Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 12.060
Filtrar
2.
BMC Ecol ; 20(1): 5, 2020 01 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31992270

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The availability of preferred habitats determines the spatial and temporal distribution of herbivores in savanna ecosystems. Understanding habitat preference of a targeted wildlife species is crucial for developing effective conservation strategies. Habitat preference of large grazers in connection to grass height and post-fire effect has been debated for the last century. Here, we examined the effects of season, grass height and burning on the habitat preference on Swayne's hartebeest (Alcelaphus buselaphus swaynei) in Maze National Park. Data for seasonal habitat selection were collected using both direct observation along established transect lines and pellet counting using permanently established plots. Every month, we measured grass height commonly preferred by Swayne's hartebeest in grassland habitat. Starting from the first week of burning, we recorded the abundance of Swayne's hartebeest in both burned and unburned grassland patches. RESULTS: From detected pellets, 94.3% were recorded in the grassland habitat indicating that other habitat types are less used despite their extensive cover > 50% of the Park. During wet and early dry seasons, Swayne's hartebeest exclusively preferred grassland habitat. We found that 85.2% (n = 1079) and 85.3% (n = 593) of individuals observed in areas with a grass height below 30 cm during wet and early-dry seasons, respectively; while 70.9% (n = 2288) preferred grass height below 30 cm during the dry season. The density of Swayne's hartebeest in burned grassland area was higher than unburned grassland areas up to 150 days since burning. However, in unburned grassland areas, the density was initially low but showed increasing trend for consecutive days, reaching similar density with burned areas after 150 days since burning. CONCLUSION: Swayne's hartebeest exclusively preferred grassland habitat, particularly during wet and early-dry seasons, shortest available grass height in all seasons and were attracted to burned grassland areas. Our results suggested that fire played an important role in maintaining habitat quality in grassland, and that management should continue using controlled burning as a tool for the conservation of Swayne's hartebeest. However, we remain cautious of our findings given the paucity of information regarding other confounding factors and the absence of long-term data on fire disturbance.


Asunto(s)
Antílopes , Ecosistema , Animales , Etiopía , Pradera , Parques Recreativos , Estaciones del Año
3.
Food Chem ; 302: 125370, 2020 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442699

RESUMEN

Four Arabica coffees (Brazil, Colombia, Ethiopia, and Guatemala) yield highly variant odours, attesting to the complexities of coffee aroma that command advanced analytical tools. In this study, their volatiles were extracted using solvent-assisted flavour evaporation (SAFE) and headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME). Due to matrix complexity, some trace odourants were detected in SAFE extracts by aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) but remained difficult to quantify by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). This prompted the application of low energy electron ionisation (EI) coupled with GC-quadrupole time-of-flight (GC-QTOF). Optimal low EI GC-QTOF parameters (EI energy: 15 eV, acquisition rate: 3 Hz) were applied to achieve improved molecular ion signal intensity and reproducibility (relative standard deviation < 10%) across five compounds, which resulted in good linearity (R2 ≥ 0.999) and lowered detection levels (e.g. 0.025 ±â€¯0.005 ng/mL for 4-hydroxy-5-methyl-3(2H)-furanone). Therefore, this method potentially improves the measurement of trace odourants in complex matrices by increasing specificity and sensitivity.


Asunto(s)
Café/química , Análisis de los Alimentos/métodos , Odorantes/análisis , Compuestos Orgánicos Volátiles/análisis , Adulto , Brasil , Coffea/química , Colombia , Etiopía , Femenino , Análisis de los Alimentos/estadística & datos numéricos , Cromatografía de Gases y Espectrometría de Masas/métodos , Guatemala , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Olfatometría/métodos , Extractos Vegetales/química , Análisis de Componente Principal , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Microextracción en Fase Sólida/métodos , Gusto , Compuestos Orgánicos Volátiles/aislamiento & purificación
4.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys ; 106(1): 67-72, 2020 01 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31622698

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Patients with locally advanced and metastatic esophageal cancer are usually affected by cancer-related symptoms, which worsen their performance status and quality of life. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of short-course accelerated radiation therapy for symptomatic palliation in a low resourced setting where only a 2-dimensional radiation therapy (RT) technique was available. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A phase II trial based on Simon's 2-stage design was planned. A total dose of 12 Gy in 4 fractions, twice per day, over 2 days, ≥8 hours apart, using a 2-dimensional conventional RT technique was delivered with a Cobalt 60 unit (Equinox, Best Theratronics, Ottawa, Ontario). Symptoms were graded using the International Atomic Energy Agency scoring system. RESULTS: A total of 17 patients were treated (male/female = 10/7; median age, 50.0 years; range, 27-78 years; histology: 6 adenocarcinomas and 11 squamous cell carcinomas; tumor site: 4 gastresophageal junction and 13 esophagus). The most frequent baseline symptoms were dysphagia or regurgitation (100%), odynophagia (76%), and chest or back pain (53%). At 1 month after RT, all patients were alive with palliative response rates (complete plus partial) for dysphagia, regurgitation, odynophagia, and chest or back pain of 76%, 82%, 69%, and 56%, respectively. No patients presented acute ≥G3 toxicity. CONCLUSIONS: Short-course accelerated radiation therapy treatment, planned and delivered using a conventional 2-dimensional RT technique, was effective and well tolerated for the symptomatic palliation of locally advanced or metastatic esophageal cancer. This schedule may be useful for RT centers in developing countries to reduce treatment times, costs, and patient waiting times before treatment.


