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1.
BMC Psychol ; 9(1): 20, 2021 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33526088

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Recently, we showed that 4-week mindfulness-based intervention (MBI) followed by 4-week existential approach (EXMIND) was as effective for developing self-compassion as 8-week MBI. This study aims to identify the predictors to EXMIND. METHODS: Of the 63 participants who completed the EXMIND group, 60 participants had baseline, 4-week, and 8-week total scores of the Self-Compassion Scale (SCS). Of the participants, 49 were female and 11 were male, with a mean age of 48.4 years. We investigated the participants' intervention response patterns, then used analysis of variance to compared those patterns by age, gender, and the baseline scores of the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa and San Diego Auto-questionnaire, the Temperament and Character Inventory, Mini-Mental State Examination, the Japanese Adult Reading Test, Young Mania Rating Scale, Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, the Parental Bonding Instrument, and the Purpose in Life Test. In addition, multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify any response pattern predictors. RESULTS: Participants were divided into 4 groups based on response patterns in the changes of total SCS scores of the EXMIND group. The first group consisted of 15 participants who responded positively to MBI, but negatively to the existential approach (A group). The second group consisted of 23 participants who responded negatively to MBI, but positively to the existential approach (B group). The third group consisted of 20 participants who responded positively to both MBI and the existential approach (C group). The fourth group consisted of only 2 participants who responded negatively to both MBI and the existential approach (D group). Participants who responded positively to both MBI and the existential approach (C group) reported more maternal overprotectiveness than the other participants (groups A, B, and D). CONCLUSIONS: The present findings suggest that maternal overprotection may predict consistent improvement of self-compassion during EXMIND therapy.


Asunto(s)
Empatía , Existencialismo , Atención Plena , Autoimagen , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Conducta Materna , Persona de Mediana Edad , Relaciones Madre-Hijo , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Resultado del Tratamiento
2.
Rev. med. cine ; 16(4): 289-296, dic. 2020. ilus
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-199494

RESUMEN

El filme dirigido por Scott Hicks narra la historia del pianista australiano David Helfgott, a partir de su niñez y juventud jalonada por notables éxitos musicales, luego truncados a raíz de una enfermedad mental, en cuya génesis subyace una infancia impregnada de conflictos familiares. Tras un prolongado período de institucionalización, David comienza a reinsertarse en sociedad, y su situación se recompone ostensiblemente al conocer a Gillian quien posteriormente se convertirá en su segunda esposa y lo ayudará a reconciliarse con su existencia como para encarar un proyecto de vida en plenitud


The film directed by Scott Hicks uncovers the story of the Australian pianist David Helfgott, from his early years and youth denoted by prominent musical achievements, further curtailed because of a mental illness preceded by a childhood full of familial conflicts. After a prolonged period of psychiatric institutionalization, David starts to reintegrate into the society. His situation clearly improves upon meeting Gillian who will later become his second wife helping him to accomplish an existential reconciliation as well as facing up to a «fullness of life» project


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Películas Cinematográficas , Música/psicología , Psicología del Esquizofrénico , Existencialismo/psicología , Perfil de Impacto de Enfermedad
3.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(Suppl 1): 207-209, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890391

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Mental disorder is known to be as a loss of existential paradigm; individual's functioning is lacking in all areas. Therefore, it is difficult to point out what the patients exactly need because their needs are set on a broad range of a difficult boundary. The level of care that follows will be complex and multifactorial because nursing will challenge the interaction with the individual as a whole: behaviors and relations with family members. At this stage exploring interpersonal conflicts, with past and present aggression behaviors will be crucial. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Aim of this paper is to investigate the professional experience in a work context where the patient's clinical condition poses a daily challenge from a physical and emotional perspective. Narrative investigation is performed here in order to explore the psychological load of the professional's psychological experience and its implication in facing aggressive situations. Moreover, this investigation highlights the importance of some professional and personal resources that can be made available to the operator. RESULTS: These tools could improve the understanding of the subjective experience of acute events guiding the individual through an exploration of the phenomenology of what happened decreasing the intimate stress load. CONCLUSIONS: A constant updating, the knowledge of de-escalation techniques and sharing the experience in dedicated settings could be important allies in the management of risk events.


