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1.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(6): 325, 2020 May 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32363409

RESUMEN

The recent epidemic of the new SARS-CoV-2 in the northern regions of Italy is putting the organization of the Italian health system under serious attack. The current emergency requires all possible efforts to stem the spread of the virus. In this context, it is clear that we have the urgent need to rely upon etiopathogenetic data, in order to do all possible efforts to block the epidemic. However, observing the trend of the infections in China and the geographic areas of the main outbreaks, it could be hypothesized that air pollution plays a role. In particular, it has been previously demonstrated, in specific populations, a role of particulate matter in worsening clinical presentation of virus infection in airways. Without prejudice to the ascertained virus spread by air droplets or contaminated surfaces, the factors that could have favored its spread remain to be investigated. Moreover, if these observations were to be confirmed, when the health emergency is resolved, it will be mandatory to redesign an economic-productive model in balance with the environment.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/estadística & datos numéricos , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Contaminación del Aire/estadística & datos numéricos , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Italia/epidemiología , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología
2.
Environ Pollut ; 261: 114465, 2020 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32268945

RESUMEN

This paper investigates the correlation between the high level of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome CoronaVirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) lethality and the atmospheric pollution in Northern Italy. Indeed, Lombardy and Emilia Romagna are Italian regions with both the highest level of virus lethality in the world and one of Europe's most polluted area. Based on this correlation, this paper analyzes the possible link between pollution and the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome and eventually death. We provide evidence that people living in an area with high levels of pollutant are more prone to develop chronic respiratory conditions and suitable to any infective agent. Moreover, a prolonged exposure to air pollution leads to a chronic inflammatory stimulus, even in young and healthy subjects. We conclude that the high level of pollution in Northern Italy should be considered an additional co-factor of the high level of lethality recorded in that area.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación del Aire/estadística & datos numéricos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/mortalidad , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/estadística & datos numéricos , Neumonía Viral/mortalidad , Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Italia/epidemiología , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/metabolismo , Síndrome de Dificultad Respiratoria del Adulto/mortalidad
3.
Epidemiol Health ; 42: e2020012, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32164052

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Epidemiological evidence of associations between ambient particulate matter (PM) and tuberculosis (TB) risk is accumulating. Two previous studies in Korea found associations between air pollution-especially sulfur dioxide (SO2)-and TB. In this study, we conducted an annual time-series cross-sectional study to assess the effect of PM with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 µm (PM10) on TB risk in seven major cities of Korea from 2010 to 2016, taking into account time lag and long-term cumulative exposure. METHODS: Age-standardized TB notification rates were derived using the Korea National TB Surveillance System. Annual average PM10 concentrations were obtained from annual Korean air quality reports. We applied a generalized linear mixed model with unconstrained distributed lags of exposure to PM10. We adjusted for potential confounders such as age, health behaviors, and area-level characteristics. RESULTS: Both average annual PM10 concentrations and age-standardized TB notification rates decreased over time. The association between cumulative exposure to PM10 and TB incidence became stronger as a longer exposure duration was considered. An increase of one standard deviation (5.63 µg/m3) in PM10 exposure for six years was associated with a 1.20 (95% confidence interval, 1.17 to 1.22) times higher TB notification rate. The marginal association of exposure duration with the TB notification rate was highest at four and five years prior to TB notification. This association remained consistent even after adjusting it for exposure to SO2. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study suggest that cumulative exposure to PM10 may affect TB risk, with a potential lag effect.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación del Aire/efectos adversos , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/estadística & datos numéricos , Material Particulado/efectos adversos , Tuberculosis/epidemiología , Adulto , Anciano , Ciudades , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Incidencia , Persona de Mediana Edad , República de Corea/epidemiología , Factores de Riesgo , Factores de Tiempo
4.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(9): 245-246, 2020 Mar 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32134909

RESUMEN

In December 2019, an outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the virus SARS-CoV-2, began in Wuhan, China (1). The disease spread widely in China, and, as of February 26, 2020, COVID-19 cases had been identified in 36 other countries and territories, including the United States. Person-to-person transmission has been widely documented, and a limited number of countries have reported sustained person-to-person spread.* On January 20, state and local health departments in the United States, in collaboration with teams deployed from CDC, began identifying and monitoring all persons considered to have had close contact† with patients with confirmed COVID-19 (2). The aims of these efforts were to ensure rapid evaluation and care of patients, limit further transmission, and better understand risk factors for transmission.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Brotes de Enfermedades/prevención & control , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/estadística & datos numéricos , Vigilancia en Salud Pública , China/epidemiología , Trazado de Contacto , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Humanos , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Enfermedad Relacionada con los Viajes , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
5.
Chemosphere ; 249: 126515, 2020 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32220684

RESUMEN

Air quality models have been used in health studies to provide spatial and temporal information of various air pollutants. Model resolution is an important factor affecting the accuracy of exposure assessment using model predictions. In this study, the WRF/CMAQ model system was applied to quantitatively estimate the impacts of the model resolution on the predictions of air quality and associated health exposure in Nanjing, China in 2016. Air quality was simulated with a grid resolution of 1, 4, 12, and 36 km respectively. Predictions with 1 or 4 km resolution are slightly better for particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5) and its compositions and predictions with 12 km are slightly better for daily 8-h maximum ozone (O3-8 h). Model resolution does not significantly improve predictions for PM2.5 and O3-8 h in Nanjing, however, the spatial distributions of PM2.5 and O3-8 h are better captured with finer resolutions. Population weighted concentrations (PWCs) of PM2.5 with different model resolutions are similar to the average of observations, but PWCs of O3-8 h with all resolutions are obviously larger than the observations, indicating that the current sites may well represent the population exposure to PM2.5, but under-estimate the exposure to O3. Model resolution results in about 6% in the estimated premature mortality due to exposure to PM2.5 but more than 20% difference in premature mortality due to exposure to O3. Future studies are needed to evaluate the impacts of the resolution on the exposure of PM2.5 compositions in the city scale when PM2.5 composition measurements available at multiple sites.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación del Aire/estadística & datos numéricos , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/estadística & datos numéricos , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , China , Ciudades , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Predicción , Humanos , Ozono/análisis , Material Particulado/análisis
6.
Chemosphere ; 244: 125574, 2020 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32050349

RESUMEN

Chlorinated paraffins (CPs) are high production volume chemicals of which some show resistance to environmental degradation, long-rang transport, bioaccumulation and toxicity potential. Information regarding their presence in humans is limited, including their human bioaccumulation potential. The present study aimed to evaluate CP levels in human serum from Australia in order to better understand their exposure and current pollution status as well as trends associated with age and time between 2004 and 2015. For this, we selected a male sub-group of the Australian population under 60 years old (n = 16 pools, total 1600 serum samples). While long-chain CP (C18-20) and most short-chain CP (C10-13, SCCPs) levels were below method detection limits (MDL), medium-chain CPs (C14-17, MCCPs) were found in most serum samples (detection frequency 94%) as well as CPs with a carbon chain length of nine (detection frequency 76%). The levels of ΣSCCPs and ΣMCCPs ranged from

Asunto(s)
Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/estadística & datos numéricos , Contaminantes Ambientales/metabolismo , Hidrocarburos Clorados/sangre , Parafina/metabolismo , Australia , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Contaminación Ambiental/análisis , Humanos , Hidrocarburos Clorados/análisis , Persona de Mediana Edad , Parafina/análisis
7.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32037370

RESUMEN

Responding to the radiation-related concerns of parents/guardians with infants/small children is an important public health issue for regional recovery after radioactive contamination. This study summarizes the results of a systematic internal contamination screening of infants/small children, aged 0-6 years, using BABYSCAN and individual counselling sessions with physicians about radiation concerns from 2014 to 2018 in Minamisoma City. Of 3,114 participants, no one was found to have internal contamination with radioactive caesium with a detection limit of 50 Bq/body. The questionnaire survey showed a decreasing trend of concerns about food contamination and playing outside as possible causes of internal contamination over time. Because people's concerns were diverse in counselling sessions, individual responses are required. This study showed that examinations using BABYSCAN provide an opportunity for direct dialogue between the parents/guardians of infants/small children and experts. This can be considered a model case for risk communication conducted by the local government after a radioactive contamination incident.


Asunto(s)
Radioisótopos de Cesio/análisis , Recuento Corporal Total/estadística & datos numéricos , Niño , Preescolar , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Contaminación Radiactiva de Alimentos/estadística & datos numéricos , Accidente Nuclear de Fukushima , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Japón , Masculino , Plantas de Energía Nuclear , Monitoreo de Radiación/estadística & datos numéricos , Liberación de Radiactividad Peligrosa/estadística & datos numéricos , Factores de Riesgo , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
8.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 54(2): 144-148, 2020 Feb 06.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32074700

RESUMEN

Objective: To explore the interaction of health literacy and second-hand smoke exposure on psychopathological symptoms of middle school students. Methods: From November 2015 to January 2016, 22 628 middle school students from Shenyang of Liaoning Province, Bengbu of Anhui Province, Xinxiang of Henan Province, Ulanqab of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, Chongqing Municipality, and Yangjiang of Guangdong Province were enrolled by using the multi-stage cluster convenience sampling method. A questionnaire was used to collect the data including demographic information, health literacy, second-hand smoke exposure, and psychopathological symptoms. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to analyze the interaction of health literacy and second-hand smoke exposure on psychopathological symptoms of middle school students. Results: The age of students was (15.36±1.79) years old, of which 10 990 were boys, accounting for 48.6% of total students. The detection rate of psychopathological symptoms was 29.1% (6 581/22 628). The detection rate of psychopathological symptoms in those who were exposed to second-hand smoke was 38.1% (2 401/6 304), which was higher than that in the non-second-hand smoke exposure group [25.6% (4 180/16 324)] (P<0.001). The OR (95%CI) of the interaction between medium and low levels of overall health literacy, low level of interpersonal dimension of health literacy and second-hand smoke exposure was 1.19 (1.15-1.24), 2.00 (1.92-2.10) and 1.59 (1.52-1.66), respectively. Conclusion: There was a positive interaction between middle and low levels of overall health literacy, low level of interpersonal dimension of health literacy and second-hand smoke exposure on psychopathological symptoms of middle school students.


Asunto(s)
Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/efectos adversos , Alfabetización en Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Trastornos Mentales/epidemiología , Estudiantes/psicología , Contaminación por Humo de Tabaco/efectos adversos , Adolescente , China/epidemiología , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Instituciones Académicas , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Contaminación por Humo de Tabaco/estadística & datos numéricos
9.
Chemosphere ; 248: 126011, 2020 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32028161

RESUMEN

The Giant Mine is an abandoned gold mine in Yellowknife, Northwest Territories, Canada. Throughout its operation from 1948 to 2004, the Giant Mine released heavy amounts of arsenic trioxide into the environment, thus contaminating the soil and surface water within and around the vicinity of the mine site. Chronic arsenic (As) poisoning negatively impacts wildlife health and can induce multi-organ damages including neurodegeneration and visual dysfunction depending on concentration and duration of exposure. The aim of the current study was to comparatively assess retina layer changes and prevalence of ocular lesions in wild rodent populations (i.e. muskrats and red squirrels) breeding in arsenic endemic areas of Yellowknife, near the vicinity of the abandoned Giant mine site (∼2 km radius), at an intermediate location (approximately 20 km from the mine area) as well as a reference location (spanning 52-105 km from the city of Yellowknife, Canada). Eye globes were removed from euthanized muskrats and squirrels from the three sampling locations with increasing distance from the Giant mine area. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) was used to attempt a pan-retinal layer assessment, and histologic examination was utilized for assessment and confirmation of ocular lesions. The retinal layers were measured and statistically compared between the groups based on sampling locations to enhance the scope of histologic evaluations. The preliminary results revealed that thicknesses of ganglion cell layer (GCL), retina nerve fibre layer (NFL), and inner retina layer (IR) were statistically reduced in the muskrats from arsenic endemic area, particularly near the vicinity of the Giant mine compared to the control group. Generalized ocular pathology was histologically confirmed in all the muskrats from the arsenic endemic areas with the manifestation of moderate to severe lymphocytic plasmacytic uveitis (LPU), keratitis and subcapsular cataracts. Inner retinal degeneration was also observed in all the muskrats from the arsenic endemic areas, while muskrats from the control group were predominantly normal. Three muskrats from the control group were noted to have a mild LPU and keratitis. Significant histopathologic changes were not detected in the squirrel eyes from the three groups except for incidental mild cornea scars from all the locations. In general, these preliminary findings confirm the presence of ocular lesions and retina abnormalities in wild muskrats in the Yellowknife area and provide the first evidence of visual dysfunction and impairment in wildlife inhabiting arsenic endemic areas of Canada.


Asunto(s)
Intoxicación por Arsénico/veterinaria , Arsénico/toxicidad , Arvicolinae/metabolismo , Contaminantes Ambientales/toxicidad , Sciuridae/metabolismo , Animales , Arsénico/análisis , Arsénico/metabolismo , Trióxido de Arsénico , Cruzamiento , Canadá , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/estadística & datos numéricos , Contaminantes Ambientales/metabolismo , Oro , Territorios del Noroeste , Suelo
10.
Chemosphere ; 249: 126120, 2020 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32062209

RESUMEN

We examined the main effects of ambient particulate matters, as well as whether single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), located within ABO gene would modify the relationship. Data were collected from a family-based study conducted in Northern China. A generalized additive model with a Gaussian link and with each family as a stratum was applied to estimate the percentage change in blood lipid levels following a 10 µg/m3 increase in ambient particulate matter concentrations. Interaction analyses were conducted by including a cross-product term of PM2.5 or PM10 by SNP. Results showed that a 10 µg/m3 increase in Particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter <2.5 µm (PM2.5) concentrations corresponded to the highest 0.010% (95% CI: 0.002%-0.018%), 0.018% (95% CI: 0.006%-0.029%), 0.019% (95% CI: 0.010%-0.029%) increase in total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), respectively and 0.005% (95% CI: 0.002%-0.008%) decrease in high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C)-to-LDL-C ratio. As for the PM10, similar results were observed. Furthermore, our finding showed an interaction effect of PM10 and rs505922/rs579459 C allele on TG. Specifically, individuals carrying the rs505922 and rs579459 T allele have higher TG concentrations following PM10 exposure, with a 10 µg/m3 increase in PM10 concentrations corresponding to the highest 0.028% and 0.034% increase in TG, respectively. In conclusion, short-term exposures to ambient particulate matters are associated with a higher blood lipid level, which can be modified by ABO polymorphism. The findings may be useful in identifying vulnerable population according to genetic background.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación del Aire/estadística & datos numéricos , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/estadística & datos numéricos , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , China/epidemiología , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/análisis , Humanos , Lípidos/análisis , Lípidos/sangre , Persona de Mediana Edad , Material Particulado/análisis , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple
11.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228535, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32069301

RESUMEN

National-scale empirical models for air pollution can include hundreds of geographic variables. The impact of model parsimony (i.e., how model performance differs for a large versus small number of covariates) has not been systematically explored. We aim to (1) build annual-average integrated empirical geographic (IEG) regression models for the contiguous U.S. for six criteria pollutants during 1979-2015; (2) explore systematically the impact on model performance of the number of variables selected for inclusion in a model; and (3) provide publicly available model predictions. We compute annual-average concentrations from regulatory monitoring data for PM10, PM2.5, NO2, SO2, CO, and ozone at all monitoring sites for 1979-2015. We also use ~350 geographic characteristics at each location including measures of traffic, land use, land cover, and satellite-based estimates of air pollution. We then develop IEG models, employing universal kriging and summary factors estimated by partial least squares (PLS) of geographic variables. For all pollutants and years, we compare three approaches for choosing variables to include in the PLS model: (1) no variables, (2) a limited number of variables selected from the full set by forward selection, and (3) all variables. We evaluate model performance using 10-fold cross-validation (CV) using conventional and spatially-clustered test data. Models using 3 to 30 variables selected from the full set generally have the best performance across all pollutants and years (median R2 conventional [clustered] CV: 0.66 [0.47]) compared to models with no (0.37 [0]) or all variables (0.64 [0.27]). Concentration estimates for all Census Blocks reveal generally decreasing concentrations over several decades with local heterogeneity. Our findings suggest that national prediction models can be built by empirically selecting only a small number of important variables to provide robust concentration estimates. Model estimates are freely available online.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , Monitoreo del Ambiente/estadística & datos numéricos , Modelos Estadísticos , Contaminación del Aire/historia , Contaminación del Aire/estadística & datos numéricos , Monóxido de Carbono/análisis , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/análisis , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/estadística & datos numéricos , Monitoreo del Ambiente/historia , Geografía , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Dióxido de Nitrógeno/análisis , Ozono/análisis , Material Particulado/análisis , Análisis de Regresión , Análisis Espacial , Dióxido de Azufre/análisis , Factores de Tiempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
12.
Chemosphere ; 247: 125913, 2020 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31962222

RESUMEN

Emerging epidemiologic studies suggested that particulate matter (PM) was a risk factor for the incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, few studies were conducted to examine whether PM was associated with cause-specific deaths in the CKD progression. This study aimed to estimate the association between fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and a spectrum of deaths among CKD patients. We took leverage of the Elderly Health Service cohort (n = 66,820), a large Hong Kong elderly cohort followed up till 2010. A total of 902 CKD incident patients in the cohort were identified during the follow-up period. We estimated yearly PM2.5 at the residential address for each CKD patient based on a satellite-based spatiotemporal model. We used Cox proportional hazards models with attained age as the underlying timescale to assess the association between long-term exposure to PM2.5 and cause-specific mortality among CKD patients. A total of 496 patients died during the follow-up, where 147 died from cardiovascular disease, 61 from respiratory disease and 154 from renal failure. The mortality hazard ratio (HR) per interquartile-range increase in PM2.5 (4.0 µg/m3) was 1.97 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.34 to 2.91) for ischemic heart disease (IHD) among CKD patients, and was 1.42 (95%CI: 1.05 to 1.93) for CKD among those patients concomitantly with hypertension. Associations were not of statistical significance between PM2.5 and mortality hazard ratios of all-cause, stroke, and pneumonia among CKD patients. Our findings suggest that long-term exposure to PM2.5 may contribute to the CKD progression into ischemic heart diseases.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación del Aire/estadística & datos numéricos , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/estadística & datos numéricos , Material Particulado/química , Insuficiencia Renal Crónica/mortalidad , Anciano , Contaminación del Aire/efectos adversos , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/inducido químicamente , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/epidemiología , Causas de Muerte , Estudios de Cohortes , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/análisis , Femenino , Hong Kong/epidemiología , Humanos , Incidencia , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Material Particulado/análisis , Modelos de Riesgos Proporcionales , Insuficiencia Renal Crónica/inducido químicamente , Enfermedades Respiratorias/inducido químicamente , Enfermedades Respiratorias/epidemiología , Factores de Riesgo
13.
Chemosphere ; 247: 125884, 2020 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31978655

RESUMEN

Lead (Pb)-poisoning is a serious public health concern and dogs have been useful as a sentinel-animal for Pb exposure of humans. In the present study, the blood Pb concentrations (BLC), isotope ratios (208 Pb/206 Pb and 207 Pb/206 Pb), and biochemistry of 120 domestically owned dogs living around a Pb mining area, in Kabwe, Zambia were analyzed to determine factors associated with Pb exposure. The overall mean value of Pb in dog blood in the present study was 271.6 µg/L. The BLC in the dogs from sites near the mine were significantly higher than those in the dogs from a site 4 km from the mine (352.9 ± 205.1 µg/L versus 28.0 ± 13.9 µg/L). BLC significantly decreased with both increasing age of the dogs and distance from the mine. The Pb isotope ratios in the dog that resided near the mine showed values similar to those reported at the galena mine in Kabwe, which is considered to be the source of Pb exposure. In contrast to the high metal exposure that was determined in these dogs, the mean values of most analyzed parameters in the blood biochemical analysis were surprisingly within or close to the standard reference values. Moreover, none of the dogs showed overt signs of Pb-poisoning or other clinical symptoms. The results of analysis of Pb exposure of the dogs obtained in the present study, which are similar to the previously reported results in human in this location, suggest that dogs could be useful as a sentinel animal for Pb exposure of humans in Kabwe.


Asunto(s)
Perros/fisiología , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/análisis , Plomo/análisis , Minería , Contaminantes del Suelo/análisis , Animales , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/estadística & datos numéricos , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Humanos , Isótopos , Plomo/metabolismo , Contaminantes del Suelo/metabolismo , Sulfuros , Zambia
14.
Chemosphere ; 242: 125250, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31896205

RESUMEN

Because of their dirt-, water- and oil-repelling properties, per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are frequently used in a broad variety of consumer products. They have been detected in human samples worldwide. In Flanders, Belgium, the Flemish Environment and Health Studies (FLEHS) measured the levels of five PFAS biomarkers in four different age groups of the Flemish population and identified determinants of variability in exposure. Cord plasma or peripheric serum samples and questionnaire data were available for 220 mother-newborn pairs (2008-2009), 269 mother-newborn pairs (2013-2014), 199 adolescents (14-15 years old, 2010), 201 adults (20-40 years old, 2008-2009) and 205 adults (50-65 years old, 2014). Measured levels of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS) and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) in Flanders are in the middle or low range compared to concentrations reported in other Western countries. Levels of perfluorobutanesulfonic acid (PFBS) were below the quantification limit in 98%-100% of the samples. Despite decreasing levels in time for PFOS and PFOA, 77% of the adults (2014) had serum levels exceeding HBM-I values of 5 µg/L for PFOS and 2 µg/L for PFOA. Beside age, sex, fish consumption, parity and breastfeeding, the multiple regression models identified additionally consumption of offal and locally grown food, and use of cosmetics as possible exposures and menstruation as a possible route of elimination. Better knowledge on determinants of exposure is essential to lower PFASs exposure.


Asunto(s)
Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/estadística & datos numéricos , Contaminantes Ambientales/sangre , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Ácidos Alcanesulfónicos/sangre , Bélgica , Lactancia Materna , Caprilatos/sangre , Salud Ambiental , Femenino , Fluorocarburos/sangre , Alimentos , Humanos , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Madres , Paridad , Embarazo , Ácidos Sulfónicos/sangre , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Tiempo , Adulto Joven
15.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(2): 90, 2020 Jan 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31902018

RESUMEN

Owing to the rise in population, lifestyle changes, high traffic rates in urban areas and environmental pollution, respiratory diseases have become much more prevalent on both regional and urban scales. Respiratory diseases affect over 300 million people worldwide and are thus among the major threats to humans' general well-being. The identification of underlying factors and the specification of accompanying risk areas for the temporal exacerbation of respiratory diseases are effective steps in managing the damage caused by such disorders. Here, we demonstrate a strategy for modelling the risk zone of respiratory diseases temporally, using a location-based social network (LBSN) and an artificial neural network (ANN). The main contribution of this paper is to consider the environmental and infrastructural factors and identify their relationships with the geographical locations of respiratory attacks. The study also utilizes Telegram, which is the most popular and conventional social media platform, in order to observe temporal changes in the location of respiratory attacks in Iran, in the form of a developed Telegram bot known as @respiratoryassociation. The relations between the factors behind and the location of respiratory attacks are determined using a multilayer perceptron (MLP) ANN. All the required data have been collected on a daily basis over a 5-year period from December 2013 to December 2018 in Tehran, Iran. The results indicated air pollution, especially pollution from carbon monoxide (CO) and suspended particulate matter (PM) as the most decisive factors. Following air pollution, the amount of exposure to the polluted area was determined as the second most decisive factor, which in turn increased as a result of escalations in traffic jams. Land use was determined as the third most decisive factor. Furthermore, the results revealed that the ANN performed satisfactorily, implying that the model can be used to examine the spatio-temporal behaviour of the time series of respiratory diseases with respect to environmental and infrastructural factors.


Asunto(s)
Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/estadística & datos numéricos , Enfermedades Respiratorias/epidemiología , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/estadística & datos numéricos , Monóxido de Carbono , Progresión de la Enfermedad , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Contaminantes Ambientales , Humanos , Irán , Redes Neurales de la Computación , Material Particulado/análisis , Prevalencia
16.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(2): 126, 2020 Jan 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31960162

RESUMEN

This study evaluates the concentrations of lead (Pb) in 6 selected vegetables and drinking water samples taken from an agricultural/mining town Ishiagu. This evaluation is important because these vegetables and water are major gateway of lead exposure through ingestion, especially children in the Pb mining environment. Pb at even very low concentrations has been shown to have adverse effect on developing brain and hence children's intellectual ability. The impact of lead-contaminated food/water intake on the cognitive function was focused on school children whose parents have lived in the Pb mining town for over 25 years before they were born. Non-invasive, "target risk quotient" (TRQ) methodology, based on the principle of predictive toxicology was adopted for our analysis. Samples of these vegetables harvested in July and August 2015, and water taken from homes at 4 different villages in Ishiagu town and neighbouring community Akaeze (control), were subjected to appropriate chemical treatment/digestion procedures and the concentrations of Pb determined using AA-700 Shimadzu model atomic absorption spectrophotometer. From 642 structured questionnaire administered to the teachers/children, the daily vegetable ingestion rates for each vegetable (mg/child/day) and estimated daily intakes (EDI) of lead were obtained. The results show that the concentrations of Pb in water samples and the 6 vegetables harvested from the lead mining town vary as distances increase from the mining sites while the total target hazard quotients (TTHQs) for the vegetable crops were greater than one (˃ 1). The cognitive functions of 160 school children (aged 6-8 years), sampled from 265 families based on their meeting the criteria for distances away from the mining site, were evaluated using Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices and psychometrics. The data generated were analysed using (SPSS) version 21.0 and results expressed as mean ± standard deviation of intelligent quotient (IQ). Students' t tests for independent samples were used to compare the IQ results for children in the lead mining area and non-mining area. A model based on predictive toxicology paradigm which can show a relationship between concentrations of lead in vegetables/water and cognitive function was developed. This model shows that there is a positive correlation between total lead concentrations in vegetables/water and children's cognitive function.


Asunto(s)
Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/estadística & datos numéricos , Plomo/análisis , Contaminantes del Suelo/análisis , Verduras/química , Agricultura , Niño , Ciudades , Productos Agrícolas , Agua Potable/análisis , Agua Potable/química , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Femenino , Contaminación de Alimentos/análisis , Humanos , Masculino , Metales Pesados/análisis , Minería , Medición de Riesgo
17.
Chemosphere ; 246: 125777, 2020 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31901657

RESUMEN

To confirm our hypothesis that inhalation might be the primary exposure route of heavy metals for children living in proximity to a municipal waste incinerator (MWI), we conducted a one-year follow up study to characterize the distributions of heavy metals featured in different types of ambient air particles, including PM1, PM2.5 and PM10, at two exposure sites near the MWI (E1 and E2) and one control site (C) in Zhejiang, China. Particle samples were collected by a mid-volume sampler and heavy metals were determined by the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry method. The mass concentrations of PM1, PM2.5 and PM10 were 52.0, 85.8 and 100.3 µg/m3 at E1 site, while the concentrations were 40.2, 92.1 and 106.6 µg/m3 at E2 site and 33.4, 55.6 and 66.1 µg/m3 at C site, respectively. Both E1 and E2 had higher PM1, PM2.5 and PM10 levels than C site. The levels of pollution were season dependent, with autumn having the highest levels of PM1, PM2.5 and PM10 across all three sampling sites. Regarding the distributions of heavy metals, Pb accounted for the majority of the seven metals in all groups, ranging from 43.2% to 51.3%, followed by Mn that ranged from 22.0% to 32.0%. The Pb levels of PM1, PM2.5 and PM10 in the MWI area were 22.6, 34.2 and 36.2 ng/m3, respectively, while Mn levels were 10.1, 20.0 and 23.5 ng/m3, respectively. The health risk assessment results suggested that residents were suffering high non-carcinogenic risk posed by MWI-emitted particle-bound toxic metals, as well as the high lifetime carcinogenic risk. This study revealed that ambient air, no matter whether near or far away from an MWI, bore more PM1, PM2.5 and PM10 particles than general, non-polluted ambient air, especially in autumn.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/estadística & datos numéricos , Incineración , Metales Pesados/análisis , Carcinógenos/análisis , Niño , China , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Contaminación Ambiental/análisis , Contaminación Ambiental/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios de Seguimiento , Sustancias Peligrosas/análisis , Humanos , Material Particulado/análisis , Medición de Riesgo , Estaciones del Año
18.
Chemosphere ; 246: 125773, 2020 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31911328

RESUMEN

Mitochondria DNA was preferentially attacked by the exogenous carcinogens including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) relative to nuclear DNA, and nuclear gene variants may account for variability in the mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNAcn). However, it remains unclear whether miRNA genetic variations are associated with mitochondrial DNA damage in the PAH-exposed workers. Therefore, we measured the leukocyte mtDNAcn, urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHPYR), environmental PAH exposure, and miRNA genetic polymorphisms among 544 coke oven workers and 238 healthy control participants. We found that the mtDNAcn in the exposure group (0.60 ± 0.29) was significantly lower than that in the control group (1.03 ± 0.31) (t = 18.931, P < 0.001). Spearman correlation analysis showed that the peripheral blood leukocyte mtDNAcn had significantly negative correlations with the levels of 1-OHPYR and environmental PAH exposure (P < 0.001). Covariance analysis indicated that miR-210 rs11246190 AA, miR-210 rs7395206 CC, and miR-126 rs2297538 GG probably promoted a decrease in leukocyte mtDNAcn in the exposure or control groups (P < 0.05). In generalized linear model, miR-210 rs11246190 GG was a protective factor of mtDNAcn, and environmental PAH exposure was the risk factor of the mtDNAcn. In conclusion, the decrease of leukocyte mtDNAcn is the result of a combination of environmental and genetic factors.


Asunto(s)
Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/estadística & datos numéricos , Contaminantes Ambientales/toxicidad , MicroARNs/metabolismo , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos/toxicidad , Adulto , Carcinógenos/análisis , China , Coque/análisis , Estudios Transversales , Variaciones en el Número de Copia de ADN , Daño del ADN , ADN Complementario , ADN Mitocondrial/genética , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/análisis , Contaminantes Ambientales/análisis , Femenino , Humanos , Leucocitos/química , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Mitocondrias/genética , Exposición Profesional/análisis , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análisis , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos/metabolismo , Adulto Joven
19.
Chemosphere ; 246: 125764, 2020 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31911331

RESUMEN

Some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are carcinogenic and mutagenic to humans. However, little is known about PAH exposure to people living in urban and suburban areas through comparative studies. Some studies have indicated that human hair can be used as a noninvasive biomarker of PAH exposure. Therefore, we collected hair samples from 66 volunteers from Nanjing and Ningbo, China, to detect PAH concentrations in this work. The highest levels in the hair samples were found in phenanthrene > anthracene > naphthalene among the parent PAHs. Sixteen parent PAHs showed higher concentrations in the samples from Nanjing than in the samples from Ningbo. Significantly higher levels of some PAHs were observed in male hair than in female hair in Nanjing, and in hair from smokers than in hair from non-smokers in both Nanjing and Ningbo. In addition, there was a significant effect of the age on the concentration of low-molecular-weight PAHs and ∑PAHs in human hair in both Nanjing and Ningbo. Studying the inter-chemical associations between these PAHs indicated similarities and differences between Nanjing and Ningbo.


Asunto(s)
Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/estadística & datos numéricos , Contaminantes Ambientales/análisis , Análisis de Cabello , Cabello/química , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análisis , Antracenos , China , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Contaminantes Ambientales/metabolismo , Femenino , Cabello/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Fenantrenos , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos/metabolismo
20.
Chemosphere ; 246: 125790, 2020 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31918100

RESUMEN

Widespread contamination of arsenic (As) has become a global public health concern. Exposure to As causes respiratory complications. Asthma, a major respiratory complication, is increasing worldwide. However, the effect of chronic As exposure on the risk of asthma remains to be clarified. This study aims to examine the associations between As exposure (water, hair and nail As) and the risk of asthma among 842 individuals exposed to a wide range of As concentrations through drinking water in Bangladesh. Subjects' As exposure levels were measured with ICP-MS. Lung function was examined by a handheld spirometer. Characteristic features of asthma were evaluated by bronchodilator-mediated reversibility in airway obstruction and asthma-like symptoms through a structured questionnaire. Total serum immunoglobulin E (sIgE) levels were measured by immunoassay. As exposure metrics showed inverse associations with lung function measures (FEV1, FEV6, and FEV1/FEV6 ratio) and positive associations with the risks of airway obstruction (AO), reversible airway obstruction (RAO), and asthma-like symptoms. The majority of AO patients (70 of 97) were RAO with one or more characteristic symptoms of asthma. Intriguingly, subjects' As exposure levels showed positive associations with total sIgE levels. Total sIgE in RAO patients was significantly (p < 0.001) higher than that in the control group. Thus the results revealed that chronic As exposure was associated with the risk of the characteristic features of asthma. Additionally the association between As exposure and subjects' total sIgE levels and an elevated level of total sIgE in RAO group suggested that As exposure-related asthma might be allergic in nature.


Asunto(s)
Arsénico/análisis , Asma/epidemiología , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Arsénico/metabolismo , Intoxicación por Arsénico/epidemiología , Bangladesh/epidemiología , Contaminantes Ambientales/análisis , Femenino , Cabello/química , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Uñas/química
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