Asunto(s)
Adenocarcinoma/radioterapia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/radioterapia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/radioterapia , Cuidados Paliativos/métodos , Adulto , Anciano , Trastornos de Deglución/etiología , Países en Desarrollo , Neoplasias Esofágicas/complicaciones , Neoplasias Esofágicas/mortalidad , Neoplasias Esofágicas/patología , Unión Esofagogástrica , Etiopía , Femenino , Humanos , Estado de Ejecución de Karnofsky , Reflujo Laringofaríngeo/etiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Prospectivos , Calidad de Vida , Hipofraccionamiento de la Dosis de Radiación
5.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 24(1): 67, 2019 Nov 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31785612

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Scabies is a skin infestation caused by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei that causes a pruritic skin eruption. In Ethiopia, the disease is common especially during natural or manmade disasters such as flooding, drought, civil war and conflict, poor water supply and sanitation, and overcrowding living condition. Though scabies is becoming a major public health problem, especially in low resource settings, there has been no study that reported the prevalence of scabies in the study area. The aim of this study, therefore, was to assess the prevalence of scabies and associated factors among students in primary schools in Dabat district, northwest Ethiopia. METHOD: An institutional-based cross-sectional study was employed to determine the prevalence of scabies and associated factors among schoolchildren in Dabat district. A total of 494 students selected by a multi-stage sampling technique were included in this study. Scabies was diagnosed by medical practitioners based on lesions observed on body surfaces after a physical examination. Bivariable and multivariable binary logistic regression analyses were performed using SPSS version 20. Significance level was obtained at p value < 0.05. RESULT: The prevalence of scabies was 9.3% (46/494) with 95% CI (5.66%, 12.94%). Among schoolchildren who were infested by scabies, 65.22% (30/46) had a mild, 28.26% (13/46) had moderate, and 6.52% (3/46) had severe lesions. Studying at a rural school (AOR = 2.99, 95% CI 1.33, 6.71), had illiterate father (AOR = 5.11, 95% CI 2.25, 11.58), being grade level 1-4 (AOR = 3.91, 95% CI 1.69, 9.05), rarely taking a bath (AOR = 3.54, 95% CI 1.36, 9.25), contact with a person with itching symptom (AOR = 2.66, 95% CI 1. 21, 5.83), a family member with itchy symptoms (AOR = 4.76, 95% CI 2.20, 10.28), not living with both parents (AOR = 2.49, 95% CI 1.02, 6.06), and using water only for hand washing (AOR = 4.38, 95% CI 1.78, 10.76) were factors associated with scabies infestation among schoolchildren. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of human scabies among schoolchildren in Dabat district northwest Ethiopia was high. The school localization, first cycle level of education, paternal educational status, frequency of taking a bath, and contact with a person having itchy lesions, presence of a family member with itchy lesion, and type of frequently used hand washing material were the factors significantly impacting the occurrence of scabies. Special attention should be given to students at first cycle education as they are at the highest risk of infestation.


Asunto(s)
Escabiosis/epidemiología , Adolescente , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Etiopía/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Oportunidad Relativa , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Escabiosis/diagnóstico , Escabiosis/patología , Estudiantes
6.
Pan Afr Med J ; 34: 68, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31819784

RESUMEN

Introduction: More than 20 million infants were born with low birth weight in worldwide. Low birth weight contributes more than 80 percent of all the neonatal mortality. In Ethiopia, studies have shown that there is a high prevalence of low birth weight among newborns. Thus, this study was aimed to determine the magnitude and associated factors with low birth weight among newborns delivered at term in Kambata-Tembaro zone, Southern Ethiopia, 2018. Methods: Institution based cross-sectional study design was used. The sample size was proportionally allocated to each hospital. The total of 341 study participants was enrolled using systematic random sampling techniques. Data were collected by interview-administered questionnaire and entered using Epi-Info version-7 and exported to SPSS version 20 for analysis. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was carried out to identify associated factors with the low birth weight. Results: The prevalence of low birth weight was 18% and significantly associated with the mothers' non-employment [aOR=5.4;95%CI:1.7-17.4], residing in the rural [AOR=5.4; 95%CI:2.1-14.7], unintended pregnancy [aOR=2.0;95%CI:1.2-3.8], not attending antenatal care [aOR=2.3;95%CI: 1.3-2.7], mothers with greater than three births [aOR=1.5;95% CI:1.8-2.6], birth interval less than or equal to two years [aOR=1.9;95%CI:1.6-3.6] and intimate partner violence during pregnancy [aOR=2.1:95% CI: 1.1-3.9]. Conclusion: The study finding shown that the prevalence of low birth weight among newborn was high (18%) in the study. Preventing of low birth weight is an important intervention to reduce neonatal death. Therefore, maximizing women economic status, providing quality family planning services, enabling pregnant women to use antenatal care and preventing intimate partner violence during pregnancy via launching women empowering strategies in the community level is highly recommend.


