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1.
J Healthc Eng ; 2021: 8872167, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33833861

RESUMEN

In the beginning of 2020, the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic started to spread globally, causing panic to the lives of people around the world; many countries executed lockdown of cities or even total lockdown of the entire countries. The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is transmitted via air droplets. In medical environments that use traditional hermetic ventilation systems, medical personnel who come in contact with patients are more susceptible to infection compared to regular staff; therefore, the air flow and air quality of hermetic negative pressure isolation wards are highly critical. For this purpose, the study proposes a full-outer-air-intake natural air-conditioning system for negative pressure isolation wards. This innovative system draws in large amounts of fresh external air to greatly improve the air exchange rate in wards; negative pressure environments can be implemented depending on requirements to solve the issue of nosocomial infections in traditional negative pressure isolation wards that draw air from within the hospital. This greatly reduces the probability of nosocomial infection and infection via air droplets; furthermore, the system's intake and exhaust paths are completely isolated, solving the issue of air cross-contamination. Based on the results from the experiment site, this innovative system was designed and implemented based on the guidelines of hospital facilities and achieved air exchange per hour in excess of 12 times/hour, reaching a maximum of 54.5 times/hour. Indoor CO2 concentration was 576 ppm, negative pressure was -14 Pa, indoor temperature was 23.3°C, indoor humidity was 54.1%, and sensible heat exchange efficiency (ηs) was 105.88% which effectively reduced ventilation load. Therefore, this innovative full-outer-air-intake natural air-conditioning system can provide medical staff and patients with a safe and healthy environment that prevents cross-infection.


Asunto(s)
Aire Acondicionado , Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Control de Infecciones/instrumentación , Aislamiento de Pacientes/instrumentación , Aisladores de Pacientes , Contaminación del Aire Interior/análisis , Dióxido de Carbono/análisis , Diseño de Equipo , Guías como Asunto , Hospitales , Calor , Humanos , Humedad , Exposición Profesional/prevención & control , Ventilación
2.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33910286

RESUMEN

Objective: To understand the mastery of occupational hygienic knowledge and the implementing of occupational health protection measures in the group which were exposed to the procedure of manufacture and use in glass fiber company, and to explore the feasibility of the prevention of the skin injury by occupational health education in glass fiber workers. Methods: We selected 257 on-the-job employees as the research object in a ceramic enterprise in Nanjing from June 2018 to August 2019, with the method of cluster random sampling. According to Solomon's design, the intervention group in which we took measures with health education was divided into RG(1) (O(1)XO(2)) and RG(3) (XO(5)) group, and the control group where we didn't take any intervention was divided into RG(2) (O(3)-O(4)) and RG(4) (-O(6)) group. The intervention effect of health education on the occupational protection of glass fiber workers was evaluated by the results of questionnaire. Results: After training, the average score of occupational health knowledge in the intervention group was 27.34 points higher than that before training, the intervention index was 1.42, 23.62-27.73 points higher than the control glass fiber workers and 33.62-35.52 points higher than the control glass non-glass fiber workers; Compared with the control group, the positive attitude rate of fiber glass workers in the intervention group increased by 13.28%, 13.51%, 11.68% and 11.48%, and the intervention indexes were 1.18, 1.17, 1.14 and 1.15, which was corresponding to using protective cream, wearing gloves, wearing working clothes, washing hands and bathing after work, respectively; Compared with the control group, the implementation rate of occupational protection measures which were represented by wearing gloves、washing hands and bathing for glass fiber workers in the intervention group increased by 29.25% and 7.27% respectively, and the intervention indexes were 1.43 and 1.08 respectively; The skin injury rate of fiberglass workers in the intervention group was reduced by 11.43% comparing to the control group, the intervention index was 1.67. Conclusion: According to the occupational health education of fiberglass workers, it improves the mastery of occupational health knowledge, positive atti-tude rate and the implementation rate of occupational protection measures, meanwhile, it reduces the skin injury rate of the intervention objects to a certain extent.


Asunto(s)
Exposición Profesional , Salud Laboral , Vidrio , Educación en Salud , Humanos , Exposición Profesional/prevención & control , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
3.
Front Public Health ; 9: 632608, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33829007

RESUMEN

Background: SARS-CoV-2 spreads rapidly around the world, and some patients present gastrointestinal symptoms. The existence of the virus in the gastrointestinal tract makes digestive endoscopy a high-risk operation, which associated with an increased risk of infection rate in healthcare workers. This study aimed at exploring current knowledge, practice and attitudes of healthcare workers in endoscopy units in China regarding the status of occupational protection during COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: A cross-sectional study of a national online survey involving 717 healthcare workers in endoscopy units from 94 medical structures in 24 provinces and municipalities around China was conducted online via a questionnaire platform called Wenjuanxing (wjx.cn). The data were analyzed using correlation approaches, Kruskal-Wallis test for independent samples, and linear regression models. Results: Most Chinese healthcare workers in endoscopy units had a good knowledge of COVID-19 (median: 10; range: 7-12), showed a strikingly positive attitude (median: 65; range: 39-65), and carried out good practice (median: 47; range: 14-50) in strengthening the protection, disinfection and management of COVID-19. In terms of attitudes, female staff was more concerned about protection against COVID-19 than male staff (KW = 8.146, P = 0.004). Nurses performed better in both attitude (KW = 2.600, P = 0.009) and practice (KW = 6.358, P < 0.001) than endoscopic physicians when carrying out personal protection, patient care and environmental disinfection against SARS-CoV-2 infection. More positive attitudes in protection were related to better protective behavior in endoscopic daily medical work (r = 0.312; P < 0.001). Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest that Chinese endoscopy healthcare workers have an excellent mastery of knowledge about COVID-19, which is transformed into positive beliefs and attitudes, contributing to good practice during daily endoscopic procedures. Medical staff may benefit from further education. With the gradual normalization amid the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, protection and management in endoscopy units may be changed accordingly.


Asunto(s)
/prevención & control , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Personal de Salud , Exposición Profesional/prevención & control , Adulto , Anciano , China/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Endoscopía , Femenino , Unidades Hospitalarias , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Adulto Joven
6.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248099, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33657178

RESUMEN

Since the appearance of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the question regarding the efficacy of various hygiene measures and the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) has become the focus of scientific and above all public discussion. To compare respirators, medical face masks, and cloth masks and determine if it is recommendable to wear face masks to protect the individual wearer of the mask from inhaling airborne particles, we challenged 29 different masks with aerosols and tested the pressure drop as a surrogate for breathing resistance owing to the mask material. We found that Type II medical face masks showed the lowest pressure drop (12.9±6.8 Pa/cm2) and therefore additional breathing resistance, whereas respirators such as the KN95 (32.3±7.0 Pa/cm2) and FFP2 (26.8±7.4 Pa/cm2) showed the highest pressure drops among the tested masks. The filtration efficacy of the mask material was the lowest for cloth masks (28±25%) followed by non-certified face masks (63±19%) and certified medical face masks (70±10%). The materials of the different respirators showed very high aerosol retentions (KN95 [94±4%] and FFP2 [98±1%]). For evaluating the as-worn filtration performance simulating real live conditions each mask type was also tested on a standardized dummy head. Cloth masks and non-EN-certified face masks had the worst as-worn filtration efficacies among the tested masks, filtering less than 20% of the test aerosol. Remarkably, certified type II medical face masks showed similar (p>0.5) as-worn filtration results (47±20%) than KN95 masks (41±4%) and FFP2 masks (65±27%), despite having a lower pressure drop. Face shields did not show any significant retention function against aerosols in our experiment. Our results indicate that it seems recommendable to wear face masks for providing base protection and risk reduction against inhaling airborne particles, in low-risk situations. In our study, especially EN 14683 type II certified medical face masks showed protective effectiveness against aerosols accompanied by minimal additional breathing resistance. FFP2 Respirators, on the other hand, could be useful in high-risk situations but require greater breathing effort and therefore physical stress for users.


Asunto(s)
/transmisión , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa/prevención & control , Máscaras/tendencias , Aerosoles , Filtración , Humanos , Modelos Estadísticos , Exposición Profesional/prevención & control , Equipo de Protección Personal/tendencias , Dispositivos de Protección Respiratoria/virología , /patogenicidad
7.
Med J (Ft Sam Houst Tex) ; (PB 8-21-01/02/03): 97-103, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33666919

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Respirators have received much attention since the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic. Due to a substantial shortage of the most commonly used respirator, the N95 Filtering Facepiece Respirator (N95), as well as the desire to have added protection while performing aerosol generating procedures (AGPs), dental healthcare personnel (DHCP) have considered alternative respirator options. It is well documented in the medical literature that the Powered Air-Purifying Respirator (PAPR) provides better protection against respiratory pathogens; however, there are no reported cases that describe the use of PAPRs in the dental setting. This survey report evaluates the use of a loose-fitting full facepiece PAPR by different dental providers. OBJECTIVE: To determine if a PAPR can be used in the dental setting and identify any potential barriers to use. METHODS: Eleven DHCP representing general dentistry, dental hygiene, pediatric dentistry, endodontics, orthodontics, oral and maxillofacial surgery and maxillofacial prosthodontics at Walter Reed National Military Medical Center (WRNMMC) and Naval Postgraduate Dental School (NPDS) were asked to wear the MAXAIR PAPR while performing an AGP. They then completed a 14-question survey. RESULTS: There was a 100% response rate. All DHCP with the exception of the endodontist were able to successfully wear the MAXAIR PAPR for the duration of their procedure. All DHCP reported that the PAPR was more comfortable than expected. There were no reports of fogging or hindrance to visibility, breathing was unaffected or enhanced, and the noise level was tolerable. Average time to don and doff the PAPR was 5 minutes. All DHCP were able to wear loupes; some were not able to wear a headlight. Two DHCP reported a history of mild claustrophobia, and both were able to tolerate the PAPR without any issue. 44% preferred the PAPR over the N95. CONCLUSION: This preliminary survey of a loose-fitting PAPR in the dental setting suggests there is a place for PAPRs in the dental community.


Asunto(s)
/prevención & control , Odontología , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa de Paciente a Profesional/prevención & control , Medicina Militar , Exposición Profesional/prevención & control , Dispositivos de Protección Respiratoria , Aerosoles , Humanos
12.
New Solut ; 31(1): 16-19, 2021 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33722093

RESUMEN

As mass COVID-19 vaccination programs roll out across the country, we are potentially faced with compromising workers' health for the sake of the broader public health, as it relates to occupational exposure to contaminated needles and syringes. We have the opportunity to provide recommendations that advance protection of workers through the industrial hygiene hierarchy of controls, especially in light of the twentieth anniversary of the Needlestick Safety and Prevention Act. Specifically, greater focus on institutional controls that can dictate the safety culture and climate of institutions that roll out COVID-19 vaccination programs, while maintaining careful focus on preventing sharps injuries and blood exposure. In addition, we provide suggestions for the role that engineering controls, such as devices with sharps injury prevention features play in protecting workers from exposure to bloodborne pathogens, as well as the importance of ongoing injury incident surveillance.


Asunto(s)
/administración & dosificación , Lesiones por Pinchazo de Aguja/epidemiología , Lesiones por Pinchazo de Aguja/prevención & control , Exposición Profesional/prevención & control , Personal de Salud/normas , Humanos , Cultura Organizacional , Administración de la Seguridad/organización & administración , Estados Unidos
15.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0247575, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33730106

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has led to widespread shortages of N95 respirators and other personal protective equipment (PPE). An effective, reusable, locally-manufactured respirator can mitigate this problem. We describe the development, manufacture, and preliminary testing of an open-hardware-licensed device, the "simple silicone mask" (SSM). METHODS: A multidisciplinary team developed a reusable silicone half facepiece respirator over 9 prototype iterations. The manufacturing process consisted of 3D printing and silicone casting. Prototypes were assessed for comfort and breathability. Filtration was assessed by user seal checks and quantitative fit-testing according to CSA Z94.4-18. RESULTS: The respirator originally included a cartridge for holding filter material; this was modified to connect to standard heat-moisture exchange (HME) filters (N95 or greater) after the cartridge showed poor filtration performance due to flow acceleration around the filter edges, which was exacerbated by high filter resistance. All 8 HME-based iterations provided an adequate seal by user seal checks and achieved a pass rate of 87.5% (N = 8) on quantitative testing, with all failures occurring in the first iteration. The overall median fit-factor was 1662 (100 = pass). Estimated unit cost for a production run of 1000 using distributed manufacturing techniques is CAD $15 in materials and 20 minutes of labor. CONCLUSION: Small-scale manufacturing of an effective, reusable N95 respirator during a pandemic is feasible and cost-effective. Required quantities of reusables are more predictable and less vulnerable to supply chain disruption than disposables. With further evaluation, such devices may be an alternative to disposable respirators during public health emergencies. The respirator described above is an investigational device and requires further evaluation and regulatory requirements before clinical deployment. The authors and affiliates do not endorse the use of this device at present.


Asunto(s)
/prevención & control , Diseño de Equipo/instrumentación , Filtración/instrumentación , Pandemias/prevención & control , Equipo de Protección Personal , Dispositivos de Protección Respiratoria , Ventiladores Mecánicos , Equipo Reutilizado , Cara , Humanos , Ensayo de Materiales/instrumentación , Exposición Profesional/prevención & control , Impresión Tridimensional/instrumentación , /patogenicidad
16.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 28(1): 27-43, 2021 Mar 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33775065

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: The course of COVID-19 caused by the SARS-CoV-2 may be aggravated by bioaerosols containing other viruses, bacteria, and fungi, occurring mainly in the occupational environment. Hence, the diagnostics and treatment of COVID-19 should address such a possibility in the anamnesis, treatment and final recommendations for avoiding of adverse exposure. ABBREVIATED DESCRIPTION OF THE STATE OF KNOWLEDGE: As SARS-CoV-2 attacks primarily the respiratory system and the severe manifestation of COVID-19 is interstitial pneumonia, diagnostics should include the following clinical and laboratory examinations: chest X-ray; high resolution computed tomography (HRCT); pulmonary function tests; arterial-blood gas test; genetic tests for the presence of SARS-CoV-2, in the future with the use of highly specific and sensitive nano-based biosensors; tests for the presence of specific immunity against the antigens of microorganisms causing other infectious or allergic pulmonary diseases (in the case of anamnestic indications). Because an universally accepted treatment for COVID-19 does not exist, the hitherto prescribed antiviral and immune-modulating drugs should be used be with caution. In many cases, a better alternative could be a safe supportive therapy, such as supplementation of the diet with probiotics, prebiotics, vitamins and microelements. SUMMARY: The most important preventive measures against COVID-19 should include: vaccination; the use of filter or surgical masks; disinfection and sterilization; maintaining of well-functioning ventilation and air conditioning systems; reduction of the community air pollution which has been identified as an important factor increasing the COVID-19 severity. In the choice of preventive measures, the above should be considered for their potential efficacy against other bioaerosols as potential disease-aggravating agents.


Asunto(s)
/diagnóstico , /terapia , Aerosoles/efectos adversos , Humanos , Enfermedades Profesionales/complicaciones , Enfermedades Profesionales/prevención & control , Exposición Profesional/efectos adversos , Exposición Profesional/prevención & control , Enfermedades Respiratorias/complicaciones , /aislamiento & purificación
17.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 15(2): 247-253, 2021 03 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33690208

RESUMEN

The personnel involved in the management of COVID-19 affected dead bodies, including law enforcement personnel at the scene of crime, personnel involved in transportation of the dead bodies, forensic practitioners, autopsy pathologists, mortuary personnel, as well as the family members of the dead, etc. are at risk of exposure to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Post-mortem examination is a high-risk procedure, considering that it involves aerosol generating procedures, and exposure to body fluids. The safety of the forensic practitioners and support staff in the management of suspected or confirmed COVID-19 deaths hence, is of extreme importance, especially in the absence of pre-autopsy testing for COVID-19 and due to non-availability of adequate first-hand medical history of the deceased. This communication aims to highlight the current practices and advises certain guidelines in ensuring occupational health and safety in view of these risks in medico-legal death investigations.


Asunto(s)
Autopsia , Exposición Profesional/prevención & control , /prevención & control , Víctimas de Crimen , Mortalidad Hospitalaria , Humanos , Prácticas Mortuorias/métodos , Equipo de Protección Personal , Policia , Lugar de Trabajo
18.
Arch. prev. riesgos labor. (Ed. impr.) ; 24(1): 62-73, ene.-mar. 2021. graf
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-197121

RESUMEN

La comercialización del amianto en Europa de la segunda mitad del siglo XX supuso un consumo de millones de toneladas. La exposición laboral se ha controlado a partir de la Directiva de 2009 y, en la actualidad, mediante vigilancia epidemiológica, se registran las patologías, mesoteliomas fundamentalmente, por exposiciones pasadas. Después de prohibida su utilización, aún permanecen cantidades ingentes en edificios, infraestructuras y vehículos, entre otros. El camino hacia su eliminación se inició con una Resolución del Parlamento Europeo, de 2013 y el Dictamen del Comité Económico y Social Europeo (2015/C 251/03). Con el objetivo de conocer las dificultades de estos planes se ha revisado el de Polonia, único país que hasta la fecha, ha implementado un plan de acción con un gran respaldo financiero y las actuaciones llevadas a cabo en relación con la exposición a amianto en España y, Navarra en concreto por contar con un registro exhaustivo de trabajadores expuestos. El enorme esfuerzo económico que precisan estos planes y los riesgos medioambientales que suponen, merecen una precisa planificación, que exige conocer el no alcance hasta la fecha actual de los objetivos planteados en Polonia, país referente


The commercialization of asbestos in Europe in the second half of the 20th century translated into consumption of millions of tons of this material. Occupational exposure to asbestos is controlled under the 2009 European Union Directive. Currently, through epidemiological surveillance and pathology registries (mainly mesotheliomas), it is possible to record past exposures. Despite prohibiting its use, large amounts of asbestos remain in buildings, infrastructures and vehicles, among others. The road to elimination of existing asbestos began with a 2013 European Parliament Resolution and the Opinion of the European Economic and Social Committee (2015 / C 251/03). To better understand barriers to implementing these plans, we reviewed the experience in Poland the only country that to date has implemented an action plan with great financial support, together with actions carried out in Spain generally, and Navarre specifically, given the latter's exhaustive registry of exposed workers. The enormous economic effort required to implement these plans, along with the environmental risks associated with asbestos abatement, require detailed planning, which should consider understanding why the objectives set by Poland, a benchmark country, have not been achieved to date


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Asbestos , Exposición Profesional/legislación & jurisprudencia , Exposición Profesional/prevención & control , Asbestos/efectos adversos , Exposición Profesional/economía , Exposición Profesional/estadística & datos numéricos , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud , Polonia , España
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