials, we also searched ClinicalTrials.gov, the metaRegister of Controlled Trials and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform Search Portal. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) reporting efficacy and safety data for atovaquone-proguanil or atovaquone-proguanil with a partner drug compared with at least one other antimalarial drug for treating uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum infection. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: For this update, two review authors re-extracted data and assessed certainty of evidence. We meta-analyzed data to calculate risk ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for treatment failures between comparisons, and for safety outcomes between and across comparisons. Outcome measures include unadjusted treatment failures and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-adjusted treatment failures. PCR adjustment differentiates new infection from recrudescent infection. MAIN RESULTS: Seventeen RCTs met our inclusion criteria providing 4763 adults and children from Africa, South-America, and South-East Asia. Eight trials reported PCR-adjusted data to distinguish between new and recrudescent infection during the follow-up period. In this abstract, we report only the comparisons against the three WHO-recommended antimalarials which were included within these trials. There were two comparisons with artemether-lumefantrine, one trial from 2008 in Ethiopia with 60 participants had two failures with atovaquone-proguanil compared to none with artemether-lumefantrine (PCR-adjusted treatment failures at day 28). A second trial from 2012 in Colombia with 208 participants had one failure in each arm (PCR-adjusted treatment failures at day 42). There was only one comparison with artesunate-amodiaquine from a 2014 trial conducted in Cameroon. There were six failures with atovaquone-proguanil at day 28 and two with artesunate-amodiaquine (PCR-adjusted treatment failures at day 28: 9.4% with atovaquone-proguanil compared to 2.9% with artesunate-amodiaquine; RR 3.19, 95% CI 0.67 to 15.22; 1 RCT, 132 participants; low-certainty evidence), although there was a similar number of PCR-unadjusted treatment failures (9 (14.1%) with atovaquone-proguanil and 8 (11.8%) with artesunate-amodiaquine; RR 1.20, 95% CI 0.49 to 2.91; 1 RCT, 132 participants; low-certainty evidence). There were two comparisons with artesunate-mefloquine from a 2012 trial in Colombia and a 2002 trial in Thailand where there are high levels of multi-resistant malaria. There were similar numbers of PCR-adjusted treatment failures between groups at day 42 (2.7% with atovaquone-proguanil compared to 2.4% with artesunate-mefloquine; RR 1.15, 95% CI 0.57 to 2.34; 2 RCTs, 1168 participants; high-certainty evidence). There were also similar PCR-unadjusted treatment failures between groups (5.3% with atovaquone-proguanil compared to 6.6% with artesunate-mefloquine; RR 0.8, 95% CI 0.5 to 1.3; 1 RCT, 1063 participants; low-certainty evidence). When atovaquone-proguanil was combined with artesunate, there were fewer treatment failures with and without PCR-adjustment at day 28 (PCR-adjusted treatment failures at day 28: 2.16% with atovaquone-proguanil compared to no failures with artesunate-atovaquone-proguanil; RR 5.14, 95% CI 0.61 to 43.52; 2 RCTs, 375 participants, low-certainty evidence) and day 42 (PCR-adjusted treatment failures at day 42: 3.82% with atovaquone-proguanil compared to 2.05% with artesunate-atovaquone-proguanil (RR 1.84, 95% CI 0.95 to 3.56; 2 RCTs, 1258 participants, moderate-certainty evidence). In the 2002 trial in Thailand, there were fewer treatment failures in the artesunate-atovaquone-proguanil group compared to the atovaquone-proguanil group at day 42 with PCR-adjustment. Whilst there were some small differences in which adverse events were more frequent in the atovaquone-proguanil groups compared to comparator drugs, there were no recurrent associations to suggest that atovaquone-proguanil is strongly associated with any specific adverse event. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Atovaquone-proguanil was effective against uncomplicated P falciparum malaria, although in some instances treatment failure rates were between 5% and 10%. The addition of artesunate to atovaquone-proguanil may reduce treatment failure rates. Artesunate-atovaquone-proguanil and the development of parasite resistance may represent an area for further research.