Asunto(s)
Servicios de Planificación Familiar/estadística & datos numéricos , Recién Nacido de Bajo Peso , Violencia de Pareja/estadística & datos numéricos , Atención Prenatal/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Etiopía/epidemiología , Femenino , Hospitales/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Recién Nacido , Embarazo , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Factores Socioeconómicos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
7.
J Water Health ; 17(6): 989-1001, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31850905

RESUMEN

Unsafe drinking water is a recognized health threat in Ethiopia, and climate change, rapid population growth, urbanization and agricultural practices put intense pressure on availability and quality of water. Climate change-related health problems due to floods and waterborne diseases are increasing. With increasing insight into impacts of climate change and urbanization on water availability and quality and of required adaptations, a shift towards climate-resilient water safety planning was introduced into an Ethiopian strategy and guidance document to guarantee safe drinking water. Climate-resilient water safety planning was implemented in the urban water supplies of Addis Ababa and Adama, providing drinking water to 5 million and 500,000 people, respectively. Based on the risks identified with climate-resilient water safety planning, water quality monitoring can be optimized by prioritizing parameters and events which pose a higher risk for contaminating the drinking water. Water quality monitoring was improved at both drinking water utilities and at the Public Health Institute to provide relevant data used as input for climate-resilient water safety planning. By continuously linking water quality monitoring and climate-resilient water safety planning, utilization of information was optimized, and both approaches benefit from linking these activities.


Asunto(s)
Cambio Climático , Agua Potable , Calidad del Agua , Abastecimiento de Agua/normas , Etiopía , Humanos , Medición de Riesgo , Gestión de Riesgos
8.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 1076, 2019 Dec 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31864297

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: HIV voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) is a crucial gateway to all strategies related to care, prevention and treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Nevertheless, utilization of voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) service among adults is very low in Ethiopia. The objective of this study is to identify determinants associated with VCT utilization among adult women aged 15-49 in Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted based on data taken from the Ethiopian Demographic Health Survey (EDHS) 2016. Using cluster sampling, 14,369 women aged 15-49 years were selected from all the nine administrative regions and two city administrations. Logistic regression was used to analyze factors associated with HIV VCT utilization. RESULTS: Overall prevalence of ever tested for HIV was 53% (95% CI, 52, 54). Aged 20-44, ever married, being at higher socio economic position (SEP) and having risky sexual behavior were factors which are positively associated with VCT utilization. Being Muslims in urban and protestants in rural were factors significantly and negatively associated with VCT utilization. Those who had stigmatizing attitude both in urban and rural and who had comprehensive knowledge in rural were less likely to utilize VCT service. CONCLUSION: VCT utilization among women in Ethiopia is demonstrating better improvement in recent years. However, stigmatizing attitude continued to be among the major factors, which are negatively affecting VCT uptake among women in Ethiopia. Concerted efforts should be made by all stakeholders to mitigate stigma, improve socio economic inequities and increase awareness on the benefit of VCT in controlling HIV in the society. In this aspect, the role of religious leader, schools, health extension workers and community leaders should not be undermined.


Asunto(s)
Consejo/estadística & datos numéricos , Infecciones por VIH/diagnóstico , Tamizaje Masivo/estadística & datos numéricos , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Etiopía/epidemiología , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Infecciones por VIH/prevención & control , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , Tamizaje Masivo/psicología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Estigma Social , Factores Socioeconómicos , Adulto Joven
9.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 1073, 2019 Dec 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31864307

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Trachoma is the commonest infectious cause of blindness. It is prevalent in areas where personal and community hygiene is poor, and it mainly affects deprived and marginalized communities most importantly in Ethiopia. Hence, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and associated factors of active trachoma among children in Ethiopia. METHOD: A systematic review and meta-analysis was employed to determine the prevalence of active trachoma and associated factors among children in Ethiopia. We searched databases, including PubMed, Google Scholar, Science Direct, EMBASE and Cochrane Library. To estimate the prevalence, studies reporting the prevalence of active trachoma and its associated factors were included. Data were extracted using a standardized data extraction format prepared in Microsoft excel and the analysis was done using STATA 14 statistical software. To assess heterogeneity, the Cochrane Q test statistics and I2 test were used. Since the included studies revealed considerable heterogeneity, a random effect meta- analysis model was used to estimate the pooled prevalence of active trachoma. Moreover, the association between factors and active trachoma were examined. RESULTS: The result of 30 eligible studies showed that the overall prevalence of active trachoma among children in Ethiopia was 26.9% (95% CI: 22.7, 31.0%). In the subgroup analysis, while the highest prevalence was reported in SNNP (35.8%; 95% CI: 22.7, 48.8), the lowest prevalence was reported in Oromia region (20.2%; 95% CI: 12.2, 28.2). Absence of latrine: OR 6.0 (95% CI 2.0, 17.5), the unclean faces of children: OR 5.5 (95% CI 2.8, 10.9), and no reported use of soap for washing: OR 3.3 (95% CI 1.8, 6.0) have shown a positive association with active trachoma among children. CONCLUSION: From this review, it has been concluded that active trachoma among children is still a public health problem in different districts of Ethiopia. The prevalence of almost all studies are significantly higher than WHO target for elimination. Absence of latrine, unclean faces of children, no reported use of soap for washing are the important factors associated with active trachoma among children.


Asunto(s)
Tracoma/epidemiología , Niño , Etiopía/epidemiología , Femenino , Geografía , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo
10.
Vasc Health Risk Manag ; 15: 551-558, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31853180

RESUMEN

Introduction: As hypertension is a chronic cardiovascular disease that contributes to a high proportion of morbidity and mortality worldwide, favorable knowledge is crucial to control it. Objective: The objective of this study was thus to assess knowledge and associated factors of blood pressure control among hypertensive patients at the chronic illness follow-up Clinic of the University of Gondar comprehensive-specialized hospital, Gondar, Ethiopia. Methods: An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted from March to April 2018. A systematic random sampling technique was used to select participants. Bi-variable and multivariable logistic regressions were done to assess the relationship between dependent and independent variables. The adjusted odds ratio with a 95% confidence interval was used to determine the presence and strength of association between covariates and the outcome variable. Results: A total of 404 participants took part in the study with a response rate of 97.3%. The overall good knowledge about blood pressure control was 51.7% (95% CI=46.3-56.8). Females were 3.79 (AOR= 3.79, 95% CI: (1.55, 9.28)) more knowledgeable about blood pressure control than males. In the multivariable analysis, the odds of being knowledgeable were 2.80 (AOR= 2.80, 95% CI (1.44, 5.46)), 8.05 (AOR=8.05, 95% CI (2.93, 22.10)), and 7.53 (AOR=7.53, 95% CI (2.52, 22.49)) for can read and write, secondary, preparatory and above education, respectively, compared to cannot read and write. Occupation was significantly associated with the knowledge of plod pressure control. For example, merchants 7.66 (AOR=7.66, 95% CI (3.01, 19.47)), government employee 6.33 (AOR=6.33, 95% CI (1.90, 22.07)), and self-employed 4.58 (AOR=4.58, 95% CI (1.80, 11.70)) times more likely to be knowledgeable than farmers, respectively. Participants with family history of hypertension were 2.36 (AOR=2.36, 95% CI (1.42, 3.92)) times more knowledgeable than their counterparts. Conclusion: In this study, knowledge of blood pressure control was lower compared to the finding of a study done at Bishoftu hospital, Ethiopia. But it is higher than studies in other African countries. Both pharmacological and non-pharmacological awareness is vital for blood pressure control.


Asunto(s)
Antihipertensivos/uso terapéutico , Presión Sanguínea/efectos de los fármacos , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Estilo de Vida Saludable , Hospitales Universitarios , Hipertensión/terapia , Servicio Ambulatorio en Hospital , Conducta de Reducción del Riesgo , Adulto , Anciano , Estudios Transversales , Escolaridad , Etiopía , Femenino , Humanos , Hipertensión/diagnóstico , Hipertensión/fisiopatología , Hipertensión/psicología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Ocupaciones , Factores de Riesgo , Factores Sexuales
11.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 1056, 2019 Dec 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31842783

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Toxoplasmosis is caused by infection with the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. It is acquired by consumption of raw or undercooked meat containing tissue cyst, food or water contaminated with oocyst and congenital infection through the placenta leading to serious congenital abnormalities in the fetus like miscarriage, stillbirth, intrauterine death and neurologic defects. Therefore; this study was aimed to determine the prevalence of toxoplasmosis infection and its possible risk factors associated with pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in Hawassa and Yiregalem Hospitals, Southern Ethiopia. METHODS: A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted from December 2016 to May 2017. The study was done in antenatal care clinics of Hawassa and Yiregalem Hospitals in Southern, Ethiopia. Five hundred pregnant women were interviewed with a pretested structured questionnaire to collect risk factors and socio-demographic data. Blood samples were collected and serum was separated and tested for anti- Toxoplasma gondii antibodies using ELISA (Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay). Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20 statistical software. The risk factors were tested for significance using Bivariate and multivariate analysis. P-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: The weighted prevalence of this study was 81.8% for the anti- Toxoplasma gondii antibody. Almost all participants (99.6%) had no information about the disease. A significant association was observed between seroprevalence and contact with domestic cats (OR = 1.206, 95% CI (1.627-2.206, P = 0.043), consumption of raw meat (OR = 0.848, 95% CI: 1.517-2.941, P = 0.019) and unpasteurized milk (OR = 0.871, 95% CI 1.531-2.221, P = 0.032). A significant association was not observed between seroprevalence and age, history of abortion, and blood transfusion. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study demonstrated a relatively higher prevalence of seropositivity than studies reported from other countries. Existence of domestic cats at home, consumption of undercooked meat and unpasteurized milk were identified as risk factors for T. gondii infection. Therefore, a health education program to increase the mother's knowledge about toxoplasmosis towards avoiding eating undercooked meat, contact with cats and consumption of unpasteurized milk during pregnancy is recommended. Furthermore, our results suggested that the implementation of newborn screening and follow-up testing can lead to reducing of toxoplasmosis associated complications.


