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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 769: 145080, 2021 May 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33736256

RESUMEN

Eugenia uniflora L. is an important fruit tree native to tropical South America that adapts to different habitats, thanks to its metabolic diversity and ability to adjust the leaf antioxidant metabolism. We hypothesized that this metabolic diversity would also enable E. uniflora to avoid oxidative damage and tolerate the enhanced ozone (O3) concentrations that have been registered in the (sub)tropics. We investigated whether carbohydrates, polyphenols and antioxidants are altered and markers of oxidative damage (ROS accumulation, alterations in leaf gas exchange, growth and biomass production) are detected in plants exposed to two levels of O3 (ambient air and twice elevated ozone level in a O3-FACE system for 75 days). Phytotoxic O3 dose above a threshold of 0 nmol m-2 s-1 (POD0) and accumulated exposure above 40 ppb (AOT40) were 3.6 mmol m-2 and 14.898 ppb h at ambient, and 4.7 mmol m-2 and 43.881 ppb h at elevated O3. Twenty-seven primary metabolites and 16 phenolic compounds were detected in the leaves. Contrary to the proposed hypothesis that tropical broadleaf trees are relatively O3 tolerant, we concluded that E. uniflora plants are sensitive to elevated O3 concentrations. Experimental POD0 values were lower than the critical levels for visible foliar O3, because of low stomatal conductance. In spite of this low stomatal O3 uptake, we found classic O3 injury, e.g. reduction in carbohydrates and fatty acids concentrations; non-significant changes in the polyphenol profile; inefficient antioxidant responses; increased contents of ROS and indicators of lipid peroxidation; reductions in stomatal conductance, net photosynthesis, root/shoot ratio and height growth. However, we also found some compensation mechanisms, e.g. increased leaf concentration of polyols for protecting the membranes, and increased leaf number for compensating the decline of photosynthetic rate. These results help filling the knowledge gap about tropical tree responses to O3.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Eugenia , Ozono , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Ozono/análisis , Fotosíntesis , Hojas de la Planta/química , América del Sur , Árboles
2.
Food Chem ; 338: 127747, 2021 Feb 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32858434

RESUMEN

In this study, we evaluated the influence of the ultrasound application on five levels of energy density (1000; 3000; 5000 and 7000 J g-1) compared to two pasteurization techniques (70 °C/5 min and 94 °C/0.5 min) on color parameters, polyphenoloxidase activity, chemical composition, and antioxidant properties of araçá-boi pulp. Ultrasound caused changes in the parameters brightness/darkness, hue angle, and total color difference, but did not change chroma, yellowness/blueness, color index, and yellow index. Moreover, this technique was efficient for inactivating polyphenoloxidase. Ultrasound at 7000 J g-1 was responsible for an increase in soluble solids (16%), vitamin C (46.5%), phenolics (15.65%), flavonoids (50%) and antioxidant capacity in relation to untreated pulp, while ultrasound at 5000 J g-1 increased the relative intensity of compounds of biological interest. Thus, ultrasound can be considered as a promising technique to maintain the shelf life, without drastically affecting the nutritional and functional qualities of this fruit.


Asunto(s)
Antioxidantes/química , Color , Eugenia/química , Extractos Vegetales/química , Sonicación , Ácido Ascórbico/análisis , Catecol Oxidasa/metabolismo , Colorimetría , Eugenia/metabolismo , Flavonoides/análisis , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Pasteurización , Fenoles/análisis
3.
Food Chem ; 334: 127557, 2021 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32712488

RESUMEN

Previous studies indicate that the bioactive compounds of Eugenia stipitata pulp have antimutagenic, anticarcinogenic and antigenotoxic properties, but its use has been limited due to its high perishability. The aim of this study was to preserve bioactivity by using spray-drying microencapsulation, and is pioneering for its use of DSC to determine the best proportion of wall material (maltodextrin or gum arabic) and drying temperature (100 or 120 °C). The microparticles with maltodextrin (1:9)-100 °C had the best bioactivity conservation after in vitro gastrointestinal digestion, conserving 61% of total polyphenols, and 101%, 85% and 31% of antioxidant capacity according to the ABTS, FRAP and DPPH test methods respectively. These microparticles had a spherical morphology, presented good thermal stability and can be stored at a temperature range from 20 to 40 °C without becoming sticky. Therefore, spray-drying microencapsulation together with DSC is important for preserving a high concentration of bioactive compounds.


Asunto(s)
Desecación/métodos , Eugenia/química , Industria de Procesamiento de Alimentos/métodos , Frutas/química , Aire , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/aislamiento & purificación , Rastreo Diferencial de Calorimetría , Digestión , Composición de Medicamentos , Goma Arábiga/química , Extractos Vegetales/química , Polifenoles/química , Polifenoles/aislamiento & purificación , Polisacáridos/química
4.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234157, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32516332

RESUMEN

Brazilian native fruits are a rich source of polyphenolic compounds that can act as anti-inflammatory and antioxidant agents. Here, we determined the polyphenolic composition, anti-inflammatory mechanism of action, antioxidant activity and systemic toxicity in Galleria mellonella larvae of Eugenia selloi B.D.Jacks. (synonym Eugenia neonitida Sobral) extract (Ese) and its polyphenol-rich fraction (F3) obtained through bioassay-guided fractionation. Phenolic compounds present in Ese and F3 were identified by LC-ESI-QTOF-MS. The anti-inflammatory activity of Ese and F3 was tested in vitro and in vivo through NF-κB activation, cytokine release and neutrophil migration assays. The samples were tested for their effects against reactive species (ROO•, O2•-, HOCl and NO•) and for their toxicity in Galleria mellonella larvae model. The presence of hydroxybenzoic acid, ellagitannins and flavonoids was identified. Ese and F3 reduced NF-κB activation, cytokine release and neutrophil migration, with F3 being three-fold more potent. Overall, F3 exhibited strong antioxidant effects against biologically relevant radicals, and neither Ese nor F3 were toxic to G. mellonella larvae. In conclusion, Ese and F3 revealed the presence of phenolic compounds that decreased the inflammatory parameters evaluated and inhibited reactive oxygen/nitrogen species. E. selloi is a novel source of bioactive compounds that may provide benefits for human health.