Asunto(s)
Antimaláricos/uso terapéutico , Atovacuona/uso terapéutico , Malaria Falciparum/tratamiento farmacológico , Proguanil/uso terapéutico , Adulto , Amodiaquina/uso terapéutico , Combinación Arteméter y Lumefantrina/uso terapéutico , Artemisininas/uso terapéutico , Camerún , Niño , Colombia , Combinación de Medicamentos , Etiopía , Humanos , Mefloquina/uso terapéutico , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Tailandia , Insuficiencia del Tratamiento
8.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 91, 2021 Jan 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33478414

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Informed decision making is underlined by all tiers in the health system. Poor data record system coupled with under- (over)-reporting of malaria cases affects the country's malaria elimination activities. Thus, malaria data at health facilities and health offices are important particularly to monitor and evaluate the elimination progresses. This study was intended to assess overall reported malaria cases, reporting quality, spatiotemporal trends and factors associated in Gedeo zone, South Ethiopia. METHODS: Past 8 years retrospective data stored in 17 health centers and 5 district health offices in Gedeo Zone, South Ethiopia were extracted. Malaria cases data at each health center with sociodemographic information, between January 2012 and December 2019, were included. Meteorological data were obtained from the national meteorology agency of Ethiopia. The data were analyzed using Stata 13. RESULTS: A total of 485,414 suspected cases were examined for malaria during the previous 8 years at health centers. Of these suspects, 57,228 (11.79%) were confirmed malaria cases with an overall decline during the 8-year period. We noted that 3758 suspected cases and 467 confirmed malaria cases were not captured at the health offices. Based on the health centers records, the proportions of Plasmodium falciparum (49.74%) and P. vivax (47.59%) infection were nearly equivalent (p = 0.795). The former was higher at low altitudes while the latter was higher at higher altitudes. The over 15 years of age group accounted for 11.47% of confirmed malaria cases (p < 0.001). There was high spatiotemporal variation: the highest case record was during Belg (12.52%) and in Dilla town (18,150, 13.17%, p < 0.001) which is located at low altitude. Monthly rainfall and minimum temperature exhibited strong associations with confirmed malaria cases. CONCLUSION: A notable overall decline in malaria cases was observed during the eight-year period. Both P. falciparum and P. vivax were found at equivalent endemicity level; hence control measures should continue targeting both species. The noticed under reporting, the high malaria burden in urban settings, low altitudes and Belg season need spatiotemporal consideration by the elimination program.


Asunto(s)
Malaria/epidemiología , Altitud , Demografía , Notificación de Enfermedades/normas , Notificación de Enfermedades/estadística & datos numéricos , Etiopía/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Malaria/diagnóstico , Malaria/parasitología , Malaria/prevención & control , Masculino , Meteorología , Análisis Multivariante , Plasmodium falciparum/aislamiento & purificación , Plasmodium vivax/aislamiento & purificación , Prevalencia , Estudios Retrospectivos , Estaciones del Año
9.
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(1)2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33495285

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 epidemic is the latest evidence of critical gaps in our collective ability to monitor country-level preparedness for health emergencies. The global frameworks that exist to strengthen core public health capacities lack coverage of several preparedness domains and do not provide mechanisms to interface with local intelligence. We designed and piloted a process, in collaboration with three National Public Health Institutes (NPHIs) in Ethiopia, Nigeria and Pakistan, to identify potential preparedness indicators that exist in a myriad of frameworks and tools in varying local institutions. Following a desk-based systematic search and expert consultations, indicators were extracted from existing national and subnational health security-relevant frameworks and prioritised in a multi-stakeholder two-round Delphi process. Eighty-six indicators in Ethiopia, 87 indicators in Nigeria and 51 indicators in Pakistan were assessed to be valid, relevant and feasible. From these, 14-16 indicators were prioritised in each of the three countries for consideration in monitoring and evaluation tools. Priority indicators consistently included private sector metrics, subnational capacities, availability and capacity for electronic surveillance, measures of timeliness for routine reporting, data quality scores and data related to internally displaced persons and returnees. NPHIs play an increasingly central role in health security and must have access to data needed to identify and respond rapidly to public health threats. Collecting and collating local sources of information may prove essential to addressing gaps; it is a necessary step towards improving preparedness and strengthening international health regulations compliance.