Asunto(s)
Hospitales Generales , Complicaciones Parasitarias del Embarazo/epidemiología , Atención Prenatal , Toxoplasma/inmunología , Toxoplasmosis/epidemiología , Universidades , Adolescente , Adulto , Animales , Anticuerpos Antiprotozoarios/sangre , Estudios Transversales , Ensayo de Inmunoadsorción Enzimática , Etiopía/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Carne/parasitología , Leche/parasitología , Madres/psicología , Mascotas/parasitología , Embarazo , Prevalencia , Alimentos Crudos/parasitología , Factores de Riesgo , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Toxoplasmosis/parasitología , Adulto Joven
12.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 1084, 2019 Dec 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31881859

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: A key goal of Antiretroviral Treatment (ART) is to achieve and maintain durable viral suppression. Thus, the most important use of viral load measurement is to monitor the effectiveness of therapy after initiation of ART. The main objective of the study was to determine the time for virological suppression and its associated factors among people living with HIV taking antiretroviral treatments in East Shewa Zone, Oromiya, Ethiopia. METHODS: Patients diagnosed with Human Immunodeficiency Virus presenting to the study health centers between October 3, 2011 and March 1, 2013 were included in the study given the following criteria: age 18 years or greater, eligible to start ART. All patients with baseline viral load measurements were included in the study. Interaction between explanatory variables with the response variable was analyzed by using cross tab features of (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences) SPSS, International Business Machines (IBM) Inc. Significance group comparison was done by Kaplan Meier log-rank test. Cox proportional hazard model was used to select significant factors to the variability between groups. RESULT: Plasma viral load was suppressed below the detection level in 72% of individuals taking a different regimen of ART. The median Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 plasma viral load in the cohort was estimated to be log 5.3111 copies/ml. The study observed Survival curve difference in the category of marital status (p-value 0.023) and baseline cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) value (p-value 0.023). The estimated median time to Plasma Viral Load (PVL) suppression was 181 days (CI: 140.5-221.4) with the age group of 30-39 years having minimum time to achieve suppression with 92 days (CI: 60.1-123.8) and the maximum time required to reach the level was found among the age group between 50 and 59 years. CONCLUSION: The study found that the estimated time to achieve PVL after taking ART to be 181 days. Factors affecting time to suppression level were marital status and baseline CD4.


Asunto(s)
Antirretrovirales/uso terapéutico , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por VIH/mortalidad , VIH-1/genética , Carga Viral , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Terapia Antirretroviral Altamente Activa , Antígenos CD4/análisis , Etiopía , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Estimación de Kaplan-Meier , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Estado Civil , Persona de Mediana Edad , Modelos de Riesgos Proporcionales , Estudios Prospectivos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa de Transcriptasa Inversa , Tasa de Supervivencia , Resultado del Tratamiento , Adulto Joven
13.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 1008, 2019 Nov 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31779589

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Despite substantial global effort and updated clinical management guidelines, diarrhea continues to be among leading worldwide causes of morbidity and mortality in children. Infectious diarrhea, the most common form of diarrhea causes substantial morbidity and mortality among children in developing countries, and the muddled use of antibiotics needs caution due to potential problems of drug-resistance. The aim of this study is to identify etiologies of diarrhea and drug susceptibility patterns of bacterial isolates in under-five children in refugee camps in Gambella Region, Ethiopia. METHODS: An institution- based matched case control study was conducted using a questionnaire-based interview from June to December 2017 in Pugnido and Teirkidi refugee camps. Stool samples were collected and parasites causing diarrhea were identified by wet mount microscopy. Conventional culture supplemented with API 20E identification kit was used to identify Salmonella and Shigella species. Antibiotic susceptibility of bacterial isolates was investigated by using the disk diffusion method. The association between etiologies and diarrhea was analyzed using McNemar test or Fisher exact test with 95% confidence interval at a level of significance of P < 0.05. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of enteric pathogens were 55 (41.0%) in diarrhea cases and 18 (13.4%) in healthy controls. The detected etiologies include Giardia lambia (28), Shigella spp. (16), E. hystolyotica/dispar (13), Ascaris lumbricoides (10), Salmonella spp. (6), Cryptosporidium parvum (6), Hymenolepis nana (4) and Isospora belli (3). All isolates were sensitive to kanamycine and ceftazidime. The high resistance rate was observed against ampicillin (100%), amoxicillin (100%), erythromycin (52%), chloramphenicol (47.5%), tetracycline (40.5%), cotrimoxazole (34.8%) and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (33%). The majorities of the isolates had a low rate of resistance to ciprofloxacin (8.7%), naldxic acid (8.7%) and amikacin (13%). CONCLUSIONS: Giardia lamblia, E. Hystolytica/dispar, and Shigella spp are the common etiologies of diarrhea in children in the studied refugee camps. The study also showed that significant numbers of bacterial isolates were resistant to the commonly used antimicrobial drugs. Therefore, improving clinical laboratory services and promoting evidence-based drug prescription may reinforce proper use of antibiotics and reduce the emergence of microbial resistance.


