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1.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0244050, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33566814

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization has declared that infection with SARS-CoV-2 is a pandemic. Experiences with SARS in 2003 and SARS-CoV-2 have shown that health professionals are at higher risk of contracting COVID-19. Hence, it has been recommended that aperiodic wide-scale assessment of the knowledge and preparedness of health professionals regarding the current COVID-19 pandemic is critical. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to assess the knowledge and preparedness of health professionals regarding COVID-19 among selected hospitals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. METHODS: A facility-based cross-sectional study was conducted from the last week of March to early April, 2020. Government (n = 6) and private hospitals (n = 4) were included. The front-line participants with high exposure were proportionally recruited from their departments. The collected data from a self-administered questionnaire were entered using EpiData and analyzed in SPSS software. Both descriptive statistics and inferential statistics (chi-square tests) are presented. RESULTS: A total of 1334 health professionals participated in the study. The majority (675, 50.7%) of the participants were female. Of the total, 532 (39.9%) subjects were nurses/midwives, followed by doctors (397, 29.8%) and pharmacists (193, 14.5%). Of these, one-third had received formal training on COVID-19. The mean knowledge score of participants was 16.45 (±4.4). Regarding knowledge about COVID-19, 783 (58.7%), 354 (26.5%), and 196 (14.7%) participants had moderate, good, and poor knowledge, respectively. Lower scores were seen in younger age groups, females, and non-physicians. Two-thirds (63.2%) of the subjects responded that they had been updated by their hospital on COVID-19. Of the total, 1020 (76.5%) participants responded that television, radio, and newspapers were their primary sources of information. Established hospital preparedness measures were confirmed by 43-57% of participants. CONCLUSION: The current study revealed that health professionals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, already know important facts but had moderate overall knowledge about the COVID-19 pandemic. There were unmet needs in younger age groups, non-physicians, and females. Half of the respondents mentioning inadequate preparedness of their hospitals point to the need for more global solidarity, especially concerning the shortage of consumables and lack of equipment.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Personal de Salud/clasificación , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Etiopía/epidemiología , Femenino , Personal de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Factores Socioeconómicos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
2.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0246154, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33606678

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) is currently a global health threat and public health emergency of international concern. Africa is the last continent to be hit by this pandemic and the population is still prone to misconceptions and may not take it seriously. In developing countries including Ethiopia, where trained human resources and equipment for the treatment of COVID-19 are scarce, working on prevention of the viral spread should be a priority as a feasible intervention strategy. The aim of this study was to determine the level of knowledge, attitude, practice (KAP) towards COVID-19 and its prevalence among hospital visitors. METHODS: Health institution based cross sectional study was conducted among 513 hospital visitors who are recruited by using simple random sampling technique at Ataye district hospital, Northeast Ethiopia from June 3, 2020 to August 10, 2020. A pre-tested structured questionnaire was used to obtain information related to socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge (11 questions), attitude (9 questions) and practice (9 questions). Oro-pharyngeal specimen was collected by trained healthcare provider and processed in a molecular laboratory. After extraction of viral nucleic acid, the Real-time fluorescent polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) kit was used for detecting novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV). Data was analyzed using bi-variable and multivariable logistic regression model with 95% CI (confidence interval). From the bi-variable analysis, variables having a P-value <0.25 were retained into multivariable analysis. From the multivariable analysis, variables with a P-value <0.05 was declared as associated factors. RESULTS: Majority (72.9%) of the study participants were male; and most were urban dwellers. From the total study participants, 17 (3.3%) were found to be infected with the virus. The magnitude of low-level of knowledge was 4.9%; and of the analyzed risk factors, female gender, age (category less than 16 years and category between 16 and 65 years), and usual alcohol drinking habit had statistically significant association with low level knowledge. The proportion of study participants who had low level of practice was 75/513 (14.62%). Family size, age category between 16 and 65 years, and low-level knowledge were associated with low-level practice. CONCLUSION: Limited number of study participants had high-level knowledge and practice towards COVID-19; while majority of the study candidates demonstrated moderate level of knowledge and practice. Good knowledge, positive attitude and good practice can be a guarantee for the prevention and control of COVID-19. Hence, various measurements to combat the pandemic should be taken by different stakeholders including the community members, religious leader, health professionals and others.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Hospitales de Distrito , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Estudios Transversales , Etiopía/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia
3.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0247204, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33606744

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) declared coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) a global pandemic on 11th March, 2020. In Ethiopia, more than 90,490 and 1,300 confirmed cases and deaths were reported by the Federal Ministry of Health at the time of writing up this project. As health care providers are frontline workers managing the COVID-19 pandemic, this systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to assess the pooled level of knowledge, attitude, and practice towards COVID-19 among health professionals in Ethiopia. METHODS: PubMed, Google Scholar, Excerpta Medica database (EMBASE), Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and African Journal of Online (AJOL) were searched. The data were extracted using Microsoft Excel and analyzed using STATA version 14. Publication bias was checked by funnel plot and more objectively through Egger's regression test, with P < 0.05 considered to indicate potential publication bias. The heterogeneity of studies was checked using I2 statistics. Pooled analysis was conducted using a weighted inverse variance random-effects model. Subgroup analysis was done related to geographic region and time. A leave-one-out sensitivity analysis was also employed. RESULT: A total of 11 studies with 3,843 study participants for knowledge, eight studies with 2,842 study participants for attitude and 10 studies with 3, 435 study participants for practice were used to estimate the pooled level of good knowledge, positive attitude and poor practice among health professionals. The overall estimated good level of knowledge, positive attitude and poor practice towards COVID-19 was found to be 79.4% (95% CI: 73.5%-85.2%; I2 = 96%), 73.7% (95%CI: 63.09%-84.4%; I2 = 98.3%) and 40.3% (95%CI: 31.1%-49.6%; I2 = 97.1%) respectively. CONCLUSION: Study findings showed that there were significant gaps in COVID-19 related knowledge, attitude and practice with respect to World Health Organization recommendations on COVID-19 management and personal protection practices. This study therefore recommends that institutions provide with immediate effect accurate and up-to-date information on COVID-19 and training that encourages improved knowledge, attitude and practice to mitigate this pandemic.