Asunto(s)
Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Vigilancia en Salud Pública , /epidemiología , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/legislación & jurisprudencia , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/métodos , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/organización & administración , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/normas , Etiopía , Política de Salud , Humanos , Nigeria , Pakistán
10.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0246283, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33513211

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 incidence is increasing and different measures have been adopted to control the spread of the pandemic in Ethiopia. Among these measures, enhancing the knowledge, positive attitudes, and proper practices of prevention measures about the disease is a basic strategy to control it. However, community compliance to control measures is largely dependent on their knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) towards COVID-19. OBJECTIVE: To assess the current level of KAP towards COVID-19 pandemic and predictors among the rural dwellers in Sidama regional state, Southern Ethiopia; 2020. METHODS: This community-based prospective cross-sectional study was carried out from May 1-30, 2020 on a sample of 1,278 adult populations in Sidama regional state, Southern Ethiopia. A multi-stage sampling technique was used to choice the study participants. The data were collected using a structured interviewer-administered questionnaire. We have entered data using Epi data version 3.1 and all analyses were done using SPSS version 25. KAPs scores of study participants based on their independent variables were compared using Chi-square test, t-test or one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) as required. Bi-variable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors associated with KAP. The important assumptions of the logistic regression model were checked to be satisfied. Adjusted odds ratios (AOR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated to assess the existence and strength of associations. RESULTS: From a total of 1,214 study participants, the overall attained knowledge, attitude and practice score about COVID-19 were 90%, 82.4% and 65%, respectively. Among these, 43.9%, 37.5%, and 24.4% of the study participants had demonstrated good knowledge, high attitude and proper practice, respectively. The mean knowledge scores were significantly different between sex, categories of marital status, educational levels, main occupation, and the monthly income quintiles of the study participants (p<0.05). Similarly, the mean attitude scores significantly varied across educational levels, main occupations and marital status (p<0.05). Based on multivariable logistic regression analysis, main occupation of the government employees, education level of diploma and above, highest and second highest wealth rank were positively associated with COVID-19 prevention and control practice. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of study participants had showed good knowledge and optimistic attitude toward COVID-19. But, the level of practice lower than that expected to maximize effective control measures. Further public education interventions and community sensitization campaigns are required for rural adult population in the Sidama regional state, Ethiopia.


Asunto(s)
/psicología , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Etiopía/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Factores Socioeconómicos , Adulto Joven
11.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 26(1): 1, 2021 Jan 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33397282

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Household air pollution from biomass fuels burning in traditional cookstoves currently appeared as one of the most serious threats to public health with a recent burden estimate of 2.6 million premature deaths every year worldwide, ranking highest among environmental risk factors and one of the major risk factors of any type globally. Improved cookstove interventions have been widely practiced as potential solutions. However, studies on the effect of improved cookstove interventions are limited and heterogeneous which suggested the need for further research. METHODS: A cluster randomized controlled trial study was conducted to assess the effect of biomass-fuelled improved cookstove intervention on the concentration of household air pollution compared with the continuation of an open burning traditional cookstove. A total of 36 clusters were randomly allocated to both arms at a 1:1 ratio, and improved cookstove intervention was delivered to all households allocated into the treatment arm. All households in the included clusters were biomass fuel users and relatively homogenous in terms of basic socio-demographic and cooking-related characteristics. Household air pollution was determined by measuring the concentration of indoor fine particulate, and the effect of the intervention was estimated using the Generalized Estimating Equation. RESULTS: A total of 2031 household was enrolled in the study across 36 randomly selected clusters in both arms, among which data were obtained from a total of 1977 households for at least one follow-up visit which establishes the intention-to-treat population dataset for analysis. The improved cookstove intervention significantly reduces the concentration of household air pollution by about 343 µg/m3 (B = - 343, 95% CI - 350, - 336) compared to the traditional cookstove method. The overall reduction was found to be about 46% from the baseline value of 859 (95% CI 837-881) to 465 (95% CI 458-472) in the intervention arm compared to only about 5% reduction from 850 (95% CI 828-872) to 805 (95% CI 794-817) in the control arm. CONCLUSIONS: The biomass-fuelled improved cookstove intervention significantly reduces the concentration of household air pollution compared to the traditional method. This suggests that the implementation of these cookstove technologies may be necessary to achieve household air pollution exposure reductions. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial project was retrospectively registered on August 2, 2018, at the clinical trials.gov registry database ( https://clinicaltrials.gov/ ) with the NCT03612362 registration identifier number.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire Interior/prevención & control , Biomasa , Culinaria/métodos , Análisis por Conglomerados , Etiopía
12.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0246006, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33481962

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an emerging respiratory infections and is known to cause illness ranging from the common cold to severe acute respiratory syndrome. At present, the disease has been posing a serious threat to the communities, and it is critical to know the communities' level of adherence on COVID-19 prevention measures. Thus, this study aimed to identify the predictors of adherence to COVID-19 prevention measure among communities in North Shoa zone, Ethiopia by using a health belief model. METHODS: Community-based cross-sectional study design was employed. A total of 683 respondents were interviewed using a structured and pre-tested questionnaire. The data were collected by using a mobile-based application called "Google form." Logistic regression was performed to analyze the data. Estimates were reported in adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CI) and a significant association was declared at p-value of less than 0.05. RESULT: The overall adherence level of the community towards the recommended safety measures of COVID-19 was 44.1%. Self-efficacy (AOR = 0.23; 95% 0.14, 0.36), perceived benefits (AOR = 0.35; 95% 0.23, 0.56), perceived barriers (AOR = 3.36; 95% 2.23, 5.10), and perceived susceptibility of COVID-19 (AOR = 1.60; 95% 1.06, 2.39) were important predictors that influenced the adherence of the community to COVID-19 preventive behaviors. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, the overall adherence level of the community towards the recommended safety measures of COVID-19 was relatively low. It is vital to consider the communities' self-efficacy, perceived benefits, perceived barriers and perceived susceptibility of COVID-19 in order to improve the adherence of the community towards the recommended safety measures of COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
/prevención & control , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Etiopía/epidemiología , Femenino , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Salud Pública , Autoeficacia , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
13.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 77, 2021 Jan 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33482762

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Childbirth is a complex process, and checklists are useful tools to remember steps of such complex processes. The World Health Organization safe childbirth checklist is a tool used to improve the quality of care provided to women giving birth. The checklist was modified by Ministry of Health and was introduced to health centers in Ethiopia by the USAID Transform: Primary Health Care Activity. METHODS: A pre and post intervention study design with prospective data collection was employed. The availability of essential childbirth supplies and adherence of health care providers to essential birth practices were compared for the pre and post intervention periods. RESULTS: The pre and post intervention assessments were conducted in 247 and 187 health centers respectively. A statistically significant improvement from 63.6% pre intervention to 83.5% post intervention was observed in the availability of essential childbirth supplies, t (389.7) = - 7.1, p = 0.000. Improvements in adherence of health care providers to essential birth practices were observed with the highest being at pause point three (26.2%, t (306.3) = - 10.6, p = 0.000) followed by pause point four (21.1%, t (282.5) = - 8.0, p = 0.000), and pause point two (18.2%, t (310.8) = - 9.7, p = 0.000). The least and statistically non-significant improvement was observed at pause point one (3.3%, t (432.0) = - 1.5, p = 0.131). CONCLUSION: Improvement in availability of essential childbirth supplies and adherence of health care providers towards essential birth practices was observed after introduction of a modified World Health Organization safe childbirth checklist. Scale up of the use of the checklist is recommended.


Asunto(s)
Lista de Verificación/estadística & datos numéricos , Parto Obstétrico/normas , Servicios de Salud Materna/organización & administración , Grupo de Atención al Paciente/organización & administración , Complicaciones del Embarazo/prevención & control , Mejoramiento de la Calidad/organización & administración , Adulto , Etiopía , Femenino , Muerte Fetal/prevención & control , Estado de Salud , Humanos , Guías de Práctica Clínica como Asunto , Embarazo , Estudios Prospectivos , Medición de Riesgo , Organización Mundial de la Salud
14.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 199, 2021 01 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33482790

