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1.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(16): 595-599, 2021 Apr 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33886531

RESUMEN

Aircraft can hold large numbers of persons in close proximity for long periods, which can increase the risk for transmission of infectious disease.* Current CDC guidelines recommend against travel for persons who have not been vaccinated against COVID-19, and a January 2021 CDC order requires masking for all persons while on airplanes.†,§ Research suggests that seating proximity on aircraft is associated with increased risk for infection with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19 (1,2). However, studies quantifying the benefit of specific distancing strategies to prevent transmission, such as keeping aircraft cabin middle seats vacant, are limited. Using bacteriophage MS2 virus as a surrogate for airborne SARS-CoV-2, CDC and Kansas State University (KSU) modeled the relationship between SARS-CoV-2 exposure and aircraft seating proximity, including full occupancy and vacant middle seat occupancy scenarios. Compared with exposures in full occupancy scenarios, relative exposure in vacant middle seat scenarios was reduced by 23% to 57% depending upon the modeling approach. A 23% exposure reduction was observed for a single passenger who was in the same row and two seats away from the SARS-COV-2 source, rather than in an adjacent middle seat. When quantifying exposure reduction to a full 120-passenger cabin rather than to a single person, exposure reductions ranging from 35.0% to 39.4% were predicted. A 57% exposure reduction was observed under the vacant middle seat condition in a scenario involving a three-row section that contained a mix of SARS-CoV-2 sources and other passengers. Based on this laboratory model, a vacant middle seat reduces risk for exposure to SARS-CoV-2 from nearby passengers. These data suggest that increasing physical distance between passengers and lowering passenger density could help reduce potential COVID-19 exposures during air travel. Physical distancing of airplane passengers, including through policies such as middle seat vacancy, could provide additional reductions in SARS-CoV-2 exposure risk.


Asunto(s)
Aeronaves , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/prevención & control , Aerosoles , Bacteriófagos , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Laboratorios , Modelos Estadísticos , Análisis de Regresión
2.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 215: 112133, 2021 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33740488

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Although short-term exposure to particulate matter (PM) was associated with increased glucocorticoids (GCs) levels, available evidence on associations of long-term exposure to PM and GCs levels is still scant. Previous studies has showed that meat intake is associated with sex hormones levels, but it is unknown whether meat intake is associated with GCs levels. Furthermore, the role of meat intake in the associations between PM and GCs levels remains unclear. AIMS: The aims of this study were to explore the associations of long-term exposure to PM and GCs levels among Chinese rural adults, and the role of meat intake in these associations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 6223 subjects were recruited from the Henan Rural Cohort Study. Serum GCs levels were measured with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The concentrations of PM (PM1 and PM2.5) for each subject were assessed with machine learning algorithms. The food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was used to obtain each participant' information on meat intake. The effects of PM and meat intake on GCs levels were assessed using generalized linear models. In addition, modification analyses were performed to identify the role of meat intake played in the associations of PM with serum GCs levels. RESULTS: Per 1 µg/m3 increment in PM1 or PM2.5 concentration was associated with a 0.364 ng/ml (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.234, 0.494) or 0.227 ng/ml (95%CI: 0.110, 0.343) increase in serum cortisone, respectively. In addition, the moderation effects of total meat intake and red meat intake on the associations of long-term exposure to PM1 or PM2.5 with serum cortisone were observed (P < 0.05), indicating that individuals who had high levels of PM1 or PM2.5 and meat intake were more susceptible to have a higher state of serum cortisone. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggested that long-term exposure to PM1 or PM2.5 was associated with serum cortisone. Moreover, meat intake was found to be a significant moderator in the association of PM1 or PM2.5 with serum cortisone levels.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación del Aire/estadística & datos numéricos , Cortisona/sangre , Dieta/estadística & datos numéricos , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/estadística & datos numéricos , Carne/estadística & datos numéricos , Material Particulado/análisis , Adulto , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Asiática , Estudios de Cohortes , Cortisona/análisis , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/análisis , Femenino , Humanos , Modelos Lineales , Masculino , Carne/análisis , Persona de Mediana Edad , Población Rural
3.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 215: 112164, 2021 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33756289

RESUMEN

Environmental cadmium (Cd) exposure can cause several pulmonary diseases. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) involved in the process of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the association between environmental Cd exposure and EMT was unclear in COPD patients. This study aimed to analyze the associations among circulatory Cd, EMT and COPD based on case-control study. Four hundred COPD patients and 400 control subjects were recruited. Circulatory Cd was detected using atomic adsorption spectrometer. MicroRNA-30 (miR-30) was measured by RT-PCR and the markers of pulmonary EMT were evaluated through western blotting. Circulatory Cd concentration was increased and serum miR-30 was decreased in COPD patients. Circulatory Cd was inversely associated with pulmonary function in COPD patients. Moreover, serum miR-30 was gradually decreased in parallel with FEV1 in COPD patients. Meanwhile, there was a negative association between serum miR-30 and circulatory Cd in COPD patients. Further analysis found that E-cadherin, one of epithelial biomarkers, was reduced in lung tissues of COPD patients with higher circulatory Cd. On the contrary, pulmonary N-cadherin, Vimentin and α-SMA, three of mesenchymal biomarkers, were increased in COPD patients with higher circulatory Cd. In vitro experiments revealed that Cd exposure repressed miR-30 levels and promoted EMT in BEAS-2B cells. Our results provide evidence that miR-30 reduction contributing to pulmonary EMT may involve in the process of Cd-induced COPD.


Asunto(s)
Cadmio/sangre , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/estadística & datos numéricos , Contaminantes Ambientales/sangre , Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica/sangre , Antígenos CD , Cadherinas , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Transición Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Femenino , Humanos , Pulmón/fisiopatología , Masculino , MicroARNs , Persona de Mediana Edad , Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica/fisiopatología , Vimentina
4.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 215: 112160, 2021 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33773152

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The air pollution has become an important environmental health problem due to its adverse health effect. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of ambient temperature and pollutants on mortality of respiratory diseases (RD) in Hefei, China, a typical inland city. METHODS: Nonlinear exposure-response dependencies and delayed effects of urban daily mean temperature (DMT) and pollutants were evaluated by distributed lag non-linear models (DLNM). To further explore this effect, different genders and ages were also examined by stratified analysis. RESULTS: A total of 12876 deaths from RD were collected from January 1, 2014 to December 31, 2018 in Hefei, China. There was a U-shaped correlation between DMT and RD mortality, and the RD mortality rised by 11.6% (95% CI: 2.2-22.0%) when the DMT was 35.8 °C (reference temperature is 20 °C). The results show that risk of death with short-term exposure to elevated concentrations of PM10 and SO2 was not significant. The maximum hysteresis and cumulative relative risk (RR) of RD mortality were 1.012 (95% CI: 1.003 ~ 1.021, lag 0 day) and 1.072 (95% CI: 1.014 ~1.133, lag 10 days) for each 10 µg/m3 augment in NO2; 1.005 (95% CI: 1.001-1.009, lag 0 day) and 1.027 (95% CI: 1.004-1.051, lag 10 days) for each 10 µg/m3 augment in O3; a negative association between CO exposure and the cumulative risk of death was observed (RR = 0.964, 95% CI: 0.935-0.993, lag 07 days). Subgroup analysis showed the effect of high temperatures, NO2, O3 and CO exposure was still statistically significant for the elderly and male. CONCLUSION: The present study found that short-term exposure to high temperature, NO2, O3 and CO were significantly associated with the risk of RD mortality and male as well as elderly are more susceptible to these factors.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/estadística & datos numéricos , Enfermedades Respiratorias/mortalidad , Temperatura , Adulto , Anciano , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/estadística & datos numéricos , China/epidemiología , Ciudades , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/análisis , Contaminantes Ambientales/análisis , Femenino , Calor , Humanos , Masculino , Material Particulado/análisis , Riesgo
5.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 215: 112174, 2021 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33773155

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Phthalates, which are used as excipients of drugs, have been related to adverse reproductive outcomes. However, the relationships between medication use and phthalate exposure among women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) have not been studied. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the associations between the medication intake and phthalate metabolites in urine and follicular fluid (FF). METHOD: Eight phthalate metabolites were measured in urine and FF samples from 274 women undergoing IVF using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Information on recent medication intake was obtained via interview by trained staff. We constructed generalized linear regression models to examine the associations of medication intake with phthalate metabolite concentrations and dose-response relationships between the number of medicines used and metabolite concentrations in two matrices. RESULTS: Four of 10 drugs were used by more than 10% of the participants, including vitamins (23.0%), traditional Chinese medicine (TCM, 22.3%), antioxidants (12.4%) and amoxicillin (10.2%). Participants who had used TCM had 26.0% (95% CI: 0.0, 58.8%), 32.6% (95% CI: 4.2, 68.8%) and 32.3% (95% CI: 2.6, 70.6%) higher urinary mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP), mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP) and mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP) concentrations, respectively, than those who had not. Antioxidant intake was associated with a 30.6% (95% CI: -48.5, -6.6%) decrease in the urinary MBP concentration. Compared with non-users, women who reported the use of medicines had 53.2% (95% CI: 2.7, 128.5%) higher concentrations of MMP and a 37.7% (95% CI: -60.7, -1.5%) lower level of MBP in FF, respectively. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that the intake of some medications may increase phthalate exposure among women undergoing IVF.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Ambientales/metabolismo , Líquido Folicular/metabolismo , Ácidos Ftálicos/metabolismo , Adulto , Antioxidantes/análisis , Cromatografía Liquida , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/análisis , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/estadística & datos numéricos , Contaminantes Ambientales/análisis , Contaminantes Ambientales/orina , Femenino , Fertilización In Vitro , Líquido Folicular/química , Humanos , Espectrometría de Masas , Persona de Mediana Edad , Ácidos Ftálicos/orina , Reproducción , Vitamina A , Vitaminas , Adulto Joven
6.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 215: 112145, 2021 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33743401

RESUMEN

The toxicity of heavy metals is one of the major public health issues leading to hazardous effects on humans. Many studies focus on the adverse effects on people who were working in or living near E-waste recycling. However, little is known to the sustaining effects of E-waste exposure on human health after the recycling factories were shut down. In the present study, we collected the blood of people living near E­waste recycling facilities after the recycling factories were closed for 2 years. Eight heavy metals were examined in all blood samples. The results revealed that the blood levels of lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), cobalt (Co), mercury (Hg) were significantly higher in the exposed group than in the reference group, and no difference was observed for copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), stannum (Sn), cadmium (Cd). Transforming growth factor-ß (TGF-ß) and alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) were analyzed as the important indicators of fibrosis, which were statistically significantly higher in the exposed group than in the reference group. 8-isoprostane (8-I) and malondialdehyde (MDA) as the biomarkers of oxidative stress (OS) were elevated in the exposed group. Furthermore, both Spearman correlation and multiple linear regression showed that Co was positively correlated with TGF-ß, α-SMA and 8-I in the exposed group. Accordingly, we speculate that high concentrations of Co dissolved in the blood may increase the risk of tissue fibrosis through stimulating myofibroblast activation and OS involve in the process, which may provide some potential new hints for the intervention for tissue fibrosis in the future.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación del Aire/estadística & datos numéricos , Cobalto , Residuos Electrónicos , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/estadística & datos numéricos , Fibrosis/epidemiología , Cadmio/análisis , Cobre , Humanos , Malondialdehído , Mercurio/sangre , Metales Pesados/análisis , Níquel , Estrés Oxidativo , Reciclaje , Zinc
7.
Biomed Environ Sci ; 34(2): 89-100, 2021 Feb 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33685567

RESUMEN

Objective: The relationship between outdoor temperature and blood pressure (BP) has been inconclusive. We analyzed data from a prospective cohort study in northwestern China to investigate the effect of outdoor temperature on BP and effect modification by season. Methods: A total of 32,710 individuals who participated in both the baseline survey and the first follow-up in 2011-2015 were included in the study. A linear mixed-effect model and generalized additive mixed model (GAMM) were applied to estimate the association between outdoor temperature and BP after adjusting for confounding variables. Results: The mean differences in systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) between summer and winter were 3.5 mmHg and 2.75 mmHg, respectively. After adjusting for individual characteristics, meteorological factors and air pollutants, a significant increase in SBP and DBP was observed for lag 06 day and lag 04 day, a 0.28 mmHg (95% CI: 0.27-0.30) per 1 °C decrease in average temperature for SBP and a 0.16 mmHg (95% CI: 0.15-0.17) per 1 °C decrease in average temperature for DBP, respectively. The effects of the average temperature on both SBP and DBP were stronger in summer than in other seasons. The effects of the average temperature on BP were also greater if individuals were older, male, overweight or obese, a smoker or drinker, or had cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), hypertension, and diabetes. Conclusions: This study demonstrated a significant negative association between outdoor temperature and BP in a high-altitude environment of northwest China. Moreover, BP showed a significant seasonal variation. The association between BP and temperature differed by season and individuals' demographic characteristics (age, gender, BMI), unhealthy behaviors (smoking and alcohol consumption), and chronic disease status (CVDs, hypertension, and diabetes).


Asunto(s)
Presión Sanguínea/fisiología , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , China/epidemiología , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/efectos adversos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Prospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Estaciones del Año , Temperatura
8.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 214: 112060, 2021 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33676052

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To study the association between ambient air pollutant exposure during the follicular phase and in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcomes. DESIGN: A single-center retrospective analysis. SETTING: Henan Province, China. PATIENTS: Patients (n = 6659) living in Zhengzhou, Henan Province in central China who underwent their first IVF cycle at the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University between 2013 and 2019 were included for analysis. INTERVENTION: None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: The relationships between PM2.5, PM10, and AQI (Air Quality Index) with IVF outcomes during the follicular phase (period I, 85 days before oocyte retrieval; period II, gonadotrophin start to oocyte retrieval). RESULTS: Compared with the bottom tertile, exposure to the top PM2.5 and PM10 tertiles during period I was associated with decreased clinical pregnancy (PM2.5: adjusted odds ratio [OR], 0.838%, and 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.723 and 0.971; PM10: adjusted OR, 0.818%, and 95% CI, 0.705 and 0.950), and decreased live birth rate (PM2.5: adjusted odds ratio [OR], 0.852%, and 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.736 and 0.987; PM10: adjusted OR, 0.850%, and 95% CI, 0.733 and 0.986), and exposure to the top PM2.5 tertile during period II adversely affected clinical pregnancy and the live birth rate (adjusted OR, 0.824%, and 95% CI, 0.711 and 0.955; adjusted OR, 0.817%, and 95% CI, 0.706 and 0.945). Compared with the bottom PM10 tertile, exposure to the middle PM10 tertile in period II showed decreased clinical pregnancies and live births (adjusted OR, 0.844; 95% CI, 0.729 and 0.978, adjusted OR, 0.846; 95% CI, 0.731 and 0.979). The PM10 level during period II of the follicular phase tend to adversely affect live birth rate, but the tendency did not reach significance (P = 0.051). CONCLUSION: Exposure to PM2.5 and PM10 before oocyte retrieval has an adverse effect on IVF outcomes. CAPSULE: Exposure to PM2.5 and PM10 before oocyte retrieval has an adverse effect on IVF outcomes.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación del Aire/estadística & datos numéricos , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/estadística & datos numéricos , Fertilización In Vitro/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , China , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Oportunidad Relativa , Recuperación del Oocito , Material Particulado/análisis , Embarazo , Estudios Retrospectivos , Resultado del Tratamiento
9.
Lancet Public Health ; 6(4): e202-e209, 2021 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33556328

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 lockdown period from March 17 to May 11, 2020, French authorities in Paris and its suburbs relocated people experiencing recurrent homelessness to emergency shelters, hotels, and large venues. A serological survey was done at some of these locations to assess the COVID-19 exposure prevalence in this group. METHODS: We did a cross-sectional seroprevalence study at food distribution sites, emergency shelters, and workers' residences that were provided medical services by Médecins Sans Frontières in Paris and Seine-Saint-Denis in the Ile-de-France region. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibody seropositivity was detected by Luciferase-Linked Immunosorbent Assay and Pseudo Neutralization Test. Sociodemographic and exposure related information was collected via a verbal questionnaire to analyse risk factors and associations with various COVID-19 symptoms. FINDINGS: Between June 23 and July 2, 2020, 426 (52%) of 818 individuals recruited tested positive in 14 sites. Seroprevalence varied significantly by type of recruitment site (χ2 p<0·0001), being highest among those living in workers' residences (88·7%, 95% CI 81·8-93·2), followed by emergency shelters (50·5%, 46·3-54·7), and food distribution sites (27·8%, 20·8-35·7). More than two thirds of COVID-19 seropositive individuals (68%, 95% CI 64·2-72·2; 291 of 426) did not report any symptoms during the recall period. COVID-19 seropositivity was strongly associated with overcrowding (medium density: adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2·7, 95% CI 1·5-5·1, p=0·0020; high density: aOR 3·4, 1·7-6·9, p<0·0001). INTERPRETATION: These results show high exposure to SARS-CoV-2 with important variations between those at different study sites. Living in crowded conditions was the strongest factor associated with exposure level. This study underscores the importance of providing safe, uncrowded accommodation, alongside adequate testing and public health information. FUNDING: Médecins Sans Frontières, Epicentre, Institut Pasteur's URGENCE nouveau coronavirus fund, Total Foundation.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/estadística & datos numéricos , Personas sin Hogar/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Paris/epidemiología , Factores de Riesgo , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos
10.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 213: 112053, 2021 Apr 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33609997

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Physical limitation, which has been linked to outdoor air pollution exposure in previous studies, is a risk factor for disability and even for premature death. Although people often spend more time indoors, the relationship between indoor air pollution and physical function has not been fully explored. METHODS: The associations of household fuel types with self-reported and performance-based physical functioning were tested on a total of 12,458 participants in the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARL), using generalized linear models and logistic regression models. Additionally, subgroup analyses according to smoking status and number of chronic diseases, were performed regarding these associations. RESULTS: Our results revealed that after adjusting for potential confounds, solid fuel use in cooking showed -0.08 (-0.13, -0.04) and -0.15 (-0.23, -0.06) declines in self-reported and performance-based physical functioning scores (higher scores means fewer physical limitations), when compared with cleaner groups, respectively. Considering these outcomes as binary variables, the ORs (95% CIs) for abnormal self-reported and performance-based physical functioning in the solid fuel cooking group were 1.226 (1.053-1.427) and 1.194 (1.072-1.330), respectively. No significant association between heating fuel use and physical functioning was observed. Additionally, no modification effect of smoking status and the number of chronic diseases on the association between cooking fuel use and performance-based physical functioning was observed (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Our findings suggested that solid cooking fuel use may be associated with self-reported and performance-based physical functioning decline of middle-aged and elder Chinese populations.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación del Aire Interior/estadística & datos numéricos , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Anciano , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Asiática , China , Enfermedad Crónica , Culinaria/métodos , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Calefacción/métodos , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Factores de Riesgo , Autoinforme , Fumar
11.
Epidemiol Health ; 43: e2021015, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33561914

RESUMEN

To provide a nationwide representative dataset for the study on health impact of air pollution, we combined the data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey with the daily air quality and weather data by matching the date of examination and the residential address of the participants. The database of meteorological factors and air quality as sources of exposure data were estimated using the Community Multiscale Air Quality model. The linkage dataset was merged by three ways; administrative district, si-gun-gu (city, county, and district), and geocode (in latitude and longitude coordinate units) based on the participants' residential address, respectively. During the study period, the exposure dataset of 85,018 individuals (38,306 men and 46,712 women) whose examination dates were recorded were obtained. According to the definition of exposure period, the dataset was combined with the data on short-term, mid-term, and long-term exposure to air pollutants and the meteorological indices. Calculation of the daily merged dataset's average air pollution linked by si-gun-gu and geocode units showed similar results. This study generated a daily average of meteorological indices and air pollution exposure dataset for all regions including rural and remote areas in Korea for 11 years. It is expected to provide a platform for the researchers studying the health impact of air pollution and climate change on the representative population and area, which may facilitate the establishment of local health care plans by understanding the residents' health status at the local as well as national level.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación del Aire/efectos adversos , Conjuntos de Datos como Asunto , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/efectos adversos , Investigación Biomédica , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Encuestas Nutricionales , República de Corea/epidemiología
12.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 213: 112028, 2021 Apr 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33607335

RESUMEN

The associations of vanadium exposure with hypertension risk in animal studies are inconsistent. Furthermore, epidemiologic studies on this topic are scarce. We aimed to assess the associations of vanadium exposure with hypertension prevalence and blood pressure levels in a general Chinese population. We measured urinary vanadium concentrations in 1867 participants to evaluate their internal exposure levels. The associations of urinary vanadium concentrations, categorized into quartiles or treated as continuous variables by logarithm transformation (log2), with hypertension prevalence and blood pressure levels were assessed by the multivariable logistic and linear regression models, respectively. We used the restricted cubic spline model to evaluate the dose-response relationship. Compared with the bottom quartile of vanadium, participants in the third and fourth quartile had an adjusted odds ratio of 2.04 (95% CI:1.40, 2.96) and 2.08 (95% CI:1.42, 3.06) for hypertension, with a linear dose-response relationship. The corresponding number for a doubling of vanadium concentrations was 1.25 (95% CI:1.12, 1.39). Besides, a doubling of vanadium concentrations was associated with a 0.66 (95% CI: 0.01, 1.31) and 0.90 (95% CI: 0.50, 1.31) mm Hg increased systolic and diastolic blood pressure level, respectively. Vanadium exposure was associated with increased hypertension prevalence and blood pressure levels. Prospective studies are needed to confirm our findings in other populations.


Asunto(s)
Presión Sanguínea/fisiología , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/estadística & datos numéricos , Contaminantes Ambientales/orina , Hipertensión/epidemiología , Vanadio/orina , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Modelos Lineales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Oportunidad Relativa , Prevalencia , Estudios Prospectivos
13.
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol ; 80(2): 499-506, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33523258

RESUMEN

Infant skin is highly absorptive and sensitive to exposure from external agents (microbes, toxicants, heat, cold, etc.). Many specialized infant skincare products are currently commercially available. Although the manufacturers claim that their products are mild enough to suit the infant skin, these products need to be studied for their safety. Using animal models to examine the safety of the ever-increasing number of skincare products is not economically or logistically feasible. To overcome this problem, we suggest using a battery of microbial bioassays as a robust system for monitoring the mutagenic potential of skincare products. We picked popular infant skincare products from the Indian market and assessed them by using a battery of three microbial mutagenicity bioassays. Most of them showed significant and reproducible mutagenic potential. Our study results raise concerns about regular use of infant products and emphasize the need to enforce strict regulations for the manufacturing and safety assessment of infant products.


Asunto(s)
Bioensayo , Cosméticos/toxicidad , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/estadística & datos numéricos , Mutágenos/toxicidad , Animales , Humanos , Lactante , Modelos Animales , Cuidados de la Piel/métodos , Pruebas Cutáneas
14.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 212: 111990, 2021 Apr 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33524912

RESUMEN

To investigate whether microcystin-LR (MC-LR) influences children's cognitive function and memory ability, we measured serum MC-LR and whole blood lead levels in 697 primary students, and collected their academic and neurobehavioral test scores. The median of serum MC-LR levels was 0.80 µg/L (the value below the limit of detection to 1.67 µg/L). The shapes of the associations of serum MC-LR levels (cut-point: 0.95 µg/L) with scores on academic achievements, digit symbol substitution test and long-term memory test were parabolic curves. Logistic regression analysis showed that MC-LR at concentrations of 0.80-0.95 µg/L was associated with the increased probability of higher achievements on academic achievements [odds ratio (OR) = 2.20, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.28-3.79], and also with scores on digit symbol substitution test (OR = 1.73, 95% CI: 1.05-2.86), overall memory quotient (OR = 2.27, 95% CI: 1.21-4.26), long-term memory (OR = 1.85, 95% CI: 1.01-3.38) and short-term memory (OR = 2.13, 95% CI: 1.14-3.98) after adjustment for confounding factors. Antagonism of MC-LR and lead on long-term memory was observed (synergism index = 0.15, 95% CI: 0.03-0.74). In conclusion, serum MC-LR at concentrations of 0.80-0.95 µg/L was positively associated with higher scores on cognitive and neurobehavioral tests, and antagonism between MC-LR at concentrations of 0.80-1.67 µg/L and lead exposure was obviously observed on long-term memory in children. Concerning that MC-LR is a neurotoxin at high doses, our observation is interesting and need further investigation.


Asunto(s)
Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/estadística & datos numéricos , Toxinas Marinas/sangre , Microcistinas/sangre , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/sangre , Niño , China , Cognición , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Plomo , Memoria , Instituciones Académicas
15.
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol ; 80(2): 490-498, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33550439

RESUMEN

People living near abandoned mines are at increased risk of exposure to toxic metals. We surveyed 4500 inhabitants with the mean age of 68.5 years old (male: 1768, female: 2732) living near 104 abandoned metal mines from 2013 to 2017 (the 2nd phase health survey in Korea). We conducted personal interviews, blood and urine sampling, and analyzed the concentrations of lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) in whole blood and Cd in urine using a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer. The geometric means of blood Pb, blood Cd, and urine Cd were 2.27 µg/dL, 1.42 µg/L, and 1.66 µg/g creatinine, respectively. The level of metal exposure was lower than that reported from the first phase health survey in Korea (2008‒2011) but was higher than in the general population of Korea. Blood Pb was higher in males while blood Cd and urine Cd were significantly higher in females. Blood Pb was highest in the 40‒59 age group, while blood and urine Cd levels continuously increased until age 80 or older. The Cd levels in blood and urine were affected by consumption of locally produced rice and duration of residence near abandoned mines. Furthermore, negative correlations were observed between blood Pb and blood and urine Cd levels. Additionally, 252 of the 4500 subjects exceeded the thresholds of blood Cd or urine Cd levels. Together, these findings suggest that Cd has more sustainable and adverse health effects on the abandoned mine inhabitants, who are mostly aged. Therefore, continuous biomonitoring and risk assessment to environmental health risks are necessary for environmental pollution control and health promotion.


Asunto(s)
Cadmio/análisis , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/estadística & datos numéricos , Contaminantes Ambientales/análisis , Plomo/análisis , Minería , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Monitoreo Biológico , Creatinina , Contaminación Ambiental , Femenino , Grafito , Vivienda , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Oryza , República de Corea , Medición de Riesgo , Espectrofotometría Atómica , Adulto Joven
16.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 211: 111881, 2021 Mar 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33444878

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Cadmium is the most prevalent form of heavy metal contaminant globally and its exposure rises serious health concern. Chronic exposure to cadmium causes immune disturbances. However, few studies have addressed how it affects circulating immune cells, one of the most essential elements for the host defense system, at both population and molecular level. Therefore, this is the first single-cell transcriptomic analysis of the response of the human circulating immune system to plasma cadmium level. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study in Hunan province, which has the highest level of cadmium land contamination in China. A total of 3283 individuals were eligible for analyzing the association between plasma cadmium levels and the monocyte counts and its subgroups. Another 780 individuals were assigned for validation. Thirty propensity-matched individuals without chronic disease from the lowest- and highest-quartile groups according to serum cadmium levels were selected for single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) and flow cytometry analyses. Moreover, the monocyte phenotypic alterations in the heavy metal-exposed population were validated with a cecal ligation and puncture sepsis mouse model. RESULTS: From August 2016 to July 2017, we conducted a cross-sectional study to identify phenotypic alterations in peripheral immune cells in cadmium polluted areas in China. Monocyte percentages were negatively associated with plasma cadmium levels in multivariable linear regression analysis. Peripheral blood mononuclear cell scRNA-seq revealed that the CD14+ monocyte subset was dramatically reduced in the highest-quartile cadmium-exposed group. Moreover, we assessed different hallmarks of immune cell dysfunction-such as host defense capability, apoptotic signaling, cellular diversity and malignant gene expression in monocytes. Importantly, cadmium induced phenotypic alterations in the immune system were validated in the cecal ligation and puncture sepsis mouse model, in which chronic exposure to cadmium not only increased the death rate but also decreased monocyte numbers and the ability to clear bacterial infections. CONCLUSION: This transcriptomic analysis provides molecular information about how the most important hallmarks of immune cell dysfunction are affected by plasma cadmium level. The significant phenotypic alterations in monocytes serving as early indicators of increased susceptibility to infectious and malignant diseases.


Asunto(s)
Cadmio/toxicidad , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/estadística & datos numéricos , Contaminantes Ambientales/toxicidad , Monocitos/efectos de los fármacos , China , Estudios Transversales , Citometría de Flujo , Humanos , Recuento de Leucocitos , Leucocitos Mononucleares , Masculino , Monocitos/citología , Transcriptoma
17.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 211: 111897, 2021 Mar 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33493719

RESUMEN

Chronic cadmium (Cd) toxicity is a significant health concern, and the mechanism of long-term low-dose Cd exposure on bone has not been fully elucidated yet. This study aimed to assess the association between long-term environmental Cd exposure and bone remodeling in women who aged over 50. A total of 278 non-smoking subjects from Cd-polluted group (n = 191) and non-Cd polluted group (n = 87) were investigated. Bone mineral density (BMD), the levels of three bone turnover markers (BTMs), including total procollagen type 1 amino-terminal propeptide (P1NP), collagen type 1 cross-linked C-telopeptide (ß-CTX), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BALP), together with serum soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (sRANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) were determined. Early markers of renal dysfunction were measured as well. Urinary Cd concentrations ranged from 0.41 to 87.31 µg/g creatinine, with a median of 4.91 µg/g creatinine. Age, BMD, T-score, and prevalence of osteoporosis showed no statistical differences among the quartiles of urinary Cd concentrations, while serum levels of P1NP, ß-CTX, and OPG were higher in the upper quartiles. Multivariate linear regression models indicated significantly positive associations of urinary Cd concentration with serum levels of P1NP, ß-CTX, BALP, sRANKL, and OPG. A ridge regression analysis with T-score and the three BTMs, sRANKL, and OPG, adjusted for age and body mass index (BMI), indicated that except for age and Cd exposure, ß-CTX was a predictor of T-score. These findings demonstrated that Cd may directly accelerate bone remodeling. Serum ß-CTX might be an appropriate biochemical marker for evaluating and monitoring Cd-related bone loss. Capsule: Cadmium (Cd) may directly accelerate bone remodeling and serum ß-CTX is a valuable biochemical marker for evaluating Cd-related bone loss.


Asunto(s)
Remodelación Ósea , Cadmio/sangre , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/estadística & datos numéricos , Contaminantes Ambientales/sangre , Adulto , Anciano , Fosfatasa Alcalina , Biomarcadores/sangre , Índice de Masa Corporal , Densidad Ósea , Huesos , Colágeno Tipo I , Femenino , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Osteoporosis/sangre , Osteoprotegerina , Péptidos , Ligando RANK/sangre
18.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 211: 111956, 2021 Mar 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33493724

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Sleep disorders have been verified to be associated with adverse health outcomes. Recent studies have linked ambient air pollution to sleep disorders. However, evidence with large sample size and especially prospective studies is very limited. METHODS: We used data from a prospective cohort study established from 2015 to 2018 in Ningbo, China. Participants were followed-up after baseline survey through linkage to the regional Health Information System (HIS). Sleep disorders were defined based on International Classification of Disease 10 (ICD-10). Spatial-temporal land-use regression (LUR) models were used to estimate the annual exposure to particulate matter with diameter ≤ 2.5 µm (PM2.5), ≤ 10 µm (PM10) and nitrogen dioxides (NO2). The associations between long-term exposure to air pollutants and prevalence of sleep disorders were examined using logistic regression models, and Cox regression models for the effects of air pollution on the incidence of sleep disorders. A generalized weighted quantile sum (gWQS) regression was used in the multipollutant analysis. RESULTS: A total of 38,775 participants were included in the final analysis. Based on baseline data, we observed significant positive associations between air pollution exposure and increased odds of prevalent sleep disorders (Odds Ratio (OR)= 1.48, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.41-1.55 for PM2.5; OR= 1.47,95%CI:1.38-1.57 for PM10; OR= 1.38, 95%CI:1.31-1.46 for NO2). In the longitudinal analysis, hazard ratios for incident sleep disorders associated with per interquartile range (IQR) increase in PM2.5, PM10 and NO2 were 1.14 (1.03, 1.25), 1.13 (1.01, 1.27) and 1.13 (1.04, 1.23), respectively. A gWQS regression analysis showed significant association between air pollution mixture and incident sleep disorders (OR=1.11, 95%CI: 1.03-1.20). CONCLUSIONS: Long-term exposure to PM2.5, PM10 and NO2 were associated with increased risk of sleep disorders in a Chinese population. Our findings could provide evidence for a more general role in the adverse health impact of air pollution.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación del Aire/estadística & datos numéricos , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/estadística & datos numéricos , Trastornos del Sueño-Vigilia/epidemiología , Adulto , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , China/epidemiología , Estudios de Cohortes , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/análisis , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Dióxido de Nitrógeno/análisis , Oportunidad Relativa , Material Particulado/análisis , Prevalencia , Estudios Prospectivos , Análisis de Regresión
19.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 211: 111961, 2021 Mar 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33513524

RESUMEN

Contaminated agricultural soil with potentially toxic elements (PTEs) poses a threat to food safety and can adversely affect human health. This study evaluates the potential health risk caused by PTEs contamination in cultivated soils and the possible related health effect. Sixty-four (64) soil samples from cultivated soils before crop cultivation and post-crop were harvested and twenty-four (24) soil samples from a natural game reserve park were collected and. The PTEs were analysed using the inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for the following elements As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Mn, Al, and Fe. The contamination factor (CF), pollution load index (PLI), hazard quotient (HQ), and hazard index (HI) was calculated to assess the human health risks for the different pathways to the exposed population. A carcinogenic probabilistic risk model based on the mathematical derivation and PTEs transmission pathways is presented. The mean concentrations of the PTEs in the cultivated soil varied in order of Al > Fe > Mn > Cr > Ni > Zn > Cu > Pb > As > Cd. Cr and Ni concentrations in all the cultivated soils were found to be higher than the Canadian guidelines and the Finnish permissible threshold guidelines for agricultural. The CF in the soil indicates extreme contamination suggestion an ecotoxicological effect. The PLI value also suggests that the soils have undergone some form of deterioration, particularly with Cr and Ni. The ingestion seems to be the major pathway followed by dermal to children. The HQ and HI values for the children were > 1 indicating an adverse health effect for the children residing around the cultivated fields. The simulated results indicate that the percentage of the affected humans that may be consuming crop derived from the contaminated soil increases by a factor of 2 as the contamination factor increases. The transmission compartments can be used as an effective measure in which mitigation can be effectively used.


Asunto(s)
Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/estadística & datos numéricos , Contaminación Ambiental/estadística & datos numéricos , Metales Pesados/análisis , Neoplasias/epidemiología , Contaminantes del Suelo/análisis , Agricultura , Canadá , Carcinógenos/análisis , Ecotoxicología , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Contaminación Ambiental/análisis , Inocuidad de los Alimentos , Humanos , Medición de Riesgo/métodos , Ríos , Suelo/química , Sudáfrica/epidemiología
20.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 208: 111726, 2021 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33396057

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: It remains unclear which size of particles has the strongest effects on heart rate variability (HRV). OBJECTIVE: To explore the association between HRV parameters and daily variations of size-fractionated particle number concentrations (PNCs). METHODS: We conducted a longitudinal repeated-measure study among 78 participants with a 24-h continuous ambulatory Holter electrocardiographic recorder in Shanghai, China, from January 2015 to June 2019. Linear mixed-effects models were employed to evaluate the changes of HRV parameters associated with PNCs of 7 size ranges from 0.01 to 10 µm after controlling for environmental and individual confounders. RESULTS: On the concurrent day, decreased HRV parameters were associated with increased PNCs of 0.01-0.3 µm, and smaller particles showed greater effects. For an interquartile range increase in ultrafine particles (UFP, those < 0.1 µm, 2453 particles/cm3), the declines in very-low-frequency power, low-frequency power, high-frequency power, standard deviation of normal R-R intervals, root mean square of the successive differences between R-R intervals and percentage of adjacent normal R-R intervals with a difference ≥ 50 ms were 5.06% [95% confidence interval (CI): 2.09%, 7.94%], 7.65% (95%CI: 2.73%, 12.32%), 9.49% (95%CI: 4.64%, 14.09%), 5.10% (95%CI: 2.21%, 7.91%), 8.09% (95%CI: 4.39%, 11.65%) and 24.98% (95%CI: 14.70%, 34.02%), respectively. These results were robust to the adjustment of criteria air pollutants, temperature at different lags, and the status of heart medication. CONCLUSIONS: Particles less than 0.3 µm (especially UFP) may dominate the acute effects of particulate air pollution on cardiac autonomic dysfunction.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/estadística & datos numéricos , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/estadística & datos numéricos , Material Particulado/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , China , Femenino , Cardiopatías , Frecuencia Cardíaca/efectos de los fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Tamaño de la Partícula , Temperatura
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