Asunto(s)
Actitud del Personal de Salud , Personal de Salud , Conocimiento , /epidemiología , Etiopía/epidemiología , Humanos , Pandemias
4.
J Prim Care Community Health ; 12: 2150132721996889, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33632030

RESUMEN

The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) were adopted during the United Nations meeting in 2015 to succeed Millennium Development Goals. Among the health targets, SDG 3.2 is to end preventable deaths of newborns and children under 5 years of age by 2030. These 2 targets aim to reduce neonatal mortality to at least as low as 12 per 1000 live births and under-5 mortality to at least as low as 25 per 1000 live births. Ethiopia is demonstrating a great reduction in child mortality since 2000. In the 2019 child mortality estimation which is nearly 5 years after SDGs adoption, Ethiopia's progress toward reducing the newborns and under-5 mortality lie at 27 and 50.7 per 1000 live births, respectively. The generous financial and technical support from the global partners have helped to achieve such a significant reduction. Nevertheless, the SDG targets for newborns and under-5 mortality reduction are neither attained yet nor met the national plan to achieve by the end of 2019/2020. The partnership dynamics during COVID-19 crisis and the pandemic itself may also be taken as an opportunity to draw lessons and spur efforts to achieve SDG targets. This urges the need to reaffirm a comprehensive partnership and realignment with other interconnected development goals. Therefore, collective efforts with strong partnerships are required to improve the determinants of child health and achieving SDG target reduction until 2030.


Asunto(s)
Mortalidad del Niño/tendencias , Mortalidad Infantil/tendencias , Cooperación Internacional , Desarrollo Sostenible , /epidemiología , Preescolar , Etiopía/epidemiología , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Naciones Unidas
5.
J Environ Public Health ; 2021: 6614565, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33564314

RESUMEN

Background: Mismanagement of healthcare waste (HCW) during the COVID-19 pandemic can facilitate the transmission of coronavirus. Regarding this problem, there is gap of evidence in Ethiopia, and this study aimed to assess the HCW generation rate and management in Tepi General Hospital, southwest Ethiopia. Methods: Institution-based cross-sectional and case studies were conducted. The total amount of waste generated and its type among various case teams were compared using the Kruskal-Wallis test. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (r) was used to assess the correlation between the total numbers of patients and the total amount of HCW generated. Qualitative data were transcribed verbatim, translated to English, and analyzed with Open Code version 4.02 software, and content analysis was followed. Results: The total mean weight (±SD) of waste generation rate in all service units of the hospital was 492.5 ± 11.5 kg/day. The higher proportion (61.9%) of the total HCW produced was general waste and the remaining (38.1%) was hazardous waste. There was a statistically significant (X 2 = 82.1, p < 0.001) difference in daily HCW generation rate among different case teams. Similarly, the hospital waste generation amount and total patient flow had a strong positive linear relationship (r = 0.7, p=0.032). COVID-19-related medical wastes were not properly handled, segregated, stored, and disposed. There was a scarcity of resources needed to manage HCW, and available resources were utilized poorly. Overall, healthcare wastes were managed as usual (pre-COVID-19). Conclusion: The mean HCW generation rate in Tepi General Hospital was high. Overall, wastes were mismanaged, and COVID-19-related HCWs have been managed as usual. Availing of important resources and training the concerned bodies should be considered during the crisis of COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Eliminación de Residuos Sanitarios/métodos , Residuos/análisis , /prevención & control , Estudios Transversales , Etiopía/epidemiología , Hospitales Generales , Humanos , Eliminación de Residuos Sanitarios/estadística & datos numéricos , Grupo de Atención al Paciente/estadística & datos numéricos , Residuos/estadística & datos numéricos
6.
BMJ Open ; 11(2): e044606, 2021 02 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33602713

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has caused a global public health crisis affecting most countries, including Ethiopia, in various ways. This study maps the vulnerability to infection, case severity and likelihood of death from COVID-19 in Ethiopia. METHODS: Thirty-eight potential indicators of vulnerability to COVID-19 infection, case severity and likelihood of death, identified based on a literature review and the availability of nationally representative data at a low geographic scale, were assembled from multiple sources for geospatial analysis. Geospatial analysis techniques were applied to produce maps showing the vulnerability to infection, case severity and likelihood of death in Ethiopia at a spatial resolution of 1 km×1 km. RESULTS: This study showed that vulnerability to COVID-19 infection is likely to be high across most parts of Ethiopia, particularly in the Somali, Afar, Amhara, Oromia and Tigray regions. The number of severe cases of COVID-19 infection requiring hospitalisation and intensive care unit admission is likely to be high across Amhara, most parts of Oromia and some parts of the Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples' Region. The risk of COVID-19-related death is high in the country's border regions, where public health preparedness for responding to COVID-19 is limited. CONCLUSION: This study revealed geographical differences in vulnerability to infection, case severity and likelihood of death from COVID-19 in Ethiopia. The study offers maps that can guide the targeted interventions necessary to contain the spread of COVID-19 in Ethiopia.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Geografía Médica , /mortalidad , Etiopía/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Factores de Riesgo
7.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0245753, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33493226

