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1.
Science ; 372(6537)2021 Apr 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33795431

RESUMEN

Culture can be defined as all that is learned from others and is repeatedly transmitted in this way, forming traditions that may be inherited by successive generations. This cultural form of inheritance was once thought specific to humans, but research over the past 70 years has instead revealed it to be widespread in nature, permeating the lives of a diversity of animals, including all major classes of vertebrates. Recent studies suggest that culture's reach may extend also to invertebrates-notably, insects. In the present century, the reach of animal culture has been found to extend across many different behavioral domains and to rest on a suite of social learning processes facilitated by a variety of selective biases that enhance the efficiency and adaptiveness of learning. Far-reaching implications, for disciplines from evolutionary biology to anthropology and conservation policies, are increasingly being explored.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Animal , Invertebrados , Conducta Social , Vertebrados , Animales , Evolución Biológica , Mimetismo Biológico , Conducta Consumatoria , Evolución Cultural , Cultura , Herencia , Humanos , Invertebrados/genética , Invertebrados/fisiología , Aprendizaje , Comportamiento del Uso de la Herramienta , Vertebrados/genética , Vertebrados/fisiología , Vocalización Animal
2.
Science ; 371(6533)2021 03 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33674468

RESUMEN

Spread of contagious pathogens critically depends on the number and types of contacts between infectious and susceptible hosts. Changes in social behavior by susceptible, exposed, or sick individuals thus have far-reaching downstream consequences for infectious disease spread. Although "social distancing" is now an all too familiar strategy for managing COVID-19, nonhuman animals also exhibit pathogen-induced changes in social interactions. Here, we synthesize the effects of infectious pathogens on social interactions in animals (including humans), review what is known about underlying mechanisms, and consider implications for evolution and epidemiology.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Transmisibles/transmisión , Interacciones Huésped-Patógeno , Conducta Social , Animales , Evolución Biológica , /prevención & control , Humanos , Riesgo
4.
Science ; 371(6535): 1253-1256, 2021 03 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33737486

RESUMEN

The ecomorphological diversity of extinct elasmobranchs is incompletely known. Here, we describe Aquilolamna milarcae, a bizarre probable planktivorous shark from early Late Cretaceous open marine deposits in Mexico. Aquilolamna, tentatively assigned to Lamniformes, is characterized by hypertrophied, slender pectoral fins. This previously unknown body plan represents an unexpected evolutionary experimentation with underwater flight among sharks, more than 30 million years before the rise of manta and devil rays (Mobulidae), and shows that winglike pectoral fins have evolved independently in two distantly related clades of filter-feeding elasmobranchs. This newly described group of highly specialized long-winged sharks (Aquilolamnidae) displays an aquilopelagic-like ecomorphotype and may have occupied, in late Mesozoic seas, the ecological niche filled by mobulids and other batoids after the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary.


Asunto(s)
Evolución Biológica , Fósiles , Tiburones/anatomía & histología , Tiburones/fisiología , Aletas de Animales/anatomía & histología , Animales , Ecosistema , Elasmobranquios/anatomía & histología , Elasmobranquios/fisiología , Conducta Alimentaria , México , Océanos y Mares , Paleodontología , Plancton , Tiburones/clasificación , Natación , Diente/anatomía & histología
5.
Zootaxa ; 4902(1): zootaxa.4902.1.1, 2021 Jan 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33757113

RESUMEN

Evolutionary history, diversity and (paleo)geographic distribution of Cainozoic to present-day species of the Trochidae subfamilies Cantharidinae and Trochinae are discussed based on an extensive literature survey. In total, 393 species-level taxa, assigned to 24 genera and subgenera, are listed from the NE Atlantic, the E Atlantic, the North Sea, the (Proto)-Mediterranean Sea, the Central Paratethys Sea and the Eastern Paratethys Sea. Short diagnosis and subjective and objective junior synonyms for genus-level taxa are given. Stratigraphic ranges and geographic distribution are listed for species-level taxa.                The European fossil record suggests a first major radiation during the middle Eocene and a second diversity pulse during the Miocene, when most extant genera were already present. At the species level, however, the present-day fauna is geologically very young, originating during the Pleistocene and Holocene. Overall, no convincing correlation of evolution and diversity of European Cantharidinae and Trochinae with major geodynamic events (e.g. Tethys Closure) can be observed. An exception is the somewhat overlooked spectacular radiation of Cantharidinae following the hydrological isolation of the Paratethys Sea during the late Miocene. The critical evaluation of the fossil record provides anchor points to test molecular phylogenies. A major discrepancy between both approaches appears only for Jujubinus, which suggests that Paleocene species have to be excluded from the genus.                Gibbuliculus nov. gen. is introduced as new genus for a group of Oligocene to Pleistocene species, placed so far in "Colliculus" sensu auctores non Monterosato, 1888. Anceps siminescui nov. nom, Gibbuliculus saccoi nov. nom, Gibbula tavanii nov. nom., Gibbula s.l. lovellreevei nov. nom. and Gibbula s.l. steiningeri nov. nom. are proposed as new names for the preoccupied Trochus semistriatus Siminescu Barbu, 1940, Gibbula protumida Sacco, 1896, Gibbula minima Tavani, 1939, Trochus (Gibbula) reevei Harmer, 1923 and Trochus amedei bicincta Schaffer, 1912.


Asunto(s)
Gastrópodos/clasificación , Filogenia , Animales , Evolución Biológica , Fósiles , Mar del Norte
6.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1447, 2021 03 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33664263

RESUMEN

Identifying the genetic factors that underlie complex traits is central to understanding the mechanistic underpinnings of evolution. Cave-dwelling Astyanax mexicanus populations are well adapted to subterranean life and many populations appear to have evolved troglomorphic traits independently, while the surface-dwelling populations can be used as a proxy for the ancestral form. Here we present a high-resolution, chromosome-level surface fish genome, enabling the first genome-wide comparison between surface fish and cavefish populations. Using this resource, we performed quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping analyses and found new candidate genes for eye loss such as dusp26. We used CRISPR gene editing in A. mexicanus to confirm the essential role of a gene within an eye size QTL, rx3, in eye formation. We also generated the first genome-wide evaluation of deletion variability across cavefish populations to gain insight into this potential source of cave adaptation. The surface fish genome reference now provides a more complete resource for comparative, functional and genetic studies of drastic trait differences within a species.


Asunto(s)
Adaptación Fisiológica/genética , Characidae/embriología , Characidae/genética , Ojo/embriología , Herencia Multifactorial/genética , Animales , Evolución Biológica , Cuevas , Mapeo Cromosómico , Evolución Molecular , Edición Génica , Genoma/genética , Proteínas de Homeodominio/genética , Fosfatasas de la Proteína Quinasa Activada por Mitógenos/genética , Sitios de Carácter Cuantitativo/genética
7.
Zootaxa ; 4908(4): zootaxa.4908.4.8, 2021 Jan 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33756605

RESUMEN

We report the first record of Branchipodopsis affinis Sars, 1901 (Branchiopoda, Anostraca) from Iran. The specimens were collected in small temporary pools in the Bazargan area located in West Azerbaijan province, in spring 2015. Details on the biogeography, ecology and morphology of this species are provided. The DNA sequence data (COI) for this species is reported for the first time, which can be used in the identification of species on molecular terms and generation of information regarding the evolutionary relationship of the species in future. Also, the new finding is an important contribution to the knowledge of the anostracan fauna from Iran.


Asunto(s)
Anostraca , Crustáceos , Animales , Azerbaiyán , Evolución Biológica , Irán
8.
Zootaxa ; 4926(1): zootaxa.4926.1.5, 2021 Feb 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33756760

RESUMEN

The teleostean family Balitoridae comprises small-sized freshwater fishes adapted to swift-flowing torrential mountain streams in South and South-East Asia. Little is known about their molecular phylogenetics and evolutionary biogeography, and much of the scientific literature that references them is focused on morphological taxonomy. In this paper, we generate CO1 sequences for the endemic balitorid lineages of the Western Ghats (WG) Hotspot in India, particularly for the endemic genera, Bhavania, Ghatsa and Travancoria. Integration of these data into a phylogeny revealed that the endemic WG genera together form a well-supported monophyletic clade that shows, subject to our limited taxon sampling, a sister-group relationship to the Southeast Asian genus Pseudohomaloptera. Three WG endemic species of the genus Balitora, namely B. chipkali, B. jalpalli and B. laticauda, though morphologically distinct, have low genetic divergence and barcode gap, suggestive of recent speciation. Interestingly, a fourth WG endemic, B. mysorensis, formed a clade with two species of Balitora from Eastern-Himalaya and Indo-Burma. We also show that all available CO1 sequences assigned to WG endemic balitorid genera in GenBank are misidentifications, and provide diagnostic characters for the accurate identification of these taxa in the future.


Asunto(s)
Cipriniformes , Animales , Evolución Biológica , Cipriniformes/genética , Filogenia
9.
Zootaxa ; 4939(1): zootaxa.4939.1.1, 2021 Mar 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33756955

RESUMEN

The amphipod genus Jassa Leach, 1814 now comprises 24 species that occur in temperate regions of both hemispheres on solid substrates from the lower intertidal zone to 500 m depth. The propensity for some species to form dense colonies in water intake structures and offshore platforms has brought them to attention as an unwanted pest. Based on the examination of ~25,000 specimens from ~1,100 museum and private collections, it is evident that some species of Jassa have been transported by human vectors since at least the 19th century and now occur widely. Their colonial, tube-living habit enables such transport, and collection records document them on ships, buoys and portable water systems as well as on natural movable substrates such as logs, drift algae and larger crustaceans. Because Jassa can be so readily found, but species discrimination has had a problematic history, the purpose of this monograph is to assist researchers to identify species through illustrations, descriptions, keys and habitat summaries. Seven species which were named in the 19th century but whose names have lapsed are placed in the context of currently known species. Two new species, J. laurieae n. sp. and J. kimi n. sp. are described, and J. monodon (Heller, 1866) and J. valida (Dana, 1853) are resurrected. Jassa mendozai Winfield et al., 2021 is submerged under J. valida, and J. cadetta Krapp et al., 2008 and J. trinacriae Krapp et al., 2010 are submerged under J. slatteryi Conlan, 1990. Morphological differences are related to current understanding of growth, behaviour and ecology. CO1 analysis suggests a Southern Hemisphere origin with diversification northward and an evolutionary direction toward greater physiological plasticity, leading to success in long distance transport and establishment in exotic locations. Correct identification of Jassa world-wide will facilitate further research on this ecologically important genus and will allow for differentiation of indigenous from exotic introductions.


Asunto(s)
Anfípodos , Distribución Animal , Animales , Evolución Biológica , Ecosistema , Filogenia
11.
Science ; 371(6534): 1099-1100, 2021 03 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33707251
12.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(suppl 2): e20200084, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33681891

RESUMEN

Recently, the morphology and encephalization of the brain endocast of the Triassic non-mammaliaform probainognathian cynodont Riograndia guaibensis were studied. Here, we analyzed the brain endocast of an additional specimen of this species. The new endocast shows well-defined olfactory bulbs and a median sulcus dividing the hemispheres, traits that were not clearly observed in the first studied specimen. Encephalization quotients were also calculated, revealing similar values to other non-mammaliaform cynodonts and lower than those of the first analyzed specimen. The analyzed cranium is slightly larger than the first studied one and may represent an advanced ontogenetic stage. Hence, these differences may be related to the intraspecific variation of this cynodont or alternatively, to the preservation of each specimen.


Asunto(s)
Fósiles , Cráneo , Evolución Biológica , Encéfalo , Fenotipo , Filogenia , Cráneo/anatomía & histología
13.
Science ; 371(6536)2021 03 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33766854

RESUMEN

Behavioral isolation can catalyze speciation and permit the slow accumulation of additional reproductive barriers between co-occurring organisms. We illustrate how this process occurs by examining the genomic and behavioral bases of pre-mating isolation between two bird species (Sporophila hypoxantha and the recently discovered S. iberaensis) that belong to the southern capuchino seedeaters, a recent, rapid radiation characterized by variation in male plumage coloration and song. Although these two species co-occur without obvious ecological barriers to reproduction, we document behaviors indicating species recognition by song and plumage traits and strong assortative mating associated with genomic regions underlying male plumage patterning. Plumage differentiation likely originated through the reassembly of standing genetic variation, indicating how novel sexual signals may quickly arise and maintain species boundaries.


Asunto(s)
Especiación Genética , Preferencia en el Apareamiento Animal , Passeriformes/genética , Passeriformes/fisiología , Aislamiento Reproductivo , Animales , Argentina , Evolución Biológica , Femenino , Variación Genética , Genoma , Haplotipos , Masculino , Mutación , Pigmentación/genética , Simpatría , Vocalización Animal
14.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1879, 2021 03 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33767194

RESUMEN

In modern oceans, eukaryotic phytoplankton is dominated by lineages with red algal-derived plastids such as diatoms, dinoflagellates, and coccolithophores. Despite the ecological importance of these groups and many others representing a huge diversity of forms and lifestyles, we still lack a comprehensive understanding of their evolution and how they obtained their plastids. New hypotheses have emerged to explain the acquisition of red algal-derived plastids by serial endosymbiosis, but the chronology of these putative independent plastid acquisitions remains untested. Here, we establish a timeframe for the origin of red algal-derived plastids under scenarios of serial endosymbiosis, using Bayesian molecular clock analyses applied on a phylogenomic dataset with broad sampling of eukaryote diversity. We find that the hypotheses of serial endosymbiosis are chronologically possible, as the stem lineages of all red plastid-containing groups overlap in time. This period in the Meso- and Neoproterozoic Eras set the stage for the later expansion to dominance of red algal-derived primary production in the contemporary oceans, which profoundly altered the global geochemical and ecological conditions of the Earth.


Asunto(s)
Evolución Molecular , Plastidios/genética , Rhodophyta/genética , Evolución Biológica , Diatomeas/genética , Dinoflagelados/genética , Haptophyta/genética , Océanos y Mares , Fotosíntesis/genética , Fotosíntesis/fisiología , Plastidios/metabolismo , Simbiosis/genética
15.
Zool Res ; 42(2): 195-206, 2021 Mar 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33709634

RESUMEN

Although widely thought to be aggressive, solitary, and potentially cannibalistic, some spider species have evolved group-living behaviors. The distinct transition provides the framework to uncover group-living evolution. Here, we conducted a comparative transcriptomic study and examined patterns of molecular evolution in two independently evolved group-living spiders and twelve solitary species. We report that positively selected genes among group-living spider lineages are significantly enriched in nutrient metabolism and autophagy pathways. We also show that nutrient-related genes of group-living spiders convergently experience amino acid substitutions and accelerated relative evolutionary rates. These results indicate adaptive convergence of nutrient metabolism that may ensure energy supply in group-living spiders. The decelerated evolutionary rate of autophagy-related genes in group-living lineages is consistent with an increased constraint on energy homeostasis as would be required in a group-living environment. Together, the results show that energy metabolic pathways play an important role in the transition to group-living in spiders.


Asunto(s)
Evolución Biológica , Metabolismo Energético/fisiología , Conducta Social , Arañas/fisiología , Sustitución de Aminoácidos , Animales , Metabolismo Energético/genética , Regulación de la Expresión Génica/fisiología , Arañas/genética
16.
Zool Res ; 42(2): 135-137, 2021 03 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33709637

RESUMEN

The water-to-land transition was a major step in vertebrate evolution and eventually gave rise to the tetrapods, including amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. The first land invasion of our fish ancestors is considered to have occurred during the late Devonian period ~370 million years ago (Daeschler et al., 2006). Many fossils from important transitional species, such as Tiktaalik, Acanthostega, and Ichthyostega, have helped to identify key morphological and anatomical structures crucial to vertebrate terrestrial adaptation (Coates, 1996; Johanson & Ahlberg, 2001; Shubin et al., 2006). However, homologous analyses of these body forms and structures in more ancient species have suggested that some of the morphologies related to vertebrate land dispersal were already present in early bony fish species. For instance, the presence of shoulder girdles on the articular surface of the endoskeleton in Late Lochkovian Psarolepis indicates that stem sarcopterygians already possessed an endoskeletal fin pattern similar to that of tetrapod stylopods (Zhu & Yu, 2009). In addition, primitive lungs, which originated from the respiratory pharynx and were located on the ventral side of the alimentary tracts, can be observed in several extant basal actinopterygians (bichirs, reedfish) and all extant sarcopterygians, as well as some fossils of coelacanths and salamanders (Cupello et al., 2017; Tissier et al., 2017) (Figure 1). This evidence suggests that, instead of relying on genetic innovations evolving after the first fish left their water habitat, this transition may have been accomplished by adopting physical traits and genetic components that already existed far earlier than when the transition occurred. Whether such an ancestral developmental regulatory network was present or not and how far this ancestral network can be traced in history are challenging questions for paleontologists. Three recent papers published in Cell provide new insights into this hypothesis. Wang et al. (2021) sequenced the giant genome of lungfish, the closest fish species to tetrapods, and Bi et al. (2021) sequenced the genomes of multiple early divergent ray-finned fish. Comparative genomic analyses from these two studies confirmed the presence of ancestral genetic regulatory networks that likely played essential roles in the development and evolution of various biological functions related to vertebrate land invasion. Although certain ancestral features have been lost in teleosts, the most derived fish lineage to evolve after whole-genome duplication (Sato & Nishida, 2010), they have been recreated in zebrafish by modifying their genetic makeup to reactivate the ancestral genetic network (Hawkins et al., 2021).


Asunto(s)
Factores de Transcripción con Motivo Hélice-Asa-Hélice Básico/metabolismo , Evolución Biológica , Peces/anatomía & histología , Peces/genética , Regulación de la Expresión Génica/fisiología , Animales , Factores de Transcripción con Motivo Hélice-Asa-Hélice Básico/genética , Extremidades , Edición Génica , Ventrículos Cardíacos/anatomía & histología , Pulmón , Ratones , Ratones Noqueados
17.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2212: 121-154, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33733354

RESUMEN

I show how to use OncoSimulR, software for forward-time genetic simulations, to simulate evolution of asexual populations in the presence of epistatic interactions. This chapter emphasizes the specification of fitness and epistasis, both directly (i.e., specifying the effects of individual mutations and their epistatic interactions) and indirectly (using models for random fitness landscapes).


Asunto(s)
Epistasis Genética , Genes Relacionados con las Neoplasias , Aptitud Genética , Modelos Genéticos , Mutación , Neoplasias/genética , Animales , Evolución Biológica , Simulación por Computador , Sitios Genéticos , Genotipo , Humanos , Neoplasias/patología , Selección Genética , Programas Informáticos
18.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1783, 2021 03 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33741994

RESUMEN

Resolving the relationships between the major lineages in the animal tree of life is necessary to understand the origin and evolution of key animal traits. Sponges, characterized by their simple body plan, were traditionally considered the sister group of all other animal lineages, implying a gradual increase in animal complexity from unicellularity to complex multicellularity. However, the availability of genomic data has sparked tremendous controversy as some phylogenomic studies support comb jellies taking this position, requiring secondary loss or independent origins of complex traits. Here we show that incorporating site-heterogeneous mixture models and recoding into partitioned phylogenomics alleviates systematic errors that hamper commonly-applied phylogenetic models. Testing on real datasets, we show a great improvement in model-fit that attenuates branching artefacts induced by systematic error. We reanalyse key datasets and show that partitioned phylogenomics does not support comb jellies as sister to other animals at either the supermatrix or partition-specific level.


Asunto(s)
Ctenóforos/genética , Genoma/genética , Genómica/métodos , Filogenia , Poríferos/genética , Animales , Evolución Biológica , Ctenóforos/clasificación , Modelos Genéticos , Poríferos/clasificación , Especificidad de la Especie
19.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1525, 2021 03 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33750763

RESUMEN

Anolis lizards originated in continental America but have colonized the Greater Antillean islands and recolonized the mainland, resulting in three major groups (Primary and Secondary Mainland and Greater Antillean). The adaptive radiation in the Greater Antilles has famously resulted in the repeated evolution of ecomorphs. Yet, it remains poorly understood to what extent this island radiation differs from diversification on the mainland. Here, we demonstrate that the evolutionary modularity between girdles and limbs is fundamentally different in the Greater Antillean and Primary Mainland Anolis. This is consistent with ecological opportunities on islands driving the adaptive radiation along distinct evolutionary trajectories. However, Greater Antillean Anolis share evolutionary modularity with the group that recolonized the mainland, demonstrating a persistent phylogenetic inertia. A comparison of these two groups support an increased morphological diversity and faster and more variable evolutionary rates on islands. These macroevolutionary trends of the locomotor skeleton in Anolis illustrate that ecological opportunities on islands can have lasting effects on morphological diversification.


Asunto(s)
Evolución Biológica , Lagartos/anatomía & histología , Lagartos/clasificación , Filogenia , Esqueleto/anatomía & histología , Animales , Región del Caribe , Extremidades , Femenino , Islas , Masculino , Sistema Musculoesquelético/anatomía & histología , Filogeografía , Especificidad de la Especie
20.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(suppl 2): e20200762, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33533794

RESUMEN

CT scans of the type braincase of Limaysaurus tessonei (MUCPv-205) allowed the first study of the endocranial cavities (brain and inner ear) for this South American taxon. Comparisons of the cranial endocast of L. tessonei with other sauropods indicate that 1) South American rebbachisaurids are more similar to each other than to Nigersaurus, and 2) certain association of traits are present in all known rebbachisaurid cranial endocasts, such as lack of an enlarged dorsal expansion, poorly laterally projected cerebral hemispheres, presence of a small flocculus of the cerebellum, markedly long passage for the facial nerve (CN VII), markedly inclined pituitary, and presence of a passage for the basilar artery communicating the floor of the endocranial cavity and the pituitary fossa. The relatively enlarged olfactory region indicates that smell was an important sense for this group of dinosaurs, suggesting different olfactory capabilities when compared to coeval titanosaurs.


Asunto(s)
Dinosaurios , Fósiles , Animales , Evolución Biológica , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagen , Dinosaurios/anatomía & histología , Cráneo/anatomía & histología , Cráneo/diagnóstico por imagen , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X
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