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2.
J Healthc Eng ; 2021: 8872167, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33833861

RESUMEN

In the beginning of 2020, the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic started to spread globally, causing panic to the lives of people around the world; many countries executed lockdown of cities or even total lockdown of the entire countries. The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is transmitted via air droplets. In medical environments that use traditional hermetic ventilation systems, medical personnel who come in contact with patients are more susceptible to infection compared to regular staff; therefore, the air flow and air quality of hermetic negative pressure isolation wards are highly critical. For this purpose, the study proposes a full-outer-air-intake natural air-conditioning system for negative pressure isolation wards. This innovative system draws in large amounts of fresh external air to greatly improve the air exchange rate in wards; negative pressure environments can be implemented depending on requirements to solve the issue of nosocomial infections in traditional negative pressure isolation wards that draw air from within the hospital. This greatly reduces the probability of nosocomial infection and infection via air droplets; furthermore, the system's intake and exhaust paths are completely isolated, solving the issue of air cross-contamination. Based on the results from the experiment site, this innovative system was designed and implemented based on the guidelines of hospital facilities and achieved air exchange per hour in excess of 12 times/hour, reaching a maximum of 54.5 times/hour. Indoor CO2 concentration was 576 ppm, negative pressure was -14 Pa, indoor temperature was 23.3°C, indoor humidity was 54.1%, and sensible heat exchange efficiency (ηs) was 105.88% which effectively reduced ventilation load. Therefore, this innovative full-outer-air-intake natural air-conditioning system can provide medical staff and patients with a safe and healthy environment that prevents cross-infection.


Asunto(s)
Aire Acondicionado , Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Control de Infecciones/instrumentación , Aislamiento de Pacientes/instrumentación , Aisladores de Pacientes , Contaminación del Aire Interior/análisis , Dióxido de Carbono/análisis , Diseño de Equipo , Guías como Asunto , Hospitales , Calor , Humanos , Humedad , Exposición Profesional/prevención & control , Ventilación
3.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33801598

RESUMEN

This work is the result of a campaign of measures of exposure levels to magnetic field gradients (GMF) generated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) tomographs, to which both healthcare staff and any persons accompanying patients who remain inside the magnet room are exposed while performing a diagnostic Investigation. The study was conducted on three MRI tomographs with a static magnetic induction field up to 1.5 T installed in two hospitals of Lombardy. The study aims to characterize electromagnetic emissions within the magnet room and the definition of a measurement method suitable for assessing the level of exposure of healthcare personnel and any persons accompanying patients. The measurements performed concerned the determination of the weighted peak index for magnetic induction, due to the diagnostic GMF, relating to the action levels for the workers and the reference levels for the general population, in force in the European Union. Thanks to the defined experimental setup, the use of two different measuring instruments, and the software resources of the WEBNIR platform, it was possible to identify, for both categories of exposed persons, the "clearance" space, i.e., the distance from the magnet of the tomograph that guarantees health protection concerning the exposure to GMF, according to the indications of the standards in force. The method used showed that the exposure levels to GMF are substantially safe for professionally exposed workers who do not carry specific risks. For workers particularly sensitive to the specific risk, as well as to individuals part of the population, it is however advisable to maintain a distance from the magnet of about one meter to prevent sensorial neuromuscular stimulation effects.


Asunto(s)
Campos Electromagnéticos , Exposición Profesional , Campos Electromagnéticos/efectos adversos , Humanos , Internet , Campos Magnéticos , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética
4.
Front Public Health ; 9: 632608, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33829007

RESUMEN

Background: SARS-CoV-2 spreads rapidly around the world, and some patients present gastrointestinal symptoms. The existence of the virus in the gastrointestinal tract makes digestive endoscopy a high-risk operation, which associated with an increased risk of infection rate in healthcare workers. This study aimed at exploring current knowledge, practice and attitudes of healthcare workers in endoscopy units in China regarding the status of occupational protection during COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: A cross-sectional study of a national online survey involving 717 healthcare workers in endoscopy units from 94 medical structures in 24 provinces and municipalities around China was conducted online via a questionnaire platform called Wenjuanxing (wjx.cn). The data were analyzed using correlation approaches, Kruskal-Wallis test for independent samples, and linear regression models. Results: Most Chinese healthcare workers in endoscopy units had a good knowledge of COVID-19 (median: 10; range: 7-12), showed a strikingly positive attitude (median: 65; range: 39-65), and carried out good practice (median: 47; range: 14-50) in strengthening the protection, disinfection and management of COVID-19. In terms of attitudes, female staff was more concerned about protection against COVID-19 than male staff (KW = 8.146, P = 0.004). Nurses performed better in both attitude (KW = 2.600, P = 0.009) and practice (KW = 6.358, P < 0.001) than endoscopic physicians when carrying out personal protection, patient care and environmental disinfection against SARS-CoV-2 infection. More positive attitudes in protection were related to better protective behavior in endoscopic daily medical work (r = 0.312; P < 0.001). Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest that Chinese endoscopy healthcare workers have an excellent mastery of knowledge about COVID-19, which is transformed into positive beliefs and attitudes, contributing to good practice during daily endoscopic procedures. Medical staff may benefit from further education. With the gradual normalization amid the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, protection and management in endoscopy units may be changed accordingly.


Asunto(s)
/prevención & control , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Personal de Salud , Exposición Profesional/prevención & control , Adulto , Anciano , China/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Endoscopía , Femenino , Unidades Hospitalarias , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Adulto Joven
5.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33910285

RESUMEN

Objective: To analyze the effects of noise exposure on the hearing at different frequencies in workers from the automobile manufacturing industry. Methods: A total of 4723 noise workers in a large automobile manufacturing company in Guangzhou were chosen as the research object by using judgment sampling method between April and July, 2018, and carried out 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0 and 6.0 kHz pure tone audiometry threshold to analyze the characteristics of the status of hearing loss at different frequencies and its relationship with the noise exposure time. Results: The detection rate of hearing loss in noise-exposed workers was 29.8% (1406/4723) . Among them, the binaural hearing loss was 21.2% (999/4723) , and single unilateral hearing loss accounted for 8.6% (407/4723) . The hearing loss detection rate of right ear was higher than that of the left ear (P<0.05) , especially in the 6.0 kHz (P<0.001) . The detection rate of increased speech frequency hearing threshold was 1.9% (90/4723) , and the detection rate of increased high-frequency hearing threshold was 28.9% (1366/4723) . The detection rate of increased threshold in both the left and the right ear increased with the increase of frequency (P<0.001) , the increased hearing threshold was the highest at the frequency of 6.0 kHz. The auditory threshold of left ear in 0.5 kHz were higher than that of right ear at the same frequency (P<0.05) . The detection rate of hearing loss increased with the increase of noise exposure time (P<0.001) , and the increased threshold of 3.0, 4.0 and 6.0 kHz from workers increased with the increase of noise exposure time (P<0.001) . Conclusion: There is a significant increased threshold in workers exposed to noise frequency of 6.0 kHz, right ear is more easily damaged than left ear, there is a dose-response relationship for the noise exposure time and high-frequency hearing loss.


Asunto(s)
Pérdida Auditiva Provocada por Ruido , Ruido en el Ambiente de Trabajo , Exposición Profesional , Audiometría de Tonos Puros , Umbral Auditivo , Automóviles , Pérdida Auditiva Provocada por Ruido/epidemiología , Humanos , Industria Manufacturera , Ruido en el Ambiente de Trabajo/efectos adversos
6.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33910286

RESUMEN

Objective: To understand the mastery of occupational hygienic knowledge and the implementing of occupational health protection measures in the group which were exposed to the procedure of manufacture and use in glass fiber company, and to explore the feasibility of the prevention of the skin injury by occupational health education in glass fiber workers. Methods: We selected 257 on-the-job employees as the research object in a ceramic enterprise in Nanjing from June 2018 to August 2019, with the method of cluster random sampling. According to Solomon's design, the intervention group in which we took measures with health education was divided into RG(1) (O(1)XO(2)) and RG(3) (XO(5)) group, and the control group where we didn't take any intervention was divided into RG(2) (O(3)-O(4)) and RG(4) (-O(6)) group. The intervention effect of health education on the occupational protection of glass fiber workers was evaluated by the results of questionnaire. Results: After training, the average score of occupational health knowledge in the intervention group was 27.34 points higher than that before training, the intervention index was 1.42, 23.62-27.73 points higher than the control glass fiber workers and 33.62-35.52 points higher than the control glass non-glass fiber workers; Compared with the control group, the positive attitude rate of fiber glass workers in the intervention group increased by 13.28%, 13.51%, 11.68% and 11.48%, and the intervention indexes were 1.18, 1.17, 1.14 and 1.15, which was corresponding to using protective cream, wearing gloves, wearing working clothes, washing hands and bathing after work, respectively; Compared with the control group, the implementation rate of occupational protection measures which were represented by wearing gloves、washing hands and bathing for glass fiber workers in the intervention group increased by 29.25% and 7.27% respectively, and the intervention indexes were 1.43 and 1.08 respectively; The skin injury rate of fiberglass workers in the intervention group was reduced by 11.43% comparing to the control group, the intervention index was 1.67. Conclusion: According to the occupational health education of fiberglass workers, it improves the mastery of occupational health knowledge, positive atti-tude rate and the implementation rate of occupational protection measures, meanwhile, it reduces the skin injury rate of the intervention objects to a certain extent.


Asunto(s)
Exposición Profesional , Salud Laboral , Vidrio , Educación en Salud , Humanos , Exposición Profesional/prevención & control , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
7.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33910288

RESUMEN

Objective: To discuss the effect of low-dose ionizing radiation on the health of radiation workers, and provide a basis for occupational health risk assessment of radiation workers. Methods: In January 2020, 3165 radiation workers who performed radiation occupational health examinations in Guangzhou Prevention and Treatment Hospital for Occupational Disease from January 2017 to December 2019 were selected as the research objects, and compared and analyzed the health status of radiation workers with different examination types (pre-job, in-job and off-job) , types of work, gender, and length of service. Results: The off-job occupational radiological health examination was rare at 2.3% (74/3165) . The abnormal detection rate of chest radiographs, renal function, thyroid function, and blood routine of the radiation workers in-job group was higher than that of the pre-job group (P<0.05) . No statistical difference was found in the abnormal detection rate of the examination items during the in-job group and the off-job group (P>0.05) . The blood routine abnormality detection rate of medical application group and industrial application group were higher than those of nuclear fuel group (P<0.05) . The abnormal detection rate of blood pressure and renal function of male radiation workers was higher than that of females, while the abnormal detection rate of blood routine of females was higher than that of males (P<0.05) . The abnormal detection rate of electrocardiogram, chest radiograph, blood pressure, renal function, thyroid function, and blood routine of radiation workers increased with increasing working age (P<0.05) . Conclusion: Occupational health status of radiation workers is not optimistic. Radiation occupational health monitoring should be strengthened, special attention should be paid to off-job radiation occupational health examination, focusing on the sensitive indicators of sensitive personnel, improving radiation protection conditions, and effectively protecting the occupational health of radiation workers.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Profesionales , Exposición Profesional , Salud Laboral , China/epidemiología , Femenino , Estado de Salud , Humanos , Masculino
8.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33910295

RESUMEN

Asbestos is harmful to human, and populations with occupational and environmental exposure to respirable asbestos fibers have higher risk of cancers like malignant mesothelioma and lung cancer. At present, patient with asbestos-induced malignant peritoneal mesothelioma and lung cancer is rare. In this study, we analyzed the clinical data of a case of asbestos-induced malignant peritoneal mesothelioma complicated with lung cancer to investigate the diagnosis and treatment of this disease.


Asunto(s)
Asbestos , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Mesotelioma , Exposición Profesional , Neoplasias Peritoneales , Asbestos/efectos adversos , Humanos , Exposición Profesional/efectos adversos
9.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33910300

RESUMEN

Amine compounds are important nitrogen-containing compounds in the atmosphere. Most organic amines are volatile and highly toxic. They can enter the human body through respiratory and skin contact in the workplace. Long-term exposure can cause headache, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and other symptoms, even damage the nervous system and cardiovascular system. With the widespread application of amine compounds, people may also be exposed to low doses of amine compounds in daily life. In order to better assess the harm caused to human, this article reviews the research progress of amine limits and detection methods.


Asunto(s)
Aminas , Exposición Profesional , Humanos , Lugar de Trabajo
10.
Appl Clin Inform ; 12(2): 259-265, 2021 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33792010

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: During the initial days of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, hospital-wide practices rapidly evolved, and hospital employees became a critical population for receiving consistent and timely communication about these changes. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to rapidly implement enterprise text messaging as a crisis communication intervention to deliver key COVID-related safety and practice information directly to hospital employees. METHODS: Utilizing a secure text-messaging platform already routinely used in direct patient care, we sent 140-character messages containing targeted pandemic-related updates to on-duty hospital employees three times per week for 13 weeks. This innovation was evaluated through the analysis of aggregate "read" receipts from each message. Effectiveness was assessed by rates of occupational exposures to COVID-19 and by two cross-sectional attitudinal surveys administered to all text-message recipients. RESULTS: On average, each enterprise text message was sent to 1,997 on-duty employees. Analysis of "read" receipts revealed that on average, 60% of messages were consistently read within 24 hours of delivery, 34% were read in 2 hours, and 16% were read in 10 minutes. Readership peaked and fell in the first week of messaging but remained consistent throughout the remainder of the intervention. A survey administered after 2 weeks revealed that 163 (79%) users found enterprise texts "valuable," 152 (73%) users would recommend these texts to their colleagues, and 114 (55%) users preferred texts to email. A second survey at 9 weeks revealed that 109 (80%) users continued to find texts "valuable." Enterprise messaging, in conjunction with the system's larger communication strategy, was associated with a decrease in median daily occupational exposure events (nine events per day premessaging versus one event per day during messaging). CONCLUSION: Enterprise text messages sent to hospital-employee smartphones are an efficient and effective strategy for urgent communications. Hospitals may wish to leverage this technology during times of routine operations and crisis management.


Asunto(s)
/terapia , Personal de Salud , Hospitales , Guías de Práctica Clínica como Asunto , Envío de Mensajes de Texto , Actitud del Personal de Salud , Humanos , Exposición Profesional , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
11.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0249201, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33819279

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: During viral pandemics, filtering facepiece (FFP) masks together with eye protection form the essential components of personal protective equipment (PPE) for healthcare workers. There remain concerns regarding insufficient global supply and imperfect protection offered by currently available PPE strategies. A range of full-face snorkel masks were adapted to accept high grade medical respiratory filters using bespoke-designed 3D-printed connectors. We compared the protection offered by the snorkel to that of standard PPE using a placebo-controlled respirator filtering test as well as a fluorescent droplet deposition experiment. Out of the 56 subjects tested, 42 (75%) passed filtering testing with the snorkel mask compared to 31 (55%) with a FFP3 respirator mask (p = 0.003). Amongst the 43 subjects who were not excluded following a placebo control, 85% passed filtering testing with the snorkel versus to 68% with a FFP3 mask (p = 0.008). Following front and lateral spray of fluorescence liquid particles, the snorkel mask also provided superior protection against droplet deposition within the subject's face, when compared to a standard PPE combination of FFP3 masks and eye protection (3.19x108 versus 6.81x108 fluorescence units, p<0.001). The 3D printable adaptors are available for free download online at https://www.ImperialHackspace.com/COVID-19-Snorkel-Respirator-Project/. CONCLUSION: Full-face snorkel masks adapted as particulate respirators performed better than a standard PPE combination of FFP3 mask and eye protection against aerosol inhalation and droplet deposition. This adaptation is therefore a promising PPE solution for healthcare workers during highly contagious viral outbreaks.


Asunto(s)
/prevención & control , Personal de Salud , Máscaras , Exposición Profesional , Dispositivos de Protección Respiratoria , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino
12.
Wiad Lek ; 74(3 cz 2): 726-730, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33843643

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The aim: Was a comparative hygienic assessment of working conditions and occupational risk in the application of fungicide Amistar Extra 280, SC using slotted and injector sprayers. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: Sprayers Super Poly 110-04 (variant №1) and Guardian Air GA110-04 (variant № 2), and certified equipment were used. The occupational risk was assessed in accordance with the methodological recommendations proposed by the L.I. Medvedia Scientific Center for Preventive Toxicology, Food and Chemical Safety specialists. RESULTS: Results: When using the slotted sprayer Super Poly 110-04 in the air of the working zone of the tractor driver the content of azoxystrobin was 0.0015 ± 0.0001 mg/m3, cyproconazole - 0.085 ± 0.002 mg/m3, at a distance of 10 m from the edge of the field on the leeward side - 0.003 ± 0.001 and 0.11 ± 0.02 mg/m3, respectively. Visual analysis of water-sensitive cards after using slotted sprayers showed the presence of single drops of pesticide working solution in the wear zone. When applying the pesticide using a Guardian Air GA110-04 injector sprayer in the air of the working zone of the tractor driver, areas of possible wear (10 and 100 m), theconcentration of the active substances of Amistar Extra 280, SC formulation was below the limit of quantification of the method. When assessing the complex risk for tractor drivers, a statistically significant difference was found for azoxystrobin (p = 0.002) and cyproconazole (p = 0.001) when using a slotted sprayer Super Poly 110-04 and injector Guardian Air GA110-04. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: Values of the combined complex risk of application of the Amistar Extra 280, SC formulation for tractor drivers of variant №2 application were significantly lower than those for tractor drivers of variant №1.


Asunto(s)
Fungicidas Industriales , Exposición Profesional , Plaguicidas , Fungicidas Industriales/análisis , Humanos , Pirimidinas , Estrobilurinas
13.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 76, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33889242

RESUMEN

Introduction: hospital mortuaries are responsible for the receipt and storage of deceased people. This exposes mortuary workers to a variety of health and safety hazards, which include physical, chemical, ergonomics, biological and psychosocial hazards/stressors. The aim of this study was to assess occupational health and safety practices (OHS) among government mortuary workers in Gauteng province. Methods: a cross-sectional descriptive study design was conducted between the year 2017 and 2018. A convenient sampling technique was used to sample 11 government hospitals in Gauteng Province. A total of 46 employees participated in the study. Data was collected using structured questionnaires and observational checklists. Ethical clearance and permission to conduct the study were obtained prior to the commencement of the study. Data was analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS) version 25 software. Results: thirty-one (67%) of the respondents did not know the concept of hazard. Observations indicated that 5 out of 11 (45%) facilities were well maintained with only 2 (18%) of the facilities had the participants wearing the required PPE on duty. There was no association between working experience and having a knowledge of the existing hazards. However, there was a high correlation (P<0.05) between training and adherence to safe practices. Conclusion: the OHS practices were poor amongst operational employees. The study highlights the significance of developing and implementing Occupational Health and Safety programmes. We recommend that these programmes should focus on occupational health and safety education, training, supervision, medical surveillance and monitoring strategies must be developed and implemented.


Asunto(s)
Prácticas Mortuorias/normas , Exposición Profesional/prevención & control , Salud Laboral/normas , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Lista de Verificación , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Departamentos de Hospitales/normas , Hospitales Públicos , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Equipo de Protección Personal/estadística & datos numéricos , Sudáfrica , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
14.
J Occup Environ Hyg ; 18(4-5): 169-179, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33861938

RESUMEN

The coronavirus pandemic has taken a detrimental toll on the lives of individuals globally. In addition to the direct effect (e.g., being infected with the virus), this pandemic has negatively ravaged many industries, particularly food retail, food services, and hospitality. Given the novelty of the disease, the true impact of COVID-19 remains to be determined. Because of the nature of their work, and the characteristics of the workers, individuals in the food retail, food service, and hospitality industries are a group whose vulnerability is at its most fragile state during this pandemic. Through this qualitative study, we explored workers' perspectives on the impact of COVID-19 on their mental health and coping, including screening for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol use disorder symptoms. Twenty-seven individual interviews were conducted, audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Four key themes emerged: being infected and infecting others, the unknown, isolation, and work and customer demands. Considering the many uncertainties of COVID-19, workers in these three industries were experiencing heightened levels of mental distress because of where they worked and the already existing disparities they faced on a daily basis before the pandemic started. Yet they remained hopeful for a better future. More studies are needed to fully understand the magnitude, short-term, and long-term effects of COVID-19. Based on this study's findings, programs are critically needed to promote positive coping behaviors among at-risk and distressed workers. Recommendations for employers, occupational health and safety professionals, and policy stakeholders to further support these service workers are discussed.


Asunto(s)
/psicología , Trastornos Mentales/epidemiología , Exposición Profesional/efectos adversos , Estrés Laboral , Adaptación Psicológica , Adulto , Alcoholismo/epidemiología , Comercio , Femenino , Servicios de Alimentación , Humanos , Masculino , Trastornos Mentales/etiología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Investigación Cualitativa , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/epidemiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Estados Unidos
15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33806578

RESUMEN

Sero-epidemiological surveys are valuable attempts to estimate the circulation of SARS-CoV-2 in general or selected populations. Within this context, a prospective observational study was conducted to estimate the prevalence and persistence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in different categories of workers and factors associated with positivity, through the detection of virus-specific immunoglobulin G and M (IgG/IgM) in serum samples. Enrollees were divided in low exposure and medium-high groups on the basis of their work activity. Antibody responders were re-contacted after 3 months for the follow-up. Of 2255 sampled workers, 4.8% tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 IgG/IgM antibodies, with 81.7% to IgG only. Workers who continued to go to their place of work, were healthcare workers, or experienced at least one COVID-19-related symptom were more likely to test positive for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. SARS-CoV-2 antibodies prevalence was significantly higher in the medium-high risk vs. low-risk group (7.2% vs. 3.0%, p < 0.0001). At 3-month follow-up, 81.3% of subjects still had antibody response. This study provided important information of SARS-CoV-2 infection prevalence among workers in northern Italy, where the impact of COVID-19 was particularly intense. The presented surveillance data give a contribution to refine current estimates of the disease burden expected from the SARS-CoV-2.


Asunto(s)
Exposición Profesional , Anticuerpos Antivirales , Humanos , Italia/epidemiología , Ocupaciones
16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33799676

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Occupational exposure limits for hydrogen sulphide (H2S) vary considerably; three expert group reports, published from 2006 to 2010, each recommend different limits. Some jurisdictions are considering substantial reductions. METHODS: This review assesses the scientific evidence used in these recommendations and presents a new systematic review of human studies from 2006-20, identifying 33 studies. RESULTS: The three major reports all give most weight to two sets of studies: of physiological effects in human volunteers, and of effects in the nasal passages of rats and mice. The human studies were done in one laboratory over 20 years ago and give inconsistent results. The breathing style and nasal anatomy of rats and mice would make them more sensitive than humans to inhaled agents. Each expert group applied different uncertainly factors. From these reports and the further literature review, no clear evidence of detrimental health effects from chronic occupational exposures specific to H2S was found. Detailed studies of individuals in communities with natural sources in New Zealand have shown no detrimental effects. Studies in Iceland and Italy show some associations; these and various other small studies need verification. CONCLUSIONS: The scientific justification for lowering occupational exposure limits is very limited. There is no clear evidence, based on currently available studies, that lower limits will protect the health of workers further than will the current exposure limits used in most countries. Further review and assessment of relevant evidence is justified before exposure limits are set.


Asunto(s)
Sulfuro de Hidrógeno , Exposición Profesional , Animales , Sulfuro de Hidrógeno/toxicidad , Islandia , Italia , Ratones , Nueva Zelanda , Ratas
17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33802062

RESUMEN

Although exposure to asbestos via various routes has been acknowledged, comprehensive exposure and risk assessment methods have not been developed at the national level. We conducted a study to reconstruct comprehensive past asbestos exposure estimations and to suggest a method to calculate the Excess Lifetime Cancer Risk (ELCR) of Koreans. The past occupational exposure reconstruction was conducted by rebuilding the previous general population job-exposure matrix (JEM). The para-occupational and household exposure estimation was based on the pooled analysis of data from other countries as well as Korea. The neighborhood exposure from occupational sources by distance was estimated by the exponential decay model. As a result, 141 JEM exposure groups across four periods including ~79, the 80s, 90s, 2000s with a ratio of 2.0:1.0:0.5:0.05 were reconstructed. The para-occupational and household exposures were 11% and 1% of the JEM respectively. The environmental exposure source concentration from outside occupational exposure was 2.5% of the inside concentration. The ratio of the concentration of environmental exposure source (C0) to distance d (Cd) was exp-kd  with a decay constant k of 6.834. The mean concentrations (f/cc) were 2.28 × 10-3 for outdoor, 4.65 × 10-5 for indoor, 1.95 × 10-2 for transportation activity, 4.44 × 10-2 for agricultural activity, and 4.68 × 10-2 for daily life activity in naturally occurring asbestos areas. Indoor and outdoor asbestos concentrations from living in a slate roof house were 1.73 × 10-6 and 2.70 × 10-8, respectively. For improved generalizability, validity, and applicability of the proposed method, further studies on each route with real assessments and experiments are required.


Asunto(s)
Asbestos , Neoplasias , Exposición Profesional , Asbestos/toxicidad , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales , Humanos , Exposición Profesional/efectos adversos , Exposición Profesional/análisis , República de Corea/epidemiología , Medición de Riesgo
18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33802629

RESUMEN

Firefighters are exposed to carcinogens that may increase their risk of developing many types of occupational cancer. Many systematic reviews (SRs) have been produced with sometimes conflicting conclusions. In this overview of reviews, we aim to assess the conclusion consistency across the available systematic reviews on the cancer risk in firefighters. Literature searches were conducted in several indexed databases and grey literature to retrieve systematic reviews aiming to evaluate cancer incidence or cancer mortality in firefighters. Results from included SRs were analyzed according to the tumour site. Out of 1054 records identified by the search in the databases, a total of 11 SRs were ultimately included. The original studies (n = 104) analyzed in the SRs were published between 1959 and 2018. The results consistently reported a significant increase in the incidence of rectal, prostate, bladder and testicular cancers as well as mesothelioma and malignant melanoma in firefighters compared to the general population. The SRs also indicate that death rates from rectal cancer and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma are higher among firefighters. Consistent SR results suggest that several types of cancer may be more frequent in firefighters than in the general population.


Asunto(s)
Bomberos , Neoplasias , Enfermedades Profesionales , Exposición Profesional , Carcinógenos , Humanos , Incidencia , Masculino , Neoplasias/epidemiología
19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33807727

RESUMEN

Health care workers are exposed to numerous workplace hazards. The implementation of safety measures in high-income countries has largely mitigated these risks. However, in many low- and middle- income countries (LMICs), resources to institute safety measures are lacking, increasing the risk of occupational exposures to these hazards. The aim of this scoping review is to map and synthesize the available research on occupational hazards among health care workers in LMICs, identify research gaps and inform policy. Searches for relevant articles were conducted in five electronic databases using a broad range of search terms. The inclusion criteria were: quantitative observational or experimental studies which examined exposure to one or more occupational hazards among health care workers in a LMCI; and the article was published in English in a peer-reviewed journal. A total of 99 studies met the inclusion criteria, and data were extracted from these studies. Large proportions of health care workers in LMICs were exposed to biological hazards (bloodborne pathogens, tuberculosis), psychosocial hazards (workplace violence, burnout, job dissatisfaction), ergonomic hazards (musculoskeletal complaints), and chemical hazards (exposure to latex and antineoplastic drugs). The implementation of risk reduction strategies was suboptimal. The majority of the literature was on biological hazards (48%), and research on other hazards was limited in comparison. Occupational safety needs to become a priority public health issue to protect health care workers in LMICs. More research is needed to understand the magnitude of the problem in these countries.


Asunto(s)
Exposición Profesional , Salud Laboral , Países en Desarrollo , Personal de Salud , Humanos , Renta , Pobreza
20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33807896

RESUMEN

Farmers are at a high risk of inhalation exposure when handling pesticides. Thai farmers usually protect themselves against pesticide exposure by wearing commercial respiratory protective equipment (RPE) available from rural community markets. However, scientific data regarding the pesticide filtration efficiency of RPE commonly worn by farmers is limited. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the efficiency of insecticide filtration of various RPE commonly worn by farmers in Thailand. The half facepiece respirator was used as a control to compare the results with other RPE. Ten types of RPE were selected for testing. The filtration efficiency of each RPE against insecticides was tested in a laboratory. The remarkable findings were that a surgical mask demonstrated the least filtration efficiency of all tested insecticides, with a range of 25.7-61.5%. The RPE available in rural markets of Thailand had a filtration efficiency within a range of 64.9-95.4%, whereas a half facepiece respirator was the most efficient in filtering insecticides, with a range of 96.5-98.9%. Therefore, our results suggest that the RPE most frequently worn by farmers may not provide adequate protection when compared with the respirator. However, considerations around RPE use in low-and middle-income countries and tropical climate conditions should be based on pesticide toxicity and practical use, ensuring balance between the risks from pesticide exposure and acceptance of PPE use.


Asunto(s)
Insecticidas , Exposición Profesional , Plaguicidas , Agricultura , Agricultores , Filtración , Humanos , Tailandia
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