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Waiters working in different food and drinking establishments have a higher risk of contracting COVID-19 and transmitting the infection to others because they interact with many people. Most COVID-19 related studies in Ethiopia mainly focused on the general population, whereas, this study aimed to assess the knowledge of COVID-19 and preventive behaviors among waiters in Southwest Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted from June 1 to June 15, 2020, among waiters working in food and drinking establishments found in Mizan-Aman, Jemu, and Masha towns in Southwest Ethiopia. A total of 422 waiters were selected using a simple random sampling technique, and the data were collected through face-to-face interviews using a structured questionnaire. The data were entered into Epi-data manager version 4.0.2 and analyzed using SPSS version 22. Multivariable binary logistic regression analysis was carried out to identify predictors of good preventive behaviors at a p-value of less than 0.05. RESULTS: Four hundred and sixteen respondents participated in this study, with a response rate of 98.6%. A significant proportion of participants know the cause, route of transmission, symptoms, and prevention methods of COVID-19 virus. However, very few (21.2%) had good preventive behaviors. The study showed that good preventive behavior was positively associated with female sex (AOR = 2.33, 95% CI: 1.38-3.94), higher schooling (AOR = 0.39, 95% CI: 0.17-0.88), high-risk perception (AOR = 2.26, 95% CI: 1.51-4.32), and high perceived self-efficacy (AOR = 1.1.75, 95% CI: 1.05-2.90). CONCLUSIONS: A significant proportion of waiters know common symptoms of COVID 19, route of transmission, and its prevention methods. However, the preventive behavior was very low. Thus, all concerned bodies working on the prevention and control of COVID-19 should give attention to this population group to enhance compliance with recommended preventive behaviors.


Asunto(s)
/prevención & control , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Etiopía/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Factores de Riesgo , Lugar de Trabajo , Adulto Joven
8.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 131, 2021 Jan 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33516181

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Blood transfusion is one of the routine therapeutic interventions in hospitals that can be lifesaving. However, this intervention is related to several transfusion-related infections. Hepatitis C viral infection is one of the most common causes of transfusion-related hepatitis. Subsequently, this systematic review and meta-analysis was aimed to estimate the seroprevalence of hepatitis C virus infection among blood donors in Ethiopia. METHODS: PubMed, Google Scholar, Health InterNetwork Access to Research Initiative (HINARI), Excerpta Medica database (EMBASE), and Cochrane library, the web of science, African journal of online (AJOL), and Google Scholar was searched. The data were extracted using Microsoft Excel and analyzed by using STATA version 14. Publication bias was checked by funnel plot, contour-enhanced funnel plots, trim and fill analysis and more objectively through Egger's regression test, with P <  0.05 considered to indicate potential publication bias. The heterogeneity of studies was checked using I2 statistics. Pooled analysis was conducted using a weighted inverse variance random-effects model. Subgroup analysis was done by region and study period. A sensitivity analysis was employed. RESULT: A total of 25 studies with 197,172 study participants were used to estimate the seroprevalence of hepatitis c virus among blood donors. The overall seroprevalence of hepatitis C virus was 0.819% (95% CI: 0.67-0.969; I2 = 92.3%). Regional sub-group analysis showed that the pooled prevalence of hepatitis c virus infection among blood donors found to be 0.563% in Somali, 1.08% in Oromia, 0.847% in Amhara, and 0.908% in south nations nationalities and peoples region. CONCLUSION: The pooled seroprevalence of hepatitis C virus infection among blood donors in Ethiopia found to be low. Moreover, there should be systematic strategies that enhance donor screening and retention of safe regular donors.


Asunto(s)
Donantes de Sangre/estadística & datos numéricos , Hepatitis C/epidemiología , Transfusión Sanguínea/estadística & datos numéricos , Etiopía/epidemiología , Hepacivirus/aislamiento & purificación , Hepatitis C/sangre , Humanos , Estudios Observacionales como Asunto/estadística & datos numéricos , Prevalencia , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos
9.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0244780, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33411766

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic is impacting the global community in many ways. Combating the COVID-19 pandemic requires a coordinated effort through engaging public and service providers in preventive measures. The government of Ethiopia had already announced prevention guidelines for the public. However, there is a scarcity of evidence-based data on the public knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) and response of the service providers regarding COVID-19. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the public KAP and service providers' preparedness towards the pandemic in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. METHODS: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, from late March to the first week of April 2020. Participants were conveniently sampled from 10 different city sites. Data collection was performed using a self-administered questionnaire and observational assessment using a checklist. All statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version Descriptive statistics, correlation coefficient and chi-square tests were performed. RESULT: A total of 839 public participants and 420 service providers enrolled in the study. The mean age was 30.30 (range = 18-72) years. The majority of the respondents (58.6%) had moderate knowledge about COVID-19, whereas 37.2% had good knowledge. Moreover, 60.7% and 59.8% of the participants had a positive attitude towards preventive measures and good practice to mitigate the pandemic, respectively. There was a moderate positive correlation between knowledge and attitude, whereas the correlations between knowledge and practice and attitude and practice were weak. With regard to service providers' preparedness, 70% have made hand-washing facilities available. A large majority of the respondents (84.4%) were using government-owned media followed by social media (46.0%) as a main source of information. CONCLUSION: The public in Addis Ababa had moderate knowledge, an optimistic attitude and descent practice. The information flow from government and social media seemed successful seeing the majority of the respondents identifying preventive measures, signs and symptoms and transmission route of SARS-CoV-2. Knowledge and attitude was not associated with practice, thus, additional innovative strategies for practice changes are needed. Two thirds of the service provider made available hand washing facilities which seems a first positive step. However, periodic evaluation of the public KAP and assessment of service providers' preparedness is mandatory to combat the pandemic effectively.


Asunto(s)
/prevención & control , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Adulto , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Estudios Transversales , Etiopía/epidemiología , Femenino , Higiene de las Manos , Humanos , Masculino
10.
BMJ Open ; 11(1): e043185, 2021 01 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33408210

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has posed several medical, psychosocial and economic impacts among the majority of the society. The ambiguity of its transmission, the intense desire of self-protection, family, and friends, the unknown impact of catching the disease itself, unstoppable spread, the panic and outright misinformation lead to acute stress reaction syndrome. However, reliable data related to this contagion lack the prevalence of acute stress reaction syndrome and associated factors among Jimma University Medical Centre hospital visitors in Southwestern Ethiopia. AIMS: The main objective of the study was to assess the prevalence and factors associated with acute stress reaction syndrome during the COVID-19 outbreak among Jimma University Medical Centre Hospital visitors, Ethiopia. METHODS: An interviewer-administered cross-sectional study was conducted among 247 visitors of the Jimma University Medical Centre in Ethiopia. The study was conducted within 2 weeks of the first COVID-19 cases detected on 13 March 2020 in Ethiopia. Data on demographic and socioeconomic status were collected during the interview using structured questionnaires. The psychological impact was assessed using the Impact of Event Scale-Revised, and symptoms of insomnia were measured using the Insomnia Severity Index. Social support was evaluated using Oslo three-item Social Support Scale. Logistic regression was employed to determine the associations between dependent and independent variables. Besides, psychosocial stress score was generated using principal component analysis. A paired permutation test was also performed to determine the variability of psychosocial stress between groups. RESULTS: The mean age of participants was 30.47 years, and 76.5% of the participants were male. Acute stress reaction syndrome was detected in 44.1% of hospital visitors. Of the participants, 38.5%, 17.4%, 8.5% and 35.6% had a minimal, mild, moderate and severe psychological impact, respectively. Factors positively associated with acute stress reaction syndrome were individuals who perceived that COVID-19 leads to stigma (adjusted OR (AOR): 3.24, 95% CI 1.11 to 9.45), mild insomnia (AOR: 14.74, 95% CI 6.14 to 35.40), moderate to severe insomnia (AOR: 35.1, 95% CI 10.76 to 114.66), low social support (AOR: 4.08, 95% CI 1.31 to 12.67) and governmental employees (AOR: 8.09, 95% CI 1.38 to 47.18). CONCLUSION: The study revealed the existence of a high prevalence of acute stress reaction syndrome during the COVID-19 outbreak among different groups of the community. Therefore, our results will contribute to the global awareness of the psychological impact of the COVID-19 outbreak.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad/psicología , Hospitales Universitarios , Pandemias , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Comorbilidad , Estudios Transversales , Depresión/epidemiología , Etiopía/epidemiología , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Masculino , Salud Mental , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Estudios Retrospectivos , Estigma Social , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
11.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 10(1): 5, 2021 Jan 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33413680

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The pandemic of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused substantial disruptions to health services in the low and middle-income countries with a high burden of other diseases, such as malaria in sub-Saharan Africa. The aim of this study is to assess the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on malaria transmission potential in malaria-endemic countries in Africa. METHODS: We present a data-driven method to quantify the extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as various non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs), could lead to the change of malaria transmission potential in 2020. First, we adopt a particle Markov Chain Monte Carlo method to estimate epidemiological parameters in each country by fitting the time series of the cumulative number of reported COVID-19 cases. Then, we simulate the epidemic dynamics of COVID-19 under two groups of NPIs: (1) contact restriction and social distancing, and (2) early identification and isolation of cases. Based on the simulated epidemic curves, we quantify the impact of COVID-19 epidemic and NPIs on the distribution of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs). Finally, by treating the total number of ITNs available in each country in 2020, we evaluate the negative effects of COVID-19 pandemic on malaria transmission potential based on the notion of vectorial capacity. RESULTS: We conduct case studies in four malaria-endemic countries, Ethiopia, Nigeria, Tanzania, and Zambia, in Africa. The epidemiological parameters (i.e., the basic reproduction number [Formula: see text] and the duration of infection [Formula: see text]) of COVID-19 in each country are estimated as follows: Ethiopia ([Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]), Nigeria ([Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]), Tanzania ([Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]), and Zambia ([Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]). Based on the estimated epidemiological parameters, the epidemic curves simulated under various NPIs indicated that the earlier the interventions are implemented, the better the epidemic is controlled. Moreover, the effect of combined NPIs is better than contact restriction and social distancing only. By treating the total number of ITNs available in each country in 2020 as a baseline, our results show that even with stringent NPIs, malaria transmission potential will remain higher than expected in the second half of 2020. CONCLUSIONS: By quantifying the impact of various NPI response to the COVID-19 pandemic on malaria transmission potential, this study provides a way to jointly address the syndemic between COVID-19 and malaria in malaria-endemic countries in Africa. The results suggest that the early intervention of COVID-19 can effectively reduce the scale of the epidemic and mitigate its impact on malaria transmission potential.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Malaria/epidemiología , Malaria/terapia , /transmisión , Etiopía/epidemiología , Humanos , Malaria/transmisión , Cadenas de Markov , Nigeria/epidemiología , Pandemias , Sindémico , Tanzanía/epidemiología , Zambia/epidemiología
12.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 91, 2021 Jan 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33478414