Asunto(s)
Bacteriemia/diagnóstico , Diarrea/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Bacteriemia/complicaciones , Bacteriemia/epidemiología , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Niño , Preescolar , Diarrea/epidemiología , Diarrea/etiología , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana/efectos de los fármacos , Etiopía/epidemiología , Heces/microbiología , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Prevalencia , Campos de Refugiados , Salmonella/aislamiento & purificación , Shigella/aislamiento & purificación , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
14.
Pan Afr Med J ; 34: 65, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31762929

RESUMEN

Introduction: On April 17/2017 Janamora district, Amhara regional state health officials reported an increasing number of people with a cough. The objectives of this study was to investigate the outbreak, describe risk factors and implement control measures. Methods: We conducted a community based unmatched 1:1 case-control study April 22-May 10, 2017. We used a probable case definition (≥2 weeks cough with vomiting, apnea, or inspiratory whoop) to identify suspected pertussis cases. Neighbors of cases were considered as controls. We conducted a door-to-door active case search and reviewed medical records, assessed vaccination status by parental interview or vaccination card. We implemented multivariable logistic regression to identify independent factors associated with the outbreak. Results: We investigated 60 cases and 60 controls. Most (68.3%) of the cases were under the age of 15. The majority (86.6%) of pertussis suspected cases, and 83.4% controls had not received any pertussis vaccine. The overall attack rate was 0.13% and the case fatality rate was 3.3%. The age-specific attack rate for under-five children was 0.33%. Females were more likely to have pertussis (AOR: 2.91; 95% CI: 1.17-7.22), contact with pertussis suspected person (AOR: 6.29; 95% CI: 2.53-15.62) and living in a relatively poorly ventilated house (AOR: 3.01; 95% CI: 1.17-7.70) were also significant risk factors of pertussis. Conclusion: Weak supplementary immunization activities might have contributed to the outbreak. Treating household contacts and integration of diagnostic laboratory test of pertussis into the local health system is of paramount importance to detect outbreaks early on.


Asunto(s)
Brotes de Enfermedades , Vacuna contra la Tos Ferina/administración & dosificación , Vacunación/estadística & datos numéricos , Tos Ferina/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Niño , Preescolar , Etiopía/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Factores de Riesgo , Tos Ferina/prevención & control , Adulto Joven
15.
Br Dent J ; 227(10): 863-864, 2019 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31758119

RESUMEN

In 2019, chief dental officers from Ethiopia, Somalia, Kenya, Tanzania, Rwanda, Democratic Republic of Congo and Sudan attended the inaugural End Infant Oral Mutilation Conference in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The subsequent Addis Ababa Declaration has launched a public health action programme across the continent, aiming to impact over 100 million people in 5 years.


Asunto(s)
Etiopía , Humanos , Lactante , Kenia , Sudán , Tanzanía
16.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1448, 2019 Nov 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31684905

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Very few postpartum women want to become pregnant within the next 2 years, but approximately 60% of postpartum women in low- and middle-income countries are not using contraceptive methods. The World Health Organization recommends that women receive postpartum family planning (PPFP) counseling during antenatal, immediate postpartum, and postnatal services. Our objective was to establish whether PPFP counseling is being provided in antenatal and postnatal care services in SNNPR, Ethiopia and whether receipt of PPFP counseling improved uptake of postpartum family planning use by 6 months postpartum. METHODS: Longitudinal data from the Performance Monitoring for Accountability 2020 - Maternal and Newborn Health study were used. At screening, 329 women were identified as six or more months pregnant; 307 completed the survey at 6 months postpartum. We used weighted parametric survival analysis with Weibull distribution to assess the effect of receipt of postpartum counseling in antenatal and/or postnatal care by 6 weeks postpartum on contraceptive uptake, after adjusting for intention to use family planning, wantedness of the index pregnancy, delivery location, amenorrhea, exclusive breastfeeding, residence, parity, and education. RESULTS: Coverage of PPFP counseling is low; by six-weeks postpartum only 20% of women had received counseling. Women who received counseling in postnatal care only and postnatal care and antenatal care took up contraception at significantly higher rates than women who did not receive any counseling (HR: 3.4, p < .01 and HR: 2.5, p = .01, respectively). There was no difference between women who received PPFP counseling only in ANC and women who did not receive counseling at all. Women who did not want the child at all took up contraception at significantly lower rates than women who wanted the child at that time (HR: 0.3, p = .04). Women who had four or more children took up contraception at significantly lower rates than woman with 1-3 children (HR: 0.3, p = .01). There were no significant differences by delivery location, exclusive breastfeeding, residence, or education. CONCLUSION: Integration of postpartum family planning counseling into postnatal care services is an effective means to increase postpartum contraceptive uptake, but significant gaps in coverage, particularly in the delivery and postnatal period, remain.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Anticonceptiva/estadística & datos numéricos , Prestación Integrada de Atención de Salud , Servicios de Planificación Familiar/organización & administración , Servicios de Salud Materna/organización & administración , Periodo Posparto/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Etiopía , Femenino , Investigación sobre Servicios de Salud , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Persona de Mediana Edad , Embarazo , Adulto Joven
17.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1443, 2019 Nov 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31684923

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In Ethiopia, malaria infections and other complications during pregnancy contribute to the high burden of maternal morbidity and mortality. Preventive measures are available, however little is known about the factors influencing the uptake of maternal health services and interventions by pregnant women in Ethiopia. METHODS: We analyzed data from a community-based cross-sectional survey conducted in 2016 in three rural districts of Jimma Zone, Ethiopia, with 3784 women who had a pregnancy outcome in the year preceding the survey. We used multivariable logistic regression models accounting for clustering to identify the determinants of antenatal care (ANC) attendance and insecticide-treated net (ITN) ownership and use, and the prevalence and predictors of malaria infection among pregnant women. RESULTS: Eighty-four percent of interviewed women reported receiving at least one ANC visit during their last pregnancy, while 47% reported attending four or more ANC visits. Common reasons for not attending ANC included women's lack of awareness of its importance (48%), distance to health facility (23%) and unavailability of transportation (14%). Important determinants of ANC attendance included higher education level and wealth status, woman's ability to make healthcare decisions, and pregnancy intendedness. An estimated 48% of women reported owning an ITN during their last pregnancy. Of these, 55% reported to have always slept under it during their last pregnancy. Analysis revealed that the odds of owning and using ITNs were respectively 2.07 (95% CI: 1.62-2.63) and 1.73 (95% CI: 1.32-2.27) times higher among women who attended at least one ANC visit. The self-reported prevalence of malaria infection during pregnancy was low (1.4%) across the three districts. We found that young, uneducated, and unemployed women presented higher odds of malaria infection during their last pregnancy. CONCLUSION: ANC and ITN uptake during pregnancy in Jimma Zone fall below the respective targets of 95 and 90% set in the Ethiopian Health Sector Transformation Plan for 2020, suggesting that more intensive programmatic efforts still need to be directed towards improving access to these health services. Reaching ANC non-users and ITN ownership and use as part of ANC services could be emphasized to address these gaps.


Asunto(s)
Mosquiteros Tratados con Insecticida/estadística & datos numéricos , Malaria/prevención & control , Propiedad/estadística & datos numéricos , Complicaciones Parasitarias del Embarazo/prevención & control , Atención Prenatal/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Etiopía , Femenino , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Embarazo , Población Rural/estadística & datos numéricos , Factores Socioeconómicos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
18.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 810, 2019 Nov 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31699085

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Even though maternal mortality during the time of delivery can be prevented with proper medical care in the health facilities with skilled healthcare professionals, unexpectedly death is still high and is a persistent challenge for low-income countries. Therefore identifying factors affecting the preference of institutional delivery after antenatal care service attendance is a key intervention to reduce maternal morbidity and mortality. METHOD: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted using face to face using interviewer-administered questionnaire from a total of 528 women who gave their last birth within 12 months prior to the study period who attended antenatal care (ANC) services. Descriptive statistics, bivariable and multivariable logistic regressions analysis were performed. Statistical significance was considered at p < 0.05 and odds ratio with 95% CI were calculated to examine factors associated with institutional delivery. RESULTS: Of the 528 pregnant women attending ANC services, 250 (47.3%) gave birth in health facilities (95% CI: 43.2, 51.7%). Urban residence [AOR = 7.8, 95% CI: 4.1, 15.6], four or more ANC visits [AOR = 4.5, 95% CI: 1.6, 12.3], those who got health education on ANC [AOR = 2.9, 95% CI: 1.5, 5.6] and decision on place of delivery with her partner agreement [AOR = 3.3, 95% CI: 1.3, 8.7] were found to be contributing factors for the preference of institutional delivery. CONCLUSION: Institutional delivery was not adequate. Residence, number of antenatal care visits, health education, decisions making on a place of delivery and having awareness of the difference of place of delivery were contributing factors for the preference of institutional delivery.