Asunto(s)
Agresión , Salud Mental , Relaciones Enfermero-Paciente , Existencialismo , Familia , Humanos
4.
Av. enferm ; 38(2): 159-169, May-Aug. 2020. tab
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1114686

RESUMEN

Resumo Objetivo: compreender as percepções dos motoristas de ônibus quanto às vivências no trabalho e aos impactos em seu corpo. Métodos: estudo descritivo pautado no pensamento do fenomenólogo Maurice Merleau-Ponty, realizado em uma garagem de ônibus, de julho 2017 a janeiro de 2018. Foram entrevistados 24 motoristas de ônibus, com mais de dois anos de profissão. As perguntas abertas do roteiro de entrevista fenomenológica possibilitaram a livre expressão dos significados do trabalho sobre a saúde. Resultados: as relações interpessoais no trânsito impactam diretamente o estado físico e psicológico, e a relação com o tempo influencia o comportamento dos condutores. Conclusão: melhorias no trabalho e nas relações interpessoais são necessárias a fim de garantir a preservação da saúde do motorista de ônibus, que é parte essencial no processo de deslocamento da população, e atenção à saúde mental dos motoristas é pouco valorizada, mas indispensável para o trabalho com pessoas.


Resumen Objetivo: entender las percepciones de los conductores de autobuses en cuanto a las experiencias en el trabajo y los impactos en sus cuerpos. Métodos: estudio descriptivo basado en el pensamiento de fenomenólogo Maurice Merleau-Ponty, realizado en un garaje de autobuses de julio de 2017 a enero de 2018. Se entrevistaron 24 conductores de autobuses, con más de dos años en la ocupación. Las preguntas abiertas del guion de la entrevista fenomenológica permitieron la libre expresión del significado del trabajo sobre la salud. Resultados: las relaciones interpersonales en el tránsito afectan directamente el estado físico y psicológico, y la relación con el tiempo influye en el comportamiento de los conductores. Conclusión: mejoras en el trabajo y en las relaciones interpersonales son necesarias para garantizar la preservación de la salud del conductor de autobús, que es una parte esencial en el proceso de desplazamiento de la población, y la atención a la salud mental de los conductores es poco valorada, pero indispensable para el trabajo con personas.


Abstract Objective: To understand the perceptions of bus drivers as to the experiences at work and the impacts on their bodies. Methods: Descriptive study based on the phenomenological approach by scholar Maurice Merleau-Ponty, held at a bus garage in the period from July 2017 to January 2018. Twenty-four bus drivers with more than two years of occupation were interviewed. Open-ended questions in the interview script allowed free expression of the phenomenological meanings of work on health. Results: Interpersonal relations directly affect bus drivers' physical and psychological state. Besides, the relationship with time in traffic influences their behavior. Conclusion: Improvements in work and interpersonal relations are necessary in order to ensure the preservation of bus drivers' health, as an essential part for the displacement of the population. Attention to drivers' mental health is little valued, although it becomes essential for a people-related type of work, such as this.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Trabajo , Impactos en la Salud , Investigación Cualitativa , Existencialismo , Enfermería del Trabajo , Percepción , Conducta , Ocupaciones
5.
Sci Data ; 7(1): 140, 2020 05 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32385303

RESUMEN

We present two datasets from a project about the relationship between traumatic life experiences and religiosity. These include data from 1,754 individuals in the United States (n = 322), Brazil (n = 205), China (n = 202), India (n = 205), Indonesia (n = 205), Russia (n = 205), Thailand (n = 205), and Turkey (n = 205). Surveys were consistent across samples: they include measures of traumatic life experiences, negative affective traits, existential security, life satisfaction, death anxiety, and various religious beliefs, attitudes, and behaviours. Psychometric evaluations of measures of supernatural belief and death anxiety were conducted.


