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1.
Radiol Clin North Am ; 61(1): 111-118, 2023 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36336384

RESUMEN

Establishing an emergency radiology division in a practice that has long-standing patterns of operational routines comes with both challenges and opportunities. In this article, considerations around scheduling and staffing, compensation, and equity and parity are provided with supporting literature references. Furthermore, a panel of experts having established, grown and managed emergency radiology divisions in North America and Europe share their experiences through a question and answer format.


Asunto(s)
Admisión y Programación de Personal , Radiología , Humanos , Embarazo , Femenino , Paridad , Europa (Continente)
2.
J Environ Manage ; 325(Pt A): 116464, 2023 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36242971

RESUMEN

Income inequity and energy consumption have become important issues for sustainable development, and digitalization offers unlimited potential for bridging the income gap and decreasing energy consumption. Based on an international perspective, we confirm the impact of income inequality on energy consumption in 108 countries from 2000 to 2019 and then explore the moderating and threshold effects of digitalization on the impact of income inequality on energy consumption. The empirical results indicate that income inequality causes a surge in energy consumption, and the dynamic SYS-GMM results suggest that for every 1 unit increase in income inequality, energy consumption increases by 0.003 unit. The moderating effect suggests that digitalization helps mitigate the impact of a 3.654% surge in energy consumption caused by income inequality. In comparison, digitalization has a significant moderating effect on energy consumption in middle- and high-income countries (Europe, the Americas, and the Asia-Pacific region), and the moderating effect of digitalization is effective in both free and non-free economies. The dynamic SYS-GMM threshold panel models reveal a non-linear relationship between income inequality and energy consumption affected by digitalization. This provides international evidence that reveals the underlying mechanisms of digitalization, income inequality, and energy consumption. It will better guide countries in harnessing digital dividends to overcome the twin dilemmas of the income gap and energy poverty.


Asunto(s)
Desarrollo Económico , Renta , Pobreza , Asia , Europa (Continente) , Dióxido de Carbono/análisis
3.
J Environ Manage ; 325(Pt B): 116581, 2023 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36323117

RESUMEN

Climate-smart sustainable management of agricultural soil is critical to improve soil health, enhance food and water security, contribute to climate change mitigation and adaptation, biodiversity preservation, and improve human health and wellbeing. The European Joint Programme for Soil (EJP SOIL) started in 2020 with the aim to significantly improve soil management knowledge and create a sustainable and integrated European soil research system. EJP SOIL involves more than 350 scientists across 24 Countries and has been addressing multiple aspects associated with soil management across different European agroecosystems. This study summarizes the key findings of stakeholder consultations conducted at the national level across 20 countries with the aim to identify important barriers and challenges currently affecting soil knowledge but also assess opportunities to overcome these obstacles. Our findings demonstrate that there is significant room for improvement in terms of knowledge production, dissemination and adoption. Among the most important barriers identified by consulted stakeholders are technical, political, social and economic obstacles, which strongly limit the development and full exploitation of the outcomes of soil research. The main soil challenge across consulted member states remains to improve soil organic matter and peat soil conservation while soil water storage capacity is a key challenge in Southern Europe. Findings from this study clearly suggest that going forward climate-smart sustainable soil management will benefit from (1) increases in research funding, (2) the maintenance and valorisation of long-term (field) experiments, (3) the creation of knowledge sharing networks and interlinked national and European infrastructures, and (4) the development of regionally-tailored soil management strategies. All the above-mentioned interventions can contribute to the creation of healthy, resilient and sustainable soil ecosystems across Europe.


Asunto(s)
Ecosistema , Suelo , Humanos , Agricultura , Cambio Climático , Europa (Continente)
4.
Chemosphere ; 311(Pt 1): 137080, 2023 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36328317

RESUMEN

The Safe by Design (SbD) concept aims to ensure the production, use and disposal of materials and products safely. While there is a growing interest in the potential of SbD to support policy commitments, such as the EU Green Deal and the Circular Economy Action Plan in Europe, methodological approaches and practical guidelines on SbD are, however, largely missing. The combined use of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and Risk Assessment (RA) is considered suitable to operationalize SbD over the whole life-cycle of a product. Here, we explore the potential of the combined use of LCA and RA at Technological Readiness Level (TRL) 1-6. We perform a review of the literature presenting and/or developing approaches that combine LCA and RA at early stages of product design. We identify that basic early-on-evaluations of safety (e.g., apply lifecycle thinking to assess risk hotspots, avoid use of hazardous chemicals, minimize other environmental impacts from chemicals) are more common, while more complex assessments (e.g., ex-ante LCA, control banding, predictive (eco)toxicology) require specialized expertise. The application of these simplified approaches and guidelines aims to avoid some obvious sources of risks and impacts at early stages. Critical gaps need to be addressed for wider application of SbD, including more studies in the product design context, developing tools and databases containing collated information on risk, greater collaboration between RA/LCA researchers and companies, and policy discussion on the expansion from SbD to Safe and Sustainable by Design (SSbD).


Asunto(s)
Ambiente , Estadios del Ciclo de Vida , Animales , Medición de Riesgo , Europa (Continente)
5.
J Environ Manage ; 325(Pt B): 116619, 2023 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36343397

RESUMEN

Integrative forest management approaches, aiming to combine the provision of multiple forest ecosystem services in the same forest area, are popular forest management concepts in Europe. Their understanding and application varies, however, across the continent. This paper looks at one dimension of integrative forest management approaches in particular - the integration of nature conservation measures into forest management; focusing on its understanding and application, as well as current and future social, technological, ecological, economic and political factors enabling or hampering this integration. Drawing on 42 qualitative in-depth interviews with national experts and forest practitioners, our study provides insights into the integration of nature conservation measures into forest management systems aimed at wood production and the provision of other forest ecosystem services under various conditions. Across the investigated countries, the main factors perceived to facilitate this integration are the personal motivations and knowledge of forest managers and their long-term economic thinking related to the resilience of the forest in the face of climate and societal change. In turn, the main factors perceived as hampering the integration are current wood-market demands, and a lack of (public) financial incentives. Public pressure is also perceived as an important influencing factor, which can both impede or support integration. Other ambiguous factors include societal knowledge and related knowledge gaps, relationships between local stakeholders, and the legal framework in which forest management operates. The study concludes with suggestions of how to enhance the uptake of the integration of nature conservation measures into forest management in Europe.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Ecosistema , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales/métodos , Bosques , Madera , Europa (Continente)
6.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 178: 107649, 2023 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36280167

RESUMEN

The Mediterranean is one of the most biodiverse areas of the Paleartic region. Here, basing on large data sets of single copy orthologs obtained from transcriptomic data, we investigated the evolutionary history of the genus Dugesia in the Western Mediterranean area. The results corroborated that the complex paleogeological history of the region was an important driver of diversification for the genus, speciating as microplates and islands were forming. These processes led to the differentiation of three main biogeographic clades: Iberia-Apennines-Alps, Corsica-Sardinia, and Iberia-Africa. The internal relationships of these major clades were analysed with several representative samples per species. The use of large data sets regarding the number of loci and samples, as well as state-of-the-art phylogenomic inference methods allowed us to answer different unresolved questions about the evolution of particular groups, such as the diversification path of D. subtentaculata in the Iberian Peninsula and its colonization of Africa. Additionally, our results support the differentiation of D. benazzii in two lineages which could represent two species. Finally, we analysed here for the first time a comprehensive number of samples from several asexual Iberian populations whose assignment at the species level has been an enigma through the years. The phylogenies obtained with different inference methods showed a branching topology of asexual individuals at the base of sexual clades. We hypothesize that this unexpected topology is related to long-term asexuality. This work represents the first phylotranscriptomic analysis of Tricladida, laying the first stone of the genomic era in phylogenetic studies on this taxonomic group.


