Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 75.556
Filtrar
1.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(6): 325, 2020 May 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32363409

RESUMEN

The recent epidemic of the new SARS-CoV-2 in the northern regions of Italy is putting the organization of the Italian health system under serious attack. The current emergency requires all possible efforts to stem the spread of the virus. In this context, it is clear that we have the urgent need to rely upon etiopathogenetic data, in order to do all possible efforts to block the epidemic. However, observing the trend of the infections in China and the geographic areas of the main outbreaks, it could be hypothesized that air pollution plays a role. In particular, it has been previously demonstrated, in specific populations, a role of particulate matter in worsening clinical presentation of virus infection in airways. Without prejudice to the ascertained virus spread by air droplets or contaminated surfaces, the factors that could have favored its spread remain to be investigated. Moreover, if these observations were to be confirmed, when the health emergency is resolved, it will be mandatory to redesign an economic-productive model in balance with the environment.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/estadística & datos numéricos , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Contaminación del Aire/estadística & datos numéricos , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Italia/epidemiología , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología
2.
Cent Eur J Public Health ; 28(1): 40-43, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32228815

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Mercury dental amalgam restorations are an important source of chronic exposure to mercury in the whole population and special attention should be paid not only to occupational exposure to mercury during the preparation and administration of amalgam. The authors' report is an up-to-date contribution to the health risk assessment of mercury use in dentistry, namely occupational exposure to mercury in dentists working with dental amalgam and exposure to mercury in persons treated with amalgam dental restorations. METHODS: Determination of total mercury in samples of biological material (urine, hair) was performed during 2017 and 2018 in 50 persons by the AAS method using the mercury vapour generation technique at 254.6 nm. RESULTS: Current dental exposures based on the most recent findings do not exceed acceptable risk levels and are below the biological limit of mercury in urine valid for occupationally exposed persons (100 µg.g-1 of creatinine), namely median value was 1.48 (min. < limit of detection (LOD), max. 17.14) µg.g-1 of creatinine (40 persons), total mercury content in hair of dental personnel expressed as median value was 0.340 (min. 0.060, max.1.628) µg.g-1. In controls (10 persons) was total mercury content in urine expressed as median value 0.36 (min. < LOD, max. 2.74) µg.g-1 of creatinine, in hair was median value 0.224 (min. 0.059, max. 0.453) µg.g-1. CONCLUSIONS: Authors support opinion that amalgam fillings in the oral cavity are a permanent source of mercury for the body itself.


Asunto(s)
Amalgama Dental/efectos adversos , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/efectos adversos , Mercurio/efectos adversos , Mercurio/análisis , Exposición Profesional/efectos adversos , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/análisis , Cabello/química , Humanos , Mercurio/orina , Exposición Profesional/análisis , Medición de Riesgo
3.
Environ Pollut ; 261: 114465, 2020 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32268945

RESUMEN

This paper investigates the correlation between the high level of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome CoronaVirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) lethality and the atmospheric pollution in Northern Italy. Indeed, Lombardy and Emilia Romagna are Italian regions with both the highest level of virus lethality in the world and one of Europe's most polluted area. Based on this correlation, this paper analyzes the possible link between pollution and the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome and eventually death. We provide evidence that people living in an area with high levels of pollutant are more prone to develop chronic respiratory conditions and suitable to any infective agent. Moreover, a prolonged exposure to air pollution leads to a chronic inflammatory stimulus, even in young and healthy subjects. We conclude that the high level of pollution in Northern Italy should be considered an additional co-factor of the high level of lethality recorded in that area.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación del Aire/estadística & datos numéricos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/mortalidad , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/estadística & datos numéricos , Neumonía Viral/mortalidad , Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Italia/epidemiología , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/metabolismo , Síndrome de Dificultad Respiratoria del Adulto/mortalidad
4.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(16): 496-498, 2020 Apr 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32324720

RESUMEN

On January 19, 2020, the state of Washington reported the first U.S. laboratory-confirmed case of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by infection with SARS-CoV-2 (1). As of April 19, a total of 720,630 COVID-19 cases and 37,202 associated deaths* had been reported to CDC from all 50 states, the District of Columbia, and four U.S. territories (2). CDC recommends, with precautions, the proper cleaning and disinfection of high-touch surfaces to help mitigate the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 (3). To assess whether there might be a possible association between COVID-19 cleaning recommendations from public health agencies and the media and the number of chemical exposures reported to the National Poison Data System (NPDS), CDC and the American Association of Poison Control Centers surveillance team compared the number of exposures reported for the period January-March 2020 with the number of reports during the same 3-month period in 2018 and 2019. Fifty-five poison centers in the United States provide free, 24-hour professional advice and medical management information regarding exposures to poisons, chemicals, drugs, and medications. Call data from poison centers are uploaded in near real-time to NPDS. During January-March 2020, poison centers received 45,550 exposure calls related to cleaners (28,158) and disinfectants (17,392), representing overall increases of 20.4% and 16.4% from January-March 2019 (37,822) and January-March 2018 (39,122), respectively. Although NPDS data do not provide information showing a definite link between exposures and COVID-19 cleaning efforts, there appears to be a clear temporal association with increased use of these products.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Desinfectantes/efectos adversos , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/efectos adversos , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Preescolar , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Centros de Control de Intoxicaciones , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
5.
J Korean Med Sci ; 35(10): e64, 2020 Mar 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32174063

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Individual particulate respirator use may offer protection against exposure to particulate matter < 2.5 µm in diameter (PM2.5). Among elderly Korean women, we explored individual particulate respirator use and cardiopulmonary function. METHODS: Recruited in Seoul, Korea, 21 elderly, non-smoking women wore particulate respirators for six consecutive days (exlcuding time spent eating, sleeping, and bathing). We measured resting blood pressure before, during, and after respirator use and recorded systolic and diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial blood pressure, pulse pressure, and lung function. We also measured 12-hour ambulatory blood pressure at the end of the 6-day long experiment and control periods. Additionally, we examined physiological stress (heart rate variability and urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine) while wearing the particulate respirators. Person- and exposure-level covariates were also considered in the model. RESULTS: After the 6-day period of respirator use, resting blood pressure was reduced by 5.3 mmHg for systolic blood pressure (P = 0.013), 2.9 mmHg for mean arterial blood pressure (P = 0.079), and 3.6 mmHg for pulse pressure (P = 0.024). However, particulate respirator use was associated with changes in physiological stress markers. A parasympathetic activity marker (high frequency) significantly decreased by 24.0% (P = 0.029), whereas a sympathetic activity marker (ratio of low-to-high frequency) increased by 50.3% (P = 0.045). An oxidative stress marker, 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine, increased by 3.4 ng/mg creatinine (P = 0.021) during the experimental period compared with that during the control period. Lung function indices indicated that wearing particulate respirators was protective; however, statistical significance was not confirmed. CONCLUSION: Individual particulate respirator use may prevent PM2.5-induced blood-pressure elevation among elderly Korean women. However, the effects of particulate respirator use, including physiological stress marker elevation, should also be considered. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Research Information Service Identifier: KCT0003526.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales , Material Particulado , Dispositivos de Protección Respiratoria , Anciano , Presión Sanguínea , Monitoreo Ambulatorio de la Presión Arterial , Polvo , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/prevención & control , Femenino , Frecuencia Cardíaca , Humanos , República de Corea
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(11): e19444, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32176075

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In recent years, there has been an interest in whether environmental endocrine disruptors (EEDs) may contribute to the endocrine disorders in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The clearance of EEDs from the human body is regulated by the glucuronidation of UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGT). This study aimed to analyze the relationship of UGT1A1, UGT2B7, and UGT2B15 polymorphisms with the metabolism of EEDs in patients with PCOS. METHODS: A total of 357 Chinese women (119 PCOS cases and 238 controls) were genotyped for polymorphisms of UGT1A1, UGT2B7, and UGT2B15. The plasma concentrations of EEDs were measured by the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method. The association between UGT polymorphisms and the serum level of EEDs in patients with PCOS was analyzed. RESULTS: The UGT2B7 single nucleotide polymorphism was associated with an increased risk of PCOS. The homozygous polymorphism (TT) of UGT2B7 showed higher bisphenol A and PAEs concentrations in serum. However, a single nucleotide polymorphism on UGT2B15 expression was associated with a decreased risk of PCOS. Subjects homozygous for the T allele of UGT2B15 had a significant effect on phthalates in the blood. In addition, our results also showed that the homozygous polymorphism (TT) of UGT2B7 and UGT2B15 was associated with the capacity of the excretion of androgen in patients with PCOS. CONCLUSIONS: Our study reported the novel associations between the UGT polymorphisms and EEDs concentrations in patients with PCOS, supporting the relevance of genetic differences in EEDs metabolism, which might be considered as an etiology of PCOS.


Asunto(s)
Disruptores Endocrinos/metabolismo , Glucuronosiltransferasa/genética , Síndrome del Ovario Poliquístico/etiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Asiática , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Niño , Disruptores Endocrinos/toxicidad , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales , Femenino , Cromatografía de Gases y Espectrometría de Masas , Genotipo , Humanos , Síndrome del Ovario Poliquístico/enzimología , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple , Riesgo
7.
Epidemiol Health ; 42: e2020012, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32164052

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Epidemiological evidence of associations between ambient particulate matter (PM) and tuberculosis (TB) risk is accumulating. Two previous studies in Korea found associations between air pollution-especially sulfur dioxide (SO2)-and TB. In this study, we conducted an annual time-series cross-sectional study to assess the effect of PM with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 µm (PM10) on TB risk in seven major cities of Korea from 2010 to 2016, taking into account time lag and long-term cumulative exposure. METHODS: Age-standardized TB notification rates were derived using the Korea National TB Surveillance System. Annual average PM10 concentrations were obtained from annual Korean air quality reports. We applied a generalized linear mixed model with unconstrained distributed lags of exposure to PM10. We adjusted for potential confounders such as age, health behaviors, and area-level characteristics. RESULTS: Both average annual PM10 concentrations and age-standardized TB notification rates decreased over time. The association between cumulative exposure to PM10 and TB incidence became stronger as a longer exposure duration was considered. An increase of one standard deviation (5.63 µg/m3) in PM10 exposure for six years was associated with a 1.20 (95% confidence interval, 1.17 to 1.22) times higher TB notification rate. The marginal association of exposure duration with the TB notification rate was highest at four and five years prior to TB notification. This association remained consistent even after adjusting it for exposure to SO2. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study suggest that cumulative exposure to PM10 may affect TB risk, with a potential lag effect.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación del Aire/efectos adversos , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/estadística & datos numéricos , Material Particulado/efectos adversos , Tuberculosis/epidemiología , Adulto , Anciano , Ciudades , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Incidencia , Persona de Mediana Edad , República de Corea/epidemiología , Factores de Riesgo , Factores de Tiempo
8.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(4): 213, 2020 Mar 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32133548

RESUMEN

Wet and dry extraction methods are two main methods used in toxicological in vitro and in vivo studies to recover particulate matter (PM) from filter papers. The aim of this study was to extract PM by wet and dry extraction methods and compare the elemental content and carcinogenic risks of extracts. PM10 samples were collected using fiberglass filters and a high-volume air sampler. For wet extraction, the method involved agitation in water, sonication in water bath, and agitation again. For dry extraction, the filters were sonicated and the PM was recovered using sweeping by a brush. Elemental composition of extracts was determined by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Excess lifetime cancer risks (ELCR) of As, Cd, Cr, Ni, and Pb in extracts were estimated. The average recovery efficiency (%) of dry and wet extraction methods were 36.8% and 58.5%, respectively. The average elemental concentration that resulted from dry and wet methods was calculated to be 2.27 and 1.26 µg/m3, respectively. The total ELCR of all heavy metals in both methods exceeds the 1 × 10-6 limit. However, the total ELCR of heavy metals that resulted from the dry method was higher than that from the wet method. In conclusion, the dry method showed to be more effective to recover a representative extract from the filter. This can ultimately lead to a realistic and robust response in toxicological studies. However, a toxicological comparison between the extracts of these two methods is required.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Carcinógenos , Metales Pesados , Material Particulado , Carcinógenos/toxicidad , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Humanos , Neoplasias/inducido químicamente , Material Particulado/toxicidad , Medición de Riesgo
9.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(4): 216, 2020 Mar 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32140849

RESUMEN

The Pine River, in the central, Lower Peninsula region of Michigan, has a long history of contamination. Livestock facilities and manure application sites along the Pine River and its tributaries have led to elevated nutrient levels. In addition to nutrient loading and associated low levels of dissolved oxygen, the presence Escherichia coli bacteria have caused environmental and human health concerns. According to the Michigan Department of Health and Human Services, and the Michigan Department of Environment, Great Lakes, and Energy, E. coli counts in summer months consistently have exceeded safe levels for human contact since 2005. Though it is recommended that residents do not swim in the Pine River, there are no specific restrictions on recreational fishing which is prevalent. Few studies have evaluated whether or not E. coli accumulates in the mucus of fish and, if so, whether that provides a viable route of E. coli exposure for anglers. This study first evaluated the presence of fecal coliform and E. coli bacteria on hatchery-raised caged fish placed in the river as well as resident fish. Results showed that fecal coliform and E. coli bacteria accumulated both on caged and resident fish. This result led to further testing showing E. coli to be found on anglers' hands whether or not they handled or interacted with resident fish. This study suggests that fishing in rivers with heavy bacterial loading from agricultural runoff may expose anglers to potentially harmful E. coli.


Asunto(s)
Agricultura , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales , Escherichia coli , Peces , Microbiología del Agua , Animales , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Humanos , Michigan , Ríos , Estaciones del Año
10.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(9): 245-246, 2020 Mar 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32134909

RESUMEN

In December 2019, an outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the virus SARS-CoV-2, began in Wuhan, China (1). The disease spread widely in China, and, as of February 26, 2020, COVID-19 cases had been identified in 36 other countries and territories, including the United States. Person-to-person transmission has been widely documented, and a limited number of countries have reported sustained person-to-person spread.* On January 20, state and local health departments in the United States, in collaboration with teams deployed from CDC, began identifying and monitoring all persons considered to have had close contact† with patients with confirmed COVID-19 (2). The aims of these efforts were to ensure rapid evaluation and care of patients, limit further transmission, and better understand risk factors for transmission.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Brotes de Enfermedades/prevención & control , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/estadística & datos numéricos , Vigilancia en Salud Pública , China/epidemiología , Trazado de Contacto , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Humanos , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Enfermedad Relacionada con los Viajes , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
12.
Toxicol Lett ; 326: 31-51, 2020 Jun 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32145396

RESUMEN

Pesticides are widely-used chemicals commonly applied in agriculture for the protection of crops from pests. Depending on the class of pesticides, the specific substances may have a specific set of adverse effects on humans, especially in cases of acute poisoning. In past years, evidence regarding sequelae of chronic, low-level exposure has been accumulating. Cognitive impairment and dementia heavily affect a person's quality of life and scientific data has been hinting towards an association between them and antecedent chronic pesticide exposure. Here, we reviewed animal and human studies exploring the association between pesticide exposure, cognition and dementia. Additionally, we present potential mechanisms through which pesticides may act neurotoxically and lead to neurodegeneration. Study designs rarely presented homogeneity and the estimation of the exposure to pesticides has been most frequently performed without measuring the synergic effects and the possible interactions between the toxicants within mixtures, and also overlooking low exposures to environmental toxicants. It is possible that a Real-Life Risk Simulation approach would represent a robust alternative for future studies, so that the safe exposure limits and the net risk that pesticides confer to impaired cognitive function can be examined. Previous studies that evaluated the effect of low dose chronic exposure to mixtures of pesticides and other chemicals intending to simulate real life exposure scenarios showed that hormetic neurobehavioral effects can appear after mixture exposure at doses considered safe for individual compounds and these effects can be exacerbated by a coexistence with specific conditions such as vitamin deficiency. However, there is an overall indication, derived from both epidemiologic and laboratory evidence, supporting an association between exposure to neurotoxic pesticides and cognitive dysfunction, dementia and Alzheimer's disease.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad de Alzheimer/inducido químicamente , Cognición/efectos de los fármacos , Disfunción Cognitiva/inducido químicamente , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/efectos adversos , Neurotoxinas/toxicidad , Plaguicidas/toxicidad , Animales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Animales , Medición de Riesgo/métodos
13.
West Afr J Med ; 37(2): 152-158, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32150634

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have linked morbidity and mortality of individuals to exposure to atmospheric gaseous and particulate matter especially fine particles (PM2.5) and coarse particles (PM10).The process of garri (cassava crisps) production (frying with firewood) is associated with production of gaseous and particulate matter which contribute to ambient particulate matter air pollution. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of air quality indices on the prevalence of respiratory symptoms among the garri processing workers in Ogbomoso. METHODOLOGY: A comparative cross-sectional study was carried out among 351 garri processing workers in Ogbomoso as subjects and 351 residents of Ogbomoso metropolis as controls that were age, sex and height-matched. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to obtain sociodemographic profiles and respiratory symptoms of participants and document physical examination findings. Particulate matter counter was used for air quality sampling. RESULTS: The mean age of subjects was 41.7 ± 14.9 years and that of controls was 41.6 ± 14.7 years (p =0.960). The two groups were also matched for socioeconomic status, sex and height. Prevalence of respiratory symptoms was higher at 48.4% among the garri workers than the control group which was 29.1% (p<0.001). Cough was the predominant symptom with a prevalence of 29.3% and 10.5% among the subjects and controls respectively. The mean count of PM1.0 in garri processing locations was significantly higher than that recorded in Ogbomoso metropolis; 73.77±42.08 vs 15.04±6.66mg/m3 (p<0.0001). CONCLUSION: Garri processing work is associated with significant increase in ambient air pollution and increased prevalence of respiratory symptoms among the workforce compared to the control population. Effective preventive strategies including education and provision of safety masks may reduce the occupational hazards associated with garri processing factory workers in Nigeria.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/estadística & datos numéricos , Monitoreo del Ambiente/estadística & datos numéricos , Material Particulado/análisis , Enfermedades Respiratorias/epidemiología , Adulto , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/efectos adversos , Contaminación del Aire/efectos adversos , Estudios Transversales , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Nigeria/epidemiología , Prevalencia
14.
Semin Oncol ; 47(1): 48-55, 2020 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32145971

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Sun-exposure can cause health problems, including melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer, especially in Australia where the incidence of skin cancer is particularly high. Childhood cancer survivors (CCSs) have an augmented risk due to previous cancer history and treatment. Despite recommendations advising sun protection, CCSs may be placing themselves at risk. We considered daily summer sun-exposure in an Australian cohort of CCSs and in community reference groups, and identified factors associated with sun-exposure in these populations. METHODS: Summer sun-exposure data were collected on 471 CCSs (119 parents of survivors aged <16, and 352 survivors aged ≥16) and a reference group of 470 participants from the community (155 parents of children aged <16, and 355 adults aged ≥16). Survivors completed paper questionnaires and the reference groups completed an online survey. Medical records confirmed survivors' clinical information. Ordinal logistic regressions identified factors associated with daily summer sun-exposure. RESULTS: More daily summer sun-exposure was reported by both parents reporting for the young survivors (U = 5,522.5, P < .001; U = 31,412, P < .001) and by older survivors (U = 5,039.5, P < .001; U = 29,913, P < .001). Among younger participants greater sun-exposure was associated with being a CCS, while in older participants, greater sun-exposure was associated with being a CCS, a male, smoker/ex-smoker and was also increased in those with more sensitive skin reaction to sunlight. Focusing only on the CCSs, when treatments were considered, none statistically predicted sun-exposure in young CCSs while older CCSs who received radiotherapy were less likely to spend excess time in the sun. CONCLUSION: CCSs have sun-exposure at times of day when sun-related skin damage is highest, despite advice to avoid highest risk times. This data can inform sun-protection programs and lifestyle advice aimed at ameliorating the potential increased risk of skin cancer in CCSs.


Asunto(s)
Supervivientes de Cáncer , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales , Neoplasias/epidemiología , Luz Solar , Adolescente , Australia/epidemiología , Supervivientes de Cáncer/estadística & datos numéricos , Niño , Preescolar , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/efectos adversos , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/etiología , Oportunidad Relativa , Fenotipo , Vigilancia en Salud Pública , Factores de Riesgo , Autoinforme , Enfermedades de la Piel/diagnóstico , Enfermedades de la Piel/epidemiología , Enfermedades de la Piel/etiología , Luz Solar/efectos adversos
15.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(3): e0008085, 2020 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32196496

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The epidemic of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) has become a severe public health problem in the world and has also brought a high economic and health burden. Furthermore, the prevalence of HFMD varies significantly among different locations. However, there have been few investigations of the effects of socioeconomic factors and air pollution factors on the incidence of HFMD. METHODS: This study collected data on HFMD in Shenzhen, China, from 2012 to 2015. We selected eleven factors as potential risk factors for HFMD. A Bayesian spatiotemporal model was used to quantify the influence of the factors on HFMD and to identify the relative risks in different districts. RESULTS: The risk factors of HFMD were the population, population density, concentration of SO2, and concentration of NO2. The relative risks (RRs) were 1.00473 (95% CI: 1.00059-1.00761), 1.00010 (95% CI: 1.00002-1.00016), 1.00215 (95% CI: 1.00170-1.00232) and 1.00058 (95% CI: 1.00028-1.00078), respectively. The protective factors against HFMD were the per capita GDP, the number of public kindergartens, the concentration of PM10, and the concentration of O3. The RRs were 0.98840 (95% CI: 0.98660-0.99026), 0.97686 (95% CI: 0.96946-0.98403), 0.99108 (95% CI: 0.98551-0.99840) and 0.99587 (95% CI: 0.99534-0.99610), respectively. The risk of incidence in Longgang district and Pingshan district decreased, while the risk of incidence in Baoan district increased. CONCLUSIONS: Studies have confirmed that socioeconomic factors and air pollution factors have an impact on the incidence of HFMD in Shenzhen, China. The results will be of great practical significance to local authorities, which is conducive to accurate prevention and can be used to formulate HFMD early warning systems.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad de Boca, Mano y Pie/epidemiología , Contaminación del Aire , Teorema de Bayes , Niño , Preescolar , China/epidemiología , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Lactante , Masculino , Medición de Riesgo , Factores Socioeconómicos , Análisis Espacio-Temporal
16.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(3): e0008118, 2020 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32119666

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral disease and its transmission is closely linked to climate. We aimed to review available information on the projection of dengue in the future under climate change scenarios. METHODS: Using five databases (PubMed, ProQuest, ScienceDirect, Scopus and Web of Science), a systematic review was conducted to retrieve all articles from database inception to 30th June 2019 which projected the future of dengue under climate change scenarios. In this review, "the future of dengue" refers to disease burden of dengue, epidemic potential of dengue cases, geographical distribution of dengue cases, and population exposed to climatically suitable areas of dengue. RESULTS: Sixteen studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria, and five of them projected a global dengue future. Most studies reported an increase in disease burden, a wider spatial distribution of dengue cases or more people exposed to climatically suitable areas of dengue as climate change proceeds. The years 1961-1990 and 2050 were the most commonly used baseline and projection periods, respectively. Multiple climate change scenarios introduced by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), including B1, A1B, and A2, as well as Representative Concentration Pathway 2.6 (RCP2.6), RCP4.5, RCP6.0 and RCP8.5, were most widely employed. Instead of projecting the future number of dengue cases, there is a growing consensus on using "population exposed to climatically suitable areas for dengue" or "epidemic potential of dengue cases" as the outcome variable. Future studies exploring non-climatic drivers which determine the presence/absence of dengue vectors, and identifying the pivotal factors triggering the transmission of dengue in those climatically suitable areas would help yield a more accurate projection for dengue in the future. CONCLUSIONS: Projecting the future of dengue requires a systematic consideration of assumptions and uncertainties, which will facilitate the development of tailored climate change adaptation strategies to manage dengue.


Asunto(s)
Cambio Climático , Dengue/epidemiología , Dengue/transmisión , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales , Mosquitos Vectores/crecimiento & desarrollo , Costo de Enfermedad , Humanos , Incidencia , Mosquitos Vectores/efectos de la radiación , Prevalencia , Topografía Médica
17.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 41(4): 489-493, 2020 Apr 10.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32133830

RESUMEN

Objective: To describe the epidemiological characteristics of a cluster of COVID-19 cases reported in Baodi district of Tianjin as of 18 February, 2020, which might be associated with the exposure in a local department store, and provide suggestions for prevention and control strategy development. Methods: The basic characteristics, time and area distributions, clinical manifestations, epidemiological history and transmission mode of the COVID-19 cases associated with the department store exposure were analyzed. Results: A total of 40 COVID-19 cases were associated with the department store exposure, accounting for 75.47% of the total confirmed cases (53 cases) reported in Baodi district. The cases were mainly at the age of 60 years or older (35.00%) and farmers (40.00%). The main clinical manifestations included fever (95.00%), cough (35.00%), and diarrhea (15.00%). The proportion of confirmed severe cases was 32.50%. The incidence curve showed that the incidence peak occurred on 31 January, 2020. Among the 40 cases, 6(15.00%) were department store employees, 19 (47.50%) were customers and 15 (37.50%) were close contacts (secondary cases). The first case occurred on 21 January, 2020, this case was a department store employee who had a purchasing history at whole sale markets in other provinces and cities before the onset, and 3 employees were still on duty after symptom onsets. The median of the incubation period of customer cases was 6 days, and the median of the interval between onset and medical treatment of customer cases was 7 days. Conclusion: This was a cluster epidemic of COVID-19, which might be associated with the exposure in the department store. By now, the current prevention and control measures have achieved satisfied effects.


Asunto(s)
Comercio , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Diarrea/virología , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales , Fiebre/virología , Humanos , Periodo de Incubación de Enfermedades Infecciosas , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Tiempo de Tratamiento
18.
Chemosphere ; 249: 126515, 2020 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32220684

RESUMEN

Air quality models have been used in health studies to provide spatial and temporal information of various air pollutants. Model resolution is an important factor affecting the accuracy of exposure assessment using model predictions. In this study, the WRF/CMAQ model system was applied to quantitatively estimate the impacts of the model resolution on the predictions of air quality and associated health exposure in Nanjing, China in 2016. Air quality was simulated with a grid resolution of 1, 4, 12, and 36 km respectively. Predictions with 1 or 4 km resolution are slightly better for particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5) and its compositions and predictions with 12 km are slightly better for daily 8-h maximum ozone (O3-8 h). Model resolution does not significantly improve predictions for PM2.5 and O3-8 h in Nanjing, however, the spatial distributions of PM2.5 and O3-8 h are better captured with finer resolutions. Population weighted concentrations (PWCs) of PM2.5 with different model resolutions are similar to the average of observations, but PWCs of O3-8 h with all resolutions are obviously larger than the observations, indicating that the current sites may well represent the population exposure to PM2.5, but under-estimate the exposure to O3. Model resolution results in about 6% in the estimated premature mortality due to exposure to PM2.5 but more than 20% difference in premature mortality due to exposure to O3. Future studies are needed to evaluate the impacts of the resolution on the exposure of PM2.5 compositions in the city scale when PM2.5 composition measurements available at multiple sites.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación del Aire/estadística & datos numéricos , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/estadística & datos numéricos , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , China , Ciudades , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Predicción , Humanos , Ozono/análisis , Material Particulado/análisis
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 719: 137445, 2020 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32112947

RESUMEN

In recent years, particulate matter (PM) air pollution has become a significant and growing public health problem in China. In this study, the daily PM2.5 exposure level at a spatial resolution of 100 km2 was simulated based on the data of 1328 monitoring sites and the Voronoi Neighborhood Averaging (VNA) interpolation method. The results reveal that the daily mean PM2.5 concentration reduced from 47.82 µg/m3 (2016) to 40.87 µg/m3 (2018), a reduction of 14.53%. We first calculated the heath impacts and economic benefits of this reduction (Scenario 1) by using Environmental Benefits Mapping and Analysis Program (BenMAP). The estimated avoided premature mortalities for all-cause, cardiovascular diseases, respiratory diseases, and lung cancer were in the range of 7214 to 81,681 cases (total of 154,176 cases). The estimated economic benefits based on willingness to pay (WTP) ranged from 3.96 to 44.85 billion RMB (total of 84.66 billion RMB). Moreover, the PM2.5 concentration in the control scenario was rolled back to the Grade I standards (35 µg/m3, Scenario 2). The avoided deaths are in the range of 58,820 to 590,464 cases (total of 1,217,671 cases). The estimated monetary value of the avoided cases of all health endpoints range from 36.63 to 367.66 billion RMB based on WTP (total of 758.21 billion RMB). In addition, the spatial autocorrelation analysis reveals that the distribution of both avoided premature mortality and economic benefits exhibit a certain spatial aggregation.


Asunto(s)
Salud Pública , Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire , China , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales , Material Particulado
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 719: 136965, 2020 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32120090

RESUMEN

Phthalates are SVOCs (Semi-volatile Organic Compounds) that are widely used in industrial and daily home products. This study aimed to investigate exposure levels to phthalates in Chinese homes and to relate these to building characteristics and lifestyles. Dust in 399 homes of 410 children in urban Tianjin and rural Cangzhou was analyzed for concentrations of six target phthalates. The median concentrations were 0.31µg/g for diethyl phthalate (DEP), 16.39µg/g for di-isobutyl phthalate (DiBP), 42.60µg/g for di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), 0.10µg/g for benzyl butyl phthalate (BBzP), 127.11µg/g for di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and 0.28µg/g for di-isononyl phthalate (DiNP). Strong associations were found between modern flooring materials (laminated wood/wood) and concentrations of DiBP, BBzP and DiNP; modern window frame (aluminum/plastic steel) and BBzP concentration; leather polish and DEHP concentration; perfume and DEP concentration. Concentrations of phthalates were significantly higher in Tianjin urban homes than Cangzhou rural homes. Concentrations of phthalates increased significantly with increasing household income. Our study indicates that exposure to phthalates in Chinese homes increases with attributes of modern life.


Asunto(s)
Ácidos Ftálicos/toxicidad , Niño , Polvo , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales , Contaminantes Ambientales , Pisos y Cubiertas de Piso , Productos Domésticos , Humanos
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA