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1.
Phytochem Anal ; 31(2): 221-228, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31433098

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Eugenia umbelliflora fruits are an important source of phloroglucinols, as eugenial C and eugenial D, related to antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. However, for the establishment of new antimicrobial substances, it is essential to know their stability profile, in view of driving the administration route and the release system development. METHODOLOGY: The in silico approaches, based on the Fukui indices and bond dissociation analysis, were performed. Eugenial C and eugenial D, isolated from the green fruits of E. umbelliflora, with purity > 90%, were submitted to stress degradation including: acid (0.5 mM hydrochloric acid) and alkaline (0.5 mM sodium hydroxide) hydrolysis, and oxidation (0.25% hydrogen peroxide), in different periods, monitoring by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detector (HPLC-UV). Eugenial C was also submitted to UV-visible radiation (2,400 lux/h) and dry/humid heating (40°C, 75% relative humidity). RESULTS: In silico studies indicated that both molecules have regions of high susceptibility to nucleophilic and electrophilic attack as well as sites likely to suffer auto-oxidation. Under in vitro tests, both phloroglucinols proved to be very unstable under hydrolysis (eugenial C and D were degraded 23.8% and 89.0% in acid and 78.4% and 97.8% in alkaline conditions, respectively) and oxidation (eugenial C and D degraded 31.9% and 28.6%, respectively), both during 5 min. Eugenial C degraded 12.6% and 63.8% under dry and humid heat, respectively, without photosensitivity. CONCLUSION: The in vitro stress tests monitored by HPLC-UV were in agreement with in silico degradation prediction. Phloroglucinols could be unstable if administered by oral route and also under environmental conditions demanding a protective release system.


Asunto(s)
Eugenia , Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión , Estabilidad de Medicamentos , Frutas , Hidrólisis , Oxidación-Reducción , Floroglucinol
2.
Estud. pesqui. psicol. (Impr.) ; 18(4): 1195-1214, out.-dez. 2019.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS, Index Psicología - Revistas técnico-científicas | ID: biblio-994984

RESUMEN

O período de 1870 a 1920 é conhecido como aquele no qual diversos teóricos da psicologia estadunidense estabelecem as diretrizes teóricas e políticas da independência da disciplina frente às demais ciências e às reflexões filosóficas. A psicologia comparada proposta por Robert Mearns Yerkes é uma das mais importantes do final do século XIX e das duas primeiras décadas do século seguinte. As obras do autor referentes à evolução do sistema nervoso central e periférico e suas relações com a inteligência, em conjunto com a psicologia militar e a eugenia, possibilitam, ao menos em parte, a concretização da engenharia humana e de suas futuras aplicações em diversos setores da sociedade estadunidense como instrumento de dominação da classe dominante. Como se trata de uma obra vasta e variadas aplicações na vida cotidiana, pensamos que essa primeira aproximação seja aprofundada em futuras investigações acerca dos movimentos da classe trabalhadora durante o processo de modernização da indústria e da grande reforma social pela qual a sociedade estadunidense à época. Movimentos amplamente desprezados pela historiografia da psicologia estadunidense.(AU)


The period from 1870 to 1920 is known as the one in which several theorists of American psychology establish the theoretical and political guidelines of the discipline's independence from other sciences and philosophical domain. The comparative psychology proposed by Robert Mearns Yerkes is one of the most important of the late nineteenth century and the first two decades of the following century. The author's works on the evolution of the central and peripheral nervous system and its relations with intelligence, taken together with military psychology and eugenics, enable, at least in part, the concretization of human engineering and its future applications in various sectors of the American society as an instrument of domination of the ruling class. As it is a vast work and of varied applications in everyday life, we think that this first approximation will be deepened in future investigations about the movements of the working class during the process of modernization of the industry and of the great social reform by which the American society happened to the time. These movements were widely neglected by the historiography of American psychology.(AU)


El período de 1870 a 1920 es conocido como aquel en el cual diversos teóricos de la psicología estadounidense establecen las directrices teóricas y políticas de la independencia de la disciplina frente a las demás ciencias y reflexiones filosóficas. La psicología comparada propuesta por Robert Mearns Yerkes es una de las más importantes del fin del siglo XIX y de las dos primeras décadas del siglo siguiente. Las obras del autor referentes a la evolución del sistema nervioso central y periférico y sus relaciones con la inteligencia, en conjunto con la psicología militar y la eugenesia, posibilitan, al menos en parte, la concreción de la ingeniería humana y de sus futuras aplicaciones en diversos sectores de la sociedad estadounidense como instrumento de dominación de la clase dominante. Como se trata de una obra vasta y de variadas aplicaciones en la vida cotidiana, esperamos que esa primera aproximación sea profundizada en futuras investigaciones acerca de los movimientos de la clase trabajadora durante el proceso de modernización de la industria y de la gran reforma social por la que la sociedad estadounidense pasaba en esa época. Estos movimientos fueron ampliamente despreciados por la historiografía de la psicología estadounidense.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Psicología/historia , Ergonomía , Psicología Comparada , Psicología Militar , Eugenia , Sistema Nervioso
3.
Estud. pesqui. psicol. (Impr.) ; 18(4): 1239-1256, out.-dez. 2019.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS, Index Psicología - Revistas técnico-científicas | ID: biblio-994986

RESUMEN

Diversos integrantes da Liga Brasileira de Higiene Mental/LBHM tiveram lugar significativo no processo de difusão e consolidação da psicologia no Brasil. A LBHM tinha como meta contribuir com a transformação do país em nação moderna a exemplo dos países europeus. Alinhados a tal proposta, tinha como principio o ideário da higiene mental e, a partir de 1928, o ideário da eugenia. Neste trabalho temos como objetivo analisar os títulos Tipos vulgares, publicado em 1927, e Psicologia da personalidade, publicado em 1941, de autoria de Renato Kehl (1889-1974), membro atuante da Liga, destacando-se sobremaneira como defensor e publicista da eugenia. Percorrendo estas obras à luz da historicidade dos fatos, observamos que os saberes psicológicos difundidos e apropriados pelo autor, referem-se a uma psicologia tida como científica, reverberada pela fisiologia experimental da psicologia europeia. Nas obras, é marcante o debate acerca do conhecimento e avaliação da personalidade para construção de uma nação forte. É igualmente marcante a concepção biologizante de homem e o caráter secundário das relações sociais na formação humana. As asserções de Kehl lançam luz às contribuições da psicologia naquela época e nos fazem refletir criticamente sobre concepções que ainda imperam no campo científico e profissional da psicologia.(AU)


Several members of the Brazilian League of Mental Hygiene / LBHM had significant place in the process of diffusion and consolidation of psychology in Brazil. The goal of LBHM was to contribute to the transformation of the country into a modern nation, like the European countries. Aligned with this proposal, it had as its principle the idea of​mental hygiene and, from 1928, the ideology of eugenics. In this work, we aim to analyze the works Vulgar Types, published in 1927, and Psychology of Personality, published in 1941, by Renato Kehl (1889-1974), an active member of the League, standing out as a defender and publicist of eugenics. Going through these works in light of the historicity of the facts, we observe that the psychological knowledge diffused and appropriated by the author, refer to a psychology considered as scientific, reverberated by the experimental physiology of European psychology. In the works, it is remarkable the debate about the knowledge and evaluation of the personality for the construction of a strong nation. It is also striking the biological conception of man and the secondary character of social relations in human formation. Kehl's assertions shed light on the contributions of psychology at that time and make us reflect critically on conceptions still prevalent in the scientific and professional field of psychology.(AU)


Diversos integrantes de la Liga Brasileña de Higiene Mental/LBHM tuvieron un lugar significativo en el proceso de difusión y consolidación de la psicología en Brasil. La LBHM tenía como meta contribuir con la transformación del país en una nación moderna siguiendo el ejemplo de los países europeos. En esa línea, se fijaron como principios las ideas de la higiene mental y, a partir de 1928, el ideario de la eugenesia. Nuestro objetivo es analizar dos libros de Renato Kehl (1889-1974), miembro activo de la Liga, que se destacó sobremanera como defensor de la eugenesia. Los títulos de las obras son: Tipos vulgares, publicado en 1927, y Psicología de la personalidad, de 1941.Analizando estos textos a la luz de la historicidad de los hechos, observamos que los saberes psicológicos difundidos y apropiados por el autor, se refieren a una psicología entendida como científica e influenciada por la fisiología experimental de la psicología europea. En las obras es notable el debate acerca del conocimiento y la evaluación de la personalidad para la construcción de una nación fuerte. Es igualmente notable la concepción biologicista del hombre y el papel secundario de las relaciones sociales en la formación humana. Las aseveraciones de Kehl arrojan luz a las contribuciones de la psicología en aquel momento y nos hacen pensar críticamente sobre las concepciones que todavía imperan en el campo científico y profesional de la psicología.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Psicología/historia , Personalidad , Brasil , Salud Mental , Eugenia
4.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(15): 6778-6787, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31368527

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The international marketing of native Brazilian fruits may benefit from research into discrimination between plants with particular properties. Plants with certain characteristics have strong potential for use in agroindustry and for the development of new processed products. In the current study, 12 uvaia plants (Eugenia pyriformis Cambess), native to Brazil, were geographically discriminated by chemometric methods, using nutritional composition, physicochemical characterization, bioactive compounds, and antioxidant capacity data. RESULTS: Uvaia fruits presented good nutritional value, with a high moisture and carbohydrate content. All fruits presented a pH value lower than 4, being classified as highly acidic, and the total soluble solids (°Brix) ranged between 2.90 and 9.80. Some plants had a higher vitamin C content, and all the plants had a high bioactive compound content (phenolic and flavonoids) and antioxidant capacity in 1,1-difenil-2-picrilhidrazil (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. Hydroethanolic solution was the best extraction solvent tested when compared with water and ethanol. Using principal component analysis, it was possible to discriminate among the plants in five different groups; however, just one group was responsible for higher antioxidant compound content. CONCLUSION: In this work, 12 native uvaia plants were discriminated by their geographical origin using a chemometric approach. Genetic improvement based on natural selection could be accomplished with some of the plants to improve the quality of uvaia pulp and to develop new cultivars. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Asunto(s)
Eugenia/química , Extractos Vegetales/análisis , Antioxidantes/análisis , Ácido Ascórbico/análisis , Brasil , Análisis Discriminante , Eugenia/clasificación , Flavonoides/análisis , Frutas/química , Frutas/clasificación , Geografía , Valor Nutritivo , Fenoles/análisis , Análisis de Componente Principal
5.
Plant Foods Hum Nutr ; 74(3): 358-363, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209703

RESUMEN

The aim of the present study was to identify volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by SPME-GC and quantify the bioactive compounds (ascorbic acid, total flavonoids and total phenolic content), antioxidant capacity (DPPH and ORAC) and physicochemical characteristics of ocorocillo, cambucá, murici da praia and murici do campo, four native South American fruits. A total of 41 volatile compounds were identified in ocorocillo, of which 17 were terpenes. Cambuca's volatile profile contained aldehydes, aromatic hydrocarbons and alcohols. Murici da praia and murici do campo contained high levels of fatty acid volatiles and esters, that contribute to their remarkable aroma. Ocorocillo contained high levels of ascorbic acid and total flavonoids, while cambucá presented lower ascorbic acid, flavonoid and phenolic levels. Murici da praia and murici do campo contained high amounts of phenolic compounds and high free-radical scavenging capacity (DPPH and ORAC). In addition, this fruit was sweeter and less acid compared to the other assessed fruits. The results suggest that these native fruits constitute a good source of volatile compounds and bioactive compounds, which may aid in their preservation interest and potential use in the food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries.


Asunto(s)
Antioxidantes/análisis , Eugenia/química , Frutas/química , Malpighiaceae/química , Myrtaceae/química , Compuestos Orgánicos Volátiles/análisis , Alcoholes/química , Fenómenos Químicos , Cromatografía de Gases , Flavonoides/análisis , Depuradores de Radicales Libres/análisis , Fenoles/análisis , Fitoquímicos/análisis , Microextracción en Fase Sólida , Terpenos/análisis
6.
Food Chem ; 295: 630-636, 2019 Oct 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31174805

RESUMEN

This work aimed to evaluate the in vitro effect of encapsulated oregano and clove essential oils on oil-in-water nanoemulsions against Zygosaccharomyces bailii. The antifungal efficacy of these nanoemulsions and their sensory acceptance were tested in salad dressings. Both essential oils were effective inhibitors against the target yeast, with minimal inhibitory and fungicidal concentrations of 1.75 mg/mL. In the in vitro assay done with the nanoemulsions, no yeast growth was observed for any tested essential oil concentration. In the salad dressings, all the formulations were able to reduce Z. bailii growth compared to the control, and only those samples with 1.95 mg/g of essential oil were capable of inhibiting yeast development after 4 inoculation days. The sensory acceptance of the dressing containing the nanoemulsions was similar to the control dressing in appearance, consistency and colour terms. These results evidence the antifungal activity of oregano and clove nanoemulsions against Z. bailii.


Asunto(s)
Emulsiones/química , Eugenia/metabolismo , Nanoestructuras/química , Aceites Volátiles/farmacología , Origanum/metabolismo , Zygosaccharomyces/efectos de los fármacos , Aditivos Alimentarios/química , Aditivos Alimentarios/farmacología , Microbiología de Alimentos , Cromatografía de Gases y Espectrometría de Masas , Aceites Volátiles/química , Agua/química
7.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 162, 2019 May 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31118023

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Diarrhoea, a global economically important disease burden affecting swine and, especially piglets, is commonly caused by infection with entero-toxigenic E. coli (ETEC). Adherence of ETEC to porcine intestinal epithelial cells following infection, is necessary for its pathogenesis. While antimicrobials are commonly given as therapy or as feed additives for prophylaxis against microbial infections, the concern over increased levels of antimicrobial resistance necessitate the search for safe and effective alternatives in livestock feed. Attention is shifting to natural products including plants as suitable alternatives to antimicrobials. The activity of acetone crude leaf extracts of nine under-explored South African endemic plants from the Myrtaceae family with good antimicrobial activity were tested against pathogenic E. coli of porcine origin using a microplate serial dilution method. Bioautography, also with p-iodonitrotetrazolium violet as growth indicator was used to view the number of bioactive compounds in each extract. In vitro toxicity of extracts was determined against Caco-2 cells using the 3-(4,5-dimethythiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide reduction assay. The antimicrobial susceptibility of E. coli isolates was tested on a panel of antimicrobials using the Kirby-Bauer agar diffusion method while the anti-adherence mechanism was evaluated using a Caco-2 cell enterocyte anti-adhesion model. RESULTS: The MIC of the extracts ranged from 0.07-0.14 mg/mL with S. legatii having the best mean MIC (0.05 mg/mL). Bioautography revealed at least two active bands in each plant extract. The 50% lethal concentration (LC50) values ranged between 0.03-0.66 mg/mL. Eugenia zeyheri least cytotoxic (LC50 = 0.66 mg/ml) while E. natalitia had the highest cytotoxicity (LC50 = 0.03 mg/mL). All the bacteria were completely resistant to doxycycline and colistin sulphate and many of the plant extracts significantly reduced adhesion of E. coli to Caco-2 cells. CONCLUSIONS: The extracts of the plants had good antibacterial activity as well as a protective role on intestinal epithelial cells against enterotoxigenic E. coli bacterial adhesion. This supports the potential use of these species in limiting infection causes by E. coli. Some of these plants or extracts may be useful as phytogenic feed additives but it has to be investigated by animal feed trials.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/farmacología , Resistencia a Múltiples Medicamentos/efectos de los fármacos , Escherichia coli Enterotoxigénica/efectos de los fármacos , Eugenia/química , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Syzygium/química , Acetona/química , Células CACO-2 , Supervivencia Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana/efectos de los fármacos , Humanos , Dosificación Letal Mediana , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Extractos Vegetales/toxicidad , Hojas de la Planta/química
8.
Braz Oral Res ; 33: e035, 2019 Apr 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31038569

RESUMEN

Eugenia dysenterica is a Brazilian tree investigated for its properties and bioactive compounds, which are believed to have both pharmacological and phytochemical therapeutic effects. The leaves of this tree contain tannins, flavonoids, terpenes, and saponins, with reportedly beneficial effects to the human body. Despite these therapeutic applications, its effects have never been tested on oral tissues. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the cytotoxic and antioxidant effects and the anti-inflammatory and repair properties of the acetone fraction of E. dysenterica on primary culture of human gingival fibroblasts and on the immortalized murine macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7). For this purpose, a metabolic activity assay, a wound healing assay, a nitric oxide assay, and RT-qPCR were performed. The assays revealed a cytoprotective effect of this plant, suggested by the increase in the expression of SOD1 and NRF2. An antioxidant potential effect was observed in the DPPH• assay. However, the fraction of E. dysenterica did not show anti-inflammatory activity. In conclusion, Eugenia dysenterica may promote cytoprotection when associated with chlorhexidine digluconate because of its antioxidant effect. However, additional studies are necessary on other human dental tissues using other parts of the plant in order to develop a possible mouthwash to assist patients with oral disorders.


Asunto(s)
Antiinflamatorios/farmacología , Antioxidantes/farmacología , Eugenia/química , Fibroblastos/efectos de los fármacos , Encía/citología , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Animales , Brasil , Células Cultivadas , Clorhexidina/análogos & derivados , Clorhexidina/farmacología , Humanos , Ratones , Óxido Nítrico/análisis , Hojas de la Planta/química , Células RAW 264.7 , Valores de Referencia , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa de Transcriptasa Inversa , Factores de Tiempo , Cicatrización de Heridas/efectos de los fármacos
9.
Molecules ; 24(9)2019 May 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31058826

RESUMEN

Eugenia winzerlingii (Myrtaceae) is an endemic plant from the Yucatan peninsula. Its organic extracts and fractions from leaves have been tested on two phloem-feeding insects, Bemisia tabaci and Myzus persicae, on two plant parasitic nematodes, Meloidogyne incognita and Meloidogyne javanica, and phytotoxicity on Lolium perenne and Solanum lycopersicum. Results showed that both the hexane extract and the ethyl acetate extract, as well as the fractions, have strong antifeedant and nematicidal effects. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses of methylated active fractions revealed the presence of a mixture of fatty acids. Authentic standards of detected fatty acids and methyl and ethyl derivatives were tested on target organisms. The most active compounds were decanoic, undecanoic, and dodecanoic acids. Methyl and ethyl ester derivatives had lower effects in comparison with free fatty acids. Dose-response experiments showed that undecanoic acid was the most potent compound with EC50 values of 21 and 6 nmol/cm2 for M. persicae and B. tabaci, respectively, and 192 and 64 nmol for M. incognita and M. javanica, respectively. In a phytotoxicity assay, medium-chain fatty acids caused a decrease of 38-52% in root length and 50-60% in leaf length of L. perenne, but no effects were observed on S. lycopersicum. This study highlights the importance of the genus Eugenia as a source of bioactive metabolites for plant pest management.


Asunto(s)
Antinematodos/farmacología , Eugenia/química , Ácidos Grasos/farmacología , Insecticidas/farmacología , Animales , Antinematodos/química , Chromadorea/efectos de los fármacos , Ácidos Grasos/química , Cromatografía de Gases y Espectrometría de Masas , Hemípteros/efectos de los fármacos , Insecticidas/química , Lolium/efectos de los fármacos , Lycopersicon esculentum/efectos de los fármacos , Estructura Molecular , Control de Plagas , Hojas de la Planta/química , Hojas de la Planta/efectos de los fármacos , Hojas de la Planta/crecimiento & desarrollo , Raíces de Plantas/efectos de los fármacos , Raíces de Plantas/crecimiento & desarrollo
10.
Food Chem ; 294: 547-556, 2019 Oct 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31126498

RESUMEN

This study analyzed six uvaia (Eugenia pyriformis Cambess) accessions ('Comum', 'Rugosa', 'Doce de Patos de Minas', 'Pêra', 'Rugosa Doce' and 'Dura') with respect to chemical composition, nutritional value, bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity. The 'Rugosa Doce' and 'Doce de Patos de Minas' accessions were sweeter (20.18 g 100 g-1 and 18.88 g 100 g-1, respectively), while the 'Rugosa' and 'Pêra' accessions were less acid (0.28 g 100 g-1 and 0.33 g 100 g-1, respectively). Terpenes were the major volatile compounds (46.75%) identified by SPME-GC/MS. The 'Rugosa' accession contained high levels of fibers (43.81 g 100 g-1) and minerals (2235.10  mg 100 g-1). The 'Rugosa Doce' and 'Rugosa' accessions were distinguished by total flavonoids and phenolic compounds. 'Rugosa Doce' and 'Rugosa' may potentially serve as a raw material for food, while 'Doce de Patos de Minas' and 'Pêra' can be used for cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries purposes.


Asunto(s)
Antioxidantes/química , Eugenia/química , Valor Nutritivo , Eugenia/metabolismo , Flavonoides/análisis , Flavonoides/aislamiento & purificación , Cromatografía de Gases y Espectrometría de Masas , Monosacáridos/química , Monosacáridos/aislamiento & purificación , Fenoles/análisis , Fenoles/aislamiento & purificación , Microextracción en Fase Sólida , Terpenos/química , Terpenos/aislamiento & purificación
11.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 240: 111939, 2019 Aug 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31095981

RESUMEN

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The red Brazilian cherry, Eugenia uniflora, is widely used in traditional medicine. The aim of this study was to investigate the phytochemical composition of a methanol extract from leaves of E. uniflora and characterization of the isolated compounds. In addition, we aimed to determine the antioxidant activities in vitro and in a cell-based (HaCaT cell) model. We also studied the anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic and antidiabetic activities in relevant rat models. The molecular mode of action of the antidiabetic activities was also investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: UV, MS, and NMR (1H, 13C, DEPT, COSY, HMQC, and HMBC) were used to identify the secondary metabolites. Antioxidant effects were determined in vitro and in HaCaT cells. The ani-inflammatory and antidibetic activities were studied in experimental animals. RESULTS: In this work, a new compound, gallic acid 3-O-[6'-O-acetyl-ß-D-glucoside], along with 16 known plant secondary metabolites (PSM) were isolated, characterized using UV, MS, and NMR (1H, 13C, DEPT, COSY, HMQC, and HMBC). Noticeable antioxidant effects were determined in HaCaT cells: The extract reduced the elevated levels of ROS and p38 phosphorylation and increased the reduced glutathione (GSH) content induced by UVA. The extract showed substantial anti-inflammatory activities in vivo: It diminished the edema thickness in carrageenan-induced hind-paw edema rat model and lowered the leukocyte migration into the peritoneal cavity. In rats, central and peripheral anti-nociceptive properties were also observed: The extract reduced the number of writhing in acid induced writhing and increased the latency time in hot plate test. Furthermore, adequate antipyretic effects were observed: The extract reduced the elevated rectal temperature in rats after intraperitoneal injection of Brewer's yeast. Moreover, the extract possessed robust anti-diabetic activity in streptozotocin (STZ) -diabetic rats: It markedly reduced the elevated serum glucose and lipid peroxidation levels and increased the insulin concentration in serum with higher potency than the positive control, glibenclamide. These effects might be associated with the interaction of PSM with the conserved amino acid residues of human pancreatic α-amylase (HPA), maltase glucoamylase (MGAM-C) and aldose reductase (ALR2) revealing considerable binding affinities. CONCLUSION: A plethora of substantial pharmacological properties indicates that Eugenia uniflora is a good antioxidant and a sustainable by-product with solid therapeutic potential for treating diabetes, inflammation, pain and related oxidative stress diseases.


Asunto(s)
Eugenia/metabolismo , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Extractos Vegetales/uso terapéutico , Ácido Acético , Analgésicos/farmacología , Analgésicos/uso terapéutico , Animales , Antiinflamatorios/farmacología , Antiinflamatorios/uso terapéutico , Antioxidantes/farmacología , Antioxidantes/uso terapéutico , Antipiréticos/farmacología , Antipiréticos/uso terapéutico , Carragenina , Ciclooxigenasa 1/metabolismo , Ciclooxigenasa 2/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamiento farmacológico , Edema/inducido químicamente , Edema/tratamiento farmacológico , Fiebre/tratamiento farmacológico , Hipoglucemiantes/farmacología , Hipoglucemiantes/uso terapéutico , Masculino , Ratones , Dolor/inducido químicamente , Dolor/tratamiento farmacológico , Fitoquímicos/aislamiento & purificación , Fitoquímicos/farmacología , Fitoquímicos/uso terapéutico , Extractos Vegetales/química , Hojas de la Planta , Ratas Wistar , Metabolismo Secundario
12.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(1): e20180420, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30994767

RESUMEN

Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae) is a tree species widely distributed in South America suffering the effects of the exploitation of natural populations. In this study, we employed low coverage sequencing of the E. uniflora genome for mining of SSR markers. The de novo assembly generated 2,601 contigs with an average length of 1139 bp and spans 3.15 Mb. A total of 76 dimer, 33 trimer and two compound SSR loci were identified. Twelve selected SSR loci were employed to genotype 30 individuals from two natural populations. A total of 73 alleles were detected (mean A= 6.1) were observed, the mean effective number of alleles was Ae = 3.91, mean Ho was 0.23 and mean HE was 0.70). The mean Wright's within population fixation index was FIS = 0.66 and significant deviation of HWE was observed in all loci, except one. The FST between populations equaled 0.27. The levels of genetic diversity and structure estimated with these 12 SSR markers are in accordance with data from genetics studies performed on other tree species of the Pampa biome, presenting moderate to high polymorphism and may be employed in studies of species conservation measures and breeding programs.


Asunto(s)
Eugenia/genética , Repeticiones de Microsatélite , Secuenciación Completa del Genoma/métodos , Análisis de Varianza , Secuencia de Bases , Sitios Genéticos , Marcadores Genéticos , Variación Genética , Valores de Referencia
13.
Food Chem ; 286: 51-63, 2019 Jul 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30827640

RESUMEN

This study presents unpublished data on the chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid content in fruits. Sixty-four fruits consumed in Brazil, most of which were produced domestically, were evaluated based on their levels of 3-caffeoylquinic acid, 4-caffeoylquinic acid, 5-caffeoylquinic acid, 3,4-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid and caffeic acid. The study investigated 15 fruits that have not been reported in the literature in relation to these compounds, including several native species. The highest concentration of mono-caffeoylquinic acid was observed in strawberry, cherry, bilberry, quince and mulberry, while the dicaffeoylquinic acid was present with highest concentration in kumquat, passion fruit and sweet granadilla. Regarding caffeic acid, the highest content was found in bilberry and yellow pitaya. Considering the sum of the concentrations of these compounds, quince, cherry, bilberry, mulberry and sweet granadilla were exceptional, with concentrations between 200.0 and 569.7 mg kg-1.


Asunto(s)
Ácidos Cafeicos/química , Ácido Clorogénico/química , Frutas/química , Brasil , Ácidos Cafeicos/análisis , Ácido Clorogénico/análisis , Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión , Eugenia/química , Eugenia/metabolismo , Frutas/metabolismo , Análisis de Componente Principal , Rosaceae/química , Rosaceae/metabolismo , Vaccinium myrtillus/química , Vaccinium myrtillus/metabolismo
14.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 235: 268-278, 2019 May 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30763697

RESUMEN

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Eugenia punicifolia (Kunth) DC. (Myrtaceae), an Amazonian medicinal plant known as "pedra-ume-caá," is popularly used as a natural remedy for inflammation, wounds, infections, diabetes, fever, and flu. Its anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, and gastroprotective effects have already been characterized. We evaluated the gastric healing effect of the hydroalcoholic extract of the leaves of E. punicifolia (HEEP) in male and female Wistar rats against nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and ethanol. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The healing effect of HEEP on the gastric mucosa of adult male and female Wistar rats was measured after the chronic application of aggressive factors such as NSAIDs or 80% ethanol. Male, and intact and ovariectomized (OVZ) female rats were treated with HEEP for two days (NSAIDs) or one, two, four, and six days (80% ethanol). The stomachs were analyzed macroscopically for ulcerative lesions (mm2), and the healing process was measured using biochemical analysis with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant parameters. RESULTS: Macroscopic evaluation of the gastric mucosa showed that gastric lesions induced by NSAIDs were significantly healed (66%) and pro-inflammatory interleukin 5 cytokine level was decreased after two-day oral treatment with HEEP compared with those in the negative control group (p < 0.05). However, the gastric lesions induced by NSAIDs did not heal in HEEP-treated female rats (p > 0.05). In addition, four-day treatment with HEEP significantly healed the gastric lesions induced by ethanol in male and female rats (63% and 78%, respectively) compared to those of the negative control group (p < 0.05). However, the OVZ group required six days of HEEP treatment to heal gastric ulcers (67% compared to the control group). HEEP exerts the healing effect against ethanol by significantly reducing neutrophil infiltration into the gastric mucosa by decreasing myeloperoxidase activity in male and OVZ rats after four and six days of treatment, respectively (p < 0.05). Four-day treatment with HEEP also increased the level of a non-enzymatic antioxidant, reduced glutathione in intact females compared to that of the negative control group (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: These findings indicated that HEEP was effective in promoting the healing of gastric ulcers induced by NSAIDs or ethanol. The gastric healing effects of this extract could be affected by female sex hormone interference; in future, comprehensive studies should be performed by considering sex differences.


Asunto(s)
Antiulcerosos/farmacología , Eugenia/química , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Úlcera Gástrica/tratamiento farmacológico , Animales , Antiinflamatorios no Esteroideos/toxicidad , Antiulcerosos/aislamiento & purificación , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Etanol/toxicidad , Femenino , Mucosa Gástrica/efectos de los fármacos , Mucosa Gástrica/patología , Masculino , Hojas de la Planta , Ratas , Ratas Wistar , Factores Sexuales , Úlcera Gástrica/patología , Cicatrización de Heridas/efectos de los fármacos
15.
Nat Prod Res ; 33(6): 879-883, 2019 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29212369

RESUMEN

The chemical study of Eugenia protenta McVaugh extracts performed by classical and high-performance liquid chromatography techniques and spectral methods has led to the identification of known triterpenoids, flavonoids and an acetophenone derivative (dimethylxanthoxylin). The effect of dimethylxanthoxylin on Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis was evaluated against the promastigotes forms after 96 h of treatment. Dimethylxanthoxylin reduced 57 and 59% of the promastigotes growth when treated with 50 and 100 µg/mL solutions, respectively (IC50 117.35 µg/mL or 52.3 µM). Cytotoxicity experiments using MTT assays showed that this substance did not promote cell death after 24 h of treatment. Dimethylxanthoxylin was active on the promastigotes and could be a promising agent for treating leishmaniasis.


Asunto(s)
Acetofenonas/farmacología , Antiprotozoarios/farmacología , Eugenia/química , Leishmania/efectos de los fármacos , Acetofenonas/aislamiento & purificación , Animales , Antiprotozoarios/aislamiento & purificación , Células Cultivadas , Macrófagos Peritoneales/efectos de los fármacos , Masculino , Ratones Endogámicos BALB C , Estructura Molecular , Fitoquímicos/aislamiento & purificación , Fitoquímicos/farmacología , Extractos Vegetales/química , Hojas de la Planta/química
16.
Phytochem Anal ; 30(1): 5-13, 2019 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30091158

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: High-resolution magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (HR-MAS NMR) spectroscopy enables the analysis of the metabolic profile of plant and animal tissues under close to natural conditions, as well as of other heterogeneous natural or synthetic materials. Neither sample pretreatment is required after fragmentation nor powdering of the sample before insertion into the rotor. However, the efficiency of the method depends strongly on the sample preparation, rotor insertion procedure, and analysis conditions. OBJECTIVE: To identify some of the variables that affect the spectral data and to propose solutions that minimise their impact on the quality of the analyses and results. METHODS: Dried plant tissues were powdered, weighed, and homogenised in a 50 µL rotor with an optimised volume of deuterated solvent and sample in order to prevent material from escaping during spacer insertion, avoiding variations in magnetic susceptibility. Factors affecting the quality of HR-MAS NMR analysis such as particle size, sample and solvent amounts, solvent polarity, swelling time, rotor manipulation and pulse sequence setting were evaluated. RESULTS: A strong correlation was observed between the signal area and the particle size of the powdered sample. The spectral profile varied depending on the deuterated solvent used. An incubation period was necessary to achieve adequate swelling of the sample and to ensure good data reproducibility. Proper sealing of the rotor, number of cycles and τ time on cpmgpr1d pulse sequence were found to affect the signal areas. CONCLUSION: The study highlights the need for standardised sample preparation and instrumental setup protocols in order to achieve high reproducibility and obtain reliable data from HR-MAS NMR analyses.


Asunto(s)
Técnicas de Química Analítica/métodos , Eugenia/química , Espectroscopía de Resonancia Magnética/métodos , Malpighiaceae/química , Passiflora/química , Hojas de la Planta/química , Técnicas de Química Analítica/normas , Deuterio/química , Eugenia/metabolismo , Malpighiaceae/metabolismo , Metaboloma , Tamaño de la Partícula , Passiflora/metabolismo , Extractos Vegetales/química , Hojas de la Planta/metabolismo , Estándares de Referencia , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Solventes/química
17.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 232: 30-38, 2019 Mar 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30543916

RESUMEN

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Oils and extracts of Eugenia uniflora have been reported as antimicrobial, antifungal, antinociceptive, antiprotozoal, antioxidant and cytotoxic. AIM OF THE STUDY: The oils of five specimens (E1 to E5) that occur in the Brazilian Amazon were extracted, analyzed for their chemical composition, and submitted to antioxidant and cytotoxic assays. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Oils were hydrodistilled, analyzed by GC and GC-MS, and submitted to PCA and HCA analyses. The antioxidant activity of the oils was evaluated by the DPPH radical scavenging and the ß-carotene/linoleic acid assays. Antiproliferative effects of the oils and curzerene were tested against colon (HCT-116), gastric (AGP-01), and melanoma (SKMEL-19) human cancer cell lines and a normal human fibroblast cell line (MRC-5), using MTT assay. RESULTS: Oxygenated sesquiterpenes and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons such as curzerene, selina-1,3,7(11)-trien-2-one, selina-1,3,7(11)-trien-2-one epoxide, germacrene B, caryophyllene oxide, and (E)-caryophyllene were predominant in the oils. PCA and HCA analyses classified the oils samples into four chemotypes. TEAC values of chemotype II (E3 oil, 228.3 ±â€¯19.2 mg TE/mL) and chemotype III (E4 oil, 217.0 ±â€¯23.3 mg TE/mL) displayed significant antioxidant activities. The oils E2 and E4 showed cytotoxic activity against all cell lines tested HCT-116 (IC50 E2:16.26 µg/mL; IC50 E4:9.28 µg/mL), AGP-01, (IC50 E2:12.60 µg/mL; IC50 E4:8.73 µg/mL), SKMEL-19 (IC50 E2:12.20 µg/mL; IC50 E4:15.42 µg/mL), and MRC-5 (IC50 E2:10.27 µg/mL; IC50 E4:14.95 µg/mL). Curzerene showed the more significant activity against melanoma cells (SKMEL-19, IC50:5.17 µM), induced apoptosis at 5.0 µM and 10.0 µM compared to DMSO, exhibiting a decrease in the cell migration at 5.0 µM and 10.0 µM, after 30 h of treatment. CONCLUSION: The curzerene chemotype oil and E. uniflora oils can be indicated as drug candidates for anticancer activity of the lung, colon, stomach, and melanoma, with a real prospect to their subsequent phytotherapeutic development.


Asunto(s)
Antineoplásicos/farmacología , Antioxidantes/farmacología , Eugenia , Aceites Vegetales/farmacología , Antineoplásicos/química , Antioxidantes/química , Brasil , Línea Celular , Supervivencia Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Eugenia/química , Humanos , Fitoquímicos/análisis , Fitoquímicos/farmacología , Hojas de la Planta/química , Aceites Vegetales/química , Cicatrización de Heridas/efectos de los fármacos
18.
J Liposome Res ; 29(3): 274-282, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30563398

RESUMEN

The ethanolic extract obtained from purple pitanga fruit (Eugenia uniflora - PPE) has been previously described by its potential to reduce lipid accumulation in vitro. In this study, we aimed to study this potential in vivo using Caenorhabditis elegans as animal model. Considering the low pH of the extract, its hydrophilic characteristic, its absorption by the medium where the worms are cultivated and the need of a chronic exposure in the worms solid medium, we have loaded liposomes with PPE and investigated its potential for oral administration. Following 48 h exposure to the PPE-loaded liposomes on worms nematode growth medium, we did not observe any toxic effects of the formulation. Under high cholesterol diet, which increased worms total lipid and also triacylglycerides levels, liposomes containing PPE were able to significantly attenuate these alterations, which could not be observed when worms were treated with free PPE. Furthermore, we could evidence that liposomes were ingested by worms through their labelling to uranin fluorescence dye. Through total phenolic compounds quantification, we estimated an entrapment efficacy of PPE into liposomes of 87.7%. The high levels of phenolic compounds present in PPE, as previously described by our group, indicate that these antioxidants may interfere in worms lipid metabolism, which may occur through many and intricated mechanisms. Although the use of conventional liposomes for human consumption may not be pragmatic, its application for oral delivery of a hydrophilic substance in C. elegans was absolutely critical for our experimental design and has proven to be efficient.


Asunto(s)
Caenorhabditis elegans/efectos de los fármacos , Etanol/química , Eugenia/química , Hipolipemiantes/química , Lecitinas/química , Liposomas/química , Fenoles/química , Extractos Vegetales/química , Animales , Antioxidantes/administración & dosificación , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/toxicidad , Frutas/química , Interacciones Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Hipolipemiantes/administración & dosificación , Hipolipemiantes/toxicidad , Tamaño de la Partícula , Fenoles/administración & dosificación , Fenoles/toxicidad , Extractos Vegetales/administración & dosificación , Extractos Vegetales/toxicidad , Solventes , Triglicéridos/metabolismo
19.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 55: e17742, 2019. graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039072

RESUMEN

The essential oil of the leaves of Eugenia sulcata, in the Myrtaceae family, has a demonstrated antihypertensive effect, but its effects on heart muscle and its toxicity have not yet been elucidated. Little chemical or biological data are available for E. sulcata, whether emphasizing the beneficial effects or the pharmacological security of this species. This study aims to evaluate myocardial contractility and to analyze angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and myosin ATPase activities associated with use of this essential oil. In addition, we evaluated the immunotoxicity of E. sulcata essential oil. Wistar Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were treated daily for 30 days (10 mg/kg of oil) to evaluate the isometric force of the papillary muscle, ACE measured by fluorimetry, and myosin ATPase activities by inorganic phosphate. Lymphocyte cultures were used to evaluate cytotoxicity, DNA damage, and mutagenicity of the essential oil. The results demonstrate that the treatment did not change the cardiac contraction force and did not alter the functioning of the sarcoplasmic reticulum, extrusion of the membrane calcium, or modify the membrane calcium channels or ß-adrenergic receptor activity. Tetanic contractions were potentiated in the SHR animals. Myosin ATPase activity was also increased in the SHR animals. Cardiac ACE activity was reduced in both animal strains, and the serum ACE was reduced only in the SHR animals. The essential oil did not cause cytotoxicity or mutagenicity and presented low DNA damage. Our results demonstrated that the essential oil does not change myocardial contractility and does not present relevant immunotoxicity


Asunto(s)
Animales , Masculino , Ratas , Aceites Vegetales/efectos adversos , Myrtaceae/efectos adversos , Eugenia/efectos adversos , Contracción Miocárdica/fisiología , Inhibidores de la Enzima Convertidora de Angiotensina/inmunología , Contracción Miocárdica
20.
Molecules ; 24(1)2018 Dec 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30577426

RESUMEN

The use of natural oils in topical pharmaceutical preparations has usually presented safe agents for the improvement of human health. Based on research into the immense potential of wound management and healing, we aimed to validate the use of topical natural products by studying the ability of the essential oil of Eugenia dysenterica DC leaves (oEd) to stimulate in vitro skin cell migration. Skin cytotoxicity was evaluated using a fibroblast cell line (L929) by MTT assay. The oil chemical profile was investigated by GC-MS. Moreover, the inhibition of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced nitric oxide (NO) production in the macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7) tested. The Chick Chorioallantoic Membrane (CAM) assay was used to evaluate the angiogenic activity and irritating potential of the oil. The oEd induces skin cell migration in a scratch assay at a concentration of 542.2 µg/mL. α-humulene and ß-caryophyllene, the major compounds of this oil, as determined by GC-MS, may partly explain the migration effect. The inhibition of nitric oxide by oEd and α-humulene suggested an anti-inflammatory effect. The CAM assay showed that treatment with oEd ≤ 292 µg/mL did not cause skin injury, and that it can promote angiogenesis in vivo. Hence, these results indicate the feasibility of the essential oil of Eugenia dysenterica DC leaves to developed dermatological products capable of helping the body to repair damaged tissue.


Asunto(s)
Eugenia/química , Aceites Volátiles/análisis , Aceites Volátiles/farmacología , Hojas de la Planta/química , Cicatrización de Heridas/efectos de los fármacos , Animales , Línea Celular , Movimiento Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Humanos , Lipopolisacáridos/toxicidad , Macrófagos/efectos de los fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Ratones , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Células RAW 264.7 , Sesquiterpenos/análisis , Sesquiterpenos/farmacología
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