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Novel coronavirus is a global pandemic and killed many individuals, including health care professionals. It caused stress on the health care system of all countries. Presently, studies are emerging regarding the COVID-19 pandemic in different aspects. However, a few have explored barriers that affecting the practice of preventive measures for the COVID-19. As such, the study aimed to fill these research gaps in the study setting. METHODS: A semi-structured interview guide was used to conduct this phenomenological study among 16 key informants. Key informants were recruited by the purposive sampling method. To analyze that data, thematic content analysis was employed by using an inductive approach in NVivo 12 Pro software. RESULTS: In this study, six main themes were identified with the sub-themes. Overview of COVID-19 pandemic (with the six sub-themes), consequences (with the two sub-themes), perceived practice (with four sub-themes), perceived barriers (with four sub-themes), newfangled activities (with three sub-themes), and suggestion for improvement (with seven sub-themes) were the major themes. The participants perceived the influence of shortage of personal protective equipment and solutions for hand hygiene, negligence and ignorance, inadequate infrastructure, lack of training, and lack of attention and recognition for the staff on the practice of preventive measures. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed a gap in preventive measure practices for the COVID-19 in the health care system. Community influences, health care provider related barriers, institutional barriers, and lack of communication and support affect the practice. Hence, attention should give to fulfill the necessary supplies in the health facilities, improve the infrastructures, and equip health professionals by providing capacity-building activities. Besides, health care workers must recognize, and attention is needed.


Asunto(s)
Actitud del Personal de Salud , Personal de Salud/psicología , Pandemias/prevención & control , Administración en Salud Pública , Adulto , Etiopía/epidemiología , Femenino , Higiene de las Manos , Personal de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Equipo de Protección Personal/provisión & distribución , Investigación Cualitativa
15.
Behav Processes ; 184: 104338, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33513433

RESUMEN

Two of the main hypotheses put forth to explain the function of immature social play are the Social Skill Hypothesis and the Motor Training Hypothesis focussing on whether play can improve social competence to develop cooperative social networks or physical abilities to outcompete others, respectively. Here, we tested these hypotheses on a monkey species, the wild gelada (Theropithecus gelada) from the Kundi plateau, Ethiopia. This species is organized in bands divided in One-Male Units (OMUs), united only via social play. Immatures form 'play units' in which individuals from the same and different OMUs interact. We analysed the potential differences between inter- and intra-OMU play to verify which of the two hypotheses (Social Skill or Motor Training Hypothesis) best explains the function of play in geladas. We analysed 527 video-recorded social play sessions and found mixed support for both hypotheses. In agreement with the Social Skill Hypothesis, we found that play in geladas shows scarce social canalization being similarly distributed across age, sex and group membership. In line with the Motor Training Hypothesis, we detected higher levels of competition (shorter and more unbalanced sessions) in inter-OMU compared to intra-OMU play. Hence, in geladas play can be a tool for both the development of social relationships and the improvement of the physical skills necessary to cope with either future mates or competitors. In conclusion, neither hypothesis can be discarded and both hypotheses concur in explaining why immature geladas peculiarly form 'play units' embracing both ingroup and outgroup members.


Asunto(s)
Theropithecus , Adaptación Psicológica , Animales , Etiopía , Procesos de Grupo , Conducta Social
16.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0245753, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33493226

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Waiters working in different food and drinking establishments have a higher risk of contracting COVID-19 and transmitting the infection to others because they interact with many people. Most COVID-19 related studies in Ethiopia mainly focused on the general population, whereas, this study aimed to assess the knowledge of COVID-19 and preventive behaviors among waiters in Southwest Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted from June 1 to June 15, 2020, among waiters working in food and drinking establishments found in Mizan-Aman, Jemu, and Masha towns in Southwest Ethiopia. A total of 422 waiters were selected using a simple random sampling technique, and the data were collected through face-to-face interviews using a structured questionnaire. The data were entered into Epi-data manager version 4.0.2 and analyzed using SPSS version 22. Multivariable binary logistic regression analysis was carried out to identify predictors of good preventive behaviors at a p-value of less than 0.05. RESULTS: Four hundred and sixteen respondents participated in this study, with a response rate of 98.6%. A significant proportion of participants know the cause, route of transmission, symptoms, and prevention methods of COVID-19 virus. However, very few (21.2%) had good preventive behaviors. The study showed that good preventive behavior was positively associated with female sex (AOR = 2.33, 95% CI: 1.38-3.94), higher schooling (AOR = 0.39, 95% CI: 0.17-0.88), high-risk perception (AOR = 2.26, 95% CI: 1.51-4.32), and high perceived self-efficacy (AOR = 1.1.75, 95% CI: 1.05-2.90). CONCLUSIONS: A significant proportion of waiters know common symptoms of COVID 19, route of transmission, and its prevention methods. However, the preventive behavior was very low. Thus, all concerned bodies working on the prevention and control of COVID-19 should give attention to this population group to enhance compliance with recommended preventive behaviors.