Asunto(s)
Planarias , Animales , Filogenia , Evolución Molecular , Biodiversidad , Europa (Continente)
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 855: 158781, 2023 Jan 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36122724

RESUMEN

The characterization of lake hydromorphology is crucial to understand the dynamics of biodiversity. In Europe, it is also a regulatory requirement of the Water Framework Directive. However, according to the literature, few methods include this characterization. The aim of this study is to review the state of the art of the methods currently used or under development in European countries to assess lake hydromorphological status for the implementation of the WFD. Our analysis is based on responses to a questionnaire distributed to national experts on hydromorphology of the 28 countries implementing the WFD. Our results highlighted significant progress in the assessment of hydromorphological features and processes. Water level regime, through the range of water flow or existing water management, and structure of the shore zone through macrophytes and substrate characteristics or measurement of lateral connectivity, are the most frequently assessed features. Stratification, surface/groundwater connection and planform pattern are the lake features most frequently omitted from the methods. However, in most of the countries, the development of methods was still in progress to meet the WFD requirement. Definition of reference condition is a central component of all WFD compliant assessment tools but this is a challenge particularly in the assessment of hydromorphological alteration of reservoirs. Similarly, demonstrating strong links between hydromorphological indicators and biological quality elements remains a challenge with many knowledge gaps still evident. These results highlight the need for rapid collection of new environmental data and the need for conceptual and applied research to make methodological progress in assessing lake hydromorphology and ensuring habitat quality.


Asunto(s)
Lagos , Agua , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Ecosistema , Europa (Continente) , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 856(Pt 2): 159291, 2023 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36208747

RESUMEN

Long-term records of tree-ring width (TRW), latewood maximum density (MXD) and blue intensity (BI) measurements on conifers have been largely used to develop high-resolution temperature reconstructions in cool temperate forests. However, the potential of latewood blue intensity (LWBI), less commonly used earlywood blue intensity (EWBI), and delta (difference between EWBI and LWBI, dBI) blue intensity in Mediterranean tree species is still unexplored. Here we developed BI chronologies in moist-elevation limits of the most southwestern European distribution of Pinus nigra subsp. salzmanii Arnold. We tested whether BI variables derived from tree rings of black pine are better proxies than ring-width variables to reconstruct long-term changes in climatic factors and water availability. For this we applied correlations and regression analyses with daily and monthly climate data, a spatial and temporal drought index (Standardized Precipitation-Evapotranspiration Index-SPEI) and Vapour Pressure Deficit (VPD), as well as atmospheric circulation patterns: North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) and Western Mediterranean Oscillation (WeMO). We found a positive relation between black pine growth (RW) and temperature during the winter preceding the growing season. Among all variables LWBI and dBI were found to be more sensitive than TRW to SPEI at low-elevation site, with EWBI series containing an opposite climatic signal. LWBI and dBI were significantly related to June and September precipitation at high-elevation site. Winter VPD was related with higher EWI and LWI series, whereas dBI and EWBI were related with January SOI and February NAO. We confirm the potential of long-term dBI series to reconstruct climate in drought-prone regions. This novel study in combination with other wood anatomical measurements has wide implications for further use of BI to understand and reconstruct environmental changes in Mediterranean conifer forests.


Asunto(s)
Pinus , Tracheophyta , Sequías , Clima , Bosques , Europa (Continente)
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 856(Pt 2): 159248, 2023 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36208759

RESUMEN

Detailed knowledge of the occurrence of debris flows in the past is key to understanding their linkage to changing climatic variables and their occurrence in the future. For a comprehensive understanding of the origin of these processes, regional reconstruction is optimal rather than detailed analysis of isolated catchments. This study presents the results of a dendrogeomorphic reconstruction of debris flows across an entire medium-high mountain range in Central Europe covering more than 500 km2. The tree-ring data allowed the reconstruction of 96 debris flow events at 21 sites. The average frequency of events was 6.8 per decade, which is comparable or higher compared to alpine valleys. A detailed analysis of potential precipitation triggers was also performed in the paper, whose magnitude significantly influenced not only the number of debris flows but also their magnitude. Debris flows occur in two forms in the study area, with channelized debris flows showing significantly higher magnitude but lower frequency than fan debris flows. The differences between the two types are probably due to the different source of material that is reactivated during precipitation events of different duration and magnitude.


Asunto(s)
Árboles , Europa (Continente)
10.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2585: 211-225, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36331777

RESUMEN

Since its discovery in 1937 in the West Nile district of Uganda, West Nile virus (WNV) has been one of the leading causes of mosquito-transmitted infectious diseases (Smithburn, Burke, Am J Trop Med 20:22, 1940). Subsequently, it spread to Europe, Asia, Australia, and finally North America in 1999 (Sejvar, Ochsner 5(3):6-10, 2003). Worldwide outbreaks have continued to increase since the 1990s (Chancey et al, Biomed Res Int 2015:376230, 2015). According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, more than 51,000 cases of WNV infection and nearly 2400 cases of WNV-related death were reported in the USA from 1999 to 2019. The estimated economic impact of WNV infections is close to 800 million dollars in the USA from 1999 to 2012 (Barrett, Am J Trop Med Hyg 90:389, 2014).


Asunto(s)
Culicidae , Fiebre del Nilo Occidental , Virus del Nilo Occidental , Animales , Fiebre del Nilo Occidental/prevención & control , Europa (Continente)/epidemiología , Brotes de Enfermedades , Anticuerpos
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 857(Pt 3): 159598, 2023 Jan 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36302406

RESUMEN

Among the main challenges in modelling biological invasion is a lack of valid data on the absence of invasive species. Absence data are important for assessing the reliability of models, but multiple surveys at a location are needed. In practice, omission errors are more frequent than commission errors. We therefore quantified how eliminating potentially biased areas from invasive species distribution models (iSDMs) affected the models' performance, and we assessed how the distribution of biased areas correlated with environmental factors. We hypothesized that for neophytes, the distribution of biased areas corresponds to specific land relief and/or particular landscape and land use, but not the density of roads and urbanized areas. The data on neophytes were obtained from a distribution atlas covering approximately 31,000 km2 in Central Europe overlaid with a 2 × 2 km square grid. One hundred fifty-three species were used for modelling neophyte richness, and negative residuals from the model were assumed to indicate biased squares. Twenty invasive species were used as an independent dataset for testing the effect of excluding the biased squares on iSDM performance. The exclusion of biased squares increased the iSDM performance from an area under the curve value of 0.73 to 0.78. The best results were obtained by excluding 30 % of the squares from the original dataset. The presence of damp sites explained the distribution of biased squares; the density of roads and urbanized areas had no impact. The applied method allows distinguishing biased, plausibly undersampled squares in a species distribution atlas, the exclusion of which significantly improves iSDM performance. The results suggest that the commonly observed low sampling effort in areas distant from communication routes and urbanized areas was not crucial in modelling invasive species distribution, which can be related to smaller neophyte richness in remote areas resulting from low propagule pressure.


Asunto(s)
Especies Introducidas , Plantas , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Sesgo , Europa (Continente)
12.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 18559, 2022 Nov 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36329082

RESUMEN

Both the USA and Europe experienced substantial excess mortality in 2020 and 2021 related to the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods used to estimate excess mortality vary, making comparisons difficult. This retrospective observational study included data on deaths from all causes occurring in the USA and 25 European countries or subnational areas participating in the network for European monitoring of excess mortality for public health action (EuroMOMO). We applied the EuroMOMO algorithm to estimate excess all-cause mortality in the USA and Europe during the first two years of the COVID-19 pandemic, 2020-2021, and compared excess mortality by age group and time periods reflecting three primary waves. During 2020-2021, the USA experienced 154.5 (95% Uncertainty Interval [UI]: 154.2-154.9) cumulative age-standardized excess all-cause deaths per 100,000 person years, compared with 110.4 (95% UI: 109.9-111.0) for the European countries. Excess all-cause mortality in the USA was higher than in Europe for nearly all age groups, with an additional 44.1 excess deaths per 100,000 person years overall from 2020-2021. If the USA had experienced an excess mortality rate similar to Europe, there would have been approximately 391 thousand (36%) fewer excess deaths in the USA.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , COVID-19/epidemiología , Pandemias , Europa (Continente)/epidemiología , Salud Pública , Algoritmos , Mortalidad
13.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277189, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36331962

RESUMEN

As a teaching subject, animal welfare is challenging for educators and learners, as was recently shown in a recent survey on the evolution of animal welfare teaching in Europe. Among several suggestions to overcome the current resistance to implementing animal welfare education, we highlight two. The first is that animal welfare education should be based on learner-centred approaches; the second is that it should encompass both animal welfare science and ethics and law. To the best of our knowledge, there are no learner-centred pedagogical approaches that can simultaneously explore scientific and ethical concepts. Furthermore, when exploring ethical concepts within the educational context, there is the additional challenge of being able to depart from discussion and debate to a systematic organization of knowledge. Our work simultaneously addresses these two challenges, presenting the design and implementation of a novel web-based learner-centred pedagogical platform for farm animal welfare teaching. The platform, named ANIPHI, uses the Delphi method's iterative nature as a learning process to generate both reflection and (online) debate among learners. ANIPHI can be used by educators in an online environment, in a classroom environment, or in a combination of the two environments. ANIPHI was developed within the ERASMUS+ ANICARE project and is an open web-based platform for all educators interested in teaching farm animal welfare. Given ANIPHI's flexible and user-friendly nature, the platform simultaneously exposes learners to ethical and scientific concepts in different educational realities, according to the educator's objectives. Furthermore, videos depicting different husbandry practices across different types of animal production and countries are embedded in the platform. These videos are commented on by the farmer himself and by animal scientists, which enriches the learner's experience. Educators across the ANICARE consortium have already successfully tested the ANIPHI platform for different farm animal welfare topics. We conclude this article by presenting one example of using ANIPHI in a real-life educational context, where we discuss some aspects of the design and use of our pedagogical platform.


Asunto(s)
Bienestar del Animal , Aprendizaje , Animales , Técnica Delfos , Europa (Continente) , Enseñanza
14.
Int J Med Inform ; 168: 104900, 2022 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36332520

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Platforms are being constructed to stimulate cohort data sharing. Nevertheless, many policy barriers impede data sharing. Various interventions have been proposed to address these barriers, including incentive creation and data sharing mandates for researchers. AIM: To understand funding agencies' perspectives on policy interventions to encourage data sharing. METHODS: Members of funding agencies were recruited to participate in semi-structured interviews. Nearly all funding agencies are situated in European countries. Interview transcripts were analyzed through inductive content analysis. RESULTS: Mandates for cohort data sharing are not supported by agencies due to data protection regulations and the preconditions for issuing mandates. Recommendation of platforms may be based on certification schemes, such as repository accreditation. Monitoring mechanisms for cohort data sharing are currently absent, which complicates assessing compliance of researchers with funding agencies' policies and evidence production. Funding agencies are not imposing conditions on data access committees. CONCLUSIONS: Policy measures that, in some ways, restrict the decision-making authority of researchers in terms of data sharing are not generally supported. Concrete steps are proposed to enable evidence-based policy making. Incentive design is paramount if funding agencies do not wish to impose restrictions on the decision-making authority of researchers.


Asunto(s)
Difusión de la Información , Políticas , Humanos , Europa (Continente) , Formulación de Políticas , Investigación Cualitativa
15.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0275523, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36417418

RESUMEN

From the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, researchers advised policy makers to make informed decisions towards the adoption of mitigating interventions. Key easy-to-interpret metrics applied over time can measure the public health impact of epidemic outbreaks. We propose a novel method which quantifies the effect of hospitalizations or mortality when the number of COVID-19 cases doubles. Two analyses are used, a country-by-country analysis and a multi-country approach which considers all countries simultaneously. The new measure is applied to several European countries, where the presence of different variants, vaccination rates and intervention measures taken over time leads to a different risk. Based on our results, the vaccination campaign has a clear effect for all countries analyzed, reducing the risk over time. However, the constant emergence of new variants combined with distinct intervention measures impacts differently the risk per country.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/prevención & control , Pandemias/prevención & control , Salud Pública , Personal Administrativo , Europa (Continente)/epidemiología
16.
Parasit Vectors ; 15(1): 440, 2022 Nov 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36419134

RESUMEN

Hepatozoon spp. is the causative agent of a vector-borne parasitic disease in many animal species. In felids, Hepatozoon felis, Hepatozoon canis and Hepatozoon silvestris have been molecularly isolated. Hepatozoonosis usually causes asymptomatic infections in domestic cats, but clinical cases have recently been reported in Europe. We describe the first Italian case of hepatozoonosis in a cat with an unusual presentation. An 11-year-old neutered European shorthair cat was urgently hospitalized for intestinal intussusception. Hematology, biochemistry, FIV-FeLV tests, blood smears and molecular investigation targeting the 18S rRNA gene of Hepatozoon spp. were performed on blood samples; in addition, histological and molecular investigations were performed to analyze surgical samples to identify Hepatozoon infection. Hepatozoon gamonts were detected in granulocytes in the blood smear, and Hepatozoon spp. DNA was confirmed by PCR on blood. The intussusception was caused by a sessile endoluminal nodule that was surgically removed. Histologically, many elements referring to parasitic tissue forms were identified in the intestinal cells, and then the specimens were molecularly confirmed to harbor H. silvestris. This is the first description of symptomatic hepatozoonosis in a domestic cat in Italy. Hepatozoon silvestris has been described in wild felids, which are usually resilient to the infection, whereas the domestic cat seems to be more susceptible. Indeed, H. silvestris in cats usually presents tropism for skeletal muscle and myocardium with subsequent clinical manifestations. This is the first description of a domestic cat with H. silvestris localized in the intestinal epithelium and associated with intussusception.


Asunto(s)
Coccidiosis , Eucoccidiida , Intususcepción , Gatos , Animales , Eucoccidiida/genética , Italia , Coccidiosis/diagnóstico , Coccidiosis/veterinaria , Europa (Continente)
17.
J Glob Health ; 12: 04096, 2022 11 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36342670

RESUMEN

Background: Acute respiratory infections (ARIs) accounted for an estimated 3.9 million deaths worldwide in 2015, of which 56% occurred in adults aged 60 years or older. We aimed to identify the cost of ARI management in older adults (≥50 years) in order to develop an evidence base to assist decision-making for resource allocation and inform clinical practice. Methods: We searched 8 electronic databases including Global Health, Medline and EMBASE for studies published between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2021. Total management costs per patient per ARI episode were extracted and meta-analysis was conducted by World Health Organization (WHO) region and World Bank income level. All costs were converted and inflated to Euros (€) (2021 average exchange rate). The quality of included studies and the potential risk of bias were evaluated. Results: A total of 42 publications were identified for inclusion, reporting cost data for 8 082 752 ARI episodes in older adults across 20 countries from 2001 to 2021. The majority (86%) of studies involved high-income countries based in Europe, North America and Western Pacific. The mean cost per episode was €17 803.9 for inpatient management and €128.9 for outpatient management. Compared with costs reported for patients aged <65 years, inpatient costs were €154.1, €7 018.8 and €8 295.6 higher for patients aged 65-74 years, 75-84 years and over 85 years. ARI management of at-risk patients with comorbid conditions and patients requiring higher level of care, incurred substantially higher costs for hospitalization: €735.9 and €1317.3 respectively. Conclusions: ARIs impose a substantial economic burden on health systems, governments, patients and societies. This study identified high ARI management costs in older adults, reinforcing calls for investment by global health players to quantify and address the scale of the challenge. There are large gaps in data availability from low-income countries, especially from South East Asia and Africa regions.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio , Humanos , Anciano , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/epidemiología , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/terapia , Hospitalización , Pobreza , Salud Global , Europa (Continente)
18.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 20055, 2022 Nov 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36414639

RESUMEN

Lake sediment records from Holzmaar and the infilled maar of Auel (Eifel, Germany) are used to reconstruct landscape changes and megafauna abundances. Our data document a forested landscape from 60,000 to 48,000 yr b2k and a stepwise vegetation change towards a glacial desert after 26,000 yr b2k. The Eifel landscape was continuously inhabited from 48,000 to 9000 yr b2k by large mammals, documented by the presence of spores of coprophilous fungi from Sordaria and Sporormiella fungi that grow on fecal remains of the megafauna. Megafauna reached higher numbers during cold stadial climates but was present also during the warmer interstadials. Highest abundance was at 56,500/48,500/38,500/33,000/27,000/21,000/16,200/14,000 yr b2k, i.e. under different climate regimes. Some of these dates were associated with clear human presence, which indicates that megafauna was not overkilled by humans. In contrast, human presence could quite likely have been stimulated by the abundant food supply. Megafauna presence decreased significantly when tree abundance increased during interstadials. The Megafauna disappeared finally at 11,400 yr b2k with the development of the early Holocene forest cover, which appears to be the most important threshold for megafauna presence.


Asunto(s)
Clima , Árboles , Animales , Humanos , Europa (Continente) , Bosques , Mamíferos
19.
BMJ Open ; 12(11): e063134, 2022 11 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36396317

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Long-term survival after childhood cancer often comes at the expense of late, adverse health conditions. However, survivorship care is frequently not available for adult survivors in Europe. The PanCareFollowUp Consortium therefore developed the PanCareFollowUp Care Intervention, an innovative person-centred survivorship care model based on experiences in the Netherlands. This paper describes the protocol of the prospective cohort study (Care Study) to evaluate the feasibility and the health economic, clinical and patient-reported outcomes of implementing PanCareFollowUp Care as usual care in four European countries. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: In this prospective, longitudinal cohort study with at least 6 months of follow-up, 800 childhood cancer survivors will receive the PanCareFollowUp Care Intervention across four study sites in Belgium, Czech Republic, Italy and Sweden, representing different healthcare systems. The PanCareFollowUp Care Intervention will be evaluated according to the Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation and Maintenance framework. Clinical and research data are collected through questionnaires, a clinic visit for multiple medical assessments and a follow-up call. The primary outcome is empowerment, assessed with the Health Education Impact Questionnaire. A central data centre will perform quality checks, data cleaning and data validation, and provide support in data analysis. Multilevel models will be used for repeated outcome measures, with subgroup analysis, for example, by study site, attained age, sex or diagnosis. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study will be conducted in accordance with the guidelines of Good Clinical Practice and the Declaration of Helsinki. The study protocol has been reviewed and approved by all relevant ethics committees. The evidence and insights gained by this study will be summarised in a Replication Manual, also including the tools required to implement the PanCareFollowUp Care Intervention in other countries. This Replication Manual will become freely available through PanCare and will be disseminated through policy and press releases. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: Netherlands Trial Register (NL8918; https://www.trialregister.nl/trial/8918).


Asunto(s)
Supervivientes de Cáncer , Neoplasias , Adulto , Niño , Humanos , Cuidados Posteriores , Estudios Prospectivos , Estudios de Factibilidad , Estudios Longitudinales , Neoplasias/terapia , Europa (Continente)
20.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0278125, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36413563

RESUMEN

Concerns have been raised that immigrants coming to Europe bring fundamentally different social values, affecting the more liberal receiving societies negatively. However, the topic of immigrants' social values is understudied, and much research studies only one issue at a time, lacking a systematic approach to compare immigrants and native-born across issues. We study the social values of immigrants in Sweden using a large sample of newly arrived immigrants and their opinions on 35 different moral issues. Our results indicate a large heterogeneity across different issues, with, on average, a general tendency towards liberal social values among immigrants. We find that individual characteristics are more important than characteristics of the country of origin in explaining variation of social values between immigrants. Religiosity has the largest effect, with more religious individuals having more conservative stances. Using external data sources, we compare immigrants with native-born regarding both average positions on different issues, and the correlation between issue positions. Compared with the native-born, immigrants have, on average, somewhat more conservative values, but the underlying values structure is the same.


Asunto(s)
Emigrantes e Inmigrantes , Emigración e Inmigración , Humanos , Valores Sociales , Suecia , Europa (Continente)
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