Asunto(s)
Trauma Psicológico , Psicometría , Religión , Afecto , Ansiedad , Actitud Frente a la Muerte , Brasil , China , Existencialismo , Humanos , India , Indonesia , Satisfacción Personal , Federación de Rusia , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Tailandia , Turquia , Estados Unidos
6.
Patient Educ Couns ; 103(8): 1657-1661, 2020 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32268986

RESUMEN

The availability in many countries of new prenatal anomaly screening methods, such as the non-invasive prenatal test (NIPT), and the potential broadening of testing for genetic conditions, creates an ongoing debate about the accompanying existential dilemmas at both societal level and for individual new parents. In many countries, the main goal of counselling for prenatal anomaly screening is to facilitate the reproductive decision-making process of future parents. Therefore, counsellors share information to enable a woman and her partner to think about the pros and cons of participating in screening, try to clarify possible moral dilemmas, and dwell on existential life questions. In line with the CanMEDS framework, healthcare professionals must combine the role of communicator (providing health education) with that of professional (by recognising and responding to existential life questions while facilitating decision-making). This is not easy but it is essential for providing balanced counselling. At present, counselling tends to be sufficient regarding health education, whereas guidance in decision-making, including attention for existential life questions and philosophy of life, offers room for improvement. In this paper, we suggest slowing down and turning the traditional prenatal counselling encounter upside down by starting as a counselling professional instead of a healthcare information sharing communicator and thus making the story of the woman and her partner, within their societal context, the starting point and the basis of the counselling encounter.


Asunto(s)
Consejo , Existencialismo , Diagnóstico Prenatal/métodos , Femenino , Personal de Salud , Humanos , Embarazo , Diagnóstico Prenatal/psicología
7.
Memorandum ; 37: 1-21, 20200401.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS | ID: biblio-1103106

RESUMEN

Este trabalho é um estudo teórico que objetiva abordar aspectos centrais da Antropologia Filosófica presentes em dois autores existencialistas: SørenKierkegaard e Viktor Frankl. A partir do estudo do que é o homem, apresentamos algumas importantes questões existenciais que, embora desenvolvidas pelos autores supracitados nos séculos XIX e XX, respectivamente, permanecem atuais: o desespero e a busca pelo sentido, liberdade, responsabilidade, possibilidade e necessidade, angústia e vazio existencial. Partimos da pesquisa qualitativa, por meio de uma revisão de literatura, buscando atender ao objetivo proposto. Compreendemos que a dimensão do espírito diferencia o homem dos outros seres. Ambos os autores destacam a esfera espiritual e compreendem o humano em sua integralidade. Conclui-se que Kierkegaard eFrankl, em seus pressupostos, oferecem possibilidade de conhecimento do homem e de questões existenciais relevantes para nossa sociedade permeada pelo desespero e pelo vazio existencial. Assim, as proposições dos autores contribuem especialmente para as ciências humanas


This paper is a theoretical study that aims to approach central aspects of Philosophical Anthropology present in two existentialist authors: Søren Kierkegaard and Viktor Frankl. From the study of what man is, we present some important existential questions that, although developed by these authors in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries respectively, remain current: despair and the search for meaning, freedom, responsibility, possibility and necessity, anguish and existential void. We started from the qualitative research, through a literature review seeking to meet the proposed objective. We understand that the dimension of the spirit differentiates man from other beings. Both authors highlight the spiritual realm and understand the human in its entirety. We conclude that Kierkegaard and Frankl, in their assumptions, offer the possibility of knowledge of man, and of existential questions relevant to our society, which is permeated by despair and existential emptiness. Thus, the authors' propositions contribute especially to the humanities


Asunto(s)
Antropología , Existencialismo
8.
Memorandum ; 37: 1-21, Abril 01, 2020.
Artículo en Portugués, Inglés | Index Psicología - Revistas técnico-científicas | ID: psi-72074

RESUMEN

Este trabalho é um estudo teórico que objetiva abordar aspectos centrais da Antropologia Filosófica presentes em dois autores existencialistas: Søren Kierkegaard e Viktor Frankl. A partir do estudo do que é o homem, apresentamos algumas importantes questões existenciais que, embora desenvolvidas pelos autores supracitados nos séculos XIX e XX, respectivamente, permanecem atuais: o desespero e a busca pelo sentido, liberdade, responsabilidade, possibilidade e necessidade, angústia e vazio existencial.Partimos da pesquisa qualitativa, por meio de uma revisão de literatura, buscando atender ao objetivo proposto. Compreendemos que a dimensão do espírito diferencia o homem dos outros seres. Ambos os autores destacam a esfera espiritual e compreendem o humano em sua integralidade. Conclui-se que Kierkegaard e Frankl, em seus pressupostos, oferecem possibilidade de conhecimento do homem e de questões existenciais relevantes para nossa sociedade permeada pelo desespero e pelo vazio existencial. Assim, as proposições dos autores contribuem especialmente para as ciências humanas.


This paper is a theoretical study that aims to approach central aspects of Philosophical Anthropology present in two existentialist authors: Søren Kierkegaard and Viktor Frankl. From the study of what man is, we present some important existential questions that, although developed by these authors in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries respectively, remain current: despair and the search for meaning, freedom, responsibility, possibility and necessity, anguish and existential void. We started from the qualitative research, through a literature review seeking to meet the proposed objective. We understand that the dimension of the spirit differentiates man from other beings. Both authors highlight the spiritual realm and understand the human in its entirety. We conclude that Kierkegaard and Frankl, in their assumptions, offer the possibility of knowledge of man, and of existential questions relevant to our society, which is permeated by despair and existential emptiness. Thus, the authors' propositions contribute especially to the humanities.


Asunto(s)
Psicología , Antropología , Filosofía , Existencialismo
9.
Int J Qual Stud Health Well-being ; 15(1): 1734166, 2020 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32116141

RESUMEN

Purpose: Spouses are in a vulnerable situation when caring for a frail partner late in life. Exploring their existential loneliness can be a way to understand more about their existential needs.Method: A hermeneutic approach was used. Multistage focus group interviews were conducted with two groups consisting of five spouses, respectively, who met three times each. To work with the text, an approach was adapted where quotations are converted into poems in a linguistic manner.Results: Existential loneliness can be understood as the following: 1) being in a transition from us to merely me, 2) being forced to make decisions and feeling excluded, 3) navigating in an unfamiliar situation and questioning oneself, and 4) longing for togetherness but lacking the energy to encounter other people. The main interpretation is that existential loneliness emerges when one is in moments of inner struggle, when one is forced to make impossible choices, when one is approaching and is in limit situations, and when one is experiencing the endless loss of the other.Conclusion: For health care professionals to achieve a holistic picture, person-centeredness can be a way to make the spouses' existential needs visible and to provide support based on their needs.


Asunto(s)
Cuidadores/psicología , Anciano Frágil , Hermenéutica , Soledad , Esposos/psicología , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Existencialismo , Femenino , Grupos Focales , Humanos , Masculino
10.
Int J Qual Stud Health Well-being ; 15(1): 1736769, 2020 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32156205

RESUMEN

Background: In-depth understanding of the experiences of both well-being and suffering in relation to being severely obese and becoming active through lifestyle intervention is lacking.Aim: to explore and describe adults' existential experiences of being active, when living within a large body-before and during a lifestyle intervention.Methods: A longitudinal design of repeated individual interviews with 16 adults with BMI ≥40, based on hermeneutic phenomenology, existential philosophy and a theory of well-being was performed. The study was approved by the Danish health authorities.Results: Two dimensions of experiences were found; "Living within a downward spiral" and "Striving for enjoyment and settlement". The themes describing suffering were: 'Sense of being thwarted and defeated ' and "Tackling energy depletion and impact of sense of self". The themes describing well-being were: "Hoping for renewal and energised resoluteness" and "Enduring discomfort and feeling safe".Conclusions: Interacting existential experiences can be facilitators or barriers for physical activity. It seems relevant for health care providers to address the individual's lifeworld experiences of well-being, lack of well-being and suffering. Well-being as a sense of feeling "at home" when physically active may break down an inactivity spiral. Promoting well-being is a legitimate aim of lifestyle intervention.


Asunto(s)
Ejercicio Físico/psicología , Existencialismo , Estilo de Vida , Obesidad Mórbida/psicología , Estrés Psicológico , Adaptación Psicológica , Adulto , Anciano , Dinamarca/epidemiología , Femenino , Hermenéutica , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad
11.
Schmerz ; 34(4): 326-331, 2020 Aug.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32189069

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: People have the need to find explanations for the events that occur in their lives. This is especially true when it comes to experiences that impact a person's entire existence and endanger their self-esteem and sense of identity. Chronic pain is one such experience. The search for the cause behind such pain is primarily motivated by the expectation that once the cause of the pain has been identified, an effective pain-alleviating therapy should ensue. Due to the numerous advances in the last several decades towards understanding the fundamental mechanisms governing the origins and processing as well as the treatment of pain, such expectations towards medicine can frequently be met; however, in many cases the experiences of chronic pain remain difficult to explain and, above all, very difficult to manage. GOAL: In this article the authors aim to show that it is important to avoid fixation on the question of why, especially with people suffering from chronic pain. METHOD: The article starts by describing how an exclusive orientation towards cause-effect-relationship in the medical context can also lead to negative consequences. Through recourse to the central theses of the existentialist philosopher Albert Camus, the meaning of the what for perspective is then discussed. Finally, with the example of a case study, it is illustrated how this change of perspective can result within the framework of a therapeutic treatment. RESULTS: The following changes in perspective are recommended: the search for the past-centered why should make way for the future-oriented quest for the what for of continuing to live a life with chronic pain.


Asunto(s)
Dolor Crónico , Existencialismo , Manejo del Dolor , Humanos
12.
BMC Psychol ; 8(1): 21, 2020 Feb 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32093787

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Attachment and spirituality are thought to have deep evolutionary roots but are always interpreted within the framework of culture, religion and personal beliefs. While insecure attachment has been observed to be positively related with psychopathology, a positive mental health effect has often been described for spirituality. To examine the cross-cultural validation of previous research focused on Austrian young adults with Western socialization, we attempt to replicate our study examining the influence spirituality has on the connection between insecure attachment and mood-related psychiatric burden with Indian young adults. METHODS: We investigated Avoidant (AV) and Anxious (AX) Attachment (ECR-RD), Religious (RWB) and Existential (EWB) Well-Being (MI-RSWB), and mood-related psychiatric burden (Anxiety, Depression, Somatization; BSI-18) in 443 (31% female) Indian young adults (age range: 18-30 years) with a Hindu upbringing. RESULTS: Compared to young adults with a Roman Catholic upbringing in a Western socialization, Indian participants did not differ in AX and EWB but scored higher in mood-related psychiatric burden (eta2 = .04), AV (eta2 = .14), as well as RWB (eta2 = .28; all p < .01). As in previous research only AX (ß = .40) positively predicted mood-related psychiatric burden (ΔR2 = .15, all p < .01), while EWB was an additional negative predictor (ß = -.11, p < .05). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings emphasize the universal importance of attachment and spirituality for mental health as well as the potential influence of socialization on their development. Furthermore, they underline that Existential Well-Being - including hope for a better future, forgiveness, and the experience of sense and meaning - appears to have a compensating effect on the relation between insecure attachment and impaired mental health.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos del Humor/psicología , Espiritualidad , Adolescente , Adulto , Ansiedad/psicología , Comparación Transcultural , Depresión/psicología , Existencialismo , Femenino , Esperanza , Humanos , Masculino , Salud Mental , Adulto Joven
14.
Eur J Oncol Nurs ; 44: 101681, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31816507

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: The study addresses the spiritual dimension of care of non-terminally ill cancer patients by measuring their spiritual needs in association with indicators of quality of life (i.e., happiness, satisfaction with life, pain intensity, functional capacity) and personal and illness characteristics. METHOD: A descriptive, cross-sectional survey included 227 patients with cancer. All patients that underwent treatment at a nursing and supportive treatment unit were interviewed face-to-face between January and November 2018. Regression models were used to control for gender, education, religiosity, pain intensity, functional capacity, life satisfaction and happiness. RESULTS: The non-terminally ill cancer patients experienced the exceptional importance of Inner Peace and Giving/Generativity and Forgiveness, while Religious and Existential needs were scored marginally lower, but nevertheless much higher as compared to patients with cancer from West-Europe. Correlation analysis revealed strong positive and in one case moderate interconnections among each of four spiritual needs, with the strongest association between Existential needs and the other three domains. Unmet Religious needs were positively associated with pain intensity and reduced physical capacity of patients, but less with life satisfaction. Pain intensity was the strongest predictor of cancer patients' Existential, Inner Peace and Giving/Generativity and Forgiveness needs. CONCLUSION: This study provides the first empirical evidence about the spiritual needs of cancer patients' care in Lithuania. Findings will serve as the basis for specific strategies to enhance the holistic well-being of these patients. The insights into oncology patients' unmet spiritual needs may be relevant to other Eastern European and former Soviet Union countries with similar developmental histories.


Asunto(s)
Actitud Frente a la Salud , Existencialismo , Neoplasias/psicología , Pacientes/psicología , Satisfacción Personal , Calidad de Vida/psicología , Espiritualidad , Adaptación Psicológica , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Estudios Transversales , Europa (Continente) , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
15.
Support Care Cancer ; 28(8): 3927-3934, 2020 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31858248

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined meaning in life, a novel existential outcome, in patients with advanced cancer across countries. OBJECTIVES: We examined differences in meaning in life across 5 countries and identified factors associated with meaning in life. METHODS: This is a pre-planned secondary analysis of a prospective longitudinal multicenter observational study of patients with advanced cancer. Meaning in life was assessed using a validated scale which examined four domains of meaning: values, purpose, goals, and reflection. The total score ranged from 8 to 32, with a higher score indicating greater meaning in life. RESULTS: Among 728 patients, the median meaning in life score was 25/32 (interquartile range 23, 28). There was no significant difference in the total meaning in life score among 5 countries (P = 0.11), though there were differences in domain sub-scores. In the univariate analysis, patients with higher intensity of physical symptoms by ESAS score (pain, fatigue, drowsiness, dyspnea, insomnia), depression, anxiety, spiritual pain, and financial distress had significantly lower meaning in life. However, patients with higher levels of education, who were married, and who had higher optimism had significantly higher meaning in life. In the multivariate analysis, higher total meaning in life scores were significantly associated with greater optimism (multivariate estimate = 0.33, p < 0.001), lower depression (- 0.26, < 0.001), spiritual pain (- 0.19, < 0.001), and financial distress (- 0.16, < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Country of origin was not a determinant of meaning in life. However, meaning in life was significantly associated with optimism, depression, spiritual pain, and financial distress, underscoring the multidimensional nature of this construct and potential opportunities for improvement in addressing meaning in life of patients with advanced cancer.


Asunto(s)
Existencialismo , Neoplasias/psicología , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Ansiedad/etiología , Ansiedad/psicología , Características Culturales , Fatiga/etiología , Fatiga/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Análisis Multivariante , Estudios Observacionales como Asunto , Estudios Prospectivos , Calidad de Vida , Espiritualidad , Adulto Joven
16.
Nurs Philos ; 21(2): e12287, 2020 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31608570

RESUMEN

This article is about the therapeutic use of photography in mental health care. We will first describe the intelligent nature of perception as we understand on the basis of neurobiological research findings. We will link our interpretation of visual perception with the phenomenology of perception from the theory of Merleau-Ponty.. Then we will discuss how patients in mental health care with mental health problems may profit by an experiential approach that is concomitant with the existential reality described by Merleau-Ponty. The experiential approach we go into more detail is Focusing. We will demonstrate the limitations and feasibility of Focusing in the procedures of working with photography as a therapeutic medium.


Asunto(s)
Servicios de Salud Mental/tendencias , Percepción , Fotograbar/métodos , Existencialismo , Humanos , Fotograbar/tendencias
17.
BMJ Support Palliat Care ; 10(2): 136-144, 2020 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31481477

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Palliative sedation for existential suffering (PS-ES) is a controversial clinical intervention. Empirical studies about physicians' perceptions do not converge in a clear position and current clinical practice guidelines do not agree either regarding this kind of intervention. AIM: To gain deeper insight into physicians' perceptions of PS-ES, the factors influencing it, the conditions for implementing it and the alternatives to it. DESIGN: Systematic review of qualitative, quantitative and mixed-methods studies following the Peer Review Electronic Search Strategies and Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses protocols; quality appraisal and thematic synthesis methodology. DATA SOURCES: Seven electronic databases (PubMed, CINAHL, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science, PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES) were exhaustively searched from inception through March 2019. Two reviewers screened paper titles, abstracts and full texts. We included only peer-reviewed journal articles published in English, French, German, Dutch, Spanish, Italian or Portuguese that focused on physicians' perceptions of PS-ES. RESULTS: The search yielded 17 publications published between 2002 and 2017. Physicians do not hold clear views or agree if and when PS-ES is appropriate. Case-related and individual-related factors that influenced physicians' perceptions were identified. There is still no consensus regarding criteria to distinguish between necessary and sufficient conditions for invoking PS-ES. Some alternatives to PS-ES were identified. CONCLUSIONS: To date, there is still no consensus on physicians' perceptions of PS-ES. Further research is necessary to understand factors that influence physicians' perceptions and philosophical-ethical presuppositions underlying this perceptions.


Asunto(s)
Sedación Consciente/psicología , Existencialismo/psicología , Cuidados Paliativos/psicología , Médicos/psicología , Estrés Psicológico/psicología , Adulto , Sedación Consciente/métodos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estrés Psicológico/terapia
18.
J Palliat Care ; 35(1): 13-20, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30757945

RESUMEN

CONTEXT: Though palliative sedation has been recognized as an acceptable practice in Canada for many years now, there is a lack of clinical research and guidelines pertaining to its use as a treatment of existential refractory symptoms in the terminally ill. OBJECTIVES: This scoping review aimed to survey the literature surrounding palliative sedation and existential suffering and to inform research, policy, and practice. METHODS: To address the main research question: Is palliative sedation an acceptable intervention to treat existential refractory symptoms in adults aged 65 and older? a scoping review following Arksey and O'Malley's framework was performed, spanning electronic databases of the peer reviewed and grey literature. Articles were screened for inclusion, and a thematic content analysis allowed for a summary of key findings. RESULTS: Out of 427 search results, 71 full text articles were obtained, 20 of which were included. Out of these articles, four themes were identified as key findings. These included: (1) Ethical considerations; (2) The role of the health care provider; looking specifically at the impact on nurses; (3) The need for multidisciplinary care teams; and (4) Existential suffering's connection to religiosity and spirituality. CONCLUSION: Palliative sedation to treat existential refractory symptoms was labelled a controversial practice. A shortage of evidence-based resources limits the current literature's ability to inform policy and clinical practice. There is a need for both qualitative and quantitative multi-center research so health care professionals and regional-level institutions have firm roots to establish proper policy and practice.


Asunto(s)
Sedación Profunda/normas , Existencialismo/psicología , Hipnóticos y Sedantes/normas , Cuidados Paliativos/psicología , Cuidados Paliativos/normas , Estrés Psicológico/tratamiento farmacológico , Enfermo Terminal/psicología , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Femenino , Humanos , Hipnóticos y Sedantes/uso terapéutico , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Guías de Práctica Clínica como Asunto , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
19.
J Palliat Care ; 35(1): 8-12, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30968741

RESUMEN

Existential suffering is commonly experienced by patients with serious medical illnesses despite the advances in the treatment of physical and psychological symptoms that often accompany incurable diseases. Palliative care (PC) clinicians wishing to help these patients are faced with many barriers including the inability to identify existential suffering, lack of training in how to address it, and time constraints. Although mental health and spiritual care providers play an instrumental role in addressing the existential needs of patients, PC clinicians are uniquely positioned to coordinate the necessary resources for addressing existential suffering in their patients. With this article, we present a case of a patient in existential distress and a framework to equip PC clinicians to assess and address existential suffering.


Asunto(s)
Existencialismo/psicología , Cuidados Paliativos/psicología , Cuidados Paliativos/normas , Rol del Médico/psicología , Espiritualidad , Estrés Psicológico/psicología , Cuidado Terminal/psicología , Adulto , Anciano , Actitud del Personal de Salud , Actitud Frente a la Muerte , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Guías de Práctica Clínica como Asunto
20.
Psychopharmacology (Berl) ; 237(1): 21-32, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31784805

RESUMEN

Psychedelic therapies can engender enduring improvements in psychological well-being. However, relatively little is known about the psychological mechanisms through which the salutary effects of psychedelics emerge. Through integrating extant research on psychedelics with contemporary existential psychology, we present a novel hypothesis that reduced death anxiety may be a key mechanism underpinning the therapeutic effects of psychedelics. In developing this hypothesis, we also provide a complementary review of mechanisms through which psychedelics may reduce death anxiety. We conclude that an awareness of the role of death anxiety in psychopathology has the potential to guide future research into psychedelic therapies.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad/tratamiento farmacológico , Muerte , Existencialismo/psicología , Alucinógenos , Alucinógenos/farmacología , Alucinógenos/uso terapéutico , Humanos , Psicopatología
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