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Informed decision making is underlined by all tiers in the health system. Poor data record system coupled with under- (over)-reporting of malaria cases affects the country's malaria elimination activities. Thus, malaria data at health facilities and health offices are important particularly to monitor and evaluate the elimination progresses. This study was intended to assess overall reported malaria cases, reporting quality, spatiotemporal trends and factors associated in Gedeo zone, South Ethiopia. METHODS: Past 8 years retrospective data stored in 17 health centers and 5 district health offices in Gedeo Zone, South Ethiopia were extracted. Malaria cases data at each health center with sociodemographic information, between January 2012 and December 2019, were included. Meteorological data were obtained from the national meteorology agency of Ethiopia. The data were analyzed using Stata 13. RESULTS: A total of 485,414 suspected cases were examined for malaria during the previous 8 years at health centers. Of these suspects, 57,228 (11.79%) were confirmed malaria cases with an overall decline during the 8-year period. We noted that 3758 suspected cases and 467 confirmed malaria cases were not captured at the health offices. Based on the health centers records, the proportions of Plasmodium falciparum (49.74%) and P. vivax (47.59%) infection were nearly equivalent (p = 0.795). The former was higher at low altitudes while the latter was higher at higher altitudes. The over 15 years of age group accounted for 11.47% of confirmed malaria cases (p < 0.001). There was high spatiotemporal variation: the highest case record was during Belg (12.52%) and in Dilla town (18,150, 13.17%, p < 0.001) which is located at low altitude. Monthly rainfall and minimum temperature exhibited strong associations with confirmed malaria cases. CONCLUSION: A notable overall decline in malaria cases was observed during the eight-year period. Both P. falciparum and P. vivax were found at equivalent endemicity level; hence control measures should continue targeting both species. The noticed under reporting, the high malaria burden in urban settings, low altitudes and Belg season need spatiotemporal consideration by the elimination program.


Asunto(s)
Malaria/epidemiología , Altitud , Demografía , Notificación de Enfermedades/normas , Notificación de Enfermedades/estadística & datos numéricos , Etiopía/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Malaria/diagnóstico , Malaria/parasitología , Malaria/prevención & control , Masculino , Meteorología , Análisis Multivariante , Plasmodium falciparum/aislamiento & purificación , Plasmodium vivax/aislamiento & purificación , Prevalencia , Estudios Retrospectivos , Estaciones del Año
13.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0246283, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33513211

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 incidence is increasing and different measures have been adopted to control the spread of the pandemic in Ethiopia. Among these measures, enhancing the knowledge, positive attitudes, and proper practices of prevention measures about the disease is a basic strategy to control it. However, community compliance to control measures is largely dependent on their knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) towards COVID-19. OBJECTIVE: To assess the current level of KAP towards COVID-19 pandemic and predictors among the rural dwellers in Sidama regional state, Southern Ethiopia; 2020. METHODS: This community-based prospective cross-sectional study was carried out from May 1-30, 2020 on a sample of 1,278 adult populations in Sidama regional state, Southern Ethiopia. A multi-stage sampling technique was used to choice the study participants. The data were collected using a structured interviewer-administered questionnaire. We have entered data using Epi data version 3.1 and all analyses were done using SPSS version 25. KAPs scores of study participants based on their independent variables were compared using Chi-square test, t-test or one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) as required. Bi-variable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors associated with KAP. The important assumptions of the logistic regression model were checked to be satisfied. Adjusted odds ratios (AOR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated to assess the existence and strength of associations. RESULTS: From a total of 1,214 study participants, the overall attained knowledge, attitude and practice score about COVID-19 were 90%, 82.4% and 65%, respectively. Among these, 43.9%, 37.5%, and 24.4% of the study participants had demonstrated good knowledge, high attitude and proper practice, respectively. The mean knowledge scores were significantly different between sex, categories of marital status, educational levels, main occupation, and the monthly income quintiles of the study participants (p<0.05). Similarly, the mean attitude scores significantly varied across educational levels, main occupations and marital status (p<0.05). Based on multivariable logistic regression analysis, main occupation of the government employees, education level of diploma and above, highest and second highest wealth rank were positively associated with COVID-19 prevention and control practice. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of study participants had showed good knowledge and optimistic attitude toward COVID-19. But, the level of practice lower than that expected to maximize effective control measures. Further public education interventions and community sensitization campaigns are required for rural adult population in the Sidama regional state, Ethiopia.


Asunto(s)
/psicología , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Etiopía/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Factores Socioeconómicos , Adulto Joven
14.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 19(1): 24, 2021 Jan 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33468153

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Patients' health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and health state utility values are critical inputs in the clinical and economic evaluation of treatments for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). However, information on health state utility values is lacking in the context of Ethiopia. Here, we aimed to assess HRQoL and determine health state utility values and factors that influence the values among HIV/AIDS patients in Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 511 HIV/AIDS patients at Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital in Ethiopia. Patients aged 18 years or older were eligible for the interview and those who were mentally unstable and with hearing impairment were excluded from the study. We performed face-to-face interviews using EuroQol-5 Dimensions-5 Levels (EQ-5D-5L) in combination with EuroQol-Visual Analog Scales (EQ-VAS). Level-specific disutility coefficients obtained from the general population were used for computing utility values. Patients' health profiles were described using percentages and different statistical analysis were conducted to determine factors associated with the EQ-5D index and EQ-VAS scores. RESULTS: A total of 511 patients participated in the study. A higher proportion of patients reported slight or more severe problems on the anxiety/depression (55.2%) and pain/discomfort (51.3%) dimensions. The overall median utility value of HIV/AIDS patients was 0.94 (IQR = 0.87, 1) from the EQ-5D index and 80% (IQR = 70%, 90%) from the EQ-VAS scores. Demographic characteristics including age, occupational status, and household monthly income significantly affected patient's utility values. Moreover, statistically significant (p < 0.001) differences were seen between the EQ-5D index values of patients with different CD4 count intervals. Furthermore, number of medicines that the patients were taking at the time of the study and comorbidities were significantly associated with the EQ-5D utility index and EQ-VAS score, p < 0.001. CONCLUSIONS: The anxiety/depression and pain/ discomfort dimensions were identified to have critical influence in reducing the HRQoL of adult HIV/AIDS patients in the context of Ethiopia. The study is also the first to use the EQ-5D-5L tool to identify health state utility values for Ethiopian adult HIV/AIDS patients. Future economic evaluations of HIV/AIDS interventions are encouraged to employ the identified utility values.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH/psicología , Estado de Salud , Calidad de Vida , Escala Visual Analógica , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Ansiedad/complicaciones , Estudios Transversales , Depresión/complicaciones , Etiopía/epidemiología , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/economía , Hospitales de Enseñanza , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Dimensión del Dolor/psicología , Atención Terciaria de Salud , Adulto Joven
15.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0234585, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33507906

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The disease from the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) has been considered as an international concern and a pandemic starting from the declaration of the World Health Organization (WHO) as an outbreak disease. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to assess the prevention of knowledge and practices towards the COVID-19 pandemic among the residents of Ethiopia. METHODS: An online cross-sectional study was conducted among a sample of Ethiopian residents via social platforms of the author's network with popular social media such as Facebook, Telegram, and email. The snowball sampling was employed to recruit participants. In doing so, we collected the responses of 341 participants successfully from April 15 to 22, 2020. The collected data were analyzed by STATA version 14 software and descriptive statistics were employed to summarize the knowledge and practices of the community towards the COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS: The majority of respondents 80.5% were male. About 91.2% of the participants heard about the COVID-19 pandemic. Moreover, out of 341 participants 90.0%, 93.8% of them knew that the COVID-19 pandemic was prevented by maintaining social distance and frequent handwashing, respectively. This shows that the prevention knowledge of the participants towards the COVID-19 by maintaining social distance and frequent handwashing was high. However, out of 341 participants only 61%,84% of them practiced social distance and frequent handwashing toward COVID-19, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of the participants knew the ways to protect themselves from the novel coronavirus (COVID-19), but there was a great problem of changing this prevention knowledge to practices. This shows that there is an action gap between having prevention knowledge of the COVID-19 and implementing it into practices to tackle the spread of the COVID-19 among communities. Therefore, the concerned body should be focused on providing awareness and education for the community regarding the implementation of prevention knowledge to practices.


Asunto(s)
/prevención & control , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Etiopía/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias/prevención & control , Medios de Comunicación Sociales/tendencias , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
16.
BMC Psychol ; 9(1): 4, 2021 Jan 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33407920