Asunto(s)
/prevención & control , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Etiopía/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Factores de Riesgo , Lugar de Trabajo , Adulto Joven
17.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0244780, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33411766

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic is impacting the global community in many ways. Combating the COVID-19 pandemic requires a coordinated effort through engaging public and service providers in preventive measures. The government of Ethiopia had already announced prevention guidelines for the public. However, there is a scarcity of evidence-based data on the public knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) and response of the service providers regarding COVID-19. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the public KAP and service providers' preparedness towards the pandemic in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. METHODS: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, from late March to the first week of April 2020. Participants were conveniently sampled from 10 different city sites. Data collection was performed using a self-administered questionnaire and observational assessment using a checklist. All statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version Descriptive statistics, correlation coefficient and chi-square tests were performed. RESULT: A total of 839 public participants and 420 service providers enrolled in the study. The mean age was 30.30 (range = 18-72) years. The majority of the respondents (58.6%) had moderate knowledge about COVID-19, whereas 37.2% had good knowledge. Moreover, 60.7% and 59.8% of the participants had a positive attitude towards preventive measures and good practice to mitigate the pandemic, respectively. There was a moderate positive correlation between knowledge and attitude, whereas the correlations between knowledge and practice and attitude and practice were weak. With regard to service providers' preparedness, 70% have made hand-washing facilities available. A large majority of the respondents (84.4%) were using government-owned media followed by social media (46.0%) as a main source of information. CONCLUSION: The public in Addis Ababa had moderate knowledge, an optimistic attitude and descent practice. The information flow from government and social media seemed successful seeing the majority of the respondents identifying preventive measures, signs and symptoms and transmission route of SARS-CoV-2. Knowledge and attitude was not associated with practice, thus, additional innovative strategies for practice changes are needed. Two thirds of the service provider made available hand washing facilities which seems a first positive step. However, periodic evaluation of the public KAP and assessment of service providers' preparedness is mandatory to combat the pandemic effectively.


Asunto(s)
/prevención & control , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Adulto , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Estudios Transversales , Etiopía/epidemiología , Femenino , Higiene de las Manos , Humanos , Masculino
18.
BMC Psychol ; 9(1): 1, 2021 Jan 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33388086

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Adapting and translating already developed tools to different cultures is a complex process, but once done, it increases the validity of the construct to be measured. This study aimed to assess the 12 items WHODAS-2 and test its psychometric properties among road traffic injury victims in Ethiopia. This study aimed to translate the 12 items WHODAS- 2 interview-based tools into Amharic and examine the psychometric properties of the new version among road traffic injury victims. METHODS: The 12 items WHODAS 2 was first translated into Amharic by two experts. Back translation was done by two English experts. A group of experts reviewed the forward and backward translation. A total of 240 patients with road traffic injury completed the questionnaires at three selected Hospitals in Amhara Regional State. Internal consistency was; assessed using Chronbach's alpha, convergent, and divergent validity, which were; tested via factor analysis. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA); was computed, and the model fit; was examined. RESULTS: The translated Amharic version 12 -items WHODAS-2 showed that good cross-cultural adaptation and internal consistency (Chronbach's α =0.88). The six factor structure best fits data (model fitness indices; CFI = 0.962, RMSEA = 0.042, RMR = 0.072, GFI = 0.961, chi-square value/degree of freedom = 1.42, TLI = 0.935 and PCLOSE = 0.68). Our analysis showed that from the six domains, mobility is the dominant factor explaining 95% of variability in disability. CONCLUSION: The 12 items interview-based Amharic version WHODAS-2; showed good cultural adaptation at three different settings of Amhara Regional State and can be used to measure dis-ability following a road traffic injury.


Asunto(s)
Actividades Cotidianas/psicología , Personas con Discapacidad/psicología , Tamizaje Masivo/estadística & datos numéricos , Psicometría/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios/normas , Heridas y Traumatismos/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Evaluación de la Discapacidad , Etiopía , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Traducciones , Organización Mundial de la Salud , Adulto Joven
19.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(7): 7636-7651, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33398755

RESUMEN

Rapid population growth and poor waste management practice are among the main drivers of plastic pollution in modern times, thus making Africa a hotspot for plastic pollution both now and in the future. This study is a review of plastic pollution reports from the African aquatic environment with regard to causes, current status, toxicological implications and implications for ecosystem services. A total of 59 plastic pollution studies from 1987 to September 2020 were reviewed. They comprised 15 from North Africa (NA) (Algeria, Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia), six from East Africa (EA) (Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda), 13 from West Africa (WA) (Ghana, Guinea-Bissau, Mauritania and Nigeria), and 25 studies from Southern Africa (SA) (South Africa). This shows that plastic pollution studies in Africa, according to the sub-regions, are in the order: SA > NA > WA > EA. High human population in the basins of African large aquatic systems is identified as the greatest driver enhancing plastic surge in the aquatic environment. The occurrence of plastics was mostly reported in the estuarine/marine environment (42 studies) compared to the freshwater environment (only 17 studies). Plastics have also been reported in the three compartments of the aquatic environment: water column, benthic sediment and animals. Zooplankton, annelids, molluscs, insects, fishes and birds were reported as bioindicators of plastic ingestion in the inland and coastal waters of Africa. Polyethylene, polyethylene terephthalate (polyester) and polypropylene were the common plastic polymers observed in the African aquatic environment. In situ toxicological implications of the ingested plastic polymers were not reported in any of the studies. However, reports from laboratory-controlled experiments showed that these polymers are deleterious to aquatic animal health. More research efforts need to delineate the plastic pollution status of the East, West and North of Africa. Furthermore, such studies are required to identify the plastic polymers and in situ ecotoxicological impacts of plastics on both animal and human health.


Asunto(s)
Plásticos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Argelia , Animales , Ecosistema , Egipto , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Etiopía , Ghana , Guinea Bissau , Humanos , Kenia , Marruecos , Nigeria , Tanzanía , Túnez , Uganda , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
20.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(7): 8936-8944, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33405168

RESUMEN

In the face of rapid growth in the global demands for water, energy, and food, building large dams is expected to continue. Due to its potential opportunities and risks for the people of the Eastern Nile Basin, the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD) on the Nile River has commanded regional and international attention. Once completed, it will rank the largest hydropower dam in Africa and among the largest worldwide. Discourse among scientists and negotiators from Ethiopia, Sudan, and Egypt on the design, initial filling, and long-term operation of the GERD is ongoing since the construction started in 2011, but no agreement has yet been reached. The discourse has hitherto focused on the impacts on hydropower production, water availability, and irrigated agriculture, with little attention to the dam's potential environmental impacts. Here, we communicate our viewpoint on this gap, drawing on knowledge from other dams around the world and some GERD characteristics. The hydrological alterations associated with the GERD could adversely impact fish, aquatic plants, and biodiversity in the downstream due to possible changes in water temperature, salinity, and oxygen content. The GERD's expected flooded area, location at low latitude in the tropics, and the deep turbine intakes could intensify greenhouse gas emissions, whereas the dam's high reservoir depth would abate the emissions. The dam's electricity could also reduce regional greenhouse gas emissions if combined with cleaner intermittent solar and wind energy sources. With a maximum reservoir area of 1904 km2, surface evaporation and consequently local extreme precipitation and humidity could increase. The aforementioned impacts could have transboundary ecological, agricultural, and health implications and, therefore, should be taken into consideration alongside the benefits of the dam.


Asunto(s)
Ecosistema , Ríos , Animales , Biodiversidad , Egipto , Etiopía , Humanos
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA