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1.
Drugs Today (Barc) ; 56(9): 609-614, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33025954

RESUMEN

The Drug Information Association (DIA) Europe 2020 brought together multiple stakeholders from around the world including regulatory agencies, industry, patients and academia, to discuss the most innovative topics in healthcare. Main subjects covered were regulatory science, data and data standards, clinical safety and pharmacovigilance, translational medicines and science, patient engagement in clinical development, value and access, medical affairs and scientific communication, health policy, and public affairs and legal issues. The meeting, which was initially intended to take place in Brussels, was finally held virtually due to the COVID-19 situation. This report covers some of the sessions held on these 5 days of state-of-the-art topic discussions.


Asunto(s)
Participación del Paciente , Farmacovigilancia , Investigación en Medicina Traslacional , Congresos como Asunto , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Pandemias , Seguridad del Paciente , Neumonía Viral
2.
Eur Respir Rev ; 29(157)2020 Sep 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33020069

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2. Consensus suggestions can standardise care, thereby improving outcomes and facilitating future research. METHODS: An International Task Force was composed and agreement regarding courses of action was measured using the Convergence of Opinion on Recommendations and Evidence (CORE) process. 70% agreement was necessary to make a consensus suggestion. RESULTS: The Task Force made consensus suggestions to treat patients with acute COVID-19 pneumonia with remdesivir and dexamethasone but suggested against hydroxychloroquine except in the context of a clinical trial; these are revisions of prior suggestions resulting from the interim publication of several randomised trials. It also suggested that COVID-19 patients with a venous thromboembolic event be treated with therapeutic anticoagulant therapy for 3 months. The Task Force was unable to reach sufficient agreement to yield consensus suggestions for the post-hospital care of COVID-19 survivors. The Task Force fell one vote shy of suggesting routine screening for depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder. CONCLUSIONS: The Task Force addressed questions related to pharmacotherapy in patients with COVID-19 and the post-hospital care of survivors, yielding several consensus suggestions. Management options for which there is insufficient agreement to formulate a suggestion represent research priorities.


Asunto(s)
Comités Consultivos/organización & administración , Betacoronavirus , Consenso , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Cooperación Internacional , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumología/normas , Sociedades Médicas , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Pandemias , Estados Unidos
3.
Oecologia ; 194(1-2): 75-86, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33025265

RESUMEN

Behavioural plasticity during habitat selection plays a key role in determining whether organisms may thrive under human-induced rapid environmental changes. As organisms rely on environmental cues to make decisions, these behavioural responses may be maladaptive. We studied the European stonechat Saxicola torquatus as a model open-habitat bird species breeding in three structurally different land-use types generated by agriculture and forestry activities. In this mosaic landscape, we compared the relative attractiveness and the breeding habitat quality of intensive grassland, Christmas tree plantations and clear-cut patches in plantation forests to test whether habitat selection was adaptive. We examined the settlement pattern of territorial males to evaluate habitat preference. We recorded key parameters reflecting reproductive performances, adult and first-year survival to estimate the individual fitness of the birds and assess the quality of the different land-use types for breeding. Stonechats preferentially settled in clear-cut patches, but their fitness was not found to be markedly different in comparison with the other occupied habitats. Although they produced slightly lower-quality offspring in clear-cut patches, we did not find a negative consequence on first-year survival probabilities or any among-habitat differences in adult survival. With our analysis integrating multiple components of individual fitness, we show that all occupied land-use types are similarly rewarding for the breeding stonechats. Our study shows that some species can benefit from novel land-use types emerging in the landscape as a result of human activities. Flexible habitat selection in the stonechat has most probably contributed to its recent population increase in Western Europe.


Asunto(s)
Passeriformes , Pájaros Cantores , Animales , Ecosistema , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Masculino , Reproducción
4.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(10): e2024191, 2020 10 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33026453

RESUMEN

Importance: In late December 2019, an outbreak of a novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in Wuhan, China. Data on the routes of transmission to Los Angeles, California, the US West Coast epicenter for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and subsequent community spread are limited. Objective: To determine the transmission routes of SARS-CoV-2 to Southern California and elucidate local community spread within the Los Angeles metropolitan area. Design, Setting, and Participants: This case series included 192 consecutive patients with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test results positive for SARS-CoV-2 who were evaluated at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center in Los Angeles, California, from March 22 to April 15, 2020. Data analysis was performed from April to May 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: SARS-CoV-2 viral genomes were sequenced. Los Angeles isolates were compared with genomes from global subsampling and from New York, New York; Washington state; and China to determine potential sources of viral dissemination. Demographic data and outcomes were collected. Results: The cohort included 192 patients (median [interquartile range] age, 59.5 [43-75] years; 110 [57.3%] men). The genetic characterization of SARS-CoV-2 isolates in the Los Angeles population pinpointed community transmission of 13 patients within a 3.81 km2 radius. Variation landscapes of this case series also revealed a cluster of 10 patients that contained 5 residents at a skilled nursing facility, 1 resident of a nearby skilled nursing facility, 3 health care workers, and a family member of a resident of one of the skilled nursing facilities. Person-to-person transmission was detected in a cluster of 5 patients who shared the same single-nucleotide variation in their SARS-CoV-2 genomes. High viral genomic diversity was identified: 20 Los Angeles isolates (15.0%) resembled SARS-CoV-2 genomes from Asia, while 109 Los Angeles isolates (82.0%) were similar to isolates originating from Europe. Analysis of other common respiratory viral pathogens did not reveal coinfection in the cohort. Conclusions and Relevance: These findings highlight the precision of detecting person-to-person transmission and accurate contact tracing directly through SARS-CoV-2 genome isolation and sequencing. Development and application of phylogenetic analyses from the Los Angeles population established connections between COVID-19 clusters locally and throughout the US.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus/genética , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Genoma Viral/genética , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Adulto , Anciano , Asia , California/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Europa (Continente) , Femenino , Secuenciación de Nucleótidos de Alto Rendimiento , Humanos , Los Angeles/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Ciudad de Nueva York , Pandemias , Filogenia , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/virología , Análisis de Secuencia de ARN , Proteínas no Estructurales Virales/genética , Washingtón
5.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 728, 2020 Oct 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028235

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Late presentation (LP), defined as a CD4 count < 350/mm3 or an AIDS-event at HIV-diagnosis, remains a significant problem across Europe. Linking cohort and surveillance data, we assessed the country-specific burden of LP during 2010-2016 and the occurrence of new AIDS events or deaths within 12 months of HIV-diagnosis believed to be attributable to LP. METHODS: Country-specific percentages of LP and AIDS-events/death rates (assessed with Poisson regression) observed in The Collaboration of Observational HIV Epidemiological Research Europe (COHERE) and EuroSIDA cohorts, were applied to new HIV-diagnoses reported to the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. The estimated number of LP in the whole population was then calculated, as was the number of excess AIDS-events/deaths in the first 12 months following HIV-diagnosis assumed to be attributable to LP (difference in estimated events between LP and non-LP). RESULTS: Thirty-nine thousand two hundred four persons were included from the COHERE and EuroSIDA cohorts, of whom 18,967 (48.4%; 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 47.9-48.9) were classified as LP, ranging from 36.9% in Estonia (95%CI 25.2-48.7) and Ukraine (95%CI 30.0-43.8) to 64.2% in Poland (95%CI 57.2-71.3). We estimated a total of > 320,000 LP and 12,050 new AIDS-events/deaths attributable to LP during 2010-2016, with the highest estimated numbers of LP and excess AIDS-events/deaths in Eastern Europe. Country-level estimates of excess events ranged from 17 AIDS-events/deaths (95%CI 0-533) in Denmark to 10,357 (95%CI 7768-147,448) in Russia. CONCLUSIONS: Across countries in Europe, the burden of LP was high, with the highest estimated number of LP and excess AIDS-events/deaths being in Eastern Europe. Effective strategies are needed to reduce LP and the attributable morbidity and mortality that could be potentially avoided.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH/diagnóstico , Adulto , Recuento de Linfocito CD4 , Estudios de Cohortes , Diagnóstico Tardío , Europa (Continente)/epidemiología , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Infecciones por VIH/mortalidad , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Morbilidad , Análisis de Supervivencia
6.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(Suppl 3): 386-395, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33030459

RESUMEN

The use of violence and aggression on civilians during the war has become one of the most prominent military events of the 20th and 21st centuries, resulting in an increasing number of refugees and displaced persons in the midst of regional and tribal conflicts. We are witnessing a daily increase in the number of migrants when people are fleeing from their homes because of human rights violations, persecution, poverty, and conflict. When found in "host" countries, they often encounter bad conditions, with uncertainty and instability. Many come to Europe in search of economic and personal opportunities for progress, where they face different types of process of acculturation. 'Place loss', acute and chronic trauma, family disorders, and family reunification issues became more and more important issues. Refugees, asylum seekers and irregular migrants have a higher risk for certain mental health disorders, including posttraumatic stress, depression and psychosis. In addition to being exposed to various risk factors for mental disorders, migrants often face barriers to access to adequate health care to address these issues. Some of the biggest challenges for migrant populations within "host" countries include: lack of knowledge of health care rights and health systems; poor knowledge of the language; different belief systems and cultural expectations of health care; and the general lack of trust in experts and in government. The rates of depressive and anxiety disorders usually increase over time, and poor mental health is associated with poor socioeconomic conditions - particularly with social isolation and unemployment. Acculturative stress often implies a high discrepancy in the acculturation between parents and their children. This dislocation of families in new conditions has been caused by the different degrees of acceptance of "new culture" by children and parents, which causes serious difficulties, especially in bilingual terms.


Asunto(s)
Aculturación , Salud Mental/estadística & datos numéricos , Refugiados , Migrantes , Trastornos de Ansiedad/epidemiología , Trastorno Depresivo/epidemiología , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Refugiados/psicología , Refugiados/estadística & datos numéricos , Migrantes/psicología , Migrantes/estadística & datos numéricos
7.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33007942

RESUMEN

Human consumption and activity are damaging the global ecosystem and the resources on which we rely for health, well-being and survival. The COVID-19 crisis is yet another manifestation of the urgent need to transition to more sustainable societies, further exposing the weaknesses in health systems and the injustice in our societies. It also underlines that many of the factors leading to environmental degradation, ill health and social and health inequities are interlinked. The current situation provides an unprecedented opportunity to invest in initiatives that address these common factors and encourage people to live more healthily and sustainably. Such initiatives can generate the positive feedback loops needed to change the systems and structures that shape our lives. INHERIT (January 2016-December 2019), an ambitious, multisectoral and transnational research project that involved 18 organisations across Europe, funded by the European Commission, explored such solutions. It identified, defined and analysed promising inter-sectoral policies, practices and approaches to simultaneously promote environmental sustainability, protect and promote health and contribute to health equity (the INHERIT "triple-win") and that can encourage and enable people to live, move and consume more healthfully and sustainably. It also explored the facilitators and barriers to working across sectors and in public private cooperation. The insights were brought together in guidelines setting out how policy makers can help instigate and support local "triple-win" initiatives that influence behaviours as an approach to contributing to the change that is so urgently needed to stem environmental degradation and the interlinked threats to health and wellbeing. This article sets out this guidance, providing timely insights on how to "build back better" in the post pandemic era.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Estilo de Vida , Desarrollo Sostenible , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral
8.
Zootaxa ; 4845(3): zootaxa.4845.3.2, 2020 Sep 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056762

RESUMEN

Two endemic taxa of the Northern Iberian System have been rescued from synonymy using the study of external morphology by means of morphometric analysis and genital anatomy. The causes that possibly led to these two taxa erroneously being identified as synonyms are analysed in this research. In the case of Nebria (Nebria) urbionensis versus Nebria (Nebria) vuillefroyi, their confused relationship was caused by the handling of incorrectly labelled specimens and the subsequent interpolation of distribution areas, which led to overestimating the extent of N. (N.) vuillefroyi to the detriment of recognizing N. (N.) urbionensis as a valid species. According to the criterion that is defended in this work, both taxa are steno-endemic and, therefore, deserve protection due to their reduced habitats. The principle of authority applied by experts, based on an error, may, in this case, have been amplified and contributed to chronify the error.                The second case under review is Zabrus (Iberozabrus) cameranus versus Zabrus (Iberozabrus) laurae, which in a recent study of genus Zabrus, were subjected to a totally unjustified synonymy. The origin of such a taxonomic decision must be sought in the concatenation of a series of errors: the number and origin of the specimens studied do not adequately justify the statements and conclusions expressed in the text, the use of a single character (internal sac of the aedeagus) while ignoring other morphological characters, an inadequate taxonomic praxis, and the elaboration of conclusions based on the lack of supposedly-derived characters (that is, relying on symplesiomorphies). All of this does not point towards an adequate reconstruction of the genus systematics.                The uni- and multivariate biometric study, together with the morphological features that are contributed in this work (added to those already recognized initially for these species), allow to affirm that, although the taxa in discussion are nearby species and possibly sister taxa, they are perfectly valid: Nebria (Nebria) urbionensis stat. res.; Zabrus (Iberozabrus) cameranus stat. res. In addition to the morphological differences, both species diverge respectively from N. (N.) vuillefroyi and Z. (I.) laurae by 2% of the COI 1 gene sequence. The geographical ranges of Nebria (N.) urbionensis and Zabrus (I.) cameranus are confined to the Sistema Ibérico Septentrional, and are separated by the high Duero Valley from the ranges of N. (N.) vuillefroyi and Z. (I.) laurae, which are located in the Central System.


Asunto(s)
Escarabajos , Animales , Ecosistema , Europa (Continente) , Geografía
9.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 21(7): 286, 2020 Oct 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33063151

RESUMEN

The CoViD-19 pandemic has caused a sudden spike in demand and production of hand sanitisers. Concerns are rising regarding the quality of such products, as the safeguard of consumers is a priority worldwide. We analyse here the ethanolic content of seven off-the-shelf hand sanitiser gels (two biocides and five cosmetics) from the Italian market, using gas chromatography. The WHO recommends that products containing ethanol should have 60-95% (v/v) alcohol. Four of the tested hand gels have ethanolic contents within the recommended range, while three products (all cosmetics) contain < 60% (v/v), i.e. 52.1% (w/w), ethanol. The product with the lowest alcoholic content has 37.1% w/w ethanol. Toxic methanol is not found in any of the hand sanitisers. We show, in addition, that products with the highest ethanolic content have generally greater antibacterial activity. In conclusion, all tested products are complying with the EU regulations, as the three "substandard" products are classified as cosmetics, whose purpose is cleaning and not disinfecting. Nevertheless, if such hand cleaners were inappropriately used as hand disinfectants, they might be ineffective. Thus, consumer safety relays on awareness and ability to distinguish between biocidal and cosmetics hand gels. The obtained results might sensitise the scientific community, health agencies and ultimately consumers towards the risks of using hand sanitisers of substandard alcoholic concentration. If the wrong product is chosen by consumers, public health can be compromised by the inappropriate use of "low-dosed" cosmetic gels as disinfectants, particularly during the period of the CoViD-19 pandemic.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus , Desinfectantes para las Manos/análisis , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Antibacterianos/análisis , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Bacterias/efectos de los fármacos , Cromatografía de Gases , Cosméticos , Escherichia coli/efectos de los fármacos , Etanol/análisis , Europa (Continente) , Geles , Desinfección de las Manos , Desinfectantes para las Manos/farmacología , Desinfectantes para las Manos/normas , Metanol/análisis , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Staphylococcus aureus/efectos de los fármacos
10.
Zootaxa ; 4820(3): zootaxa.4820.3.8, 2020 Jul 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056061

RESUMEN

Europoeurypus inglaeso gen. et sp. nov. is described from Eocene Baltic amber found on the Sambian Peninsula, Kaliningrad Region, Russia. Four additional specimens of mycterid beetles from collections of Baltic amber are reported. The secondary sexual characters and sexual dimorphism in the Eocene representatives of the genus Omineus Lewis, 1895 are documented for the first time and examined using X-ray micro-computed tomography (µCT). The studied Omineus male specimens were attributed to the fossil species Omineus febribilis Alekseev, Pollock Bukejs, 2019. A key to fossil species of Eurypinae from Eocene ambers is provided and several aspects of the biogeography of the subfamily Eurypinae are discussed.


Asunto(s)
Ámbar , Escarabajos , Animales , Europa (Continente) , Fósiles , Masculino , Caracteres Sexuales , Microtomografía por Rayos X
11.
BMJ ; 371: m3434, 2020 10 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028575

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To characterize the therapeutic value of new drugs approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and European Medicines Agency (EMA) and the association between these ratings and regulatory approval through expedited programs. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: New drugs approved by the FDA and EMA between 2007 and 2017, with follow-up through 1 April 2020. DATA SOURCES: Therapeutic value was measured using ratings of new drugs by five independent organizations (Prescrire and health authorities of Canada, France, Germany, and Italy). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Proportion of new drugs rated as having high therapeutic value; association between high therapeutic value rating and expedited status. RESULTS: From 2007 through 2017, the FDA and EMA approved 320 and 268 new drugs, respectively, of which 181 (57%) and 39 (15%) qualified for least one expedited program. Among 267 new drugs with a therapeutic value rating, 84 (31%) were rated as having high therapeutic value by at least one organization. Compared with non-expedited drugs, a greater proportion of expedited drugs were rated as having high therapeutic value among both FDA approvals (45% (69/153) v 13% (15/114); P<0.001) and EMA approvals (67% (18/27) v 27% (65/240); P<0.001). The sensitivity and specificity of expedited program for a drug being independently rated as having high therapeutic value were 82% (95% confidence interval 72% to 90%) and 54% (47% to 62%), respectively, for the FDA, compared with 25.3% (16.4% to 36.0%) and 90.2% (85.0% to 94.1%) for the EMA. CONCLUSIONS: Less than a third of new drugs approved by the FDA and EMA over the past decade were rated as having high therapeutic value by at least one of five independent organizations. Although expedited drugs were more likely than non-expedited drugs to be highly rated, most expedited drugs approved by the FDA but not the EMA were rated as having low therapeutic value.


Asunto(s)
Aprobación de Drogas , Evaluación de Medicamentos , Servicios de Información sobre Medicamentos , Difusión de la Información , Vigilancia de Productos Comercializados , Aprobación de Drogas/métodos , Aprobación de Drogas/estadística & datos numéricos , Evaluación de Medicamentos/métodos , Evaluación de Medicamentos/estadística & datos numéricos , Servicios de Información sobre Medicamentos/organización & administración , Servicios de Información sobre Medicamentos/normas , Servicios de Información sobre Medicamentos/estadística & datos numéricos , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Vigilancia de Productos Comercializados/métodos , Vigilancia de Productos Comercializados/estadística & datos numéricos , Desarrollo de Programa , Mejoramiento de la Calidad , Estudios Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos
12.
Curr Atheroscler Rep ; 22(12): 72, 2020 10 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009957

RESUMEN

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The review highlights selected studies related to cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention that were presented at the 2020 European Society of Cardiology (ESC) Congress-The Digital Experience. RECENT FINDINGS: The studies reviewed include clinical trials on novel RNA interference-based lipid-lowering therapies AKCEA-APOCIII-LRx and vupanorsen (AKCEA-ANGPTL3-LRx); the EVAPORATE trial assessing the effects of icosapent ethyl on coronary plaque volume progression; the LoDoCo2 trial evaluating the efficacy of low-dose colchicine in cardiovascular disease risk reduction among patients with chronic coronary artery disease; as well as the EMPEROR-Reduced trial evaluating cardiovascular and renal outcomes with empagliflozin in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction. In addition, we review the BPLTTC analysis on blood pressure treatment across blood pressure levels and CVD status and discuss findings from the BRACE CORONA study that examined continuing versus suspending angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blockers in patients on these antihypertensive medications who were hospitalized with COVID-19 infection. The studies presented at the 2020 digital ESC Congress highlight the continuing advancements in the field of CVD prevention.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus/fisiología , Cardiología , Fármacos Cardiovasculares/farmacología , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Reguladores del Metabolismo de Lípidos/farmacología , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Compuestos de Bencidrilo/farmacología , Cardiología/métodos , Cardiología/tendencias , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/epidemiología , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/prevención & control , Ensayos Clínicos como Asunto , Congresos como Asunto , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/terapia , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/análogos & derivados , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/farmacología , Europa (Continente) , Glucósidos/farmacología , Humanos , Oligonucleótidos/farmacología , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/terapia , Sociedades Médicas , Telecomunicaciones
13.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 1840-1843, 2020 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018358

RESUMEN

Chronic wound assessment and wound healing are important for diagnostic, follow up and wound treatment. However, this growing disease affecting nearly 2 thousand million and 5.7 million people in the USA and Europe, costing around $20 billion and $8 thousand million USD per year, still relies on subjective human assessment of wounds. A scoping review allowed us to identify 109 articles that map the literature on the topic of computer vision for chronic wound assessment and healing. These results were carefully analyzed and mapped into relevant clinical challenges associated with this field, identifying the maturity of each different computer vision challenge that needs addressing. Results show that wound size and tissue type classification already have interesting work, but various other clinical areas are in need of larger datasets and computer vision research efforts for achieving a relevant impact in today's clinical routine.


Asunto(s)
Computadores , Cicatrización de Heridas , Administración Tópica , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Examen Físico
14.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 2408-2411, 2020 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018492

RESUMEN

The scope of this paper is to present a new carotid vessel segmentation algorithm implementing the U-net based convolutional neural network architecture. With carotid atherosclerosis being the major cause of stroke in Europe, new methods that can provide more accurate image segmentation of the carotid arterial tree and plaque tissue can help improve early diagnosis, prevention and treatment of carotid disease. Herein, we present a novel methodology combining the U-net model and morphological active contours in an iterative framework that accurately segments the carotid lumen and outer wall. The method automatically produces a 3D meshed model of the carotid bifurcation and smaller branches, using multispectral MR image series obtained from two clinical centres of the TAXINOMISIS study. As indicated by a validation study, the algorithm succeeds high accuracy (99.1% for lumen area and 92.6% for the perimeter) for lumen segmentation. The proposed algorithm will be used in the TAXINOMISIS study to obtain more accurate 3D vessel models for improved computational fluid dynamics simulations and the development of models of atherosclerotic plaque progression.


Asunto(s)
Aprendizaje Profundo , Imagenología Tridimensional , Arterias Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagen , Europa (Continente) , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética
15.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 273: 54-62, 2020 Sep 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33087592

RESUMEN

The International Patient Summary Standard (EN 17269) normalizes the dataset within the European Guideline on cross-border exchange of a patient summary. This dataset has been widely appreciated and been taken as the basis for projects in both Europe and wider afield, e.g. U.S.A, Canada and more. The dataset is a relatively mature dataset and it is currently in its third iteration (i.e., 2013, 2016, 2020). Even so, to move from a policy-driven guideline to a formal standard was not straight forward. The paper describes how the 'minimal and non-exhaustive' dataset could be the basis for a reference standard; one that was intended to facilitate both an 'implementable' and 'sustainable' solution. In particular, the requirement of 'extensibility' for the standard dataset had to be addressed.


Asunto(s)
Canadá , Europa (Continente) , Humanos
16.
Maturitas ; 141: 59-62, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33036704

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To examine mortality rates related to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) by gender among European countries. METHODS: PubMed, preprint medRxiv and bioRxiv repositories, and Google were searched for the terms COVID-19, mortality rates, gender, and Europe. Only Google provided a website with appropriate information. COVID-19 cases and deaths from European countries were extracted by gender from the Global Health 50/50 repository up to May 23, 2020. Extracted data included country, the total number of COVID-19 cases and the number of related deaths by gender. Random effects models with the inverse variance method were used for meta-analyses. Results are reported as death risk ratios (RRs). RESULTS: We identified information from 23 European countries that reported separately by gender mortality rates related to COVID-19. The sample comprised 484,919 men and 605,229 women positive for COVID-19. The mortality rate was significantly higher in men than in women (risk ratio = 1.60, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 1.53, 1.68). The trend was similar when countries reporting < 5000, or < 10,000 cases were excluded from the analysis (RR = 1.60, 95 % CI 1.52, 1.69 and RR = 1.68; CI 1.62, 1.76, respectively). CONCLUSION: In Europe, the new zoonotic coronavirus causes significantly more deaths in men than in women.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/mortalidad , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/mortalidad , Betacoronavirus , Europa (Continente)/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Distribución por Sexo
17.
Ambio ; 49(12): 1925-1942, 2020 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33048322

RESUMEN

This article provides useful information for universities offering forestry programs and facing the growing demand for bioeconomy education. An explorative survey on bioeconomy perception among 1400 students enrolled in 29 universities across nine European countries offering forestry programs was performed. The data have been elaborated via descriptive statistics and cluster analysis. Around 70% of respondents have heard about the bioeconomy, mainly through university courses. Students perceive forestry as the most important sector for bioeconomy; however, the extent of perceived importance of forestry varies between countries, most significantly across groups of countries along a North-South European axis. Although differences across bachelor and master programs are less pronounced, they shed light on how bioeconomy is addressed by university programs and the level of student satisfaction with this. These differences and particularities are relevant for potential development routes towards comprehensive bioeconomy curricula at European forestry universities with a forestry focus.


Asunto(s)
Agricultura Forestal , Estudiantes , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Satisfacción Personal , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
18.
Ambio ; 49(12): 1851-1859, 2020 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33051850

RESUMEN

How perceptions of the forest-based bioeconomy differ across country contexts and social groups is important as it opens possibilities for the development of more inclusive, locally and socially relevant bioeconomy policies and strategies. Therefore, this special section explores the social dimensions of the forest-based bioeconomy by focusing on discourses and perceptions of different actor groups in Europe. We introduce six articles that range from review and discursive approaches to consumer studies. The section adds to the existing literature by focusing not only on political decision makers, stakeholders, and experts but also on the public, media and students. Patterns in the presented discourses and perceptions can be identified but more is needed to validate these and respond to the question of representativeness.


Asunto(s)
Bosques , Europa (Continente) , Humanos
19.
Zootaxa ; 4759(1): zootaxa.4759.1.8, 2020 Apr 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056936

RESUMEN

The genus Cypris, considered the oldest ostracod generic name erected using the Linnean system, comprises a reduced number of large-bodied species, mostly found in Africa and Asia. Only six of them are known to occur in Europe. Here we describe a new species, Cypris pretusi sp. nov., collected in small temporary streams and ponds along the Eastern Iberian Peninsula and Minorca (Balearic Islands). The new species is very close to the type species of the genus, Cypris pubera O.F. Müller, 1776, but differs from it in having a set of smaller subequal spines on the posterior edge of the valves, by the absence of conspicuous spines along the front edge, and by the beak-like frontal shape of its carapace in dorsal view, similar to Cypris decaryi Gauthier, 1933. Soft parts are very similar to the type species, but it differs in having shorter swimming setae on the second antennae. Molecular analyses of the COX1 region support its status as a species distinct from C. pubera and closer to Cypris bispinosa Lucas, 1849, also providing evidence for a separation of C. pubera s.l. in two clades, one of which is here considered to correspond to Cypris triaculeata Daday, 1892. We discuss the relationships of C. pretusi sp. nov. to other members of the genus and its possible origin from nearby biogeographic regions (probably Africa or Asia) and provide a key to species of Cypris found in Europe. We also discuss the relationship between Monoculus concha pedata (= M. conchaceus), the first ostracod named by Linnæus, and Cypris pubera, the type species of the genus, described by Müller in 1776 and considered by him the same species as the one first named by Linnæus.


Asunto(s)
Crustáceos , Animales , Europa (Continente) , Masculino , España
20.
Am J Bot ; 107(9): 1283-1295, 2020 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32930404

RESUMEN

PREMISE: The Sphagnum recurvum complex comprises a group of closely related peat mosses that are dominant components of many northern wetland ecosystems. Taxonomic hypotheses for the group range from interpreting the whole complex as one polymorphic species to distinguishing 6-10 species. The complex occurs throughout the Northern Hemisphere, and some of the putative species have intercontinental ranges. Our goals were to delimit the complex and assess its phylogenetic structure in relation to morphologically defined species and intercontinental geography. METHODS: RADseq analyses were applied to a sample of 384 collections from Europe, North America, and Asia. The data were subjected to maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses and analyses of genetic structure using the software STRUCTURE and multivariate ordination approaches. RESULTS: The S. recurvum complex includes S. angustifolium, S. fallax, S. flexuosum, S. pacificum, and S. recurvum as clades with little evidence of admixture. We also resolved an unnamed clade that is referred to here as S. "pseudopacificum." We confirm that S. balticum and S. obtusum are nested within the complex. Species with bluntly acute to obtuse stem leaf apices are sister to those with acute to apiculate leaves. Most of the species exhibit some differentiation between intraspecific population systems disjunct on different continents. CONCLUSIONS: We recognize seven species in the amended S. recurvum complex, including S. balticum and S. obtusum, in addition to the informal clade S. "pseudopacificum." Although we detected some geographically correlated phylogenetic structure within widespread morphospecies, our RADseq data support the interpretation that these species have intercontinental geographic ranges.


Asunto(s)
Briófitas , Sphagnopsida , Asia , Ecosistema , Europa (Continente) , Geografía , América del Norte , Filogenia
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