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Internet addiction is a common problem in university students and negatively affects cognitive functioning, leads to poor academic performance and engagement in hazardous activities, and may lead to anxiety and stress. Behavioral addictions operate on a modified principle of the classic addiction model. The problem is not well investigated in Ethiopia. So the present study aimed to assess the prevalence of internet addiction and associated factors among university students in Ethiopia. OBJECTIVES: Main objective of this study was to assess the prevalence and associated factors of internet addiction among University Students in Ethiopia. METHODS: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among Wollo University students from April 10 to May 10, 2019. A total of 603 students were participated in the study using a structured questionnaire. A multistage cluster sampling technique was used to recruit study participants. A binary logistic regression method was used to explore associated factors for internet addiction and variables with a p value < 0.25 in the bivariate analysis were fitted to the multi-variable logistic regression analysis. The strength of association between internet addiction and associated factors was assessed with odds ratio, 95% CI and p value < 0.05 in the final model was considered significant. RESULTS: The prevalence of internet addiction (IA) among the current internet users was 85% (n = 466). Spending more time on the internet (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 10.13, 95% CI 1.33-77.00)), having mental distress (AOR = 2.69, 95% CI 1.02-7.06), playing online games (AOR = 2.40, 95% CI 1.38-4.18), current khat chewing (AOR = 3.34, 95% CI 1.14-9.83) and current alcohol use (AOR = 2.32, 95% CI 1.09-4.92) were associated with internet addiction. CONCLUSIONS: The current study documents a high prevalence of internet addiction among Wollo University students. Factors associated with internet addiction were spending more time, having mental distress, playing online games, current khat chewing, and current alcohol use. As internet addiction becomes an evident public health problem, carrying out public awareness campaigns may be a fruitful strategy to decrease its prevalence and effect. Besides to this, a collaborative work among stakeholders is important to develop other trendy, adaptive, and sustainable countermeasures.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Estudiantes/psicología , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Etiopía/epidemiología , Humanos , Prevalencia , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Universidades
17.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0246006, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33481962

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an emerging respiratory infections and is known to cause illness ranging from the common cold to severe acute respiratory syndrome. At present, the disease has been posing a serious threat to the communities, and it is critical to know the communities' level of adherence on COVID-19 prevention measures. Thus, this study aimed to identify the predictors of adherence to COVID-19 prevention measure among communities in North Shoa zone, Ethiopia by using a health belief model. METHODS: Community-based cross-sectional study design was employed. A total of 683 respondents were interviewed using a structured and pre-tested questionnaire. The data were collected by using a mobile-based application called "Google form." Logistic regression was performed to analyze the data. Estimates were reported in adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CI) and a significant association was declared at p-value of less than 0.05. RESULT: The overall adherence level of the community towards the recommended safety measures of COVID-19 was 44.1%. Self-efficacy (AOR = 0.23; 95% 0.14, 0.36), perceived benefits (AOR = 0.35; 95% 0.23, 0.56), perceived barriers (AOR = 3.36; 95% 2.23, 5.10), and perceived susceptibility of COVID-19 (AOR = 1.60; 95% 1.06, 2.39) were important predictors that influenced the adherence of the community to COVID-19 preventive behaviors. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, the overall adherence level of the community towards the recommended safety measures of COVID-19 was relatively low. It is vital to consider the communities' self-efficacy, perceived benefits, perceived barriers and perceived susceptibility of COVID-19 in order to improve the adherence of the community towards the recommended safety measures of COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
/prevención & control , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Etiopía/epidemiología , Femenino , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Salud Pública , Autoeficacia , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
18.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 199, 2021 01 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33482790

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Novel coronavirus is a global pandemic and killed many individuals, including health care professionals. It caused stress on the health care system of all countries. Presently, studies are emerging regarding the COVID-19 pandemic in different aspects. However, a few have explored barriers that affecting the practice of preventive measures for the COVID-19. As such, the study aimed to fill these research gaps in the study setting. METHODS: A semi-structured interview guide was used to conduct this phenomenological study among 16 key informants. Key informants were recruited by the purposive sampling method. To analyze that data, thematic content analysis was employed by using an inductive approach in NVivo 12 Pro software. RESULTS: In this study, six main themes were identified with the sub-themes. Overview of COVID-19 pandemic (with the six sub-themes), consequences (with the two sub-themes), perceived practice (with four sub-themes), perceived barriers (with four sub-themes), newfangled activities (with three sub-themes), and suggestion for improvement (with seven sub-themes) were the major themes. The participants perceived the influence of shortage of personal protective equipment and solutions for hand hygiene, negligence and ignorance, inadequate infrastructure, lack of training, and lack of attention and recognition for the staff on the practice of preventive measures. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed a gap in preventive measure practices for the COVID-19 in the health care system. Community influences, health care provider related barriers, institutional barriers, and lack of communication and support affect the practice. Hence, attention should give to fulfill the necessary supplies in the health facilities, improve the infrastructures, and equip health professionals by providing capacity-building activities. Besides, health care workers must recognize, and attention is needed.


Asunto(s)
Actitud del Personal de Salud , Personal de Salud/psicología , Pandemias/prevención & control , Administración en Salud Pública , Adulto , Etiopía/epidemiología , Femenino , Higiene de las Manos , Personal de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Equipo de Protección Personal/provisión & distribución , Investigación Cualitativa
19.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243479, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33320909

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Enteric pathogens like Salmonella and Shigella species as well as intestinal parasites (IPs) are among the main causative agents of diarrhea in people with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), particularly in low income countries like Ethiopia. Antimicrobial resistance against commonly prescribed drugs has become a major global threat. This study, therefore, aimed at determining the magnitude of Salmonella, Shigella and IPs infections, their predicting factors, and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern among HIV infected and non-infected diarrheic patients in Dessie town, Northeast Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted at three health facilities in Northeast Ethiopia between January 2018 and March 2018. Data on socio-demographic and associated risk factors were collected using structured questionnaire from 354 HIV infected and non-infected diarrheic outpatients. Fresh stool specimen was processed according to standard operating procedures. Data were entered and analyzed using SPSS version 22. Descriptive statistics was used to determine frequency, Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify predicting factors associated with the outcome variable. P-value <0.05 were used to declare statistical significance. RESULTS: Among 354 diarrheic patients, 112 were HIV infected and 242 were HIV non-infected. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasite and bacterial infection among HIV infected versus non-infected, respectively, was 26 (23.2%) and 8 (7.1%) versus 50 (20.7) and 16 (6.6%). Salmonella was the highest in both groups, 6 (5.4%) vs 11 (4.5%). Most prevalent parasite was C. parvum, 9 (8%) among HIV+ while E. histolytica/dispar 39 (16.1%) among HIV-. Having bloody plus mucoid diarrhea, not utilizing latrine and drinking river or spring water were factors significantly associated with bacterial infection. Whereas, being illiterate or having primary level education, diarrhea lasting for 6-10 days, CD4 level between 200-500 cells/µl, not washing hand with soap showed significant association with IPs. The bacterial isolates were 100% susceptible to Ceftriaxone and 95.4% to Ciprofloxacin, while 100% resistant to Ampicillin and Amoxicillin. MDR was observed among 19 (79.2%) isolates. CONCLUSION: Preventing and controlling infection by enteric pathogens as well as IPs require strengthening intervention measures. The 100% resistance of isolates to commonly prescribed antibiotics calls for expanding antimicrobial susceptibility testing so as to select appropriate antimicrobial agent and prevent emergence of drug resistant bacteria.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones Bacterianas/diagnóstico , Diarrea/diagnóstico , Infecciones por VIH/patología , Parasitosis Intestinales/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Bacterias/efectos de los fármacos , Bacterias/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones Bacterianas/complicaciones , Infecciones Bacterianas/epidemiología , Recuento de Linfocito CD4 , Estudios Transversales , Cryptosporidium parvum/aislamiento & purificación , Diarrea/complicaciones , Diarrea/microbiología , Diarrea/parasitología , Agua Potable/microbiología , Agua Potable/parasitología , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana/efectos de los fármacos , Etiopía/epidemiología , Heces/microbiología , Heces/parasitología , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones , Humanos , Parasitosis Intestinales/complicaciones , Parasitosis Intestinales/epidemiología , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto Joven
20.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244530, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33378397

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: People with disabilities face multiple barriers that prevent them from accessing care and essential information related to the COVID-19 pandemic that poses additional stress and psychopathology. Therefore, the investigation of psychopathologies during the COVID-19 outbreak and emergency response is critical. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was implemented from July 15/2020 to July 30/2020. The PHQ-9, GAD-7 scale, insomnia severity index-7, and brief resilient coping scale were administered to participants. The collected data was then entered into Epi-data version 3.1 and exported to SPSS-20 for analysis. Descriptive statistical procedures were employed to describe the various psychopathologies. A binary logistic regression method was used to identify the related factors for the psychopathologies. Furthermore, an odds ratio with its 95%CI was driven to show association strength, and a P-value <0.05 was declared as statistically significant. RESULTS: A significant proportion of individuals living with disability had psychopathologies; 46.2% for depression symptoms, 48.1% for generalized anxiety disorder symptoms, and 71% for insomnia symptoms. Nearly 45.7% of participants were low resilient copers to their psychopathology. Depression was significantly higher in divorced/widowed/separated (AOR = 3.4, 95% CI: 1.28-8.92, P-value = 0.006), non-educated (AOR = 2.12, 95% CI: 1.12, 5.90, P-value = 0.001), and unemployed (AOR = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.32, 5.11, P-value = 0.005) as well as a daily laborer (AOR = 2.4, 95% CI: 1.20, 4.89, P-value = 0.014) subjects. Generalized anxiety disorder was also significantly higher in young age (<40 years) (AOR = 1.7, 95% CI: 1.32, 2.98, P-value = 0.02), single (AOR = 2.3, 95% CI: 1.24, 5.3, P-value = 0.011), widowed/divorced/separated (AOR = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.12, 2.78, P-value = 0.032), preparatory school completed (AOR = 3.00, 95% CI: 1.59, 5.46, P-value = 0.001), daily laborer (AOR = 2.7, 95% CI: 1.21, 5.23, P-value = 0.003), and unemployed (AOR = 2.5, 95% CI: 1.17, 4.78, P-value = 0.005) participants. Moreover, insomnia was significantly higher in single (AOR = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.12, 3.09, P-value = 0.027), divorced/widowed/separated(AOR = 6.2, 95% CI: 1.08, 11.29, P-value = 0.032), unemployed (AOR = 3.00, 95% CI: 1.22, 7.03, P-value = 0.001), blind (AOR = 2.8, 95% CI: 1.42, 6.35, P-value = 0.001), and deaf (AOR = 10.2, 95% CI: 4.52, 35.33, P-value = 0.002) participants. CONCLUSION: Depression, anxiety, and insomnia were highly prevalent among individuals with a disability during the COVID-19 period. Multiple sociodemographic and disability-related factors were associated with this high psychopathology. Attention has to be given by the government and other stakeholders to intervene in psychopathology and its associated factors.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad/epidemiología , Depresión/epidemiología , Personas con Discapacidad/estadística & datos numéricos , Trastornos del Inicio y del Mantenimiento del Sueño/epidemiología , Adaptación Psicológica , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Etiopía/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Trastornos Mentales/epidemiología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Psicometría , Estrés Psicológico/psicología
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