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1.
Bone Joint J ; 102-B(3): 352-359, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32114822

RESUMEN

AIMS: Few risk factors for rotator cuff disease (RCD) and corresponding treatment have been firmly established. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between numerous risk factors and the incidence of surgery for RCD in a large cohort. METHODS: A population-based cohort of people aged between 40 and 69 years in the UK (the UK Biobank) was studied. People who underwent surgery for RCD were identified through a link with NHS inpatient records covering a mean of eight years after enrolment. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression was used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) as estimates of associations with surgery for RCD accounting for confounders. The risk factors which were considered included age, sex, race, education, Townsend deprivation index, body mass index (BMI), occupational demands, and exposure to smoking. RESULTS: Of the 421,894 people who were included, 47% were male. The mean age at the time of enrolment was 56 years (40 to 69). A total of 2,156 people were identified who underwent surgery for RCD. Each decade increase in age was associated with a 55% increase in the incidence of RCD surgery (95% confidence interval (CI) 46% to 64%). Male sex, non-white race, lower deprivation score, and higher BMI were significantly associated with a higher risk of surgery for RCD (all p < 0.050). Greater occupational physical demands were significantly associated with higher rates of RCD surgery (HR = 2.1, 1.8, and 1.4 for 'always', 'usually', and 'sometimes' doing heavy manual labour vs 'never', all p < 0.001). Former smokers had significantly higher rates of RCD surgery than those who had never smoked (HR 1.23 (95% CI 1.12 to 1.35), p < 0.001), while current smokers had similar rates to those who had never smoked (HR 0.94 (95% CI 0.80 to 1.11)). Among those who had never smoked, the risk of surgery was higher among those with more than one household member who smoked (HR 1.78 (95% CI 1.08 to 2.92)). The risk of RCD surgery was not significantly related to other measurements of secondhand smoking. CONCLUSION: Many factors were independently associated with surgery for RCD, including older age, male sex, higher BMI, lower deprivation score, and higher occupational physical demands. Several of the risk factors which were identified are modifiable, suggesting that the healthcare burden of RCD might be reduced through the pursuit of public health goals, such as reducing obesity and modifying occupational demands. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2020;102-B(3):352-359.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Musculares/cirugía , Exposición Profesional/efectos adversos , Procedimientos Ortopédicos/estadística & datos numéricos , Vigilancia de la Población , Manguito de los Rotadores/cirugía , Fumar/efectos adversos , Adulto , Anciano , Índice de Masa Corporal , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Incidencia , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Enfermedades Musculares/epidemiología , Enfermedades Musculares/etiología , Prevalencia , Estudios Prospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Reino Unido/epidemiología
2.
Rev Saude Publica ; 54: 28, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32215536

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To assess the years of life lost due to premature death and disability-adjusted life years (DALY) as a result of chronic noncommunicable diseases attributable to occupational hazard factors, and to compare their position according to the risk ranking for chronic noncommunicable diseases in 1990 and 2016. METHODS: Data for the DALY indicator, estimated from the Global Burden of Disease 2016 (GBD 2016) study, were analyzed for noncommunicable chronic diseases attributable to occupational, and other risk factors, selected in Brazil. A descriptive analysis was performed comparing the proportion of DALY by sex and age group (15 to 49 and 50 to 69 years old), as well as the ranking of occupational hazard factors in 1990 and 2016. RESULTS: In 2016, ergonomic risk factors, carcinogenic agents, and noise in the workplace were among the 25 largest contributors to DALY for chronic noncommunicable diseases affecting the age group between 15 and 49 years. The contribution of all occupational hazard factors increased in 2016, except for occupational aerodispersoids affecting men. Concerning the age group between 50 and 69, occupational carcinogens stand out, with an increase of 26.0% for men, and 17.1% for women in 2016. Risk factors evaluated according to their 1990 and 2016 ranking show that occupational hazards have all scored higher on the second evaluation (2016), especially when compared with other risks. CONCLUSIONS: The global burden of chronic noncommunicable diseases attributed to occupational hazard factors has become increasingly important. We suggest the strengthening of the approach of occupational hazard factors in the agendas for tackling these diseases in Brazil.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad Crónica/epidemiología , Carga Global de Enfermedades , Esperanza de Vida , Enfermedades Profesionales/epidemiología , Exposición Profesional/efectos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Brasil/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Factores de Riesgo , Adulto Joven
3.
Environ Pollut ; 259: 113619, 2020 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32191994

RESUMEN

Quantitating the health effects of employment history in factories, especially polluting ones, is essential for understanding the benefits or losses of industrialization in rural areas. Using a traced subset of nationwide panel data from 2005 covering five provinces, 101 villages, and 2026 households (collected recently in 2016) and the econometric models, this study estimated the effect of factory employment history on workers' health. The results showed that: the absolute number of factory workers increased from 1998 to 2015, and the proportion of factory workers was 7.68% in 2015; the absolute number and the proportion of farmers decreased from 63.84% in 1998 to 29.06% in 2015. Given that all the respondents live in rural areas, the HlthPlace (the first place the individual went to for their last illness in 2015) was selected as the main dependent variable of interest, and Hlthexp (Healthcare expenditure per person at last illness in 2015) and self-reported health were used as auxiliary dependent variables. The findings revealed that, after controlling the characteristics of individual, household, hospital and area, a one year increase of factory employment history corresponded to a 0.035 level increase in the probability of people choosing high-level hospital (p < 0.01) and a 237.61 yuan increase in healthcare expenditure (p < 0.1). The results also showed the adverse effect of self-reported health on factory employment history (p < 0.01). In addition, the relationship between the farming history and health was evaluated, and the econometric results showed that compared with factory employment history, farming history had opposite impacts on health (p < 0.01). Finally, the robustness check showed that the empirical results were reliable and that the initial results were robust. Generally, this study revealed the effect of overall factory employment on health, which is a useful research supplement to the studies on the health effects of specific pollution exposure.


Asunto(s)
Agricultura , Empleo , Exposición Profesional/efectos adversos , Salud Rural , Población Rural , China , Composición Familiar , Humanos
4.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32062893

RESUMEN

Objective: To study the effect of noise on hypertension and hyperglycemia among occupational workers. Methods: Total 670 workers in an automobile manufacturing company were selected as the subjects of physical examination in 2017. According to the noise exposure or not, the subjects were divided into control group (no noise exposure) 143 and contact group (noise exposure) 527. Questionnaire survey and physical examination were conducted. The measurement data were analyzed by t-test, and the count data and grade data were analyzed by χ(2) test. The influence of noise on blood glucose, heart rate, blood pressure and other indicators was analyzed by logistic regression, and the OR and 95%CI of each risk factor were calculated. Results: The average age of the control group and the contact group was no significant difference (P>0.05) . There were 139 (20.7%) cases of high systolic pressure, 154 (23.0%) cases of high diastolic pressure, 63 (9.4%) cases of hyperglycemia, 29 (4.3%) cases of tachycardia. Compared with the control group, there were significant differences in systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and blood glucose in the contact group (P<0.05) . Compared with the control group, the systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and blood glucose of the subjects in the corresponding age contact group increased significantly (P<0.05) . The years of noise exposure were protective factors for systolic and diastolic blood pressure (OR=0.970, 0.973) . Conclusion: Noise exposure may increase blood pressure and blood sugar of occupational workers, but the effect on heart rate can not be determined.


Asunto(s)
Hiperglucemia/complicaciones , Hipertensión/complicaciones , Ruido en el Ambiente de Trabajo/efectos adversos , Exposición Profesional/efectos adversos , Automóviles , Glucemia , Presión Sanguínea , Frecuencia Cardíaca , Humanos , Industria Manufacturera
6.
Int J Occup Environ Med ; 11(1): 33-40, 2020 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31905193

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Workers in cement warehouses of Kerala are enduring long-standing exposure to cement dust, which is considered genotoxic. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the extent of genotoxicity and cytotoxicity caused due to exposure of cement dust among those working in cement warehouses. METHODS: The study included 82 cement warehouse workers and 82 age-matched individuals with no exposure to cement dust. Exfoliated buccal micronucleus cytome assay (BMCyt) was performed to analyze the genotoxic and cytotoxic effects caused by inhalation of cement dust. RESULTS: The frequency of various genotoxic and cytotoxic end markers (micronucleated cells [2-fold increase, p<0.001], nuclear buds [4-fold increase, p<0.001], binucleated cells [4-fold increase, p<0.001], karyorrhectic cells [2-fold increase, p<0.001], pyknotic cells [3-fold increase, p<0.001], and karyolytic cells [2-fold increase, p<0.001]) were higher in the exposed workers compared with unexposed group. Increase of these parameters represented an increased level of chromosomal damage, nuclear disintegration and increased cell death among exposed group compared with unexposed group. CONCLUSION: Continuous exposure to cement dust results in increased frequency of nuclear aberrations and cellular apoptosis. This may lead to defects in genome maintenance, accelerated ageing, increased chance of oral cancer and neurodegenerative disorders in those occupationally exposed to cement dust.


Asunto(s)
Daño del ADN/efectos de los fármacos , Polvo , Inestabilidad Genómica/genética , Mucosa Bucal/citología , Exposición Profesional/efectos adversos , Adulto , Apoptosis/efectos de los fármacos , Aberraciones Cromosómicas/inducido químicamente , Humanos , Masculino , Pruebas de Micronúcleos/métodos , Persona de Mediana Edad
7.
Int J Occup Environ Med ; 11(1): 53-58, 2020 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31905195

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Exposure to numerous chemicals, including industrial ones, may result in liver damage. The body susceptibility to the environmental hazards largely depends on the activity of the enzymes in the xenobiotic detoxification system. Function abnormalities of such enzymes due to genetic variations would increase the risk of developing various diseases. OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the relationship between polymorphism in glutathione S-transferase genes (GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1) and the risk of toxic liver damage in a group of petrochemical workers. METHODS: This study was conducted on 72 workers with toxic liver injury, 156 healthy workers, and 322 healthy individuals without history of occupational exposure to chemicals. Genotyping of the GSTP1 rs1695 gene polymorphism was performed using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to perform genotyping of the GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes polymorphism. RESULTS: There was a significant difference in genotype frequencies of the GSTP1 rs1695 gene polymorphism among the groups studied. The distribution of Val/Val genotype of the GSTP1 rs1695 gene polymorphism had a higher incidence in healthy workers compared with patients with toxic liver damage (p=0.036). No significant association was found between the GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms and toxic liver damage. CONCLUSION: The GSTP1 rs1695 gene polymorphism can play a protective role in the development of toxic liver damage in petrochemical workers.


Asunto(s)
Gutatión-S-Transferasa pi/genética , Glutatión Transferasa/genética , Hígado/patología , Exposición Profesional/efectos adversos , Adulto , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Frecuencia de los Genes/genética , Genotipo , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa , Polimorfismo Genético , Polimorfismo de Longitud del Fragmento de Restricción
11.
Toxicol Lett ; 322: 12-19, 2020 Apr 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31899212

RESUMEN

Benzene exposure is a risk factor of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), during such carcinogenesis long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are important epigenetic regulators. HOTAIRM1 (HOXA transcript antisense RNA, myeloid-specific 1) plays an indispensable role in the development of AML. Hydroquinone (HQ) is one major metabolite of benzene and its ideal replacement in toxicology research. But the influence of benzene or HQ on HOTAIRM1 expression in AML associated pathway is still unclear. In the TK6 cells with short-term exposure to HQ (HQ-ST cells) or long term HQ exposure induced malignant transformed TK6 cells (HQ-MT cells), the relationship between DNMT3b and HOTAIRM1 was explored. Comparing to counterparts, HOTAIRM1 expression was increased firstly and then decreased in HQ-ST cells, and definitely decreased in HQ-MT cells; while the expression change tendency of DNMT3b was in contrast to that of HOTAIRM1. Moreover, the average HOTAIRM1 expression of 17 paired workers being exposed to benzene within 1.5 years was increased, but that of the remaining 92 paired workers with longer exposure time was decreased. Furthermore, in 5-AzaC (DNA methyltransferase inhibitor) or TSA (histone deacetylation inhibitor) treated HQ-MT cells, the expression of HOTAIRM1 was restored by reduced DNA promoter methylation levels. HQ-MT cells with DNMT3b knockout by CRISPR/Cas9 displayed the promoter hypomethylation and the increase of HOTAIRM1, also confirmed in benzene exposure workers. These suggest that long term exposure to HQ or benzene might induce the increase of DNMT3b expression and the promoter hypermethylation to silence the expression of HOTAIRM1, a possible tumor-suppressor in the AML associated carcinogenesis pathway.


Asunto(s)
Benceno/efectos adversos , ADN (Citosina-5-)-Metiltransferasas/biosíntesis , Metilación de ADN/efectos de los fármacos , Silenciador del Gen/efectos de los fármacos , Hidroquinonas/toxicidad , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/inducido químicamente , MicroARNs/metabolismo , Enfermedades Profesionales/inducido químicamente , Exposición Profesional/efectos adversos , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Línea Celular Transformada , Línea Celular Tumoral , ADN (Citosina-5-)-Metiltransferasas/genética , Inducción Enzimática , Regulación Enzimológica de la Expresión Génica , Regulación Neoplásica de la Expresión Génica , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/enzimología , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , MicroARNs/genética , Enfermedades Profesionales/enzimología , Enfermedades Profesionales/genética , Regiones Promotoras Genéticas , Medición de Riesgo
12.
Toxicol Lett ; 322: 111-119, 2020 Apr 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31981686

RESUMEN

The increasing concern of possible adverse effects on human health derived from occupational engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) exposure is an issue addressed by entities related to provide guidelines and/or protocols for ENMs regulation. Here we analysed 17 entities from America, Europe and Asia, and some of these entities provide limits of exposure extrapolated from the non-nanosized counterparts of ENMs. The international landscape shows that recommendations are mostly made for metal oxide based ENMs and tonnage is one of the main criteria for ENMs registration, however, sub-nanometric ENMs are emerging and perhaps a novel category of ENMs will appear soon. We identify that besides the lack of epidemiological evidence of ENMs toxicity in humans and difficulties in analysing the toxicological data derived from experimental models, the lack of information on airborne concentrations of ENMs in occupational settings is an important limitation to improve the experimental designs. The development of regulations related to ENMs exposure would lead to provide safer work places for ENMs production without delaying the nanotechnology progress but will also help to protect the environment by taking opportune and correct measures for nanowaste, considering that this could be a great environmental problem in the coming future.


Asunto(s)
Nanoestructuras/efectos adversos , Exposición Profesional/efectos adversos , Salud Laboral , Animales , Relación Dosis-Respuesta a Droga , Guías como Asunto , Humanos , Nivel sin Efectos Adversos Observados , Exposición Profesional/legislación & jurisprudencia , Exposición Profesional/prevención & control , Exposición Profesional/normas , Salud Laboral/legislación & jurisprudencia , Salud Laboral/normas , Formulación de Políticas , Medición de Riesgo , Factores de Riesgo , Valores Limites del Umbral
13.
Toxicol Lett ; 322: 20-31, 2020 Apr 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31923465

RESUMEN

Particulate matter (PM) from combustion processes has been associated with oxidative stress to DNA, whereas effects related to telomere dysfunction are less investigated. We collected air-borne PM from a passenger cabin of a diesel-propelled train and at a training facility for smoke diving exercises. Effects on oxidative stress biomarkers, genotoxicity measured by the comet assay and telomere length in PM-exposed A549 cells were compared with the genotoxicity and telomere length in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from human volunteers exposed to the same aerosol source. Although elevated levels of DNA strand breaks and oxidatively damaged DNA in terms of Fpg-sensitive sites were observed in PBMCs from exposed humans, the PM collected at same locations did not cause genotoxicity in the comet assay in A549 cells. Nevertheless, A549 cells displayed telomere length shortening after four weeks exposure to PM. This is in line with slightly shorter telomere length in PBMCs from exposed humans, although it was not statistically significant. In conclusion, the results indicate that genotoxic potency measured by the comet assay of PM in A549 cells may not predict genotoxicity in exposed humans, whereas telomere length measurements may be a novel indicator of genotoxic stress in cell cultures and humans.


Asunto(s)
Daño del ADN , Exposición por Inhalación/efectos adversos , Material Particulado/toxicidad , Humo/efectos adversos , Homeostasis del Telómero/efectos de los fármacos , Emisiones de Vehículos/toxicidad , Células A549 , Contaminantes Ocupacionales del Aire/toxicidad , Supervivencia Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Bomberos , Humanos , Exposición por Inhalación/análisis , Leucocitos Mononucleares/efectos de los fármacos , Leucocitos Mononucleares/patología , Exposición Profesional/efectos adversos , Exposición Profesional/análisis , Estrés Oxidativo/efectos de los fármacos , Estrés Oxidativo/genética , Tamaño de la Partícula , Homeostasis del Telómero/genética
14.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(3): 1118-1123, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31667844

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Dairy farming feed can be contaminated with mycotoxins, affecting animals' health and milk quality. Dairy farming is also prone to occupational exposure to mycotoxins, and feed is recognized as a source of contamination in the workplace. An exploratory study was developed in a dairy farm located in Portugal intending to assess the mycotoxins present in the feed. RESULTS: All the samples analyzed presented contamination by at least two mycotoxins and up to a maximum of 13 mycotoxins in the same sample. Zearalenone (ZEA) was detected in all the samples (n = 10) followed by deoxynivalenol (DON), which was reported in eight samples, and ochratoxin A (OTA), reported in five samples. CONCLUSION: The results point to the possible contamination of milk by several mycotoxins and raise the possibility of occupational exposure to mycotoxins due to feed contamination. An adequate One Health approach for dairy production should address these issues through effective preventive actions such as avoiding the use of feed contaminated with mycotoxins. This represents an important challenge due to climate change. It requires proper attention and accurate management measures. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Trabajadores Agrícolas/etiología , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Leche/química , Micotoxinas/análisis , Exposición Profesional/efectos adversos , Enfermedades de los Trabajadores Agrícolas/prevención & control , Animales , Bovinos , Agricultores/estadística & datos numéricos , Granjas , Contaminación de Alimentos/análisis , Humanos , Micotoxinas/toxicidad , Exposición Profesional/análisis , Exposición Profesional/prevención & control , Ocratoxinas/análisis , Ocratoxinas/toxicidad , Portugal , Zearalenona/análisis , Zearalenona/toxicidad
15.
Toxicol Lett ; 320: 58-63, 2020 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31805342

RESUMEN

The current study uses the metabolic probe, antipyrine, and AhRR transcript expression (qRT-PCR) to examine the impact of the AhRR (565C > G or Pro185Ala, rs2292596) genetic polymorphism upon CYP1A2 inducibility in an established cohort of male firefighters with exposure to dioxin-like chemicals. The lipid adjusted concentrations of 29 dioxin and dioxin-like congeners were measured in serum. Possession of the G allele (CG and GG genotypes) was correlated with high expression AhRR transcript and lower CYP1A2 induction than found in individuals homozygous for CC. The induction of CYP1A2 was dioxin-dependent among carriers of the G allele. Multivariate models indicated that CYP1A2 activity, detected as urinary 3-hydroxymethylantipyrine, was significantly correlated with cotinine concentration and for those currently working as firefighters, dioxin body burden (ß = 0.54, p = 0.041). The efficacy of the AhRR in regulating the AhR signaling pathway is influenced by the AhRR (565C > G) polymorphism. Our study of firefighters using the induction of CYP1A2 as an indicator suggest that G allele proteins have variable AhR repressor activity which is manifested in a dioxin-dependent manner. These results provide evidence of metabolic differences that may affect susceptibility to dioxin-mediated health effects.


Asunto(s)
Factores de Transcripción con Motivo Hélice-Asa-Hélice Básico/genética , Inductores del Citocromo P-450 CYP1A2/efectos adversos , Citocromo P-450 CYP1A2/biosíntesis , Dioxinas/efectos adversos , Bomberos , Exposición Profesional/efectos adversos , Polimorfismo Genético , Proteínas Represoras/genética , Antipirina/análogos & derivados , Antipirina/orina , Inducción Enzimática , Genotipo , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Fenotipo
16.
Toxicol Lett ; 320: 73-79, 2020 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31811912

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Choking agent exposure, among them chlorine gas, occurs in household or industrial accidents, chemical warfare and terrorist attacks. AIMS: Review of published animal and human data regarding the history, pathophysiology, clinical effects and management of chlorine exposure. PATHOPHYSIOLOGY: Highly soluble agents cause quick upper respiratory tract symptoms. Chlorine gas has a medium solubility, also causing delayed lower airway symptoms, mainly due to its oxidizing potential by releasing hypochlorous and hydrochloric acid, but also by interacting with Transient Receptor Potential channels. SYMPTOMS: Eyes may show conjunctival injection, abrasions and corrosions. Burns of the oronasal mucosa and trachea can occur. Dyspnea, bronchospasm and possible retrosternal pain occur frequently. Glottis edema or laryngospasm are acute life-threatening emergencies. Chlorine gas can cause toxic pneumonitis, lung edema and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). MANAGEMENT: General management includes physical examination, pulse oximetry and arterial blood gases. Eyes should be irrigated, humidified oxygen and inhalative bronchodilators administered. An EKG, cardiac enzymes and complete-blood-count should be obtained if there is retrosternal pain. Routine chest x-ray is not recommended - except if pulmonary edema is suspected. Laryngoscopy should be performed if glottis edema is suspected. Sodium bicarbonate inhalation after chlorine gas inhalation is discussed controversially. Mechanical ventilation with continuous-positive-airway-pressure or intubation/tracheotomy with high positive-end-expiratory-pressure may be necessary. Glucocorticoids for prevention of pulmonary edema should be applied restrictively. Prophylactic antibiotics are not recommended. In severe ARDS, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) can be considered. CONCLUSION: Treatment is mainly symptom oriented. New and promising therapies are in development.


Asunto(s)
Accidentes Domésticos , Accidentes de Trabajo , Quemaduras Químicas/terapia , Sustancias para la Guerra Química/envenenamiento , Cloro/envenenamiento , Quemaduras Oculares/terapia , Enfermedades Respiratorias/terapia , Animales , Quemaduras Químicas/etiología , Quemaduras Químicas/historia , Quemaduras Químicas/fisiopatología , Sustancias para la Guerra Química/historia , Cloro/historia , Quemaduras Oculares/inducido químicamente , Quemaduras Oculares/historia , Quemaduras Oculares/fisiopatología , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Exposición por Inhalación/efectos adversos , Exposición Profesional/efectos adversos , Pronóstico , Enfermedades Respiratorias/inducido químicamente , Enfermedades Respiratorias/historia , Enfermedades Respiratorias/fisiopatología , Medición de Riesgo
17.
Yonsei Med J ; 61(1): 103-109, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31887807

RESUMEN

Firefighters have a high risk of developing cardiovascular and mental disorders due to their physical and chemical environments. However, in Korea, few studies have been conducted on environmental risk of firefighters. The Firefighter Research on the Enhancement of Safety and Health (FRESH) study aimed to discover the risk factors for cardiovascular disease and mental disorders among firefighters. Former and current firefighters were recruited from three university hospitals. A total of 1022 participants completed baseline health examinations from 2016 to 2017. All participants were scheduled for follow-ups every 2 years. Baseline health survey, laboratory testing of blood and urine samples, blood heavy metal concentration, urine polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) metabolites, stress-related hormone test, natural killer cell activity, as well as physical and mental health examinations that focused on cardiovascular and mental disorders, were conducted. In addition, 3 Tesla (3T) brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and neuropsychological tests were also performed to investigate structural and functional changes in the brains of 352 firefighters aged >40 years or new hires with less than 1 year of service.


Asunto(s)
Bomberos , Investigación , Adulto , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Salud Mental , Persona de Mediana Edad , Exposición Profesional/efectos adversos , Estudios Prospectivos , República de Corea , Factores de Riesgo , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
18.
Toxicol Lett ; 321: 90-94, 2020 Mar 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31881244

RESUMEN

Potent opioids are increasingly responsible for morbidity and mortality in the Western world. Fentanyl and fentanyl derivatives are increasingly prevalent as adulterants or substitutes for opioid drugs of abuse in Europe and in North America. Trafficking and distribution of these chemicals evolve continuously and are poorly characterized at this time. Rescue and emergency personnel are increasingly concerned with the possibility of unintentional environmental exposures that might occur in the course of their operational duties. There is evidence that opioid agonists have been broadcast or applied directly in an offensive manner as incapacitating agents. Defending against toxicity from such agents requires a thoughtful plan for protection, decontamination, and treatment.


Asunto(s)
Analgésicos Opioides/efectos adversos , Sustancias para la Guerra Química/efectos adversos , Tráfico de Drogas , Socorristas , Fentanilo/efectos adversos , Exposición Profesional/efectos adversos , Trastornos Relacionados con Opioides/epidemiología , Trabajo de Rescate , Descontaminación , Fentanilo/análogos & derivados , Humanos , Exposición Profesional/prevención & control , Medición de Riesgo , Factores de Riesgo
19.
Chemosphere ; 238: 124863, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31551201

RESUMEN

Peripheral blood leukocyte telomere length in omethoate-exposed workers is related to environmental exposure and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes including p21, GSTM1, miR-145, etc. However, the roles of SNPs in tankyrase (TNKS) gene in telomere length are still unknown. The aim of this study was to explore the association between SNPs in TNKS gene and telomere length in omethoate-exposed workers. Telomere length in peripheral blood leukocyte DNA from 180 omethoate-exposed workers and 115 healthy controls was measured using Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Genotyping of the selected functional and susceptible SNPs was performed by the flight mass spectrometry based on PCR and single-base extension. The analysis of covariance was performed to find effects of SNPs on telomere length. Generalized linear models were used to analyze the environment, gene, and interaction on telomere length. The results showed that telomere length in the CG + CC genotypes in rs1055328 in TNKS gene was significantly longer than that in the wild homozygous GG genotype both in exposure group (P = 0.017) and in control group (P = 0.038) after adjusting the covariates. The variables kept in the generalized linear models included omethoate-exposure (ß = 0.580, P = 0.001) and rs1055328 (CG + CC) in TNKS gene (ß = 0.339, P = 0.002). The study suggests that the prolongation of telomere length is associated with omethoate-exposure and the CG + CC genotypes in rs1055328 in TNKS gene.


Asunto(s)
Dimetoato/análogos & derivados , Exposición Profesional/efectos adversos , Tanquirasas/genética , Homeostasis del Telómero/efectos de los fármacos , Telómero/fisiología , Adulto , Inhibidor p21 de las Quinasas Dependientes de la Ciclina/genética , ADN/genética , Daño del ADN/efectos de los fármacos , Dimetoato/toxicidad , Femenino , Genotipo , Glutatión Transferasa/genética , Humanos , Leucocitos/citología , Masculino , MicroARNs/genética , Persona de Mediana Edad , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple/genética , Espectrometría de Masa por Láser de Matriz Asistida de Ionización Desorción/métodos , Telómero/genética
20.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 53(12): 1296-1298, 2019 Dec 06.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31795589

RESUMEN

The data were drawn from injury hospitalization surveillance system in Shandong province. From 2012 to 2018, 164 cases of acute occupational poisoning were reported from five surveillance counties (cities, districts), accounting for 6.11% (164/2 683) of total accidental poisoning cases. The annual average reported incidence of acute occupational poisoning hospitalization was 1.15/100 000. The number of male cases was 3.3 times that of females (126 vs 38). The poisoning cases mainly occurred between January to May in a year and 5-7 AM within a day. Those cases were mainly caused by irritating gases (92 cases, 56.10%) and asphyxiating gases (53 cases, 32.32%), of which chlorine (71 cases) and carbon monoxide (50 cases) were the main reasons. The average hospitalization medical cost of acute occupational poisoning cases was 7 278.81 RMB per case.


Asunto(s)
Accidentes de Trabajo , Intoxicación por Monóxido de Carbono/epidemiología , Hospitalización , Ocupaciones/estadística & datos numéricos , China/epidemiología , Ciudades , Femenino , Hospitalización/economía , Hospitalización/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Incidencia , Masculino , Exposición Profesional/efectos adversos , Exposición Profesional/estadística & datos numéricos
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