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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 802: 149620, 2022 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34461474

RESUMEN

Triggered by the adoption of the Water Framework Directive, a variety of fish-based systems were developed throughout Europe to assess the ecological status of lakes. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of all existing systems and summarizes sampling methods, fish community traits (metrics) and the relevant anthropogenic pressures assessed by them. Twenty-one European countries developed fish-based assessment systems. Three countries each developed two distinct systems to approach different ecoregions, either to use different data, or to assess different lake types leading to a total number of 24 systems. The most common approach for the setting of reference conditions, used in seventeen systems, was the utilisation of fish communities in comparably undisturbed natural lakes as reference. Eleven used expert judgment, nine historical data and eight modelled relationships. Fourteen systems combined at least two approaches. The most common fish sampling method was a standardized fishing procedure with multimesh-gillnets. Many countries applied combinations of fishing methods, e.g. non-standard gillnets, fyke nets and electrofishing. Altogether 177 metrics were used for index development and each system combined 2-13 metrics. The most common ones were total standardized catches of number and biomass, relative abundance of Perca fluviatilis, Rutilus rutilus, and Abramis brama, feeding preferences, sensitive species, and non-natives. The pressure-response-relationships for these metrics were supported with both correlations established during system development and scientific publications. However, the metrics and their combinations were highly diverse and no metric was applied universally. Our analysis reveals that most fish-based assessment systems address multiple pressures (eutrophication, hydromorphological alterations, fishery pressure and occurrence of non-natives), whilst few are pressure-specific, tackling only eutrophication or acidification. We argue that the value of fish-based systems for lakes lies in their capacity to capture the effect of many different pressures and their interactions which is lacking for most assessment systems based on other biota.


Asunto(s)
Lagos , Percas , Animales , Ecosistema , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Eutrofización , Explotaciones Pesqueras , Peces
2.
J Environ Manage ; 301: 113889, 2022 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34610560

RESUMEN

With the rapid global increase in the number and extent of marine protected areas (MPAs), there is a need for methods that enable an assessment of their actual contribution to biodiversity conservation. In Brazil, where MPAs have been designated to replenish biodiversity, there is a lack of regional-scale analysis of MPA impacts and the factors related to positive ecological change. This study aims to quantify the magnitude of the ecological effects of Brazilian MPAs and test whether some study and MPA characteristics (e.g., taxonomic group studied, exploitation level of species, MPA area, protection time, management effectiveness, level of connectedness, etc.) were underlying factors associated with their performance. We conducted a structured search in a database of scientific articles, selecting comparative studies of direct biodiversity metrics inside and outside MPAs offering different protection levels (i.e., fully- or partially-protected MPAs) or within MPAs with distinct zones. We then carried out a meta-analysis based on 424 observations found in 18 articles. Averaged across all studies, we found that MPAs had a 17% increase in the abundance of species, length of individuals, and community diversity. When compared to open-access areas, fully-protected MPAs increased biodiversity by 45%. However, MPAs offering partial protection had variable effects, ranging from significant positive to significant negative effects. MPA effects depended on the taxonomic group and exploitation level of species, with the strongest positive effects seen on exploited fish species and benthic invertebrates. Partially-protected MPAs that reported strong positive effects required long time of protection (>15years) and high level of connectivity. Conversely, fully-protected MPAs (i.e., no-take ones) could be effective even when small, under intense fishing pressure in their surroundings, and regardless of their level of connectivity. We used the Brazilian MPAs as a case study, but these results can contribute to a more comprehensive assessment of the association between ecological impacts of MPAs and drivers of conservation success, and offer key information to consolidate MPA networks that sustain biodiversity.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Explotaciones Pesqueras , Animales , Océano Atlántico , Biodiversidad , Brasil
3.
J Environ Manage ; 301: 113918, 2022 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34731943

RESUMEN

The need to reverse decades of species and ecosystem decline has created an imperative to understand the governance of recovery. To pursue this imperative, we ask a question at the centre of recovery governance: when is a commercial species recovered? To answer this question we conduct a case study of northern cod (Gadus morhua, NAFO subdivision 2J3KL), a species perhaps best known for the scale of its biological collapse and subsequent socioeconomic consequences. Northern cod has experienced recent biomass growth, raising the question of when the species can once again be the target of commercial fishing. We conducted 26 interviews with key stakeholders from Newfoundland and Labrador's fishing sector and identify three core discourses characterizing the governance of the northern cod recovery: (1) the biological recovery discourse, (2) the industrial recovery discourse, and (3) the community recovery discourse. We find these recovery discourses are composed of five dimensions: (i) epistemic orientation and inputs, (ii) emphasis on institutions and rules, (iii) framings of risk, (iv) stakeholder priorities, goals, and interests, and (v) different lessons learned from the collapse. Our findings suggest that the recovery of a commercial species is not determined only by biological metrics, but also how decision-makers view the value of different knowledge systems, what frames of risk they find most salient, and the lessons they glean from collapse on behalf of the societies they represent. Our discussion notes that co-productive approaches could supplement adaptive approaches as a potential strategy to reconcile competing discourses.


Asunto(s)
Explotaciones Pesqueras , Gadus morhua , Animales , Ecosistema , Dinámica Poblacional
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 803: 149875, 2022 Jan 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34478901

RESUMEN

Invasive alien fishes have had pernicious ecological and economic impacts on both aquatic ecosystems and human societies. However, a comprehensive and collective assessment of their monetary costs is still lacking. In this study, we collected and reviewed reported data on the economic impacts of invasive alien fishes using InvaCost, the most comprehensive global database of invasion costs. We analysed how total (i.e. both observed and potential/predicted) and observed (i.e. empirically incurred only) costs of fish invasions are distributed geographically and temporally and assessed which socioeconomic sectors are most affected. Fish invasions have potentially caused the economic loss of at least US$37.08 billion (US2017 value) globally, from just 27 reported species. North America reported the highest costs (>85% of the total economic loss), followed by Europe, Oceania and Asia, with no costs yet reported from Africa or South America. Only 6.6% of the total reported costs were from invasive alien marine fish. The costs that were observed amounted to US$2.28 billion (6.1% of total costs), indicating that the costs of damage caused by invasive alien fishes are often extrapolated and/or difficult to quantify. Most of the observed costs were related to damage and resource losses (89%). Observed costs mainly affected public and social welfare (63%), with the remainder borne by fisheries, authorities and stakeholders through management actions, environmental, and mixed sectors. Total costs related to fish invasions have increased significantly over time, from

Asunto(s)
Ecosistema , Especies Introducidas , Animales , Europa (Continente) , Explotaciones Pesqueras , Peces , Humanos
5.
Adv Mar Biol ; 90: 1-49, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34728053

RESUMEN

Sharks are iconic and ecologically important predators found in every ocean. Because of their ecological role as predators, some considered apex predators, and concern over the stability of their populations due to direct and indirect overfishing, there has been an increasing amount of work focussed on shark conservation, and other elasmobranchs such as skates and rays, around the world. Here we discuss many aspects of current shark science and conservation and the path to the future of shark conservation in the Northeastern and Eastern Central Pacific. We explore their roles in ecosystems as keystone species; the conservation measures and laws in place at the international, national, regional and local level; the conservation status of sharks and rays in the region, fisheries for sharks in the Northcentral Pacific specifically those that target juveniles and the implications to shark conservation; a conservation success story: the recovery of Great White Sharks in the Northeast Pacific; public perceptions of sharks and the roles zoos and aquariums play in shark conservation; and the path to the future of shark conservation that requires bold partnerships, local stakeholders and innovative measures.


Asunto(s)
Tiburones , Animales , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Ecosistema , Explotaciones Pesqueras , Océano Pacífico
6.
Zootaxa ; 4996(3): 401-442, 2021 Jul 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34810520

RESUMEN

The first type specimens catalogue of Recep Tayyip Erdogan University Zoology Museum of the Faculty of Fisheries, Rize (FFR) is presented. The catalog includes 3030 specimens from 249 lots, representing 55 holotypes and 2974 paratypes of 62 nominal species. Corrections and comments on the original descriptions are included in the remarks for each species if necessary. The current distribution range of all species is given. Photos of all holotypes and one paratype of each nominal species are presented to show the current condition of the types.


Asunto(s)
Explotaciones Pesqueras , Museos , Animales , Docentes , Humanos , Universidades , Zoología
7.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 94(1): e20191320, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34787289

RESUMEN

The present study was based on the analysis of 10,467 trawls of the industrial piramutaba (Brachyplatystoma vaillantii) fishing fleet of the Brazilian state of Pará, which were mapped by onboard GPS loggers (between February 2008 and September 2011) and the PREPS data from 40 vessels which were tracked by this system between 2008 and 2011. The variation in the mean monthly CPUE, based on Lomb's periodogram, revealed a well-defined and constant cycle with a duration of approximately one year. Three environmental factors influenced this cycle. The El Niño 3.4 index had a negative correlation with the CPUE of the piramutaba fishery, with a time lag of 15 months, while monthly rainfall and the mean discharge of the Amazon River correlated strongly (r=0.89 and 0.87, respectively; p<0.001) with the CPUE, with time lags of 12 and 11 months, respectively. The spatiotemporal analysis of the distribution of the activity of the piramutaba fishing fleet indicated that the most intense area of operation of the fleet lies between latitudes 00º N and 02° N, and longitudes 047º40' W and 049º40' W. This area was divided into four geographic quadrants, although fishery operations were concentrated in only three of these quadrants. The study proposed a quadrimester fishing cycle with zoning in three of the quadrants, where fishing would be permitted for four months (occupation period), followed by an 8-month rest period for the recuperation of stocks, aiming at the sustainability of this fishing exploration.


Asunto(s)
Bagres , Explotaciones Pesqueras , Animales , Brasil , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Ríos
8.
Mar Environ Res ; 172: 105507, 2021 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34742025

RESUMEN

Mediterranean coastal ecosystems provide various valuable ecosystem goods and services; however, they are vulnerable to ecological degradation due to a dramatic increase in resource use and environmental stress. Disentangling the effects of multiple human interventions on coastal ecosystems requires whole description of food web interactions using quantitative tools. A mass balance Ecopath model has been developed here for Saronikos Gulf, a naturally oligotrophic Mediterranean coastal ecosystem with a long history of human interventions. Our main focus was to describe the structure and functioning of the ecosystem, investigate the trophic interplay among the various compartments of the food web under the impact of mixed multi-gear fisheries, and to quantify resilience related emergent ecosystem properties. To this end, we reviewed a large amount of local and regional biological information which was integrated in 40 functional groups covering all trophic levels, while fishing activities were described with 7 fleets. The model shared characteristics of both productive (e.g., high amount of flows) and oligotrophic systems (e.g., low biomass accumulation) and presented typical features of Mediterranean ecosystem functioning, such as the importance of detritus as an energy source, strong benthic-pelagic coupling and the dominance of the pelagic compartment in terms of total production and consumption. Trophic forcing in the ecosystem of Saronikos Gulf was complex with both top-down and bottom-up drivers being important. Zooplankton was the central nexus between basal resources and higher trophic levels, while top predators such as hake, squids and anglerfish were identified as keystone species presenting a significant overall effect on the food web via direct and indirect trophic interactions. Ecological indicators depicted a moderately complex food-web of a large and immature ecosystem with its strengths in reserve being affected by environmental degradation. Additionally, exploitation indices classified fishing activities in Saronikos Gulf as unsustainable, affecting several target groups, including high trophic level species. However, the morphological and bathymetric complexity of Saronikos Gulf seems to function as a natural ecological reserve for the ecosystem by providing nursery grounds to various species (e.g., hake, small pelagic fishes) and supporting important fish stocks for local fisheries.


Asunto(s)
Ecosistema , Cadena Alimentaria , Animales , Biomasa , Explotaciones Pesqueras , Peces , Humanos , Zooplancton
9.
Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi ; 62(5): 168-174, 2021.
Artículo en Japonés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34732644

RESUMEN

In this study, we developed an analytical method for simultaneous determination of 14 quinolones and 4 tetracyclines in livestock and fishery products using LC-MS/MS. The analytes were extracted from food samples with citrate buffer (containing EDTA)-methanol-acetonitrile (3 : 1 : 1, v/v/v) in the presence of n-hexane, and the extract was purified with an Oasis PRiME HLB cartridge column. It was suggested that this analytical method can also extract analytes from solid samples containing fat by using n-hexane. In addition, using methanol-acetonitrile (3 : 7, v/v) containing 0.1 vol% formic acid as an eluent from the cartridge column, the purification effect could be improved, while minimizing the impairment of the recovery rate. As a result of the validation using six types of food samples, trueness (accuracy) was 70.6%-113.8%, the RSD of repeatability was 9.0% or less, and the RSD of within-laboratory reproducibility was 15.5% or less. Using this approach, the standard values mentioned in the Japanese guideline were successfully met.


Asunto(s)
Quinolonas , Tetraciclinas , Animales , Cromatografía Liquida , Explotaciones Pesqueras , Ganado , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Espectrometría de Masas en Tándem
10.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 150(4): 2553, 2021 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34717495

RESUMEN

In fisheries acoustics, the target strength (TS; dB re m2) is used to compute biological metrics such as fish biomass and density. The TS is challenging to characterize because of its stochastic relationship with fish physiology, orientation, depth, species assemblage, and size distributions. These challenges were addressed by using acoustic and physical samples of fish from trawls in the Penobscot River Estuary, Maine. The pelagic species assemblage was dominated by clupeids and osmerids. The TS was measured from individual fish using single target detection and echo tracking algorithms. An expectation-maximization algorithm was applied to identify the components of the TS and total length (TL; cm) distributions for the mixed species assemblages. Regressions were used to estimate the parameters of TS = α log10(TL) + ß. The parameters, α = 31.2 [standard error (SE) 0.87] and ß = -79.6 (SE 0.93), were similar to published studies from these species, but our slope and intercept were higher than those in studies from freshwater and lower than those from marine systems. These results suggest that acoustic surveys in estuaries with mixed species assemblages should carefully consider alternatives to "standard" TS-fish length equations. These results will provide necessary parameters to allow for interpretation of acoustic survey data from systems with a similar composition of pelagic species.


Asunto(s)
Biodiversidad , Explotaciones Pesqueras , Animales , Estuarios , Peces , Ríos
11.
J Environ Manage ; 300: 113794, 2021 Dec 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34649314

RESUMEN

In 2019 a multiannual plan for Mediterranean demersal fisheries came into force with the objective to reduce the overexploitation of fisheries in the region by implementing effort control regimes. These measures, however, have the potential to adversely impact the local employment and profitability of the fisheries. In this paper, we examine scenarios on the short term and long term levels of economic yield of the sector using the two main drivers of fuel price and employment. Three main scenarios are defined as i) maintaining the average status quo, ii) effort control regimes implemented in the 2019 multiannual plan, and iii) flexible effort control regimes. For each of the aforementioned scenarios, three main fleets and five main conditions are considered, and the results will be compared and contrasted. The results in this paper show that the future rise in fuel price, which is anticipated due to global efforts to reduce emissions, along with the current effort reduction strategies could significantly threaten the sustainable profitability of the sector, and policy measures that could balance this issue should be implemented. Policy interventions and investments should be directed at technological advancements such as modernisation and increasing efficiency of fleet to reduce fuel use, utilisation of highly efficient gear technologies, shortened trips to fishing grounds, and increase in value creation in other parts of the fisheries supply chain to mitigate the serious challenges in terms of local employment and profitability facing the Mediterranean fisheries.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Explotaciones Pesqueras , Políticas
12.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 32(9): 3349-3356, 2021 Sep.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34658222

RESUMEN

We investigated population structure, resource density changes of Larimichthys polyactis and its relationship with environmental factors in spring, based on the survey data of bottom trawl in adjacent sea areas of Zhoushan fishery spawning ground protection area from 2014 to 2019. The results showed that the relationship between body length and body weight of Larimichthys polyactis was W=0.44×10-4×L2.78, and parameter b was less than 3, which indicated that L. polyactis had negative allometric growth in recent years. There was a negative correlation between fullness and body length, with body becoming slender. From 2014 to 2019, body length and weight of L. polyactis were the highest in 2014 and the lowest in 2019. Since 2014, population size of L. polyactis in Zhoushan fishery spawning ground protection area and adjacent sea area had gradually decreased, indicating that the miniaturization of L. polyactis had not altered in recent years. From the perspective of the annual change of resource density, resource density of L. polyactis was higher than that before the establishment of the reserve, indicating that the management and protection of the reserve area played a protective role in the recovery of L. polyactis resources. The fitting results of GAM model showed that water depth and bottom water temperature were the environmental factors closely related to the density distribution of L. polyactis resources. With increasing water depth, the resources showed a fluctuating upward trend and were the highest near the water depth of 60 m. In the range of 12-16 ℃ water temperature, the resources increased with the increases of bottom water temperature. When water temperature was above 16 ℃, resources decreased with the increases of bottom water temperature.


Asunto(s)
Explotaciones Pesqueras , Perciformes , Animales , China , Estaciones del Año , Temperatura
13.
Int Marit Health ; 72(3): 199-205, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34604990

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Occupational noise exposure has been identified as a significant risk factor for fish harvesters. Chronic noise exposure causes hearing and other health problems and undermines the quality of life and well-being. This review paper aims to highlight noise-related auditory and non-auditory health effects among fish harvesters. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic literature search approach was adopted using the following databases: PubMed, Embase, SCOPUS, Web of Science, Google Scholar, and by exploring grey literature. The literature search was conducted in 2020 (between October 15 and November 30). Relevant articles were explored by reviewing title, keywords, and abstract based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The full-text critical review of selected papers was made and finalized the most relevant studies. RESULTS: Initial 1,281 records were identified, exploring various databases and additional sources using relevant keywords. Duplicate articles were removed and retrieved 746 articles. After that, a screening of 746 research papers was done based on the selection criteria and finalised 28 articles for full-text review. Finally, articles were filtered based on the study's aim and extracted 17 papers for the final review. CONCLUSIONS: Noise-induced hearing loss was considered a significant health risk to fish harvesters across the studies, affecting physical and emotional well-being. The prevalence of hearing loss was observed from 6% to 80%. Other health problems, such as headache, dizziness, annoyance, stress, fatigue, elevated blood pressure, sleep disturbances, and impaired cognitive performance, were also reported. Further research is needed to validate the non-auditory health effects among fish harvesters.


Asunto(s)
Pérdida Auditiva Provocada por Ruido , Ruido en el Ambiente de Trabajo , Enfermedades Profesionales , Exposición Profesional , Animales , Explotaciones Pesqueras , Pérdida Auditiva Provocada por Ruido/epidemiología , Pérdida Auditiva Provocada por Ruido/etiología , Humanos , Ruido en el Ambiente de Trabajo/efectos adversos , Exposición Profesional/efectos adversos , Ocupaciones , Calidad de Vida
14.
Int Marit Health ; 72(3): 195-198, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34604989

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Two-thirds of Indonesia's territory is water, creating much of the coastal area. Unfortunately, there is no data regarding the exact number and demographics of the population in coastal areas who work as fishermen. Residents who work as fishermen are at risk of work accidents. The increasingly uncertain number of fishermen makes it more difficult to analyse work accidents around the coastal areas. This study is an observational study and cross-sectional study. It aims to analyse the relationship between work environment and occupational accidents among fishermen in coastal areas. MATERIALS AND METHODS: It was conducted using a quantitative approach. This study was located in the coastal areas in Sidoarjo, Tarakan, and Bangkalan. Sampling was conducted using snowball technique which obtained 56 respondents. Variables in this study included work climate, noise, lighting, and occupational accidents with data analysis using the Spearman's rank test. RESULTS: The results showed that work environment which included work climate, noise, and lighting had no relationship with occupational accidents among fishermen since p-value > 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: This study concludes that work climate, noise and lighting have no significant relationship with occupational accidents.


Asunto(s)
Accidentes de Trabajo , Explotaciones Pesqueras , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Indonesia/epidemiología , Lugar de Trabajo
15.
Molecules ; 26(20)2021 Oct 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684776

RESUMEN

Oxidative stress in aquatic organisms might suppress the immune system and propagate infectious diseases. This study aimed to investigate the protective effect of polyphenolic extracts from spent coffee grounds (SCG) against oxidative stress, induced by H2O2, in C. viridis brain cells, through an in vitro model. Hydrophilic extracts from SCG are rich in quinic, ferulic and caffeic acids and showed antioxidant capacity in DPPH, ORAC and FRAP assays. Furthermore, pretreatment of C. viridis brain cells with the polyphenolic extracts from SCG (230 and 460 µg/mL) for 24 h prior to 100 µM H2O2 exposure (1 h) significantly increased antioxidant enzymes activity (superoxide dismutase and catalase) and reduced lipid peroxidation (measured by MDA levels). These results suggest that polyphenols found in SCG extracts exert an antioxidative protective effect against oxidative stress in C. viridis brain cells by stimulating the activity of SOD and CAT.


Asunto(s)
Antioxidantes/química , Encéfalo/efectos de los fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Café/química , Perciformes/metabolismo , Animales , Antioxidantes/aislamiento & purificación , Antioxidantes/farmacología , Encéfalo/citología , Catalasa/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Coffea/química , Proteínas de Peces/metabolismo , Explotaciones Pesqueras , Depuradores de Radicales Libres/química , Depuradores de Radicales Libres/aislamiento & purificación , Depuradores de Radicales Libres/farmacología , Peróxido de Hidrógeno/farmacología , Peroxidación de Lípido/efectos de los fármacos , Estrés Oxidativo/efectos de los fármacos , Extractos Vegetales/química , Extractos Vegetales/aislamiento & purificación , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Polifenoles , Superóxido Dismutasa/metabolismo
16.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258272, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34610040

RESUMEN

In commercial snow crab (Chionoecetes opilio) fishery, the catch efficiency of the conical pots is important for increasing the profitability of the industry. This study evaluated the effect of adding green and white light emitting diodes (LED) on the catch efficiency of commercially used conical pots. The results from the field experiments showed that inserting artificial lights significantly increases the catch efficiency for snow crab over the minimum landing size of 95 mm carapace width of up to 76% when using green LED, and by 52-53% on average when using white LED. This study shows that it is possible to improve the catch efficiency of the snow crab fishery by applying artificial LED lights to the conical snow crab pots, potentially resulting in an important economic benefit to the snow crab fishery.


Asunto(s)
Braquiuros/fisiología , Explotaciones Pesqueras , Luz , Animales , Bases de Datos como Asunto , Estadística como Asunto
17.
Mar Environ Res ; 172: 105504, 2021 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34717129

RESUMEN

Carnivorous fish are a key part of the Indonesian human population sustenance, and it is important to design marine protected areas that include environmental features that allow these species to thrive. Many studies report the role of coral cover and habitat complexity in determining fish distribution on coral reefs but broader environmental factors such as current velocity and productivity are less studied. Southern Indonesia is characterised by upwellings and strong currents, stemming from the tidal cycle and the Indonesian Throughflow. In this study we investigate how current velocity, chlorophyll-a (chl-a), sea surface height and temperature relate to the biomass of carnivorous fish, considering the influence of habitat complexity and coral cover. Data were collected by surveying seven sites around Nusa Penida MPA for a total of 97 h of observation. Serranids and Lutjanids showed higher dependency on coral cover than fish from family Lethrinidae, Carangidae and Scombridae for which current, sea surface height, chl-a, and temperature were more influential predictors. Considering the similar trophic ecology of these species, the different relationship with oceanographic factors is likely related to different body shapes, living, and feeding habits between fish families. Changes in sea surface temperature and current velocity induced by vertical mixing are affecting coral reef fisheries-targeted species distribution in Nusa Penida and investigating these relationships on a broader scale will better inform marine spatial planning decisions.


Asunto(s)
Antozoos , Arrecifes de Coral , Animales , Biomasa , Ecosistema , Explotaciones Pesqueras , Peces , Humanos
18.
Mar Environ Res ; 172: 105510, 2021 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34717130

RESUMEN

European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) and sardine (Sardina pilchardus) are crucial species for the marine ecosystem of the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea. They account for a high percentage of fish landings and they represent an important economic income for the fishery sector. Concerns over their stock status are rising in recent years as biomass, growth, reproductive capacity, and body condition of both species are declining, with latitudinal variations. Therefore, there is an urgent need for a body condition monitoring scheme. Energy storage variability has important implications for both fish recruitment and population structure. Direct condition indices, such as energy density (ED) with bomb calorimetry, are highly reliable for measuring the energy content, but time-consuming. Alternatively, fatmeter analysis and relative condition index (Kn) have been proposed as effective indirect methods. The aim of this study is to test the application of fatmeter as a surrogate of bomb calorimetry to infer the energy content of sardine and anchovy. To validate its use, fatmeter values were compared with both ED and Kn values. Individuals of both species were sampled monthly for a year in order to assess seasonal variations in energy content. Our results highlight that fatmeter measurements are strongly correlated with calorimetry ED for sardine, while a weaker but significant correlation was found for anchovy. The observed differences between the two species are related to their breeding strategies. Based on this study, Kn cannot be considered a good proxy of the energy density of sardine, in particular during the resting period. By contrast, fatmeter analysis appears to be a faster and suitable method to evaluate the energy content of both species routinely. In addition, we provide a linear model to infer ED from fatmeter values for both small pelagic fish. Eventually, these findings could be used to implement body condition monitoring protocols and boost continuous large-scale monitoring.


Asunto(s)
Ecosistema , Peces , Animales , Calorimetría , Explotaciones Pesqueras , Humanos , Alimentos Marinos
19.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257773, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34570816

RESUMEN

While the number of published marine studies using environmental DNA (eDNA) has increased substantially in recent years, marine fish surveys are still scarce. To examine the potential for eDNA to support marine fisheries monitoring surveys, we optimized an eDNA isolation method, developed a multispecies assay and tested it on eDNA samples collected along the Pacific coast of the United States. Four commercial DNA extraction kits that exploit the capability of the nucleic acids binding a solid phase (two using a silica matrix and two magnetic beads) as well an organic separation method were tested. A species-specific multiplex qPCR assay was developed and tested to simultaneously target Pacific hake (Merluccius productus), Pacific lamprey (Entosphenus tridentatus) and eulachon (Thaleichthys pacificus). The specificity of the assay was tested in silico, in vitro and in natura. Environmental DNA isolation using phenol:chloroform:isoamyl purification with a phase lock was optimized and yielded the highest amount of total and target DNA and was used to extract 46 marine water samples for the detection of the three species of interest. The multiplex qPCR assay used in the quantification process was also optimized to provide convenience and accuracy. Pacific hake was present in 44% of the eDNA samples while the other two species were absent. Here, we present a complete workflow for the simultaneous detection and quantification of multiple marine fish species using eDNA. This workflow supports large-scale at-sea sampling efforts with preservation at ambient temperatures and has demonstrated DNA extraction efficiency and reliability. The multiplex qPCR assay is shown to be sensitive and specific for the purposes of simultaneously monitoring the relative abundance of multiple targeted fish species.


Asunto(s)
ADN Ambiental/aislamiento & purificación , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Explotaciones Pesqueras , Peces , Reacción en Cadena en Tiempo Real de la Polimerasa/métodos , Animales , ADN Ambiental/análisis , Peces/genética , Océanos y Mares , Población , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Flujo de Trabajo
20.
Nature ; 597(7876): 360-365, 2021 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34526707

RESUMEN

Fish and other aquatic foods (blue foods) present an opportunity for more sustainable diets1,2. Yet comprehensive comparison has been limited due to sparse inclusion of blue foods in environmental impact studies3,4 relative to the vast diversity of production5. Here we provide standardized estimates of greenhouse gas, nitrogen, phosphorus, freshwater and land stressors for species groups covering nearly three quarters of global production. We find that across all blue foods, farmed bivalves and seaweeds generate the lowest stressors. Capture fisheries predominantly generate greenhouse gas emissions, with small pelagic fishes generating lower emissions than all fed aquaculture, but flatfish and crustaceans generating the highest. Among farmed finfish and crustaceans, silver and bighead carps have the lowest greenhouse gas, nitrogen and phosphorus emissions, but highest water use, while farmed salmon and trout use the least land and water. Finally, we model intervention scenarios and find improving feed conversion ratios reduces stressors across all fed groups, increasing fish yield reduces land and water use by up to half, and optimizing gears reduces capture fishery emissions by more than half for some groups. Collectively, our analysis identifies high-performing blue foods, highlights opportunities to improve environmental performance, advances data-poor environmental assessments, and informs sustainable diets.


Asunto(s)
Acuicultura , Ecosistema , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Alimentos Marinos , Desarrollo Sostenible , Animales , Acuicultura/tendencias , Cambio Climático , Dieta , Ecología , Política Ambiental , Explotaciones Pesqueras , Abastecimiento de Alimentos/métodos , Gases de Efecto Invernadero , Humanos , Moluscos , Nitrógeno , Fósforo , Alimentos Marinos/provisión & distribución , Algas Marinas , Desarrollo Sostenible/tendencias
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