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1.
Food Chem ; 348: 129061, 2021 Jun 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33550122

RESUMEN

Protein extracts from green and roasted coffee beans and from spent coffee grounds (SCG) were evaluated as bioactive peptides sources. The in silico approach revealed a high frequency of the occurrence (A) of dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) (0.62) and angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor peptides (0.44) in the 11S coffee globulin, which could be released after digestion. After in vitro digestion of the protein, the green bean and SCG proteins were more susceptible to proteolysis, releasing smaller polypeptides (3.4 kDa), which showed higher anti-hypertensive potentials (IC50 = 0.30 and 0.27 mg soluble protein/mL). However, the antioxidant capacity only increased for the roasted coffee and SCG extracts due to antioxidant groups formed during roasting. The heat treatment applied during coffee brewing increased the sensitivity of the SCG extract to proteolysis, leading to their high anti-hypertensive and antioxidant potentials. Therefore, the 11S coffee globulin is a precursor of a series of bioactive peptides.


Asunto(s)
Café/química , Culinaria , Péptidos/aislamiento & purificación , Péptidos/farmacología , Extractos Vegetales/aislamiento & purificación , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Inhibidores de la Enzima Convertidora de Angiotensina/aislamiento & purificación , Inhibidores de la Enzima Convertidora de Angiotensina/farmacología , Antioxidantes/aislamiento & purificación , Antioxidantes/farmacología , Dipeptidil Peptidasa 4 , Inhibidores de la Dipeptidil-Peptidasa IV/farmacología
2.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 150: 112075, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33617964

RESUMEN

Medicinal or herbal plants are widely used for their many favourable properties and are generally safe without any side effects. Saponins are sugar conjugated natural compounds which possess a multitude of biological activities such as medicinal properties, antimicrobial activity, antiviral activity, etc. Saponin production is a part of the normal growth and development process in a lot of plants and plant extracts such as liquorice and ginseng which are exploited as potential drug sources. Herbal compounds have shown a great potential against a wide variety of infectious agents, including viruses such as the SARS-CoV; these are all-natural products and do not show any adverse side effects. This article reviews the various aspects of saponin biosynthesis and extraction, the need for their integration into more mainstream medicinal therapies and how they could be potentially useful in treating viral diseases such as COVID-19, HIV, HSV, rotavirus etc. The literature presents a close review on the saponin efficacy in targeting mentioned viral diseases that occupy a high mortality rate worldwide. This manuscript indicates the role of saponins as a source of dynamic plant based anti-viral remedies and their various methods for extraction from different sources.


Asunto(s)
Antivirales/aislamiento & purificación , Saponinas/aislamiento & purificación , Antiinfecciosos/farmacología , Antifúngicos/farmacología , Antivirales/farmacología , VIH/efectos de los fármacos , Estructura Molecular , Orthomyxoviridae/efectos de los fármacos , Extractos Vegetales/aislamiento & purificación , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Saponinas/biosíntesis , Saponinas/química , Saponinas/farmacología
3.
Food Chem ; 348: 129090, 2021 Jun 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33524695

RESUMEN

Natural deep eutectic solvents (NaDESs) are promising green alternatives to conventional solvents widely applied in the extraction of natural products due to their physical and chemical superiorities. In present study, 22 NaDESs consisted from food grade ingredients were screened in ultrasonic assisted extraction (UAE) of bioactive compounds from safflower. The oral bioavailabilities of hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA) and anhydrosafflor yellow B (ASYB) in the extracts were then investigated in SD rats with the help of HPLC-MS technique. The results revealed that l-proline-acetamide (l-Pro-Am) was an effective solvent with the yields of HSYA and ASYB at 32.83 and 8.80 mg/g. Pharmacokinetic studies revealed that the blood level of HSYA and ASYB were significantly higher after oral administration of l-Pro-Am extract than that of aqueous extract. Especially, the relative bioavailabilities (to aqueous extract) of HSYA and ASYB were calculated 183.5% and 429.8%.


Asunto(s)
Carthamus tinctorius/química , Fraccionamiento Químico/métodos , Tecnología Química Verde/métodos , Extractos Vegetales/aislamiento & purificación , Extractos Vegetales/farmacocinética , Solventes/química , Animales , Disponibilidad Biológica , Extractos Vegetales/química , Ratas , Ratas Sprague-Dawley
4.
J Parasitol ; 107(1): 23-28, 2021 01 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33498082

RESUMEN

Gastrointestinal nematode infection of small ruminants causes losses in livestock production. Plant compounds show promises as alternatives to commercial anthelmintics that have been exerting selective pressures that lead to the development of drug-resistant parasites. Soybean (Glycine max) is an economical value crop, with a higher protein content compared to other legumes. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the protease inhibitors exuded from the G. max mature seeds have anthelmintic activity against Haemonchus contortus. To obtain the soybean exudates (SEX), mature seeds were immersed in 100 mM sodium acetate buffer, pH 5.0, at 10 C, for 24 hr. Then the naturally released substances present in SEX were collected and exhaustively dialyzed (cutoff 12 kDa) against distilled water. The dialyzed seed exudates (SEXD) were heated at 100 C for 10 min and centrifuged (12,000 g, at 4 C for 15 min). The supernatant obtained was recovered and designated as the heat-treated exudate fraction (SEXDH). The protein content, protease inhibitor activity, and the effect of each fraction on H. contortus egg hatch rate were evaluated. The inhibition extent of SEX, SEXD, and SEXDH on H. contortus egg proteases was 31.1, 42.9, and 63.8%, respectively. Moreover, SEX, SEXD, and SEXDH inhibited the egg hatching with EC50 of 0.175, 0.175, and 0.241 mg ml-1, respectively. Among the commercial protease inhibitors tested, only EDTA and E-64 inhibited the H. contortus hatch rate (79.0 and 28.9%, respectively). We present evidence demonstrating that soybean exudate proteins can effectively inhibit H. contortus egg hatching. This bioactivity is displayed by thermostable proteins and provides evidence that protease inhibitors are a potential candidate for anthelmintic use.


Asunto(s)
Exudados y Transudados/química , Haemonchus/efectos de los fármacos , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Inhibidores de Proteasas/farmacología , Semillas/química , Soja/química , Animales , Hemoncosis/parasitología , Hemoncosis/veterinaria , Haemonchus/enzimología , Haemonchus/fisiología , Concentración de Iones de Hidrógeno , Péptido Hidrolasas/aislamiento & purificación , Extractos Vegetales/aislamiento & purificación , Inhibidores de Proteasas/aislamiento & purificación , Ovinos , Enfermedades de las Ovejas/parasitología , Proteínas de Soja/química
5.
Food Chem ; 348: 129047, 2021 Jun 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33515951

RESUMEN

Lipophilic extracts of Viburnum opulus (VOP) and Hippophae rhamnoides (SBP) berry pomace recovered by supercritical CO2 (SFE-CO2) were analysed by UPLC-Q-TOF-MS and GC × GC-TOF for their triacylglycerol, tocopherol, phytosterol and fatty acid composition, while oxidative stability was evaluated by Oxipres and Rancimat methods. SFE-CO2 recovered 16.99% and 26.24% of lipids from SBP and VOP, respectively. Linoleic, linolenic, oleic, palmitic and palmitoleic acids were major in SBP oil, while VOP oil was composed of almost equal amounts of linoleic and oleic acids. Therefore, remarkably higher diversity of triacylglycerols was identified in SBP. The content of ß-sitosterol and α-tocopherol was 359.5-514.5 and 65.38-118.6 mg/100 g, respectively. Hydrocarbons were other quantitatively important lipophilic components, including health beneficial squalene. All extracts improved oxidative stability of mayonnaise. The extracts of berry processing by-products by green extraction method contain valuable bioactive constituents and could be of high interest for applications in functional foods and nutraceuticals.


Asunto(s)
Dióxido de Carbono/química , Suplementos Dietéticos/análisis , Frutas/química , Hippophae/química , Extractos Vegetales/química , Extractos Vegetales/aislamiento & purificación , Viburnum/química , Alimentos , Interacciones Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas
6.
Life Sci ; 267: 118981, 2021 Feb 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33385409

RESUMEN

AIM: 15-Hydroxy-8(17),13(E)-labdadiene-19-carboxylic acid (HLCA) isolated from Juniperus foetidissima, has been recently identified as an antiproliferative agent; however, the molecular basis of antiproliferative effects of HLCA remains unknown. To investigate it, the current study has emphasized the hypothesis that HLCA induced cell death is a consequence of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production followed by cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. MAIN METHODS: Human ovarian OVCAR-3 and Caov-4 cells were treated with various concentrations of HLCA (48 h) and the measurement of intracellular ROS was considered. Then, the potential of HLCA in promoting apoptosis was investigated via flow cytometry, western blot, and caspase activity assay. Also, the inhibitory effect of HLCA on the cell cycle was evaluated using flow cytometry and western blot analysis. KEY FINDINGS: We found intracellular (ROS) accumulation in HLCA-treated cells. Subsequent observation of the increment in pro-apoptotic Bax as well as the decrement in antiapoptotic Bcl2 revealed that the HLCA-induced cytotoxicity may be triggered by the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis. Our subsequent experiments suggested that caspase-9 and -3 were activated and led the cells to apoptosis during the process. Cell cycle disruption at the G1 phase via down-regulation of cyclin D1 and Cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) was another proved mechanism by which HLCA exerts its antiproliferative effects on the ovarian cell lines, OVCAR-3 and Caov-4, especially at relatively lower concentrations. SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first study that reveals the apoptotic effects of HLCA, suggesting its therapeutic potential as an effective anti-tumor agent. However, further in vivo studies are required to confirm these effects.


Asunto(s)
Diterpenos/farmacología , Neoplasias Ováricas/tratamiento farmacológico , Antineoplásicos Fitogénicos/aislamiento & purificación , Antineoplásicos Fitogénicos/farmacología , Apoptosis/efectos de los fármacos , Carcinoma Epitelial de Ovario , Caspasa 9/metabolismo , Ciclo Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Puntos de Control del Ciclo Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Línea Celular Tumoral , Proliferación Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Ciclina D1/metabolismo , Quinasa 4 Dependiente de la Ciclina/metabolismo , Diterpenos/aislamiento & purificación , Femenino , Humanos , Juniperus/química , Neoplasias Ováricas/metabolismo , Extractos Vegetales/aislamiento & purificación , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Proteínas Proto-Oncogénicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Especies Reactivas de Oxígeno/metabolismo
7.
J Sci Food Agric ; 101(1): 253-261, 2021 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33460192

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The use of damaged beans for starch isolation comprises an end-use alternative for a product that is not accepted by the consumer. For that reason, isolation and modification of Carioca bean starch should be explored and evaluated as a suitable source for biodegradable material. The present study aimed to evaluate the synergism of physical and chemical modifications on Carioca bean starch with respect to improving the properties of biodegradable films. A heat-moisture treatment (HMT) followed by oxidation by sodium hypochlorite was performed and vice versa. RESULTS: Synergism was noted in the starch properties compared to the single modification. When the oxidation was applied first, a higher amylose and carbonyl content was noted. HMT, isolated and as a second modification, caused a more pronounced effect on viscosity profile than the oxidized starch, with an increase in paste temperature and a decrease in viscosity, breakdown and final viscosity. CONCLUSION: The results obtained in the present study reflect a decrease in water vapor permeability, although a higher tensile strength was noted when oxidation was applied, as a single and as a first modification. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.


Asunto(s)
Fabaceae/química , Extractos Vegetales/química , Almidón/química , Oxidación-Reducción , Permeabilidad , Extractos Vegetales/aislamiento & purificación , Almidón/aislamiento & purificación , Vapor/análisis , Resistencia a la Tracción , Viscosidad
8.
Anticancer Res ; 41(2): 619-633, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33517266

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND/AIM: The outlook for patients with high grade glioma (HGG) remains dismal. Hence, attention has focused on numerous innovative treatments. Our group has proposed a strategy on the use of a combination of polyphenols, as anti-invasive agents for the management of these neoplasms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro effects of citrus flavonoids (tangeretin, nobiletin, naringin and limonin) and berry extracts (chokeberry, elderberry and bilberry) on selected mediators of invasion in 2 HGG cell cultures. RESULTS: The IC50 values could only be determined for tangeretin and chokeberry extract. The rest were non-functional in this context. Immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry results showed that chokeberry extract was most effective in down-regulating the expression of CD44. Similarly, RT-PCR data supported its ability to reduce gene expression of MMP-14 and EGFR. 2D invasion assays confirmed that inhibition is greater with chokeberry extract. CONCLUSION: Both polyphenols have anti-invasive potential but chokeberry extract is a stronger agent for glioma management.


Asunto(s)
Antineoplásicos Fitogénicos/farmacología , Neoplasias Encefálicas/tratamiento farmacológico , Movimiento Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Frutas , Glioma/tratamiento farmacológico , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Polifenoles/farmacología , Antineoplásicos Fitogénicos/aislamiento & purificación , Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Neoplasias Encefálicas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patología , Línea Celular Tumoral , Citrus , Receptores ErbB/genética , Receptores ErbB/metabolismo , Frutas/química , Glioma/genética , Glioma/metabolismo , Glioma/patología , Humanos , Metaloproteinasa 14 de la Matriz/genética , Metaloproteinasa 14 de la Matriz/metabolismo , Invasividad Neoplásica , Extractos Vegetales/aislamiento & purificación , Polifenoles/aislamiento & purificación , Prunus , Inhibidores Tisulares de Metaloproteinasas/genética , Inhibidores Tisulares de Metaloproteinasas/metabolismo , Vaccinium myrtillus
9.
Exp Parasitol ; 223: 108076, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33460625

RESUMEN

The present study was conducted to assess the mosquitocidal efficiency of compound isolated from Blumea mollis (D. Don) Merr against Culex quinquefasciatus. Eggs and larvae of Cx. uinquefasciatus were exposed to different concentrations 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 ppm of compounds prepared using DMSO. Compound 1 was identified as (4R, 5S)-4-hydroxy-7-tigloyloxy carvotanacetone, from which new derivative was synthesized and confirmed as (4R, 5S)-4-acetoxy-7-tigloyloxy carvotanacetone. Both the compounds presented larvicidal and ovicidal activities. Compounds 1 and 2 at 2-ppm concentration showed 64% and 78% larval mortality in 24 h, respectively. The LC50and LC90values of compounds 1 and 2 on Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae were 1.73, 1.27 and 4.59, 3.33 ppm, respectively. The eluted compound 1 and synthesized compound 2 presented 68% and 77% of ovicidal activity, respectively, against eggs of Cx. quinquefasciatus at 120 h post-treatment. Histopathological studies of the compound-treated larvae revealed serious damage on the larval midgut cells. Furthermore, compounds 1 and 2 was tested for toxicity study and the results showed both the compounds were found to be harmless to non-target organism Poecilia reticulata. Computational analysis of compound 2 showed strong binding interaction with the AChE1 of Cx. quinquefasciatus. These results clearly suggest that compounds from Blumea mollis could act as good mosquitocidal agents against Cx.quinquefasciatus and compound 2 was first time reported.


Asunto(s)
Asteraceae/química , Culex , Insecticidas , Monoterpenos/aislamiento & purificación , Mosquitos Vectores , Extractos Vegetales/aislamiento & purificación , Acetilcolinesterasa/química , Animales , Bioensayo , Simulación por Computador , Ésteres , Insecticidas/química , Insecticidas/aislamiento & purificación , Larva , Dosificación Letal Mediana , Ligandos , Simulación del Acoplamiento Molecular , Óvulo , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Poecilia
10.
Drug Dev Ind Pharm ; 47(2): 215-224, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33317339

RESUMEN

There are many synthetic drugs in literature have been utilized in healing of the wounds although the natural product specially antioxidants can offer similar if not better biological activity in that regard. Genus Sophora is well known to contain flavonoids and phenolic compounds which have antioxidant and inflammatory effects. So, the aim of the current study was to develop and evaluate chitosan/gelatin based Sophora gibbosa extract-loaded microemulsion as wound dressing. Sophora gibbosa extract (SGE) contained 16 major compounds which have reasonable antioxidant activity. The developed microemulsion showed that Tween 80 produced significant (p < 0.05) lower particle size than Pluronic F127 at the same SGE concentration whereas high concentration of extract results in large particle size. Thermodynamic stability studies showed that using higher concentration of the extract produced less stable formulations. The selected formulation was impregnated in the dressing base (chitosan/gelatin; 2:1 w/w ratio) which exhibited more water absorption. In vivo evaluation revealed that the dressing displayed superior wound repair compared to the control in terms histological examination and determination of alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Thus, SGE-loaded microemulsion-impregnated gelatin/chitosan could be a potential candidate for the wound healing.


Asunto(s)
Quitosano , Extractos Vegetales/química , Sophora , Vendajes , Gelatina , Extractos Vegetales/aislamiento & purificación , Cicatrización de Heridas
11.
J Sci Food Agric ; 101(1): 15-26, 2021 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32388855

RESUMEN

Olive pomace, the solid by-product from virgin olive oil extraction, constitutes a remarkable source of functional compounds and has been exploited by several authors to formulate high value-added foods and, consequently, to foster the sustainability of the olive-oil chain. In this framework, the aim of the present review was to summarize the results on the application of functional compounds from olive pomace in food products. Phenolic-rich extracts from olive pomace were added to vegetable oils, fish burgers, fermented milk, and in the edible coating of fruit, to take advantage of their antioxidant and antimicrobial effects. Olive pomace was also used directly in the formulation of pasta and baked goods, by exploiting polyunsaturated fatty acids, phenolic compounds, and dietary fiber to obtain high value-added healthy foods and / or to extend their shelf-life. With the same scope, olive pomace was also added to animal feeds, providing healthy, improved animal products. Different authors used olive pomace to produce biodegradable materials and / or active packaging able to increase the content of bioactive compounds and the oxidative stability of foods. Overall, the results highlighted, in most cases, the effectiveness of the addition of olive pomace-derived functional compounds in improving nutritional value, quality, and / or the shelf-life of foods. However, the direct addition of olive pomace was found to be more challenging, especially due to alterations in the sensory and textural features of food. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.


Asunto(s)
Olea/química , Extractos Vegetales/aislamiento & purificación , Residuos/análisis , Aditivos Alimentarios/química , Aditivos Alimentarios/aislamiento & purificación , Frutas/química , Extractos Vegetales/química
12.
J Sci Food Agric ; 101(1): 110-119, 2021 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32608089

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: One of the main disadvantages of red pigments used in foods is their low extraction yield and storage stability. Roselle flowers are sources of anthocyanins; however, these are unstable during storage, but this could be improved with phenolic compounds, which establish bonds with the anthocyanins. The aim of this work was to identify conditions to improve the extraction efficiency and color stability of Hibiscus sabdariffa extract and, furthermore, to identify the phenolic compounds associated with color stability of roselle. RESULTS: The temperature of extraction (35 and 75 °C), the time of extraction (15 and 60 min), type of acid (acetic and citric), percentage of acid (0.5 and 2.0%) and the water:ethanol ratio (20:80 and 80:20) did not affect the yield of anthocyanins; only the solid:solvent ratio had an effect in the anthocyanin extraction yield. The extraction with 80% ethanol decreased up to 50% the anthocyanin degradation in the extracts stored at 4, 25, 35, 45, and 80 °C. Phenolic acids and flavonoids were quantified by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. These compounds were analyzed using principal component analysis, and the H. sabdariffa extract, with greater stability, was found to be associated with the presence of quercetin, myricetin, kaempferol 3-O-glucose, ellagic acid, and rutin. CONCLUSION: H. sabdariffa extract with increased color stability was extracted with a higher proportion of ethanol and the improvement in the color stability was attributed to the co-extraction of phenolic compounds, principally flavonoids that could interact with anthocyanins and stabilize them. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.


Asunto(s)
Antocianinas/química , Hibiscus/química , Fenoles/química , Extractos Vegetales/química , Antocianinas/aislamiento & purificación , Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión , Color , Flores/química , Fenoles/aislamiento & purificación , Extractos Vegetales/aislamiento & purificación , Espectrometría de Masa por Ionización de Electrospray , Temperatura
13.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 268: 113695, 2021 Mar 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33316365

RESUMEN

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: In Chinese folk medicine, Ligustrum robustum (Roxb.) Blume has been widely used as a healthy tea beverage for improvement in obesity and lipidemic metabolic disorders. AIM OF THE STUDY: We aimed to investigate the effect of L. robustum extract (LRE) on metabolic syndrome in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice and to explore the underlying role of gut microbiota during the treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The ground dried leaves of L. robustum (Roxb.) Blume were extracted with ethanol and then purified by a resin column. The composition of L. robustum extract (LRE) was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). C57BL/6 J mice fed with HFD were treated with LRE for 16 weeks. RT-qPCR and morphological staining were utilized to reveal the impact of LRE on hepatic glucolipid metabolism and gut integrity. The next-generation sequencing of 16 S rDNA was applied for analyzing the gut microbial community of fecal samples. RESULTS: LRE, mainly composed of ligupurpuroside A and aceteoside, alleviated insulin resistance, improved hepatic metabolism, enhanced intestinal integrity, and suppressed inflammatory responses in HFD-fed mice. Moreover, LRE treatment reshaped the gut microbiota structure by increasing the levels of genera Streptococcus, Lactobacillus, and Mucispirillum and decreasing the populations of Alistipes and Lachnospiraceae NK4A136 group in HFD-fed mice. The alteration of gut microbiota was associated with several metabolic pathways of gut bacteria. Spearman's correlation analysis further confirmed the links between the changed intestinal bacteria and multiple disease indices. CONCLUSIONS: LRE prevented gut microbiota dysbiosis and metabolic disorder in HFD-fed mice, which helps to promote the application in LRE-mediated prevention from metabolic syndrome as a gut microbial regulator.


Asunto(s)
Dieta Alta en Grasa/efectos adversos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efectos de los fármacos , Ligustrum , Síndrome Metabólico/prevención & control , Extractos Vegetales/uso terapéutico , Animales , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiología , Metabolismo de los Lípidos/efectos de los fármacos , Metabolismo de los Lípidos/fisiología , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólico/etiología , Síndrome Metabólico/metabolismo , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Extractos Vegetales/aislamiento & purificación , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología
14.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 264: 113052, 2021 Jan 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32535239

RESUMEN

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge. as a traditional Asian medicinal plant, roots and rhizomes (Danshen) are used to treat chronic hepatitis and coronary heart disease. In recent years, the medicinal value of S. miltiorrhiza stems and leaves total phenolic acids extract (JF) similar to roots and rhizomes has received increasing attention. S. miltiorrhiza roots and rhizome tanshinone extract (DT) has a good anti-inflammatory effect. AIM OF THE STUDY: To explore the therapeutic effect and possible molecular mechanisms of JF and DT alone or in combination on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Colitis was induced by received 2% DSS in drinking water for 7 consecutive days. Then mice were administered orally for 7 days. Disease activity index (DAI) scores and body weight were recorded daily. After the end of the experiment, colon was removed, colon length was measured and histopathological analysis was performed. Inflammatory factors expression was determined by ELISA, its mRNA expression was detected by real-time quantitative PCR, and the expression of related proteins on TLR4/PI3K/AKT/mTOR signal was analyzed by Western blot. RESULTS: Treatment with JF and DT alone or in combination reduced DAI scores, increase body weight, improved colon shortening, and decreased colon histology scores. In addition, the expression level of inflammatory factors was inhibited. The combination of JF and DT had a better inhibitory effect on inflammatory factors compared to JF alone. We also found that DT alone and JF combined with DT inhibited TLR4/PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling-related proteins expression levels (including TLR4, p-PI3K p110α/PI3K p110α, p-AKT (ser473)/AKT, mTOR, p-mTOR, NF-κB p65), showing an effective anti-inflammatory effect. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated for the first time that, JF and DT alone or in combination effectively ameliorated DSS-induced ulcerative colitis in mice, possibly by inhibiting the TLR4/PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway.


Asunto(s)
Abietanos/administración & dosificación , Colitis Ulcerosa/tratamiento farmacológico , Hidroxibenzoatos/administración & dosificación , Proteínas Proto-Oncogénicas c-akt/antagonistas & inhibidores , Salvia miltiorrhiza , Serina-Treonina Quinasas TOR/antagonistas & inhibidores , Receptor Toll-Like 4/antagonistas & inhibidores , Animales , Colitis Ulcerosa/inducido químicamente , Colitis Ulcerosa/metabolismo , Sulfato de Dextran/toxicidad , Quimioterapia Combinada , Hidroxibenzoatos/aislamiento & purificación , Masculino , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinasas/metabolismo , Inhibidores de las Quinasa Fosfoinosítidos-3/administración & dosificación , Inhibidores de las Quinasa Fosfoinosítidos-3/aislamiento & purificación , Extractos Vegetales/administración & dosificación , Extractos Vegetales/aislamiento & purificación , Hojas de la Planta , Tallos de la Planta , Proteínas Proto-Oncogénicas c-akt/metabolismo , Serina-Treonina Quinasas TOR/metabolismo , Receptor Toll-Like 4/metabolismo
15.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 264: 113181, 2021 Jan 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32687960

RESUMEN

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Poincianella pyramidalis (Tul.) LP Queiroz (Fabaceae) is an endemic tree in the Northeast of Brazil. Its flowers, leaves, stem bark and root have been used over the years to treat infections, abdominal pain, inflammation, diarrhea, heartburn, and dyspepsia. AIM OF THE STUDY: The present study is a critical assessment of the state-of-the-art concerning traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of P. pyramidalis performed through the application of a robust research strategy to explore the therapeutic potential of P. pyramidalis extracts and isolated compounds for the treatment of human disorders. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Information related to this review was systematically collected from scientific literature databases for P. pyramidalis, including papers and patents (PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, Web of Science, Google scholar, INPI, WIPO, EPO and USPTO), published books (e.g. Plantas Forrageiras das Caatingas), dissertations and theses. Plant taxonomy has been confirmed in the "The Plant List" database (www.theplantlist.org). RESULTS: Phytochemical analysis of P. pyramidalis shows several constituents such as flavonoids, triterpenoids and phenylpropanoids. The extract and isolated constituents exhibited a wide range of in vitro and in vivo pharmacological effects including antimicrobial, antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, gastroprotective and neuroprotective activities. In addition, toxicity studies showed that the administration of P. pyramidalis extract was safe in non-pregnant rats but displayed teratogenic effects in rats and goats. On the other hand, the search in patent databases reported a single filing, which highlights the disparity between a large number of published scientific articles versus the almost nonexistent filing of patents. This fact evidences a still little explored technological potential of the species. CONCLUSION: P. pyramidalis represents an important therapeutic resource for the population from the Northeast of Brazil. Pharmacological studies confirmed the effectiveness of the extract or isolated compounds in the treatment of various pathologies traditionally treated with P. pyramidalis. The authors emphasize the need for in-depth research and future clinical trials in order to investigate the clinical efficacy and safety of P. pyramidalis.


Asunto(s)
Etnofarmacología/métodos , Fabaceae , Medicina Tradicional/métodos , Fitoquímicos/uso terapéutico , Extractos Vegetales/uso terapéutico , Animales , Antiinfecciosos/aislamiento & purificación , Antiinfecciosos/farmacología , Antiinfecciosos/uso terapéutico , Antiinflamatorios/aislamiento & purificación , Antiinflamatorios/farmacología , Antiinflamatorios/uso terapéutico , Etnofarmacología/tendencias , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional/tendencias , Fitoquímicos/aislamiento & purificación , Fitoquímicos/farmacología , Extractos Vegetales/aislamiento & purificación , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología
16.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 264: 113096, 2021 Jan 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32693116

RESUMEN

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Constipation is a functional gastrointestinal disorder and one of the most prevalent conditions encountered in primary care settings. Rhubarb navel dressings have been used for more than 2,000 years in Chinese medicine to treat constipation. However, the effect of topical rhubarb administration has still not been well recognized and this strategy is not yet established as an evidence-based approach. AIM OF THE STUDY: In this study, we performed a prospective multicentric randomized controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of rhubarb navel plasters for patients with chronic constipation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 374 patients from six teaching hospitals were prospectively included between 09/2016 and 10/2017 in the study based on Rome III criteria. All participants were randomly assigned (1:1) into verum/placebo group and given either Rheum officinale rhubarb powder or a placebo flour stick on the navel for 6 h/day/8 days. Primary outcome measures were the Cleveland Constipation Score (CCS) for the feces condition and Bristol Stool Scale (BSS) for stool consistency and 24 h defecation frequency. RESULTS: The groups demonstrated no statistical differences in demographic data, clinical diagnoses and concomitant medication at baseline. In patients treated with the verum CCS was 5.61 (day 8, 95% CI 5.15-6.07) compared to 8.62 (95% CI 8.07-9.18) in placebo-treated controls (P < 0.001). The mean change of CCS at the end of treatment (day 8 versus [vs] day 0) was 6.04 in verum-treated vs 2.73 in placebo-treated controls (P < 0.001). Also 24 h defecation frequency (BSS) showed superior results (day 5: 0.84 vs 0.62, 95% CI 0.67-0.80, P < 0.001; day 6: 0.82 vs 0.60, 95% CI 0.64-0.78, P < 0.01 and day 8: 0.82 vs 0.60, 95% CI 0.64-0.78, P < 0.01) and better BSS type classification during treatment than controls (P < 0.05). No significant differences in adverse events between both groups became obvious. CONCLUSION: Rhubarb navel plaster administration over an 8-day-treatment period resulted in significantly improved bowel function as demonstrated by the CCS, 24 h defecating frequency and BSS. Our results suggest that rhubarb navel plasters represent a feasible, safe and efficient application route for the treatment of patients suffering from chronic constipation.


Asunto(s)
Estreñimiento/diagnóstico , Estreñimiento/tratamiento farmacológico , Sistemas de Liberación de Medicamentos/métodos , Extractos Vegetales/administración & dosificación , Rheum , Administración Tópica , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Enfermedad Crónica , Método Doble Ciego , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Extractos Vegetales/aislamiento & purificación , Estudios Prospectivos , Resultado del Tratamiento
17.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 264: 113139, 2021 Jan 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32726679

RESUMEN

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Inflammatory skin diseases presents high prevalence and lack of alternatives that can be used for self-care by the population. Casearia sylvestris is a plant used topically in different communities in Brazil, to treat wounds or promote cutaneous healing. To evaluate the topical anti-inflammatory activity for the crude hydroalcoholic extract of Casearia sylvestris (HCE-CS) in the models of single or multiple administration of chroton oil to induce ear edema in mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Experimental study using male Swiss mice (25-35g) kept under constant conditions in the Laboratory of Experimental Neuroscience (LaNEx)-UNISUL. Edema was induced in both models, respectively, by the single or multiple application of croton oil (CO, 2.5%, in 20 µl) on the external surface of the ear. The different groups of animals (n = 8) received different treatments: vehicle, dexamethasone (DEXA) or different doses of HCE-CS. Edema was evaluated macroscopically for 6 h (early edema) or 8 days (late edema) after the first application of the CO and immediately after the animals were submitted to euthanasia for the collection of the samples (treated ears). For early edema, the tissue was biochemically evaluated for myeloperoxidase activity (MPO) and levels of nitrite/nitrate. In the late edema model, the ears were histologically evaluated for general morphometry, degranulated and non-degranulated mast cells, as well as acanthosis. RESULTS: Topic treatment with HCE-CS significantly reduced the early and late edema, as well as MPO activity and tissue levels of nitrite/nitrate. Finally, in the late edema model there was a lower density of degranulated mast cells in relation to the vehicle treated group and decreased thickness of the epidermis (acanthosis). CONCLUSION: These results suggest a possible benefit of topical treatment with HCE-CS in inflammatory conditions of the skin.


Asunto(s)
Antiinflamatorios/administración & dosificación , Casearia , Edema/tratamiento farmacológico , Extractos Vegetales/administración & dosificación , Piel/efectos de los fármacos , Administración Tópica , Animales , Antiinflamatorios/aislamiento & purificación , Relación Dosis-Respuesta a Droga , Edema/metabolismo , Edema/patología , Masculino , Ratones , Extractos Vegetales/aislamiento & purificación , Salicaceae , Piel/metabolismo , Piel/patología
18.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 264: 113126, 2021 Jan 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32763416

RESUMEN

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Postmenopausal osteoporosis is a major bone health issue worldwide. There is an unmet medical need for osteoporosis treatments, a disease which disproportionately impacts women. Exploring botanicals to prevent or treat osteoporosis is currently an interest of investigations. Rhizomes of Davallia mariesii T. Moore ex Baker (Davalliacea) are used an indigenous herbal medicine in Asia for injuries due to fractures, contusions, and strains. AIM OF THE STUDY: In the present study, we investigated the osteogenic effect of the water extract of rhizomes of D. mariesii (DMH) on bone loss induced by an ovariectomy (OVX) in mice and also its impact on osteogenesis in primary human osteoblasts (HObs). Additionally, we performed a quantitative analysis of compounds in the DMH extract. MATERIALS AND METHODS: OVX C57BL/6J mice were orally administrated DMH extract for 12 weeks, and microarchitecture parameters were examined by microcomputed tomography. DMH extract was fractionated in a bio-guided manner, and fractions were isolated to obtain active compounds using HObs. Cell viability was evaluated by an MTT assay. Characteristics of early and late osteogenesis were analyzed by alkaline phosphatase activity and a mineralization assay. Molecular mechanisms were explored by a real-time quantitative PCR. Compounds in the DMH extract were identified and quantified using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectroscopy (LC-MS/MS). RESULTS: DMH improved bone mineral densities of vertebrae and the femur. Through microarchitectural observations, DMH significantly decreased the bone surface/volume ratio and trabecular separation, and also increased the connectivity density in the OVX group. Additionally, DMH inhibited osteoclast differentiation in receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand-induced osteoclasts and increased bone formation in HObs. After bio-guided fractionation and isolation, we found that eriodictyol-7-O-ß-d-glucuronide (2) significantly increased alkaline phosphatase activity, and 5-O-ß-d-(6-O-vanilloylglucopyranosyl)gentisic acid (3) substantially enhanced mineral deposition. In HObs, compound 3 was more potent in upregulating expressions of bone morphogenetic protein-2, bone sialoprotein, osteopontin, osterix, and estrogen receptor-α. The amount of bioactive compound 3 in DMH was 5.68 ±â€¯0.64 mg/g of dry weight according to LC-MS/MS. CONCLUSION: For the first time we report that D. mariesii and its isolated compounds demonstrated potent osteogenic activities. Quantitative results of D. mariesii could be a reference for phytochemical analyses.


Asunto(s)
Osteoblastos/efectos de los fármacos , Osteogénesis/efectos de los fármacos , Osteoporosis/tratamiento farmacológico , Extractos Vegetales/uso terapéutico , Plantas Medicinales , Animales , Células Cultivadas , Evaluación Preclínica de Medicamentos/métodos , Femenino , Humanos , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Persona de Mediana Edad , Osteoblastos/metabolismo , Osteogénesis/fisiología , Osteoporosis/diagnóstico por imagen , Osteoporosis/metabolismo , Ovariectomía/efectos adversos , Extractos Vegetales/aislamiento & purificación , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Células RAW 264.7 , Microtomografía por Rayos X/métodos
19.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 264: 113225, 2021 Jan 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32763419

RESUMEN

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The subtribe Hyptidinae contains approximately 400 accepted species distributed in 19 genera (Hyptis, Eriope, Condea, Cantinoa, Mesosphaerum, Cyanocephalus, Hypenia, Hyptidendron, Oocephalus, Medusantha, Gymneia, Marsypianthes, Leptohyptis, Martianthus, Asterohyptis, Eplingiella, Physominthe, Eriopidion and Rhaphiodon). This is the Lamiaceae clade with the largest number of species in Brazil and high rates of endemism. Some species have been used in different parts of the world mainly as insecticides/pest repellents, wound healing and pain-relief agents, as well as for the treatment of respiratory and gastrointestinal disorders. AIM OF THE REVIEW: This review aims to discuss the current status concerning the taxonomy, ethnobotanical uses, phytochemistry and biological properties of species which compose the subtribe Hyptidinae. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The available information was collected from scientific databases (ScienceDirect, Pubmed, Web of Science, Scopus, Google Scholar, ChemSpider, SciFinder ACS Publications, Wiley Online Library), as well as other literature sources (e.g. books, theses). RESULTS: The phytochemical investigations of plants of this subtribe have led to the identification of almost 300 chemical constituents of different classes such as diterpenes, triterpenes, lignans, α-pyrones, flavonoids, phenolic acids and monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, as components of essential oils. Extracts, essential oils and isolated compounds showed a series of biological activities such as insecticide/repellent, antimicrobial and antinociceptive, justifying some of the popular uses of the plants. In addition, a very relevant fact is that several species produce podophyllotoxin and related lignans. CONCLUSION: Several species of Hyptidinae are used in folk medicine for treating many diseases but only a small fraction of the species has been explored and most of the traditional uses have not been validated by current investigations. In addition, the species of the subtribe appear to be very promising as alternative sources of podophyllotoxin-like lignans which are the lead compounds for the semi-synthesis of teniposide and etoposide, important antineoplastic agents. Thus, there is a wide-open door for future studies, both to support the popular uses of the plants and to find new biologically active compounds in this large number of species not yet explored.


Asunto(s)
Etnobotánica/métodos , Etnofarmacología/métodos , Lamiaceae , Medicina Tradicional/métodos , Fitoquímicos/uso terapéutico , Extractos Vegetales/uso terapéutico , Animales , Antiulcerosos/aislamiento & purificación , Antiulcerosos/farmacología , Antiulcerosos/uso terapéutico , Etnobotánica/tendencias , Etnofarmacología/tendencias , Humanos , Hipoglucemiantes/aislamiento & purificación , Hipoglucemiantes/farmacología , Hipoglucemiantes/uso terapéutico , Medicina Tradicional/tendencias , Fitoquímicos/aislamiento & purificación , Fitoquímicos/farmacología , Extractos Vegetales/aislamiento & purificación , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología
20.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 264: 113212, 2021 Jan 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32768643

RESUMEN

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (CIR) injury is one of the main diseases leading to death and disability. Acanthopanax senticosus (Rupr. & Maxim.) Harms (AS), also known as Panax ginseng, has neuroprotective effects on anti-CIR injury. However, the underlying molecular mechanism of its therapeutic effects is not clear. AIM OF THE STUDY: To systematically study and explore the mechanism of Acanthopanax senticosus (Rupr. & Maxim.) Harms extract (ASE) in the treatment of CIR injury based on metabolomics and transcriptomics. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The pharmacological basis of ASE in the treatment of CIR was evaluated, and samples were used in plasma metabolomics and brain tissue transcriptomics to reveal potential biomarkers. Finally, according to online database, we analyzed biomarkers identified by the two technologies, explained reasons for the therapeutic effect of ASE, and identify therapeutic targets. RESULTS: A total of 53 differential metabolites (DMs) were identified in plasma and 3138 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in brain tissue from three groups of rats, including sham, ischemia-reperfusion (I/R), and ASE groups. Enrichment analysis showed that Nme6, Tk1, and Pold1 that are involved in the production of deoxycytidine and thymine were significantly up-regulated and Dck was significantly down-regulated by the intervention with ASE. These findings indicated that ASE participates in the pyrimidine metabolism by significantly regulating the balance between dCTP and dTTP. In addition, ASE repaired and promoted the lipid metabolism in rats, which might be due to the significant expression of Dgkz, Chat, and Gpcpd1. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study suggest that ASE regulates the significant changes in gene expression in metabolites pyrimidine, and lipid metabolism in CIR rats and plays an active role in the treatment of CIR injury through multiple targets and pathways.


Asunto(s)
Isquemia Encefálica/tratamiento farmacológico , Eleutherococcus , Metabolómica/métodos , Extractos Vegetales/uso terapéutico , Daño por Reperfusión/tratamiento farmacológico , Transcriptoma/efectos de los fármacos , Animales , Isquemia Encefálica/genética , Isquemia Encefálica/metabolismo , Masculino , Fármacos Neuroprotectores/aislamiento & purificación , Fármacos Neuroprotectores/farmacología , Fármacos Neuroprotectores/uso terapéutico , Extractos Vegetales/aislamiento & purificación , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Ratas , Ratas Wistar , Daño por Reperfusión/genética , Daño por Reperfusión/metabolismo , Transcriptoma/fisiología
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