Asunto(s)
Eugenia/química , Frutas/química , Polifenoles/química , Polifenoles/farmacología , Animales , Antiinflamatorios/química , Antiinflamatorios/farmacología , Antiinflamatorios/toxicidad , Supervivencia Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Quimiocina CXCL2/metabolismo , Depuradores de Radicales Libres/química , Depuradores de Radicales Libres/farmacología , Depuradores de Radicales Libres/toxicidad , Lepidópteros/efectos de los fármacos , Masculino , Ratones , FN-kappa B/metabolismo , Polifenoles/toxicidad , Células RAW 264.7 , Especies de Nitrógeno Reactivo/metabolismo , Especies Reactivas de Oxígeno/metabolismo , Factor de Necrosis Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
5.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(17): 20831-20843, 2020 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32248415

RESUMEN

Brazilian berry seeds (Eugenia uniflora) were used as an eco-friendly and low-cost biosorbent for the treatment of textile effluents containing methylene blue. Characterization techniques indicated that Brazilian berry seeds are constituted of irregular particles, mainly composed of lignin and holocellulose groups, distributed in an amorphous structure. Methylene blue biosorption was favorable at pH of 8, using a biosorbent dosage of 0.8 g L-1. The equilibrium was reached in the first 20 min for lower M methylene blue concentrations and 120 min for higher methylene blue concentrations. Furthermore, the general and pseudo-second-order models were suitable for describing the kinetic data. Langmuir was the most adequate model for describing the isotherm curves, predicting a biosorption capacity of 189.6 mg g-1 at 328 K. Biosorption was spontaneous (- 9.54 ≤ ΔG0 ≤ -8.06 kJ mol-1) and endothermic, with standard enthalpy change of 6.11 kJ mol-1. Brazilian berry seeds were successfully used to remove the color of two different simulated textile effluents, achieving 92.2% and 73.5% of removal. Last, the fixed-bed experiment showed that a column packed with Brazilian berry seeds can operate during 840 min, attaining biosorption capacity of 88.7 mg g-1. The data here presented indicates that textile effluents containing methylene blue can be easily and successfully treated by an eco-friendly and low-cost biosorbent like Brazilian berry seeds.


Asunto(s)
Eugenia , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , Adsorción , Brasil , Colorantes , Frutas/química , Concentración de Iones de Hidrógeno , Cinética , Semillas/química , Termodinámica , Agua
6.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 36(2): 568-577, 01-03-2020. tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-1146421

RESUMEN

In the Myrtaceae family, the species Eugenia involucrata DC., popularly known as "cerejeira-do-mato", is traditionally used for the antidiarrheal and digestive action of its leaves. However, no studies were found in the literature regarding its antimicrobial and antioxidant potential. In this context, the objective of the present study was to determine the chemical composition by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to evaluate the antimicrobial activity by the broth microdilution technique and the antioxidant activity by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazila (DPPH) method of the essential oil of E. involucrataleaves. GC-MS identified 28 compounds, all sesquiterpenes, corresponding to 89.41% of the essential oil. The antimicrobial activity of the essential oil was observed for all Gram-positive bacteria tested (Staplylococcus epidermidis, Enterococcus faecalis,Bacillus subtilis and Staplylococcus aureus) and for yeast Candida albicans. The essential oil presented a reduction capacity of DPPH up to 66.81%, evidencing its antioxidant potential. It is suggested that the antimicrobial and antioxidant action of E. involucrata essential oil is related to the presence of the major compounds, elixene (26.53%), ß-caryophyllene (13.16%), α-copaene (8.41%) and germacrene D (7.17%).


Na família Myrtaceae, a espécieEugenia involucrata DC. popularmente denominada "cerejeira-do-mato" é conhecida tradicionalmente pela ação antidiarreica e digestiva de suas folhas. Contudo, na literatura não foram encontrados trabalhos referentes ao seu potencial antimicrobiano e antioxidante. Neste contexto, o objetivo do presente estudo foi determinar a composição química por cromatografia gasosa acoplada a espectrometria de massas (CG-EM) e avaliar a atividade antimicrobiana pela técnica de microdiluição em caldo e a atividade antioxidante pelo método do 2,2-difenil-1-picril-hidrazila (DPPH) do óleo essencial das folhas de E. involucrata. A CG-EM identificou 28 compostos, todos sesquiterpenos, correspondendo a 89,41% do óleo essencial. A atividade antimicrobiana do óleo essencial foi observada para todas as bactérias Gram-positivas testadas (Staplylococcus epidermidis, Enterococcus faecalis,Bacillus subtilise Staplylococcus aureus) e para a levedura Candida albicans. O óleo essencial apresentou capacidade redutora de radicais DPPH de até 66,81%, evidenciando sua potencialidade antioxidante. Sugere-se que a ação antimicrobiana e antioxidante do óleo essencial de E. involucrata esteja relacionada à presença dos compostos majoritários, elixeno (26,53%), ß-cariofileno (13,16%), -copaeno (8,41%) e germacreno D (7,17%).


Asunto(s)
Myrtaceae , Eugenia , Antiinfecciosos , Antioxidantes , Espectrometría de Masas , Bacillus , Bacterias , Productos Biológicos , Candida albicans , Aceites , Destilación , Cromatografía de Gases , Enterococcus faecalis , Compuestos Orgánicos Volátiles
7.
Mol Biol Rep ; 47(2): 1033-1043, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31749121

RESUMEN

Eugenia uniflora is an Atlantic Forest native species, occurring in contrasting edaphoclimatic environments. The identification of genes involved in response to abiotic factors is very relevant to help in understanding the processes of local adaptation. 1-Pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase (P5CS) is one interesting gene to study in this species since it encodes a key enzyme of proline biosynthesis, which is an osmoprotectant during abiotic stress. Applying in silico analysis, we identified one P5CS gene sequence of E. uniflora (EuniP5CS). Phylogenetic analysis, as well as, gene and protein structure investigation, revealed that EuniP5CS is a member of P5CS gene family. Plants of E. uniflora from two distinct environments (restinga and riparian forest) presented differences in the proline accumulation and P5CS expression levels under growth-controlled conditions. Both proline accumulation and gene expression level of EuniP5CS were higher in the genotypes from riparian forest than those from restinga. When these plants were submitted to drought stress, EuniP5CS gene was up-regulated in the plants from restinga, but not in those from riparian forest. These results demonstrated that EuniP5CS is involved in proline biosynthesis in this species and suggest that P5CS gene may be an interesting candidate gene in future studies to understand the processes of local adaptation in E. uniflora.


Asunto(s)
Eugenia/genética , Glutamato-5-Semialdehído Deshidrogenasa/genética , Complejos Multienzimáticos/genética , Fosfotransferasas (Aceptor de Grupo Alcohol)/genética , Aldehído Deshidrogenasa/genética , Aldehído Deshidrogenasa/metabolismo , Sequías , Eugenia/metabolismo , Regulación de la Expresión Génica de las Plantas/genética , Glutamato-5-Semialdehído Deshidrogenasa/metabolismo , Ligasas/metabolismo , Complejos Multienzimáticos/metabolismo , Fosfotransferasas (Aceptor de Grupo Alcohol)/metabolismo , Filogenia , Plantas/metabolismo , Prolina/biosíntesis , Pirroles/metabolismo , Estrés Fisiológico/genética
8.
Nat Prod Res ; 34(18): 2683-2688, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30618311

RESUMEN

Alzheimer's disease and diabetes mellitus are contemporary diseases of great concern. Phenolic compounds are linked to several health benefits and could lead to novel strategies to combat these ailments. The objective of this study was to evaluate by electrophoretically-mediated microanalysis the potential inhibitory activity of the fruit juices from Plinia cauliflora ("jaboticaba") and Eugenia uniflora ("pitanga") toward acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and α-glucosidase, target enzymes in strategies for the treatment of these diseases. The phenolic profiles of the samples were also investigated. Jaboticaba and pitanga juices inhibited 85.90 ± 1.73 and 52.67 ± 1.24% of AChE activity at 5 mg mL-1, and 57.91 ± 2.60 and 69.47 ± 2.89% of α-glucosidase activity at 1 mg mL-1, respectively. Total phenolic content of the juices were 303.54 ± 28.28 and 367.00 ± 11.42 mgGA L-1, respectively. The observed inhibitory activity can be explained, at least in part, by the presence of the phenolic compounds.


Asunto(s)
Inhibidores de la Colinesterasa/farmacología , Eugenia/química , Inhibidores de Glicósido Hidrolasas/farmacología , Myrtaceae/química , Fenoles/análisis , Animales , Brasil , Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión , Electroforesis por Microchip , Jugos de Frutas y Vegetales/análisis , Humanos , Extractos Vegetales/química , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Espectrometría de Masa por Ionización de Electrospray , Espectrometría de Masas en Tándem
9.
Phytochem Anal ; 31(2): 221-228, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31433098

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Eugenia umbelliflora fruits are an important source of phloroglucinols, as eugenial C and eugenial D, related to antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. However, for the establishment of new antimicrobial substances, it is essential to know their stability profile, in view of driving the administration route and the release system development. METHODOLOGY: The in silico approaches, based on the Fukui indices and bond dissociation analysis, were performed. Eugenial C and eugenial D, isolated from the green fruits of E. umbelliflora, with purity > 90%, were submitted to stress degradation including: acid (0.5 mM hydrochloric acid) and alkaline (0.5 mM sodium hydroxide) hydrolysis, and oxidation (0.25% hydrogen peroxide), in different periods, monitoring by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detector (HPLC-UV). Eugenial C was also submitted to UV-visible radiation (2,400 lux/h) and dry/humid heating (40°C, 75% relative humidity). RESULTS: In silico studies indicated that both molecules have regions of high susceptibility to nucleophilic and electrophilic attack as well as sites likely to suffer auto-oxidation. Under in vitro tests, both phloroglucinols proved to be very unstable under hydrolysis (eugenial C and D were degraded 23.8% and 89.0% in acid and 78.4% and 97.8% in alkaline conditions, respectively) and oxidation (eugenial C and D degraded 31.9% and 28.6%, respectively), both during 5 min. Eugenial C degraded 12.6% and 63.8% under dry and humid heat, respectively, without photosensitivity. CONCLUSION: The in vitro stress tests monitored by HPLC-UV were in agreement with in silico degradation prediction. Phloroglucinols could be unstable if administered by oral route and also under environmental conditions demanding a protective release system.


Asunto(s)
Eugenia , Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión , Estabilidad de Medicamentos , Frutas , Hidrólisis , Oxidación-Reducción , Floroglucinol
10.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 87: e0432018, 2020. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1118052

RESUMEN

The spotted-wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii Matsumura, is considered the main insect pest of small fruit in the world. Identifying susceptible hosts is essential to develop management strategies. The aim of this study was to verify the level of D. suzukii infestation in blackberry, blueberry, strawberry, cattley guava and Surinam cherry fruits cultivated in the southern region in Brazil, and to determine the infestation index (II) per fruit. The studies were carried out during two harvests (2015/16 and 2016/17) in three areas with organic cultivation of small fruit. The highest level of D. suzukii natural infestation was observed in blackberry (40 to 65% infestation), and strawberry (approximately 30% infestation) fruits. In contrast, blueberries were less preferred (< 7% infestation). For native fruit of the region (cattley guava and Surinam cherry), it was also verified infestation of the fly, demonstrating they are hosts for multiplication in the off-season periods of the other crops. In relation to II, blackberry and Surinam cherry provided a higher average number of insects per gram of fruit (≈ 1.6 adults of D. suzukii). In contrast, blueberries and cattley guava had the lowest insect ratio per gram of fruit (≈ 0.7 adults per gram). The period between late spring to mid-autumn was considered ideal for the pest occurrence in the field. The knowledge of natural infestation levels is essential for understanding the behavior of the pest in the field, which will assist in the design of management strategies.(AU)


A drosófila-da-asa-manchada, Drosophila suzukii Matsumura, é considerada o principal inseto-praga de pequenos frutos no mundo. A identificação de hospedeiros suscetíveis é essencial para o desenvolvimento de estratégias de manejo. O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar o nível de infestação de D. suzukii em frutos de amoreira-preta, mirtileiro, morangueiro, araçazeiro e pitangueira cultivados na região no sul do Brasil e determinar os índices de infestação (II) por fruto. Os estudos foram realizados durante duas safras (2015/16 e 2016/17) em três áreas com cultivo orgânico de pequenas frutas. O maior nível de infestação natural de D. suzukii foi observado em amora-preta (40 a 65% de infestação) e morango (aproximadamente 30% de infestação). Em contraste, o mirtilo foi menos preferido (< 7% de infestação). Para as frutas nativas da região (araçá e pitanga), também ocorreu infestação da mosca, demonstrando serem hospedeiros potenciais para a multiplicação da praga nos períodos de entressafras. Em relação ao II, amoras e pitangas proporcionaram um maior número médio de insetos por grama de fruto (≈ 1,6 adultos de D. suzukii). Por outro lado, mirtilos e araçás apresentaram a menor relação de insetos emergidos por gramas de frutos (≈ 0,7 adultos por grama). O período entre final da primavera até meados do outono foi considerado ideal para a ocorrência da praga no campo. O conhecimento dos níveis de infestação natural é fundamental para o entendimento do comportamento da praga no campo, o que auxiliará no delineamento de estratégias de manejo.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Drosophila , Frutas/parasitología , Estaciones del Año , Brasil , Plagas Agrícolas , Vaccinium myrtillus , Morus , Fragaria , Especies Introducidas , Eugenia
11.
Estud. pesqui. psicol. (Impr.) ; 18(4): 1195-1214, out.-dez. 2019.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS, Index Psicología - Revistas técnico-científicas | ID: biblio-994984

RESUMEN

O período de 1870 a 1920 é conhecido como aquele no qual diversos teóricos da psicologia estadunidense estabelecem as diretrizes teóricas e políticas da independência da disciplina frente às demais ciências e às reflexões filosóficas. A psicologia comparada proposta por Robert Mearns Yerkes é uma das mais importantes do final do século XIX e das duas primeiras décadas do século seguinte. As obras do autor referentes à evolução do sistema nervoso central e periférico e suas relações com a inteligência, em conjunto com a psicologia militar e a eugenia, possibilitam, ao menos em parte, a concretização da engenharia humana e de suas futuras aplicações em diversos setores da sociedade estadunidense como instrumento de dominação da classe dominante. Como se trata de uma obra vasta e variadas aplicações na vida cotidiana, pensamos que essa primeira aproximação seja aprofundada em futuras investigações acerca dos movimentos da classe trabalhadora durante o processo de modernização da indústria e da grande reforma social pela qual a sociedade estadunidense à época. Movimentos amplamente desprezados pela historiografia da psicologia estadunidense.(AU)


The period from 1870 to 1920 is known as the one in which several theorists of American psychology establish the theoretical and political guidelines of the discipline's independence from other sciences and philosophical domain. The comparative psychology proposed by Robert Mearns Yerkes is one of the most important of the late nineteenth century and the first two decades of the following century. The author's works on the evolution of the central and peripheral nervous system and its relations with intelligence, taken together with military psychology and eugenics, enable, at least in part, the concretization of human engineering and its future applications in various sectors of the American society as an instrument of domination of the ruling class. As it is a vast work and of varied applications in everyday life, we think that this first approximation will be deepened in future investigations about the movements of the working class during the process of modernization of the industry and of the great social reform by which the American society happened to the time. These movements were widely neglected by the historiography of American psychology.(AU)


El período de 1870 a 1920 es conocido como aquel en el cual diversos teóricos de la psicología estadounidense establecen las directrices teóricas y políticas de la independencia de la disciplina frente a las demás ciencias y reflexiones filosóficas. La psicología comparada propuesta por Robert Mearns Yerkes es una de las más importantes del fin del siglo XIX y de las dos primeras décadas del siglo siguiente. Las obras del autor referentes a la evolución del sistema nervioso central y periférico y sus relaciones con la inteligencia, en conjunto con la psicología militar y la eugenesia, posibilitan, al menos en parte, la concreción de la ingeniería humana y de sus futuras aplicaciones en diversos sectores de la sociedad estadounidense como instrumento de dominación de la clase dominante. Como se trata de una obra vasta y de variadas aplicaciones en la vida cotidiana, esperamos que esa primera aproximación sea profundizada en futuras investigaciones acerca de los movimientos de la clase trabajadora durante el proceso de modernización de la industria y de la gran reforma social por la que la sociedad estadounidense pasaba en esa época. Estos movimientos fueron ampliamente despreciados por la historiografía de la psicología estadounidense.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Psicología/historia , Ergonomía , Psicología Comparada , Psicología Militar , Eugenia , Sistema Nervioso
12.
Estud. pesqui. psicol. (Impr.) ; 18(4): 1239-1256, out.-dez. 2019.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS, Index Psicología - Revistas técnico-científicas | ID: biblio-994986

RESUMEN

Diversos integrantes da Liga Brasileira de Higiene Mental/LBHM tiveram lugar significativo no processo de difusão e consolidação da psicologia no Brasil. A LBHM tinha como meta contribuir com a transformação do país em nação moderna a exemplo dos países europeus. Alinhados a tal proposta, tinha como principio o ideário da higiene mental e, a partir de 1928, o ideário da eugenia. Neste trabalho temos como objetivo analisar os títulos Tipos vulgares, publicado em 1927, e Psicologia da personalidade, publicado em 1941, de autoria de Renato Kehl (1889-1974), membro atuante da Liga, destacando-se sobremaneira como defensor e publicista da eugenia. Percorrendo estas obras à luz da historicidade dos fatos, observamos que os saberes psicológicos difundidos e apropriados pelo autor, referem-se a uma psicologia tida como científica, reverberada pela fisiologia experimental da psicologia europeia. Nas obras, é marcante o debate acerca do conhecimento e avaliação da personalidade para construção de uma nação forte. É igualmente marcante a concepção biologizante de homem e o caráter secundário das relações sociais na formação humana. As asserções de Kehl lançam luz às contribuições da psicologia naquela época e nos fazem refletir criticamente sobre concepções que ainda imperam no campo científico e profissional da psicologia.(AU)


Several members of the Brazilian League of Mental Hygiene / LBHM had significant place in the process of diffusion and consolidation of psychology in Brazil. The goal of LBHM was to contribute to the transformation of the country into a modern nation, like the European countries. Aligned with this proposal, it had as its principle the idea of​mental hygiene and, from 1928, the ideology of eugenics. In this work, we aim to analyze the works Vulgar Types, published in 1927, and Psychology of Personality, published in 1941, by Renato Kehl (1889-1974), an active member of the League, standing out as a defender and publicist of eugenics. Going through these works in light of the historicity of the facts, we observe that the psychological knowledge diffused and appropriated by the author, refer to a psychology considered as scientific, reverberated by the experimental physiology of European psychology. In the works, it is remarkable the debate about the knowledge and evaluation of the personality for the construction of a strong nation. It is also striking the biological conception of man and the secondary character of social relations in human formation. Kehl's assertions shed light on the contributions of psychology at that time and make us reflect critically on conceptions still prevalent in the scientific and professional field of psychology.(AU)


Diversos integrantes de la Liga Brasileña de Higiene Mental/LBHM tuvieron un lugar significativo en el proceso de difusión y consolidación de la psicología en Brasil. La LBHM tenía como meta contribuir con la transformación del país en una nación moderna siguiendo el ejemplo de los países europeos. En esa línea, se fijaron como principios las ideas de la higiene mental y, a partir de 1928, el ideario de la eugenesia. Nuestro objetivo es analizar dos libros de Renato Kehl (1889-1974), miembro activo de la Liga, que se destacó sobremanera como defensor de la eugenesia. Los títulos de las obras son: Tipos vulgares, publicado en 1927, y Psicología de la personalidad, de 1941.Analizando estos textos a la luz de la historicidad de los hechos, observamos que los saberes psicológicos difundidos y apropiados por el autor, se refieren a una psicología entendida como científica e influenciada por la fisiología experimental de la psicología europea. En las obras es notable el debate acerca del conocimiento y la evaluación de la personalidad para la construcción de una nación fuerte. Es igualmente notable la concepción biologicista del hombre y el papel secundario de las relaciones sociales en la formación humana. Las aseveraciones de Kehl arrojan luz a las contribuciones de la psicología en aquel momento y nos hacen pensar críticamente sobre las concepciones que todavía imperan en el campo científico y profesional de la psicología.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Psicología/historia , Personalidad , Brasil , Salud Mental , Eugenia
13.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 39(11): 879-888, Nov. 2019. tab, graf, ilus
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1056911

RESUMEN

Brazil has one of the largest commercial cattle herds in the world, which naturally coexist with an enormous number of parasitic species. Southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, is among these species, interfering with animal productivity and causing losses to the beef and dairy cattle sector. The use of chemical acaricides in the control of this mite has resulted in the emergence of resistant populations. In this sense, alternative control measures using plants as sources of botanical acaricides have shown to be effective. Eugenia pyriformis Cambess is a Brazilian plant with antioxidant and antimicrobial activity; however, there are no reports on its acaricidal activity in the literature. The present study aimed to evaluate the acaricidal and larvicidal potential of E. pyriformis leaf essential oil (EO) on southern cattle tick at different stages of the reproductive cycle. E. pyriformis leaves were collected and dried, and had their EO extracted by hydrodistillation (3h) using a modified Clevenger apparatus. Chemical analysis was performed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS), and 32 compounds belonging to the sesquiterpene class were identified: hydrocarbons (17.98%) and oxygenated forms (81.96%), with spathulenol (43.65%) and caryophyllene oxide (12.17%) as the most common. The EO was evaluated by the Adult Immersion Test at the concentrations (500.00 to 3.12mg/mL) in which the following parameters were measured: mortality of females (%), hatchability of eggs (%), and product efficiency (%). Larvae were assessed by the Larval Packet Test at concentrations ranging from 25.00 to 0.00004mg/mL. Lethal concentrations (LC) required for killing 50 and 99.9% of adult females and larvae were determined using Probit analysis. LC50 and LC99.9 of EO were 0.06 and 24.60mg/mL and 1,208.80 and 2,538mg/mL for larvae and adult females, respectively. Action of the EO in the free-living cycle of R. (B.) microplus larvae was another parameter assessed. To this end, the larvae were deposited in pots containing Brachiaria decumbens and, after migration to the leaf apex, a solution containing LC99.9 (24.60mg/mL) of the EO was sprayed. After 24h, 72.25% of the larvae had died, indicating stability of the EO when subjected to uncontrolled temperature and humidity conditions. The mechanism of action through which the EO killed the larvae and adult females was investigated by the Bioautographic Method, which showed inhibition of 3.15mg/mL of the EO on the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzyme. The results found in the present experiment indicate that E. pyriformis essential oil is an alternative in the control of southern cattle tick in the larval (parasitic) and free-living cycle (non-parasitic) stages under field conditions.(AU)


O Brasil dispõe de um dos maiores rebanhos bovinos comerciais do mundo, sendo natural que junto a esse rebanho, coexista uma enorme quantidade de espécies parasitárias; dentre estes o carrapato Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus que interfere na produtividade animal, causando prejuízos à pecuária de corte e leite. A utilização de acaricidas químicos no controle deste ácaro tem causado o surgimento de populações resistentes e neste sentido, controles alternativos utilizando plantas como fontes de acaricidas botânicos têm se mostrado eficazes. Eugenia pyriformis Cambess é uma planta brasileira com atividades antioxidante e antimicrobiana, entretanto não há relatos da atividade acaricida. O objetivo do presente estudo consistiu na avaliação do potencial acaricida e larvicida do óleo essencial das folhas de E. pyriformis sobre o carrapato bovino nos diferentes estágios do ciclo reprodutivo. As folhas foram coletadas, secas e o OE extraído por hidrodestilação (3 horas) em aparelho Clevenger modificado. A análise química foi realizada por cromatografia gasosa acoplada à espectrometria de massas (CG/EM) sendo identificados 32 compostos, pertencentes à classe sesquiterpenos: hidrocarbonetos (17.98%) e oxigenados (81.96%); tendo como majoritários o spathulenol (43,65%) e caryophylene oxide (12,17%). O OE foi avaliado pelo teste de imersão de adultos nas concentrações (500,00 a 3,12mg/mL) onde foram mensurados os parâmetros: mortalidade das fêmeas (%), eclodibilidade dos ovos (%) e eficiência do produto (%). As larvas foram avaliadas pelo teste de imersão larval (Larval Packet Test) nas concentrações que variaram de 25,00 a 0,00004mg/mL. Foram determinadas as concentrações letais (CLs) necessárias para matar 50 e 99,9% das fêmeas adultas e das larvas utilizando a análise de Probitos. As CL50 e CL99,9 do OE foram (0,06 e 24,60mg/mL) para as larvas e (1.208,80 e 2.538mg/mL) para as fêmeas adultas, respectivamente. Outro parâmetro avaliado em nossa pesquisa foi mensurar a ação do OE no ciclo de vida livre das larvas de R.(B.) microplus; onde as larvas foram depositadas em vasos com Brachiaria decumbens e após migração destas para o ápice das folhas, foi aspergido solução contendo a CL99,9 (24,60mg/mL) do OE. Após 24 horas, 72,25% das larvas morreram indicando que houve estabilidade do OE quando submetido a condições de temperatura e umidade não controladas. O mecanismo de ação pelo qual o OE matou as larvas e fêmeas adultas foi investigado pelo método bioautográfico, indicando uma inibição de 3,15mg/mL do óleo essencial sobre a enzima acetilcolinesterase (AChE). Os resultados encontrados no presente experimento indicaram que o óleo essencial de E. pyriformis é uma alternativa no controle do carrapato bovino no estágio larval (parasitário) e no ciclo de vida livre (estágio não parasitário) em condições de campo.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Animales , Bovinos , Rhipicephalus , Larvicidas , Acaricidas , Eugenia , Antiinfecciosos Locales/uso terapéutico
14.
Food Res Int ; 125: 108554, 2019 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31554074

RESUMEN

The effects of guarana seed and pitanga leaf extracts on the physical-chemical and sensory characteristics, and oxidative stability of modified atmosphere-packaged lamb patties with fat replacement during storage (2 °C) were investigated. Four treatments were prepared: control (without antioxidant); with BHT (10 mg/kg); with 250 mg/kg guarana extract (G250); with 250 mg/kg pitanga extract (P250). Analysis included the proximate composition (moisture, protein, fat, and ash) and sensory acceptance (day 0); pH, color (L*, a*, b*), TBARs, carbonyl content, DPPH, and visual sensory assessment (0, 6, 12, and 18 days); fatty acid profile and volatile compounds (0 and 18 days). G250 and P250 did not alter the centesimal composition and the acceptance of the lamb burgers on day 0. The extracts also delayed discoloration of the burgers, endowed the reddest intensity, and retarded lipid and protein oxidation throughout storage time, particularly P250, which presented the lowest TBARs levels (6.92 mg MDA/kg) and carbonyl values (5.59 nmol carbonyl/mg), and the highest antioxidant activity (249.48 µg Trolox/g), at day 18. The MUFA, SFA, and PUFA levels, AI, TI, and h/H ratio were comparable between treatments; only the n-6/n-3 ratio was higher in P250 treatment but within the recommended levels. More volatile compounds were derived from lipid oxidation in the control and BHT treatments than G250 and P250 treatments. As a result, both G250 and P250 groups are effective against color deterioration, and lipid and protein oxidation, without impairing the sensorial characteristics, representing a promising alternative to replace synthetic antioxidants by natural products in lamb burger.


Asunto(s)
Antioxidantes/química , Eugenia , Almacenamiento de Alimentos/métodos , Paullinia , Extractos Vegetales/química , Aceites Vegetales/química , Carne Roja/análisis , Color , Emulsiones , Calidad de los Alimentos , Humanos , Concentración de Iones de Hidrógeno , Hojas de la Planta/química , Salvia/química , Semillas/química
15.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 244: 112133, 2019 Nov 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377260

RESUMEN

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The leaves of Eugenia species are widely used in popular medicine to treat several diseases, such as arthritis, rheumatism and diabetes. Eugenia umbelliflora O. Berg is popularly known in Brazil as "baguaçu", name also conferred to Eugenia jambolana probably due to their apparent similarity. Although the popular use scientifically proved of E. jambolana as anti-diabetes and also as anti-inflammatory, there are only two scientific studies demonstrating anti-ulcer and bactericide activities of E. umbelliflora leaves extract, without reference to its possible anti-inflammatory activity. AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of this study was to show the anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of the methanol extract obtained from E. umbelliflora leaves (EuL) using in vitro and in vivo protocols. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The total phenolic content was evaluated using the folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric method and phloroglucinols content by HPLC. The anti-oxidant activity was evaluated by ORAC, ABTS•+, DPPH, and metal chelation methods. The anti-inflammatory activity was investigated using carrageenan-induced inflammation in the subcutaneous tissue of male Swiss mice orally pre-treated with the EuL (0.3, 1 or 3 mg/kg). The leukocyte influx (optical microscopy) and secretion of chemical mediators (TNF, IL-6, IL-1ß and CXCL1, by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) were quantified in the inflamed exudate. Histological analysis of the pouches was also performed. The anti-hypersensitive activity was investigated using carrageenan-induced mechanical hypersensitivity and mice were then evaluated using the von Frey filaments. The Open Field test was used to evaluate possible interference of adverse effect of EuL on locomotor activity that could lead to misinterpretation of the hypersensitivity evaluation. RESULTS: The EuL demonstrated important and moderate reducing capacity on ABTS•+ and DPPH assays, respectively, but with slight activity in ORAC test. It reflects low protection against cell damage. The EuL also presented 30% of phenolic compounds. The phloroglucinols content of EuL was 25.9 mg/g, 18.4 mg/g and 16.6 mg/g of eugenial C, eugenial D and eugenial E, respectively. The in vivo analysis of the inflammatory exudate of EuL-treated mice demonstrated reduction in the polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) migration to the inflamed tissue, as well as the reduction of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1ß. Histologically, it was observed evident decrease in the oedema, formed essentially by non-haemorrhagic fibrin exudate, as well as PMN infiltrate, when compared with control mice injected with carrageenan. Furthermore, the extract also presented effective reduction of the mechanical hypersensitivity induced by carrageenan without any interference in animal's locomotor and exploratory activity. CONCLUSIONS: Together, the results herein obtained show that EuL presented anti-inflammatory activity by decreasing the influx of PMN to the inflamed tissue, as well as the cytokine IL-1ß level. This anti-inflammatory activity was also accompanied by significant anti-hypersensitive effect. The effects presented by EuL seem not to be correlated with an antioxidant activity. However other extract chemical compounds could be responsible for its important anti-inflammatory effects.


Asunto(s)
Antiinflamatorios/uso terapéutico , Antioxidantes/uso terapéutico , Edema/tratamiento farmacológico , Eugenia , Extractos Vegetales/uso terapéutico , Animales , Antiinflamatorios/química , Antioxidantes/química , Carragenina , Citocinas/inmunología , Edema/inducido químicamente , Edema/inmunología , Hipersensibilidad/tratamiento farmacológico , Hipersensibilidad/inmunología , Locomoción/efectos de los fármacos , Masculino , Ratones , Fitoquímicos/análisis , Fitoquímicos/uso terapéutico , Extractos Vegetales/química , Hojas de la Planta
16.
Pharmacol Rep ; 71(5): 950-957, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31454698

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Considering the therapeutic potential of phenolic compounds, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the mechanisms involved in the relaxation induced by cryptostrobin and catechin, isolated from Eugenia mattosii D. Legrand leaves, in the aorta of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). METHODS: The thoracic aorta was isolated from SHR and kept in the organ bath system by recording contractile or relaxant responses. RESULTS: The addition of cumulative concentrations of cryptostrobin and catechin induced endothelium-dependent and-independent relaxation in aorta rings from SHR, as well as both compounds were effective in reducing phenylephrine-induced contraction. Pretreatment of aortic rings with Nω-nitro-l-arginine methylester (L-NAME, an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase) or 1H-[1,2,4] oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ, an inhibitor of soluble guanylate cyclase), resulted in a significant change of relaxant effect induced by catechin, and a slight influence on cryptostrobin-induced relaxation. Muscarinic receptor and potassium channels are involved in catechin-induced relaxation as assessed using atropine (a muscarinic receptor antagonist), tetraethylammonium (a non-selective K+ channel blocker) and glibenclamide (an ATP-sensitive K+ channel blocker). Conversely, cryptostrobin, but not catechin, blunted the contraction induced by the addition of phenylephrine in a calcium-free solution. Besides that, cryptostrobin attenuated the contraction of rat aorta rings induced by internal Ca2+ release and external Ca2+ influx. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicated that cryptostrobin and catechin alter vascular smooth muscle reactivity, and this effect may be involved, at least in part, by enhancing the endothelium NO/cGMP pathway and potassium channels activation. In addition, cryptostrobin reduced the phenylephrine, KCl and CaCl2-induced contractions in a calcium-free solution.


Asunto(s)
Aorta Torácica/efectos de los fármacos , Catequina/farmacología , Endotelio Vascular/efectos de los fármacos , Eugenia/química , Hipertensión/fisiopatología , Polifenoles/farmacología , Vasodilatación/efectos de los fármacos , Vasodilatadores/farmacología , Animales , Aorta Torácica/fisiopatología , Catequina/aislamiento & purificación , Endotelio Vascular/fisiopatología , Técnicas In Vitro , Masculino , Hojas de la Planta/química , Polifenoles/aislamiento & purificación , Ratas Endogámicas SHR , Vasodilatadores/aislamiento & purificación
17.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 11122, 2019 07 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31366955

RESUMEN

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in the pathophysiology of several health disorders, among others inflammation. Polyphenols may modulate ROS related disorders. In this work, thirty-two phenolic compounds were tentatively identified in a leaf extract from Eugenia supra-axillaris Spring. ex Mart. using HPLC-MS/MS, five of which were also individually isolated and identified. The extract displayed a substantial in vitro antioxidant potential and was capable of decreasing ROS production and hsp-16.2 expression under oxidative stress conditions in vivo in the Caenorhabditis elegans model. Also, the extract showed higher inhibitory selectivity towards COX-2 than COX-1 in vitro with higher selectivity towards COX-2 than that of diclofenac. The extract also exhibited anti-inflammatory properties: It attenuated the edema thickness in a dose dependent fashion in carrageenan-induced hind-paw odema in rats. In addition, the extract reduced the carrageenan-induced leukocyte migration into the peritoneal cavity at the highest dose. Furthermore, the extract showed antipyretic and analgesic activities in a mouse model. Eugenia supra-axillaris appears to be a promising candidate in treating inflammation, pain and related oxidative stress diseases.


Asunto(s)
Analgésicos/farmacología , Antiinflamatorios/farmacología , Antioxidantes/fisiología , Antipiréticos/farmacología , Eugenia/química , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Hojas de la Planta/química , Animales , Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión/métodos , Edema/tratamiento farmacológico , Edema/metabolismo , Inflamación/tratamiento farmacológico , Masculino , Ratones , Estrés Oxidativo/efectos de los fármacos , Dolor/tratamiento farmacológico , Dolor/metabolismo , Fenoles/química , Ratas , Ratas Wistar , Especies Reactivas de Oxígeno/metabolismo , Espectrometría de Masas en Tándem/métodos
18.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(15): 6778-6787, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31368527

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The international marketing of native Brazilian fruits may benefit from research into discrimination between plants with particular properties. Plants with certain characteristics have strong potential for use in agroindustry and for the development of new processed products. In the current study, 12 uvaia plants (Eugenia pyriformis Cambess), native to Brazil, were geographically discriminated by chemometric methods, using nutritional composition, physicochemical characterization, bioactive compounds, and antioxidant capacity data. RESULTS: Uvaia fruits presented good nutritional value, with a high moisture and carbohydrate content. All fruits presented a pH value lower than 4, being classified as highly acidic, and the total soluble solids (°Brix) ranged between 2.90 and 9.80. Some plants had a higher vitamin C content, and all the plants had a high bioactive compound content (phenolic and flavonoids) and antioxidant capacity in 1,1-difenil-2-picrilhidrazil (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. Hydroethanolic solution was the best extraction solvent tested when compared with water and ethanol. Using principal component analysis, it was possible to discriminate among the plants in five different groups; however, just one group was responsible for higher antioxidant compound content. CONCLUSION: In this work, 12 native uvaia plants were discriminated by their geographical origin using a chemometric approach. Genetic improvement based on natural selection could be accomplished with some of the plants to improve the quality of uvaia pulp and to develop new cultivars. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Asunto(s)
Eugenia/química , Extractos Vegetales/análisis , Antioxidantes/análisis , Ácido Ascórbico/análisis , Brasil , Análisis Discriminante , Eugenia/clasificación , Flavonoides/análisis , Frutas/química , Frutas/clasificación , Geografía , Valor Nutritivo , Fenoles/análisis , Análisis de Componente Principal
19.
Food Res Int ; 123: 674-683, 2019 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31285017

RESUMEN

Species of Eugenia have been used as an antidiabetic natural source. Chemical, antioxidant and antiglycant screening of extracts from pedra-ume caá (Eugenia punicifolia) fruits were performed. 1H NMR assisted by non-supervised chemometric methods were employed for the evaluation of the chemical profiles which were distinguished according to the color of fruit maturation stages, as well as for pulp and seed fruit. Furthermore, 1H NMR fingerprint analysis of the crude extract allowed the identification of quercitrin and myricitrin, beside other nine compounds. The extracts of the yellow (YP) and green (GP) pulps presented higher antiglycant and antioxidant activities. Fresh juice from E. punicifolia was encapsulated in microcapsules produced with dextrose equivalent (DE) of 10, 20 or 30 as wall materials for the maintainment of their antioxidant and antiglycant properties. The more efficient retention of the bioactive compounds was found using the DE30. The Encapsulation Efficiency (EE) and the Retention Efficiency (RE) of this system was found around 89.7% and 97.6%, respectively. In addition, NMR spectra revealed the presence of flavonoids O-glycosylated (quercitrin and myricitrin) which might be related to the antiglycant and antioxidant activities. The YP presented larger content of quercitrin (117.6 ±â€¯0.4 mg per each 100 g of fresh fruit). Therefore, pedra-ume caá should be employed as an alternative nutraceutical source, as well as intherapeutic pourposes.


Asunto(s)
Antioxidantes/análisis , Eugenia/química , Frutas/química , Fenoles/análisis , Extractos Vegetales/química , Antioxidantes/farmacología , Brasil , Línea Celular , Supervivencia Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Flavonoides/aislamiento & purificación , Depuradores de Radicales Libres , Humanos , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Quercetina/análogos & derivados , Quercetina/aislamiento & purificación
20.
J Food Biochem ; 43(7): e12881, 2019 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31353744

RESUMEN

The uvaia (Eugenia pyriformis Cambess) is a native Atlantic Rainforest Myrtaceae that produces acidic yellow-orange fruit with a peculiar aroma. Its postharvest conservation poses a challenge, due to high perishability. This study investigated the postharvest quality of uvaia fruit during three ripening stages stored at 22ºC. The quality attributes were evaluated: skin color, soluble solids, titratable acidity, flavonoids, carotenoids, phenolic compounds, antioxidant capacity, and volatile compounds at the beginning and end of the fruit's shelf life. Respiration (CO2 ) and C2 H4 production were determined daily. No relationship between ripening stage and respiration was observed, but C2 H4 production increased with ripening stage. Green fruit reached the same skin color, titratable acidity, flavonoids, carotenoids phenolic compounds, and antioxidant activity of mature fruit, also displaying increased shelf life. Green fruit also presented lower soluble solids. The volatile compounds that give green fruit characteristic aroma were persistent. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Aroma and soluble solids content are important factors in determining the fruit quality. This work identified how these factors are affected by early uvaia fruit harvesting. Such information assists in determining the uvaia ideal harvesting point, providing better sensory quality, and increasing the fruit acceptance. Early harvesting at different ripening stages, in addition to prolonging the shelf life of the harvested fruit, is also a tool for understanding physiological processes. This study disseminates unpublished knowledge about uvaia, arousing interest in this native fruit and facilitating its commercialization.


Asunto(s)
Eugenia/química , Frutas/crecimiento & desarrollo , Extractos Vegetales/química , Antioxidantes/química , Carotenoides/química , Eugenia/crecimiento & desarrollo , Flavonoides/química , Frutas/química , Humanos , Odorantes/análisis , Fenoles/química , Bosque Lluvioso , Olfato , Compuestos Orgánicos Volátiles/química
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