Asunto(s)
Parto Obstétrico/estadística & datos numéricos , Prioridad del Paciente/estadística & datos numéricos , Atención Prenatal/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Toma de Decisiones , Etiopía , Femenino , Educación en Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Investigación sobre Servicios de Salud , Humanos , Embarazo , Características de la Residencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
19.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1481, 2019 Nov 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31703667

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Treatment of drug-resistant tuberculosis is often more complex and toxic with longer treatment time and poor treatment outcomes including treatment failure or death. Monitoring drug-resistant tuberculosis therapy including early identification of prognostic factors and close monitoring of body weight in resource-limited settings is crucial to ensure successful treatment. Therefore, this study was conducted to assess time to poor treatment outcome which is defined as the proportion of all patients who died or failed treatment and its predictors among drug-resistant tuberculosis patients on second-line anti-tuberculosis treatment in Amhara region, Ethiopia. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted on all patients who started drug-resistant tuberculosis therapy from September 1, 2010 through December 31, 2017, at the University of Gondar Comprehensive Specialized Hospital, Boru-Meda Hospital, and Debre-Markos Referral Hospital in Amhara Region, Ethiopia. Data were entered using Epi-data Version 3.1 and analyzed using R version 3.41 software. The survival time was estimated using Kaplan-Meier survival curve and the survival time between different categorical variables were compared using the log rank test. Event time ratio with 95% confidence interval (CI) and p-value less than 0.05 were used to measure the strength of association and to declare statistically significant predictors respectively. RESULTS: A total of 508 patients with a median age of 28.5 [IQR: 22-40] years were included in this study. The overall cumulative survival probability of patients at the end of 24 months was 79% [95% CI,75,84%]. Rate of body weight change [Adjusted time ratio (ATR) = 5; 95% CI: 3.2, 7.7], secondary and above level of education [ATR = 2.3;95% CI:1.2,2.9], being non-anemic [ATR = 2.8,95% CI:1.2,3.8], being non-diabetic [ATR = 3.4;95% CI:1.3,8.8], without clinical complications [ATR = 7.6;95% CI:4.2,13.9], HIV negative [ATR = 1. 94:95% CI:1.35,2.35] and residing in rural [ATR = 0.51,95% CI:0.30,0.86] were predictors of time to poor treatment outcomes. CONCLUSION: The survival rate of tuberculosis patients was higher at end of follow up relative to other studies. However, poor treatment outcome was higher in early phase of therapy. Educational level, rural residence, HIV/AIDS, diabetes mellitus, previous treatment, clinical complication, rate of body weight change and smoking history were significant predictors of time to poor treatment outcome. Therefore, intervention programs should focus on the identified factors to improve survival time of drug-resistant tuberculosis patients.


Asunto(s)
Antituberculosos/uso terapéutico , Tiempo de Tratamiento/estadística & datos numéricos , Tuberculosis Resistente a Múltiples Medicamentos/mortalidad , Adulto , Etiopía , Femenino , Hospitales , Humanos , Estimación de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Retrospectivos , Tasa de Supervivencia , Factores de Tiempo , Insuficiencia del Tratamiento , Resultado del Tratamiento , Tuberculosis Resistente a Múltiples Medicamentos/tratamiento farmacológico , Adulto Joven
20.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 796, 2019 Nov 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31690313

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a global public health problem. The burden of the disease is high in low and middle income countries like Ethiopia. However, for highly vulnerable groups such as health professionals, vaccination coverage is a major issue in the developing countries where health professionals are expected to pay for vaccination. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess health professionals' acceptance and willingness to pay (WTP) and associated factors for vaccination against HBV. METHODS: Cross-sectional study was conducted from March to April, 2017 in Gondar city administration governmental health institutions among 423 health professionals. Simple random sampling method was employed to select the study participants. Data were collected using self- administered questionnaire. Tobit model was used to analyze the determinants of WTP and the maximum amount of money the individuals might pay for HBV vaccination. P-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULT: A total of 423 health professionals (physicians, nurses, midwives, laboratory technicians/technologists, and others) participated in the study with a response rate of 100, and 62.4% of them were willing to pay for HBV vaccination. The mean amount of money the participants might pay for HBV vaccination was 325.83 ± 283.46 ETB (US$ 14.39 ± 12.52). The study indicated that the WTP for HBV vaccination of health professionals from health centers was 179.41 ETB less compared to health professionals from hospital. The WTP for HBV vaccination of the participants who had no experience of seeing previous patients with HBV was 157.87 ETB less compared to participants who had experience of seeing previous patients with HBV. As monthly income of the study participants increased by one ETB, the WTP was increased by 0.027 ETB. CONCLUSION: The study revealed that the mean amount of money the participants might pay for HBV vaccination was much less than the market price for HBV vaccination. Type of workplace and experience of seeing/observing patients with HBV, and income were the predictors of WTP for HBV vaccination. Availing the vaccine with affordable cost in governmental health institutions may increase WTP of health professionals for HBV vaccination.


Asunto(s)
Personal de Salud/psicología , Vacunas contra Hepatitis B/administración & dosificación , Vacunas contra Hepatitis B/economía , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Etiopía , Femenino , Instituciones de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Personal de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Hepatitis B/prevención & control , Hospitales Públicos/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Gobierno Local , Masculino , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA