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1.
Food Chem ; 336: 127744, 2021 Jan 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32781352

RESUMEN

Cardoon (Cynara cardunculus L.) bracts were collected at different maturation stages to investigate seasonal changes in the phenolic compounds profile and in vitro bioactivities. Among the 12 phenolic compounds tentatively identified, 3,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid (21.83 mg/g extract) and apigenin-7-O-glucuronide (10.6 mg/g extract) were the most abundant. Immature bracts (C1: principal growth stage (PGS) 5) had the highest phenolic compounds content, and anti-inflammatory (IC50 = 72 µg/mL) and cytotoxic (GI50 of 30-79 µg/mL) activities. Moreover, extract C1 inhibited efficiently the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS; IC50 = 26.8 µg/mL), while extract C8 (PGS 8/9) was more effective against oxidative haemolysis (IC50 38 and 75 µg/mL). The highest antibacterial and antifungal activities were attributed to samples C1 and C6 (PGS 7/8) and samples C2 (PGS 5/6) and C4 (PGS 6/7), respectively. Overall, the obtained results suggest the seasonal changes of polyphenolic composition and bioactivity of cardoon bracts of variable maturity.


Asunto(s)
Cynara/química , Fenoles/química , Animales , Antiinfecciosos/química , Antiinfecciosos/farmacología , Antiinflamatorios/química , Antiinflamatorios/farmacología , Antioxidantes/química , Línea Celular Tumoral , Supervivencia Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Cynara/crecimiento & desarrollo , Cynara/metabolismo , Hongos/efectos de los fármacos , Bacterias Gramnegativas/efectos de los fármacos , Bacterias Grampositivas/efectos de los fármacos , Humanos , Macrófagos/citología , Macrófagos/efectos de los fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Ratones , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Fenoles/análisis , Extractos Vegetales/química , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Hojas de la Planta/química , Hojas de la Planta/metabolismo , Células RAW 264.7 , Estaciones del Año
2.
Gene ; 764: 145083, 2021 Jan 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32860902

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Melamine (ML) is a common food adulterant and contaminant. Moringa oleifera is a well-known medicinal plant with many beneficial biological properties. This study investigated the possible prophylactic and therapeutic activity of an ethanolic extract of M. oleifera (MEE) against ML-induced hepatorenal damage. METHOD: Fifty male Sprague Dawley rats were orally administered distilled water, MEE (800 mg/kg bw), ML (700 mg/kg bw), MEE/ML (prophylactically) or MEE+ML (therapeutically). Hepatic aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphate (ALP) in serum were measured. Serum total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, indirect bilirubin, protein, albumin, and globulin contents were also assayed, and urea and creatinine levels were determined. Moreover, antioxidant enzyme activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase (CAT) in serum levels were quantified. Complementary histological and histochemical evaluation of renal and hepatic tissues was conducted, and expression of oxidative stress (GPx and CAT) and apoptosis-related genes, p53 and Bcl-2, in hepatic tissue were assessed. In parallel, transcriptional expression of inflammation and renal injury-related genes, including kidney injury molecule 1 (KIM-1), metallopeptidase inhibitor 1 (TIMP1), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in the kidney tissue were determined. RESULTS: ML caused significant increases in serum levels of ALT, AST, ALP, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, indirect bilirubin, urea, and creatinine. Further, ML treated rats showed significant reductions in serum levels of protein, albumin, globulin, GPx, and CAT. Distinct histopathological damage and disturbances in glycogen and DNA content in hepatic and renal tissues of ML treated rats were observed. KIM-1, TIMP-1, and TNF-α gene expression was significantly upregulated in kidney tissue. Also, GPx, CAT, and Bcl-2 genes were significantly downregulated, and p53 was significantly upregulated in liver tissue after ML treatment. MEE significantly counteracted the ML-induced hepatorenal damage primarily for co-exposed rats. CONCLUSION: MEE could be an effective therapeutic supplement for treatment of ML-induced hepato-renal damage, probably via modulating oxidative stress, apoptosis, and inflammation.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad Hepática Inducida por Sustancias y Drogas/prevención & control , Moringa oleifera/química , Extractos Vegetales/administración & dosificación , Insuficiencia Renal/prevención & control , Triazinas/toxicidad , Administración Oral , Animales , Apoptosis/efectos de los fármacos , Apoptosis/genética , Apoptosis/inmunología , Moléculas de Adhesión Celular/metabolismo , Enfermedad Hepática Inducida por Sustancias y Drogas/sangre , Enfermedad Hepática Inducida por Sustancias y Drogas/etiología , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Contaminantes Ambientales/toxicidad , Etanol/química , Contaminación de Alimentos , Regulación de la Expresión Génica/efectos de los fármacos , Humanos , Mediadores de Inflamación/sangre , Mediadores de Inflamación/metabolismo , Masculino , Estrés Oxidativo/efectos de los fármacos , Estrés Oxidativo/genética , Estrés Oxidativo/inmunología , Extractos Vegetales/química , Extractos Vegetales/aislamiento & purificación , Ratas , Insuficiencia Renal/sangre , Insuficiencia Renal/inducido químicamente , Inhibidor Tisular de Metaloproteinasa-1/metabolismo , Triazinas/administración & dosificación
3.
Food Chem ; 334: 127521, 2021 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32693333

RESUMEN

The objective of this study was to evaluate the optimal Subcritical Water Extraction (SWE) conditions of antioxidants and polyphenols from chestnut shells using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). A central composite design (CCD) was conducted to analyse the time (6-30 min) and temperature (51-249 °C) effects in antioxidant activity (ABTS, DPPH and FRAP) and Total Phenolic Compounds (TPC). TPC ranged from 315.21 to 496.80 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g DW; the DPPH from 549.23 to 1125.68 mg Trolox equivalents (TE)/g DW; ABTS varied between 631.16 and 965.45 mg ascorbic acid equivalents (AAE)/g DW and FRAP from 2793.95 to 11393.97 mg ferrous sulphate equivalents (FSE)/g DW. The optimal extraction conditions were 30 min/220 °C, revealing excelling scavenging efficiencies against HOCl (IC50 = 0.79 µg/mL) and O2- (IC50 = 12.92 µg/mL) without toxicity on intestinal cells (0.1 µg/mL). The phenolic composition revealed high amounts of pyrogallol and protocatechuic acid. SWE can be a useful extraction technique for the recovery of polyphenolics from chestnut shells.


Asunto(s)
Aesculus/química , Antioxidantes/química , Fenoles/química , Aesculus/metabolismo , Línea Celular Tumoral , Supervivencia Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión , Humanos , Nueces/química , Nueces/metabolismo , Fenoles/análisis , Fenoles/farmacología , Extractos Vegetales/química , Polifenoles/análisis , Espectrometría de Masas en Tándem , Temperatura , Agua/química
4.
Food Chem ; 334: 127526, 2021 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32702589

RESUMEN

Blueberry anthocyanins are well-known for their diverse biological functions. However, the instability during digestion results in their weak bioavailability. The current study aimed to investigate the alteration in the stability, antioxidant capacity and bioaccessibility of blueberry anthocyanins with the addition of α-casein and ß-casein in a simulated digestion system using pH differential method, HPLC-MS analysis, peroxyl scavenging capacity (PSC) assay, cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) and penetration test. The results showed that both α-casein and ß-casein could increase the stability of blueberry anthocyanins during intestinal digestion and protect their antioxidant capacity. Moreover, the addition of α-casein or ß-casein would enhance the bioaccessibility of blueberry anthocyanins. In conclusion, our study highlights that the interaction between α-casein or ß-casein with blueberry anthocyanins can protect the compounds against influences associated with the simulated digestion.


Asunto(s)
Antocianinas/química , Antioxidantes/química , Arándanos Azules (Planta)/química , Caseínas/química , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Antocianinas/farmacología , Arándanos Azules (Planta)/metabolismo , Caseínas/metabolismo , Supervivencia Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión , Digestión , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Concentración de Iones de Hidrógeno , Espectrometría de Masas , Extractos Vegetales/química , Estabilidad Proteica
5.
Food Chem ; 335: 127645, 2021 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32738537

RESUMEN

The dried Ganoderma lucidum (GL) has been widely used for its pharmacological properties and bioactive ganoderic acids (GAs). Herein, extraction procedures combining ultra-sonication and heating were optimized using response surface methodology based on four variables (antioxidant activity, anti-diabetic activity, total GAs content, and total polysaccharide content) and principal component analysis. The extraction of freeze-dried GL at temperatures between 64.2 and 70 °C for 1.2 h maximized the antioxidant activity and GA content, whereas the polysaccharide content and anti-diabetic activity were maximized by extraction between 66.8 and 70 °C for more than 2.8 h. Heat-dried GL extracted at 50 °C for 3 h provided the greatest anti-inflammatory activity against HaCaT cells by suppressing the response to inflammation related cytokines at mRNA levels. These results suggest that extraction conditions might be a limiting factor for target-oriented investigations, and optimized extraction methods may improve the potential effect and quality of harvested GL products.


Asunto(s)
Antiinflamatorios/química , Antiinflamatorios/aislamiento & purificación , Antioxidantes/aislamiento & purificación , Fraccionamiento Químico/métodos , Hipoglucemiantes/aislamiento & purificación , Extractos Vegetales/aislamiento & purificación , Reishi/química , Triterpenos/aislamiento & purificación , Antiinflamatorios/farmacología , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacología , Línea Celular , Fraccionamiento Químico/instrumentación , Humanos , Hipoglucemiantes/química , Hipoglucemiantes/farmacología , Extractos Vegetales/química , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Polisacáridos/química , Polisacáridos/aislamiento & purificación , Polisacáridos/farmacología , Triterpenos/química , Triterpenos/farmacología
6.
Food Chem ; 335: 127649, 2021 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32738538

RESUMEN

Rosa rugosa Thunb. seed oil (RR) extracted by supercritical CO2 was investigated. RR chemical composition, radical scavenging effect and oxidative stability were evaluated. RR aqueous emulsions were examined for cell cytotoxicity, proliferation, redox state and migration using mouse embryonic fibroblast Balb/3T3, human dermal fibroblast NHDF cell lines, and on neoplastic cell lines: acute monocytic leukemia THP-1 and lung adenocarcinoma A549. RR total contents of phytosterols, tocopherols, carotenoids and phenolics were 10115.23, 784.16, 40.32 and 10.30 mg/kg, respectively. Rich antioxidant composition of RR was reflected in its high antioxidant activity (2.1 mM/kg Trolox equivalent) as well as oxidative stability (activation energy 105.6 kJ/mol). The RR emulsions led to marked augmentation of the total cell protein content in BALB/3T3 and NHDF cultures, inhibited cancer cell migration and reduced ROS formation. The studied RR oil proved to have a remarkable combination of bioactive compounds and to exert an antioxidative and chemopreventive effects.


Asunto(s)
Aceites Vegetales/química , Aceites Vegetales/farmacología , Rosa/química , Animales , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/aislamiento & purificación , Antioxidantes/farmacología , Dióxido de Carbono/química , Carotenoides/química , Carotenoides/aislamiento & purificación , Carotenoides/farmacología , Línea Celular , Cromatografía con Fluido Supercrítico , Humanos , Ratones , Oxidación-Reducción , Fenoles/química , Fenoles/aislamiento & purificación , Fenoles/farmacología , Fitosteroles/química , Fitosteroles/aislamiento & purificación , Fitosteroles/farmacología , Extractos Vegetales/química , Extractos Vegetales/aislamiento & purificación , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Aceites Vegetales/aislamiento & purificación , Semillas/química , Tocoferoles/química , Tocoferoles/aislamiento & purificación , Tocoferoles/farmacología
7.
Food Chem ; 335: 127644, 2021 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32739815

RESUMEN

This study provides a robust and reproducible approach for selective extraction of rosmarinic acid (RA) using molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs). Computational modeling and UV spectroscopic analysis were performed to optimize MIP synthesis. Consequently, six different bulk and surface imprinted polymers were generated using RA as the template. Binding performance of the imprinted polymers was evaluated using static equilibrium and complementary dynamic rebinding experiments. Despite the high selectivity of thus generated surface imprinted polymers, the corresponding bulk polymers exhibited better binding performance when serving as sorbents during solid phase extraction (SPE). An optimized molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction (MISPE) protocol was developed in respect to loaded amount of RA, composition of the loading solution, washing solvent, and elution volume. Thereby, a remarkably selective extraction of RA from real-world Rosmarinus officinalis L. extract with a recovery rate and purity of 81.96 ± 6.33% and 80.59 ± 0.30%, respectively, was achieved.


Asunto(s)
Cinamatos/aislamiento & purificación , Depsidos/aislamiento & purificación , Extractos Vegetales/aislamiento & purificación , Rosmarinus/química , Extracción en Fase Sólida/métodos , Adsorción , Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión , Cinamatos/química , Depsidos/química , Impresión Molecular , Extractos Vegetales/química , Polímeros/síntesis química , Polímeros/química , Extracción en Fase Sólida/instrumentación
8.
Food Chem ; 335: 127671, 2021 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745843

RESUMEN

Iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) is a common nutritional disorder worldwide. Sustainable food-based approaches are being advocated to use high and bioavailable dietary iron sources to prevent iron deficiency. The study investigated the bioaccessibility and bioavailability of iron from some plant products. Total iron levels in the samples were measured by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Fractionation of the iron from the digested extracts was carried out by centrifugation and ultrafiltration. Iron bioavailability was determined using an in vitro simulated peptic-pancreatic digestion, followed by measurement of ferritin in Caco-2 cells. The highest amount of bioaccessible iron was obtained from moringa leaves (9.88% ± 0.45 and 8.44 ± 0.01 mg/100 g), but the highest percentage bioavailability was from baobab fruit pulp (99.7% ± 0.13 and 1.74 ± 0.01 mg/100 g) respectively. All the plant products, except for baobab, significantly inhibited iron uptake from FeSO4 and FAC, with fenugreek sprout being the most inhibitory.


Asunto(s)
Adansonia/química , Hierro en la Dieta/farmacocinética , Moringa/química , Trigonella/química , Disponibilidad Biológica , Células CACO-2 , Digestión , Ferritinas/metabolismo , Frutas/química , Humanos , Extractos Vegetales/química , Extractos Vegetales/farmacocinética , Hojas de la Planta/química
9.
Food Chem ; 334: 127552, 2021 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32795786

RESUMEN

Extracts of Opuntia stricta var. dillenii fruits were fractionated by semi-preparative high-performance countercurrent chromatography (HPCCC) to study the secondary metabolite formation, whereby HPCCC showed a superior separation capacity to fractionate minor metabolites compared to HPLC. A family of new peptides was detected in semi-polar fractions when monitoring the HPCCC separation by off-line injections of fractions to ESI-MS/MS. Planar structures of the major compounds, two 14-ring-membered cyclopeptide alkaloids, which were named opuntisines A and B, were elucidated by 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopy and HR-ESI-MS/MS spectrometry, while a combination of chemical derivatisation and degradation revealed the stereo-configurations. Specifically, the methods of Marfey and Mosher indicated l-Glu, l-Ile, l-Phe and 1S-configurations, respectively; ROESY correlations revealed 8S, 9S. The novel opuntisine A showed moderate activity against the Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli, but no further antibacterial, antifungal nor cytotoxic effects. This bioactive natural product class is reported for the first time in the plant family Cactaceae.


Asunto(s)
Alcaloides/análisis , Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión/métodos , Opuntia/química , Péptidos Cíclicos/química , Alcaloides/química , Alcaloides/farmacología , Distribución en Contracorriente , Escherichia coli/efectos de los fármacos , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Espectroscopía de Resonancia Magnética , Conformación Molecular , Opuntia/metabolismo , Extractos Vegetales/química , Espectrometría de Masas en Tándem
10.
J Chromatogr A ; 1635: 461705, 2021 Jan 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33234294

RESUMEN

QS-21 is a triterpene glycoside saponin found in the bark of the Chilean soap bark tree Quillaja saponaria. It is a highly potent vaccine adjuvant that is included in two approved vaccines and has shown promise in numerous other vaccine candidates in the research and clinical pipelines. One major hurdle to the widespread use of this adjuvant is the difficulty of obtaining it in high yield and purity. Previously reported purification approaches either showed suboptimal purity and/or yield, lacked efficiency, or had strict requirement on the composition of the starting material. Here, we report the development of a new two-step orthogonal chromatographic process, consisting of a polar reversed-phase (RP) chromatography step followed by a hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) step, for purifying QS-21 from a commercially available Quillaja saponaria bark extract with high yield and > 97% purity. This process makes available a simple and efficient method for obtaining highly pure QS-21 from saponin-enriched bark extract.


Asunto(s)
Cromatografía/métodos , Extractos Vegetales/aislamiento & purificación , Extractos Vegetales/normas , Saponinas/aislamiento & purificación , Saponinas/normas , Chile , Extractos Vegetales/química , Quillaja/química
11.
J Appl Microbiol ; 130(1): 61-75, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32654270

RESUMEN

AIM: To evaluate the antifungal activity of extracts of Chamaecostus cuspidatus against Candida and Trichophyton species. METHODS AND RESULTS: Crude ethanol extracts of leaves, stems and rhizomes were prepared and evaluated for antimicrobial activity. Only the rhizomes extract (RE) showed antifungal activity but had no inhibitory effect against bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli). The RE was then submitted to liquid-liquid partition with hexane (Hex), dichloromethane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and water. The Hex fraction (Hex Fr) from the RE was found to have the best antifungal effect. Three known saponins were isolated from the Hex Fr, of which two (dioscin and aferoside A) showed good antifungal activity. In addition, Hex Fr and the two bioactive compounds had no antibacterial effect, but exhibited fungicidal activity, caused significant changes in the morphology of the fungal cells and showed anti-Candida albicans biofilm activity. Finally, the bioactive plant products presented greater selectivity for fungal cells over normal human cells. CONCLUSIONS: The rhizomes of C. cuspidatus have bioactive saponins that function as effective antifungals against Candida and Trichophyton species, and have antibiofilm activity against C. albicans. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Chamaecostus cuspidatus REs may have potential clinical application towards the management of superficial mycoses caused by Candida and Trichophyton species.


Asunto(s)
Antifúngicos/farmacología , Candida/efectos de los fármacos , Saponinas/farmacología , Trichophyton/efectos de los fármacos , Zingiberales/química , Antifúngicos/química , Antifúngicos/aislamiento & purificación , Biopelículas/efectos de los fármacos , Biopelículas/crecimiento & desarrollo , Línea Celular , Supervivencia Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Humanos , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Extractos Vegetales/química , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Rizoma/química , Saponinas/química , Saponinas/aislamiento & purificación
12.
Food Chem ; 340: 127907, 2021 Mar 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32882477

RESUMEN

As a homologous material of both medicine and food, licorice is a famous traditional Chinese medicine. In the application process, different origins and different extraction methods have an impact on the intrinsic quality of licorice. In order to ensure the intrinsic quality of commercially available licorice products, and to explore the influence of origin and extraction methods on the quality of licorice, we put forward a simple and effective discriminatory method for "chemometrics analysis-based fingerprint establishment". First, fingerprints of licorice ethanol extraction (LEE) and licorice water extraction (LWE) were established. Then, similarity analysis (SA), hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA), principal component analysis (PCA) and other chemometrics methods were used to select qualitative and quantitative markers. Besides, the quantitative determination of 7 compounds of licorice with statistical significance was carried out, which provided accurate and informative data for quality evaluation. Finally, discriminant analysis was used to trace the origin of licorice.


Asunto(s)
Glycyrrhiza/química , Extractos Vegetales/química , Fraccionamiento Químico/métodos , China , Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión/métodos , Clima , Análisis por Conglomerados , Análisis Discriminante , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos/análisis , Análisis de los Alimentos/métodos , Análisis de los Alimentos/estadística & datos numéricos , Espectrometría de Masas/métodos , Extractos Vegetales/análisis , Análisis de Componente Principal , Suelo
13.
Food Chem ; 335: 127653, 2021 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32739818

RESUMEN

Buckwheat is a gluten-free crop under the family Polygonaceae abundant with beneficial phytochemicals that provide significant health benefits. It is cultivated and adapted in diverse ecological zones all over the world. Recently its popularity is expanding as a nutrient-rich healthy food with low-calories. The bioactive compounds in buckwheat are flavonoids (i.e., rutin, quercetin, orientin, isoorientin, vitexin, and isovitexin), fatty acids, polysaccharides, proteins, and amino acids, iminosugars, dietary fiber, fagopyrins, resistant starch, vitamins, and minerals. Buckwheat possesses high nutritional value due to these bioactive compounds. Additionally, several essential bioactive factors that have long been gaining interest because these compounds are beneficial for healing and preventing several human diseases. The present review demonstrates an overview of the recent researches regarding buckwheat phytochemicals and particularly focusing on the distinct function of bioactive components with their health benefits.


Asunto(s)
Fagopyrum/química , Extractos Vegetales/química , Apigenina/análisis , Fagopyrum/crecimiento & desarrollo , Flavonoides , Glucósidos , Humanos , Valor Nutritivo , Fitoquímicos/química , Quercetina/análisis , Rutina/análisis , Semillas/genética
14.
Food Chem ; 343: 128392, 2021 May 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33191012

RESUMEN

Duckweeds have long been consumed as vegetables in several South Asian countries. In this study of the chemical constituents of duckweed Landoltia punctata, a new compound, apigenin 6-C-[ß-D-apiofuranosyl-(1 â†’ 2)]-ß-D-glucopyranoside (1), and a previously LC-MS identified compound, quercetin 3-O-ß-D-apiofuranoside (3), as well as three known compounds, luteolin 6-C-[ß-D-apiofuranosyl-(1 â†’ 2)]-ß-D-glucopyranoside (2), apigenin 6-C-ß-D-glucopyranoside (4), and luteolin 7-O-neohespirodise (5), were isolated and identified on the basis of MS and NMR spectroscopic analyses and chemical derivations. In total, 24 flavonoids were identified in L. punctata 0001 by UPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS2. In DPPH and ABTS assays, 3 exhibited significant antioxidant activity with IC50 values of 4.03 ± 1.31 µg/mL and 14.9 ± 2.28 µg/mL, respectively. In in vivo antioxidant activity assays, 1 significantly increased the survival rate of juglone-exposed Caenorhabditis elegans by 2 to 3-fold, and by 75% following thermal damage. Compounds 1-5 exhibited moderate scavenging capacities of intracellular reactive oxygen species in C. elegans exposed to H2O2.


Asunto(s)
Antioxidantes/química , Araceae/química , Flavonoides/análisis , Animales , Antioxidantes/farmacología , Araceae/metabolismo , Caenorhabditis elegans/efectos de los fármacos , Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión , Flavonoides/farmacología , Peróxido de Hidrógeno/farmacología , Naftoquinonas/farmacología , Extractos Vegetales/química , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Especies Reactivas de Oxígeno/metabolismo , Espectrometría de Masa por Ionización de Electrospray
15.
Phytomedicine ; 80: 153388, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33113501

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Insulin resistance (IR) and lipotoxicity were evidenced as the major nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) initiators. However, absence of the effective treatment against NASH progression raised our aim to discover a new promising insulin modulator and NSH preventer. PURPOSE: Our study aimed to extract and prepare a nitriles rich fraction (NRF) from Diceratella elliptica (DC.) Jonsell, investigate its insulin-sensitizing & anti-NASH potentialities and address its molecular targets in IR-NASH pathogenesis. STUDY DESIGN: NRF was prepared using natural autolysis method and compounds were identified. Then, seventy male Wistar rats were feed high fat diet (HFD) or normal pellets for 35 days. In day 14th, HFD rats were injected by Streptozotocin (STZ) once and treatment was started in day 21st with either NRF (30, 60 and 120 mg/kg; orally) or pioglitazone (PioG) (10 mg/kg; i.p) beside HFD. While, NRF-alone rats were treated with NRF (120 mg/kg; orally) beside the normal pellets. Body weight, glucose homeostasis, hepatopathological examinations were performed. METHODS: Gas liquid chromatography-mass spectrophotometry (GLC/MS) was used for compounds' identification while spectrophotometer was used for total glucosinolates (GLS) quantification. Also, the biochemical and molecular investigations concerned with liver lipotoxicity, oxidative stress, inflammation and insulin signaling pathway were investigated and confirmed with the computational prediction of the major compounds' targets. RESULTS: Butenyl and benzyl GLS were the major along with other volatile compounds. NRF had significantly increased the insulin sensitivity and improved NASH-hisptopathology showing hepatoprotective effect. While, the fraction's anti-NASH potentiality was evidenced in the normalized hepatic steatosis markers, inflammation and oxidative stress key transcriptional factors resulting in induction of insulin receptor substrates (IRSs) phosphorylation and its downstream effectors. CONCLUSION: NRF has reversed IR, stimulated leptin secretion and prevented NASH initiation showing promising anti-NASH and anti-fibrotic effects.


Asunto(s)
Brassicaceae/química , Resistencia a la Insulina , Enfermedad del Hígado Graso no Alcohólico/prevención & control , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Animales , Dieta Alta en Grasa/efectos adversos , Glucosinolatos/análisis , Leptina/metabolismo , Hígado/efectos de los fármacos , Hígado/metabolismo , Hígado/patología , Masculino , Factor 2 Relacionado con NF-E2/metabolismo , FN-kappa B/antagonistas & inhibidores , FN-kappa B/metabolismo , Nitrilos/química , Nitrilos/farmacología , Enfermedad del Hígado Graso no Alcohólico/etiología , Enfermedad del Hígado Graso no Alcohólico/metabolismo , Estrés Oxidativo/efectos de los fármacos , Pioglitazona/farmacología , Extractos Vegetales/química , Ratas Wistar , Transducción de Señal
16.
Phytomedicine ; 80: 153382, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33113506

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Although gastroprotective drugs have been used for peptic ulcer disease prevention and treatment, side effects have been observed. Finding a safe and effective treatment strategy is important. PURPOSE: Edible Trichodesma khasianum (T. khasianum) Clarke leaves are considered to protect against peptic ulcers. However, scientific evidence of this effect of T. khasianum Clarke leaves remains limited. STUDY DESIGN/METHODS: In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effect of T. khasianum Clarke leaves on ethanol-induced gastric injury and gut microbiota using RAW 264.7 cells, RGM-1 cells, and BALB/c mice, respectively. RESULT: The rosmarinic acid was identified as the major component of T. khasianum Clarke leaves extracted by 80% ethanol (80EETC). The results showed that 80EETC suppressed inflammatory mediator protein levels in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells. Additionally, heat shock protein expression, antiapoptotic ability, and wound healing migration capability were increased by 80EETC pretreatment in RGM-1 cells with the ethanol-induced injury. Remarkably, pretreatment with 80EETC (150 mg/kg b.w.) promoted gastric mucosal healing by decreasing oxidative stress, inflammatory response, proapoptotic protein expression, and gastric mucosa damage in ethanol-induced gastric injury in mice. Crucially, no liver or kidney toxicities were observed by 80EETC oral gavage. Moreover, 80EETC increased gut microbiota diversity and short-chain fatty acid production. CONCLUSION: Our results illustrated the remarkable gastroprotective effect by 80EETC treatment in vitro and in vivo. These findings are the first to demonstrate the powerful protective effect of T. khasianum Clarke leaves against gastric mucosal injury development.


Asunto(s)
Boraginaceae/química , Cinamatos/farmacología , Depsidos/farmacología , Mucosa Gástrica/efectos de los fármacos , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Sustancias Protectoras/farmacología , Administración Oral , Animales , Antiinflamatorios no Esteroideos/química , Antiinflamatorios no Esteroideos/farmacología , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Cinamatos/análisis , Depsidos/análisis , Etanol/toxicidad , Ácidos Grasos Volátiles/metabolismo , Mucosa Gástrica/metabolismo , Mucosa Gástrica/patología , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efectos de los fármacos , Masculino , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos BALB C , Estrés Oxidativo/efectos de los fármacos , Úlcera Péptica/prevención & control , Extractos Vegetales/administración & dosificación , Extractos Vegetales/química , Hojas de la Planta/química , Sustancias Protectoras/química , Células RAW 264.7
17.
Food Chem ; 341(Pt 1): 128149, 2021 Mar 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33039745

RESUMEN

This research established an optimized method for the extraction and enrichment of flavonoids from R. corchorifolius fruit. Under the optimized extraction conditions, 12 flavonoids (1-12) were isolated, of which six (2-4, 9-10, 12) were obtained from R. corchorifolius for the first time. Compound 4 showed significant α-glucosidase (4.96 µM) and α-amylase (8.04 µM) inhibitory effects. Molecular modeling revealed that compound 4 exhibits strong binding with the active sites of α-glucosidase and α-amylase. Lineweaver-Burk plot analysis and surface plasmon resonance revealed the possible dynamic binding mechanism of the flavonoids with α-glucosidase and α-amylase. The enriched flavonoids and compound 4 showed significant hypoglycemic effects in mice administered a high dose of glucose. In this study, a variety of flavonoids with hypoglycemic activity were found for the first time, revealing the rich chemical composition of R. corchorifolius fruit and highlighting the potential value of R. corchorifolius fruit flavonoids as dietary supplements.


Asunto(s)
Flavonoides/farmacología , Inhibidores de Glicósido Hidrolasas/farmacología , Hiperglucemia/tratamiento farmacológico , Rubus/química , alfa-Amilasas/antagonistas & inhibidores , Animales , Dominio Catalítico , Flavonoides/análisis , Flavonoides/química , Frutas/química , Inhibidores de Glicósido Hidrolasas/química , Hipoglucemiantes/química , Hipoglucemiantes/farmacología , Masculino , Ratones Endogámicos ICR , Modelos Moleculares , Simulación del Acoplamiento Molecular , Extractos Vegetales/química , alfa-Amilasas/química , alfa-Amilasas/metabolismo , alfa-Glucosidasas/química , alfa-Glucosidasas/metabolismo
18.
Food Chem ; 343: 128401, 2021 May 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33228966

RESUMEN

Enzymatic browning is one of the major difficulties for the preservation and commercial value of fresh-cut products. To research more healthy and inexpensive anti-browning methods, we investigated the effect of ultrasonic coupling purslane extract on the browning resistance of fresh-cut potato during 8d storage at 4 °C. Firstly, the optimal ultrasonic time (10 min) was obtained. Then, the results showed that the combined application with lower purslane extract concentration (0.02%, w/w) could achieve a better anti-browning effect than the optimal concentration of alone purslane extract (0.05%, w/w). The combined application not only significantly inhibited the key enzyme activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD), but also effectively reduced the damage to cell membrane, maintained its integrity and permeability. Meanwhile, it also improved antioxidant capacity during storage. Overall, the ultrasonic cavitation combined with purslane extract would be a promising method for fresh-cut industry.


Asunto(s)
Almacenamiento de Alimentos/métodos , Extractos Vegetales/química , Portulaca/química , Solanum tuberosum/metabolismo , Ultrasonido , Antioxidantes/química , Catecol Oxidasa/antagonistas & inhibidores , Catecol Oxidasa/metabolismo , Color , Conductividad Eléctrica , Permeabilidad/efectos de los fármacos , Peroxidasa/antagonistas & inhibidores , Peroxidasa/metabolismo , Extractos Vegetales/metabolismo , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Portulaca/metabolismo , Solanum tuberosum/química , Solanum tuberosum/efectos de los fármacos
19.
Food Chem ; 334: 127613, 2021 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32711281

RESUMEN

The optimization of ultrasound-assisted alkaline extraction and enzymatic deamidation by protein-glutaminase (PG) on evening primrose seed cake (EPSC) protein and its effect on structure (amino acid composition, secondary structure and electrophoresis pattern) and techno-functional properties (water-holding and oil-binding capacities, solubility, emulsifying and foaming properties) of EPSC protein were evaluated. The optimum conditions of the both processes were measured using response surface methodology (RSM). The maximum yield (26.4%) and protein content (86.1%) were reached at the optimized extraction conditions. Optimal conditions of PG deamidation based on reaching a high degree of deamidation (DD) with a simultaneously low degree of hydrolysis (DH). Under these conditions, DD and DH were 39.40 and 2.11%, respectively. Ultrasound-assisted alkaline extraction and enzymatic deamidation by PG have great potential to produce edible EPSC protein with modified techno-functional characteristics that can be used for several aims in the food and pharmaceutical applications.


Asunto(s)
Fraccionamiento Químico/métodos , Oenothera biennis/química , Proteínas de Vegetales Comestibles/química , Amidas/química , Aminoácidos/análisis , Emulsionantes/química , Glutaminasa/química , Hidrólisis , Extractos Vegetales/química , Aceites Vegetales/química , Proteínas de Vegetales Comestibles/aislamiento & purificación , Estructura Secundaria de Proteína , Solubilidad , Ultrasonido
20.
Food Chem ; 334: 127557, 2021 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32712488

RESUMEN

Previous studies indicate that the bioactive compounds of Eugenia stipitata pulp have antimutagenic, anticarcinogenic and antigenotoxic properties, but its use has been limited due to its high perishability. The aim of this study was to preserve bioactivity by using spray-drying microencapsulation, and is pioneering for its use of DSC to determine the best proportion of wall material (maltodextrin or gum arabic) and drying temperature (100 or 120 °C). The microparticles with maltodextrin (1:9)-100 °C had the best bioactivity conservation after in vitro gastrointestinal digestion, conserving 61% of total polyphenols, and 101%, 85% and 31% of antioxidant capacity according to the ABTS, FRAP and DPPH test methods respectively. These microparticles had a spherical morphology, presented good thermal stability and can be stored at a temperature range from 20 to 40 °C without becoming sticky. Therefore, spray-drying microencapsulation together with DSC is important for preserving a high concentration of bioactive compounds.


Asunto(s)
Desecación/métodos , Eugenia/química , Industria de Procesamiento de Alimentos/métodos , Frutas/química , Aire , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/aislamiento & purificación , Rastreo Diferencial de Calorimetría , Digestión , Composición de Medicamentos , Goma Arábiga/química , Extractos Vegetales/química , Polifenoles/química , Polifenoles/aislamiento & purificación , Polisacáridos/química
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