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1.
Food Chem ; 337: 127746, 2021 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32795856

RESUMEN

Pressurized liquid extraction was performed to obtain a phytocomplex from Lippia citriodora leaves rich in bioactive compounds. The extract was loaded in phospholipid vesicles to improve its protective effect against oxidative stress in the intestine. The phytochemicals were identified and quantified by HPLC-ESI-TOF-MS. The extract was incorporated in liposomes and penetration enhancer-containing vesicles (PEVs) modified with glucidex, a dextrin, and a biopolymer obtained from Chimaera monstrosa. The PEVs were smaller than liposomes (~150 vs 370 nm) and more stable, according to accelerated aging tests. The integrity of the vesicles in acidic or neutral pH and high ionic strength or in milk whey was assessed. The cytocompatibility of the formulations and their ability to protect Caco-2 cells against oxidative stress were confirmed in vitro and compared with two commercial extracts of L. citriodora. The results confirmed the suitability of formulations to be used in functional foods to protect the intestine from oxidative stress.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Gastrointestinales/tratamiento farmacológico , Lippia/química , Fosfolípidos/química , Extractos Vegetales/química , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Presión , Células CACO-2 , Composición de Medicamentos , Enfermedades Gastrointestinales/metabolismo , Humanos , Liposomas , Estrés Oxidativo/efectos de los fármacos , Extractos Vegetales/administración & dosificación , Extractos Vegetales/uso terapéutico , Hojas de la Planta/química
2.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92(4): e20191066, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33206785

RESUMEN

Inflammatory dermatoses are prevalent worldwide, with impacts on the quality of life of patients and their families. The aim of this study was to determine the anti-inflammatory effects of Achyrocline satureioides oily extracts and nanocapsules on the skin using a mouse model of irritant contact dermatitis induced by croton oil, and a skin inflammation model induced by ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation. The mice were treated with 15 mg/ear oily extract (HG-OLAS) or nanocapsules (HG-NCAS) of A. satureioides incorporated into Carbopol® 940 hydrogels. We found that HG-OLAS and HG-NCAS formulations reduced ear edema in croton oil-induced lesions with maximum inhibitions of 54±7% and 74±3%, respectively. HG-OLAS and HG-NCAS formulations decreased ear edema induced by UVB radiation (0.5 J/cm2), with maximum inhibitions of 68±6% and 76±2% compared to the UVB radiation group, respectively. HG-OLAS and HG-NCAS modulated myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity after croton oil induction. Furthermore, croton oil and UVB radiation for 6 and 24 h, respectively, stimulated polymorphonuclear cells infiltration. The topical treatments reduced inflammatory processes, as shown by histological analysis. Together, the data suggest that topical application of A. satureioides oily extracts and nanocapsules produced antiedematogenic and anti-inflammatory effects. They constitute a compelling alternative for treatment of skin injuries.


Asunto(s)
Achyrocline , Dermatitis por Contacto , Nanocápsulas , Antiinflamatorios/farmacología , Antiinflamatorios/uso terapéutico , Dermatitis por Contacto/tratamiento farmacológico , Edema/tratamiento farmacológico , Humanos , Hidrogeles , Irritantes/uso terapéutico , Nanocápsulas/uso terapéutico , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Extractos Vegetales/uso terapéutico , Calidad de Vida
3.
Molecules ; 25(21)2020 Nov 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33147850

RESUMEN

Zebrafish has been a reliable model system for studying human viral pathologies. SARS-CoV-2 viral infection has become a global chaos, affecting millions of people. There is an urgent need to contain the pandemic and develop reliable therapies. We report the use of a humanized zebrafish model, xeno-transplanted with human lung epithelial cells, A549, for studying the protective effects of a tri-herbal medicine Coronil. At human relevant doses of 12 and 58 µg/kg, Coronil inhibited SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, induced humanized zebrafish mortality, and rescued from behavioral fever. Morphological and cellular abnormalities along with granulocyte and macrophage accumulation in the swim bladder were restored to normal. Skin hemorrhage, renal cell degeneration, and necrosis were also significantly attenuated by Coronil treatment. Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) analysis identified ursolic acid, betulinic acid, withanone, withaferine A, withanoside IV-V, cordifolioside A, magnoflorine, rosmarinic acid, and palmatine as phyto-metabolites present in Coronil. In A549 cells, Coronil attenuated the IL-1ß induced IL-6 and TNF-α cytokine secretions, and decreased TNF-α induced NF-κB/AP-1 transcriptional activity. Taken together, we show the disease modifying immunomodulatory properties of Coronil, at human equivalent doses, in rescuing the pathological features induced by the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, suggesting its potential use in SARS-CoV-2 infectivity.


Asunto(s)
Antivirales/uso terapéutico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/tratamiento farmacológico , Extractos Vegetales/uso terapéutico , Neumonía Viral/tratamiento farmacológico , Glicoproteína de la Espiga del Coronavirus/antagonistas & inhibidores , Sacos Aéreos/efectos de los fármacos , Sacos Aéreos/virología , Animales , Antiinflamatorios no Esteroideos/uso terapéutico , Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión/métodos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/patología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/fisiopatología , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Fiebre/tratamiento farmacológico , Fiebre/etiología , Hemorragia/prevención & control , Humanos , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Riñón/efectos de los fármacos , Necrosis/patología , Necrosis/prevención & control , Pandemias , Fitoterapia , Neumonía Viral/patología , Neumonía Viral/fisiopatología , Mucosa Respiratoria/trasplante , Activación Transcripcional/efectos de los fármacos , Factor de Necrosis Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Pez Cebra
4.
Niger J Physiol Sci ; 35(1): 10-19, 2020 06 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33084621

RESUMEN

Coronavirus Disease 2019 is a wide-spreading severe viral disease caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-COV-2) virus that needs to be urgently eradicated. SARS-COV-2 has infected millions of people worldwide and results in more than three hundred thousand deaths. Several repurposed drugs have failed to successfully eradicate the infection. Multiorgan failure caused by pronounced inflammation and systemic coagulation accounts for severe complications and death associated with diseases. Bromelain appears to be a potential candidate that may be used to inhibit or prevent the symptoms of the diseases. Its anti-inflammatory and anticoagulatory properties make it a potential agent that may slow the progression of the disease. In this review, we highlighted the beneficial effects of bromelain based on both experimental and clinical evidence that make bromelain a good candidate for the treatment of symptoms of CoVID-19 infection.


Asunto(s)
Bromelaínas/uso terapéutico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/tratamiento farmacológico , Fitoterapia , Neumonía Viral/tratamiento farmacológico , Ananas , Betacoronavirus/ultraestructura , Bromelaínas/farmacología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/inmunología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Interacciones Huésped-Patógeno , Humanos , Pandemias , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Extractos Vegetales/uso terapéutico , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/inmunología , Neumonía Viral/virología
5.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238503, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925968

RESUMEN

Clinacanthus nutans (CN) (Acanthaceae) is well-known for its anti-inflammatory properties among Asian communities; however, there are currently no data specifically focused on the anti-inflammatory effects of CN on the brain tissue. Neuroinflammation is a common consequence of toxin intrusion to any part of the central nervous system (CNS). As an innate immune response, the CNS may react through both protective and/or toxic actions due to the activation of neuron cells producing pro- and/or anti-inflammatory cytokines in the brain. The unresolved activation of the inflammatory cytokines' response is associated with the pathogenesis of neurological disorders. The present study aimed to decipher the metabolic mechanism on the effects of 14 days oral treatment with CN aqueous extract in induced-lipopolysaccharides (LPS) rats through 1H NMR spectroscopic biomarker profiling of the brain tissue and the related cytokines. Based on the principal component analysis (PCA) of the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectral data, twenty-one metabolites in the brain tissue were profiled as biomarkers for the LPS (10 µL)-induced neuroinflammation following intracerebroventricular injection. Among the twenty-one biomarkers in the neuroinflammed rats, CN treatment of 1000 and 500 mg/kg BW successfully altered lactate, pyruvate, phosphorylcholine, glutamine, and α-ketoglutarate when compared to the negative control. Likewise, statistical isolinear multiple component analysis (SIMCA) showed that treatments by CN and the positive control drug, dextromethorphan (DXM, 5 mg/kg BW), have anti-neuroinflammatory potential. A moderate correlation, in the orthogonal partial least squares (OPLS) regression model, was found between the spectral metabolite profile and the cytokine levels. The current study revealed the existence of high levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, namely IL-1α, IL-1ß, and TNF-α in LPS-induced rats. Both CN dose treatments lowered IL-1ß significantly better than DXM Interestingly, DXM and CN treatments both exhibited the upregulation of the anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-2 and 4. However, DXM has an advantage over CN in that the former also increased the expression of IL-10 of anti-inflammatory cytokines. In this study, a metabolomics approach was successfully applied to discover the mechanistic role of CN in controlling the neuroinflammatory conditions through the modulation of complex metabolite interactions in the rat brain.


Asunto(s)
Acanthaceae , Antiinflamatorios/uso terapéutico , Encéfalo/efectos de los fármacos , Citocinas/metabolismo , Inflamación/tratamiento farmacológico , Extractos Vegetales/uso terapéutico , Acanthaceae/química , Animales , Antiinflamatorios/química , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Inflamación/metabolismo , Masculino , Metabolómica , Extractos Vegetales/química , Análisis de Componente Principal , Análisis por Matrices de Proteínas , Espectroscopía de Protones por Resonancia Magnética , Ratas Sprague-Dawley
7.
Virol J ; 17(1): 136, 2020 09 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32907596

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Coronaviruses (CoVs) were long thought to only cause mild respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms in humans but outbreaks of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS)-CoV, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)-CoV-1, and the recently identified SARS-CoV-2 have cemented their zoonotic potential and their capacity to cause serious morbidity and mortality, with case fatality rates ranging from 4 to 35%. Currently, no specific prophylaxis or treatment is available for CoV infections. Therefore we investigated the virucidal and antiviral potential of Echinacea purpurea (Echinaforce®) against human coronavirus (HCoV) 229E, highly pathogenic MERS- and SARS-CoVs, as well as the newly identified SARS-CoV-2, in vitro. METHODS: To evaluate the antiviral potential of the extract, we pre-treated virus particles and cells and evaluated remaining infectivity by limited dilution. Furthermore, we exposed cells to the extract after infection to further evaluate its potential as a prophylaxis and treatment against coronaviruses. We also determined the protective effect of Echinaforce® in re-constituted nasal epithelium. RESULTS: In the current study, we found that HCoV-229E was irreversibly inactivated when exposed to Echinaforce® at 3.2 µg/ml IC50. Pre-treatment of cell lines, however, did not inhibit infection with HCoV-229E and post-infection treatment had only a marginal effect on virus propagation at 50 µg/ml. However, we did observe a protective effect in an organotypic respiratory cell culture system by exposing pre-treated respiratory epithelium to droplets of HCoV-229E, imitating a natural infection. The observed virucidal activity of Echinaforce® was not restricted to common cold coronaviruses, as both SARS-CoV-1 and MERS-CoVs were inactivated at comparable concentrations. Finally, the causative agent of COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2 was also inactivated upon treatment with 50µg/ml Echinaforce®. CONCLUSIONS: These results show that Echinaforce® is virucidal against HCoV-229E, upon direct contact and in an organotypic cell culture model. Furthermore, MERS-CoV and both SARS-CoV-1 and SARS-CoV-2 were inactivated at similar concentrations of the extract. Therefore we hypothesize that Echinacea purpurea preparations, such as Echinaforce®, could be effective as prophylactic treatment for all CoVs due to their structural similarities.


Asunto(s)
Antivirales/farmacología , Betacoronavirus/efectos de los fármacos , Coronavirus Humano 229E/efectos de los fármacos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/tratamiento farmacológico , Coronavirus/efectos de los fármacos , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Extractos Vegetales/uso terapéutico , Animales , Línea Celular , Chlorocebus aethiops , Resfriado Común/tratamiento farmacológico , Resfriado Común/virología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Humanos , Coronavirus del Síndrome Respiratorio de Oriente Medio/efectos de los fármacos , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/tratamiento farmacológico , Neumonía Viral/virología , Virus ARN/efectos de los fármacos , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave/tratamiento farmacológico , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave/virología , Células Vero
8.
Exp Parasitol ; 218: 107980, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877640

RESUMEN

Acacia farnesiana pods are rich in secondary metabolites and their biological activities have been recorded as antibacterial, antioxidant and anthelmintic. Previously, an in vitro bioguided study showed the important ovicidal and larvicidal effects of an organic fraction (EtOAc-F) from a hydroalcoholic extract of A. farnesiana pods against Haemonchus contortus. The present study aimed to assess the in vivo anthelmintic effect of EtOAc-F from A. farnesiana pods on the H. contortus faecal egg elimination in female lambs and on the infective larvae (L3) population reduction in coprocultures. The EtOAc-F was obtained from a hydroalcoholic extract from A. farnesiana pods through chromatographic procedures; additionally, some secondary compounds were identified using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Twenty-one 'Katahdin' crossbred female lambs ranging from three to four months of age, with body weights 21.9 ± 0.39 kg were used. Animals were orally infected with H. contortus (L3) by a single dose of 350 L3/kg BW. Three experimental groups (n = 7) were assigned as follows: 1) Control (untreated), 2) Albendazole, as a positive control (at 7.5 mg/kg BW, unique dose) and 3) EtOAc-F (at 100 mg/kg BW, once every third day, with three applications in total). Individual faecal samples were collected once a week for 5 weeks (at days 38, 45, 52, 59 and 66) post-treatment, to measure the faecal egg counts (FEC) and to obtain the H. contortus (L3) population from faecal cultures. The highest FEC reduction caused by EtOAc-F was 67.7%; meanwhile, albendazole showed a total FEC reduction after the second week post-treatment (day 45). On the other hand, the fraction caused an important reduction in the larval population in coprocultures (54.3-68.5%). The phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of galloyl derivatives and flavonoids as major compounds. The A. farnesiana pods could serve as a natural anthelmintic for the control of H. contortus, and perhaps for controlling other parasites of veterinary importance.


Asunto(s)
Acacia/química , Antihelmínticos/uso terapéutico , Hemoncosis/veterinaria , Extractos Vegetales/uso terapéutico , Enfermedades de las Ovejas/tratamiento farmacológico , Animales , Antihelmínticos/aislamiento & purificación , Antihelmínticos/farmacología , Heces/parasitología , Femenino , Flavonoides/química , Ácido Gálico/química , Hemoncosis/tratamiento farmacológico , Hemoncosis/parasitología , Haemonchus/efectos de los fármacos , Haemonchus/aislamiento & purificación , Hematócrito/veterinaria , Recuento de Huevos de Parásitos/veterinaria , Extractos Vegetales/aislamiento & purificación , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Distribución Aleatoria , Ovinos , Enfermedades de las Ovejas/parasitología
9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(33): e21745, 2020 Aug 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32872063

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Alzheimer disease (AD) is a leading progressive neurodegenerative disease worldwide, but treating it is challenging in clinical practice. This review is aimed at evaluating the efficacy and safety of herbal medicine for treating AD. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will search for randomized controlled trials related to the effect and safety of herbal medicine for AD in the following databases: PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Excerpta Medica Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure database, Oriental Medicine Advanced Searching Integrated system, Korean Traditional Knowledge Portal, and Citation Information by National Institute for Informatics. The risk of bias will be evaluated using the Cochrane risk-of-bias assessment tool. After screening the studies, a meta-analysis will be performed. The primary outcome will be the Mini-Mental State Examination score. Secondary outcomes will consist of other scales for cognitive function and other aspects, such as behavioral and psychological symptoms and plasma levels of amyloid-ß. RESULTS: This study will provide the current status of evidence for herbal medicine to treat AD. CONCLUSION: The results of this review will determine the efficacy and safety of herbal medicine for AD. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval is not required, as this study is based on a review of published research. This review will be published in a peer-reviewed journal and disseminated both electronically and in print. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: Research Registry reviewregistry933.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad de Alzheimer/tratamiento farmacológico , Fitoterapia , Extractos Vegetales/uso terapéutico , Medicina de Hierbas , Humanos , Metaanálisis como Asunto , Revisiones Sistemáticas como Asunto
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(35): e21959, 2020 Aug 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871945

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is not only an important microvascular complication of diabetes but also the main cause of end-stage renal disease. Ginkgo biloba has a variety of biological activities and has been widely used in China to treat kidney diseases such as DN. This article aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of G biloba in patients affected with DN in the early stage. METHODS: This protocol follows the preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analysis protocols and the recommendations of the Cochrane Collaboration Handbook. Seven electronic databases will be searched from inception to July 31, 2020. Two investigators will independently identify relevant randomized controlled trials, fetch data, and assess the risk of bias with tools provided by Cochrane. A comprehensive meta-analysis will be conducted with the Cochrane Collaboration software (Review Manager 5.3) for eligible and appropriate studies. Further, the evidence will be assessed with the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation approach. RESULTS: The results will be published in academic peer-reviewed journals, and the evidence gathered by this project will be dedicated to assessing the efficacy and safety of G biloba for DN patients in the early stage. CONCLUSION: This systematic review and meta-analysis will synthesize the available evidence to demonstrate the efficacy of G biloba in delaying the progression of patients with early DN. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: PROSPERO CRD42020166805.


Asunto(s)
Nefropatías Diabéticas/tratamiento farmacológico , Ginkgo biloba , Fitoterapia , Extractos Vegetales/uso terapéutico , Humanos , Metaanálisis como Asunto , Revisiones Sistemáticas como Asunto
11.
Complement Ther Clin Pract ; 40: 101214, 2020 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32891290

RESUMEN

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) as a life-threatening disease is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that is accounted as global public health concern. Treatment of COVID-19 is primarily supportive and the role of antiviral agents is yet to be established. However, there are no specific anti-COVID-19 drugs and vaccine until now. This review focuses on traditional medicine such as medicinal plant extracts as promising approaches against COVID-19. Chinese, Indian and Iranian traditional medicine, suggests some herbs for prevention, treatment and rehabilitation of the diseases including COVID-19. Although, inhibition of viral replication is considered as general mechanism of herbal extracts, however some studies demonstrated that traditional herbal extracts can interact with key viral proteins which are associated with virus virulence. Chinese, Indian and Iranian traditional medicine, suggests some herbs for prevention, treatment and rehabilitation of the diseases including COVID-19. However the beneficial effects of these traditional medicines and their clinical trials remained to be known. Herein, we reviewed the latest updates on traditional medicines proposed for treatment of COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/tratamiento farmacológico , Fitoterapia , Extractos Vegetales/uso terapéutico , Plantas Medicinales , Neumonía Viral/tratamiento farmacológico , China , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos/uso terapéutico , Humanos , India , Irán , Pandemias
12.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0223815, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32997672

RESUMEN

Allium roseum is an important medicinal and aromatic plant, specific to the North African flora and a rich source of important nutrients and bioactive molecules including flavonoids and organosulfur compounds whose biological activities and pharmacological properties are well known. In the present study, the inhibition of amyloid beta protein toxicity by the ethanolic extract of this plant is investigated for the first time. Preliminary biochemical analyses identified kæmpferol and luteolin-7-o-glucoside as the more abundant phenolic compounds. The effects of A. roseum extract (ARE) on aggregation and aggregate cytotoxicity of amyloid beta-42 (Aß42), whose brain aggregates are a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease, were investigated by biophysical (ThT assay, Dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy) and cellular assays (cytotoxicity, aggregate immunolocalization, ROS measurement and intracellular Ca2+ imaging). The biophysical data suggest that ARE affects the structure of the Aß42 peptide, inhibits its polymerization, and interferes with the path of fibrillogenesis. The data with cultured cells shows that ARE reduces Aß42 aggregate toxicity by inhibiting aggregate binding to the cell membrane and by decreasing both oxidative stress and intracellular Ca2+. Accordingly, ARE could act as a neuroprotective factor against Aß aggregate toxicity in Alzheimer's disease.


Asunto(s)
Allium/química , Enfermedad de Alzheimer/tratamiento farmacológico , Péptidos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Fármacos Neuroprotectores/farmacología , Fragmentos de Péptidos/metabolismo , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Agregación Patológica de Proteínas/tratamiento farmacológico , Enfermedad de Alzheimer/patología , Péptidos beta-Amiloides/química , Péptidos beta-Amiloides/toxicidad , Calcio/metabolismo , Línea Celular Tumoral , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Citosol/metabolismo , Evaluación Preclínica de Medicamentos , Dispersión Dinámica de Luz , Etanol/química , Humanos , Microscopía Electrónica de Transmisión , Fármacos Neuroprotectores/química , Fármacos Neuroprotectores/aislamiento & purificación , Fármacos Neuroprotectores/uso terapéutico , Estrés Oxidativo/efectos de los fármacos , Fragmentos de Péptidos/química , Fragmentos de Péptidos/toxicidad , Extractos Vegetales/química , Extractos Vegetales/aislamiento & purificación , Extractos Vegetales/uso terapéutico , Agregación Patológica de Proteínas/patología , Especies Reactivas de Oxígeno/metabolismo
13.
Am J Chin Med ; 48(6): 1385-1407, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32907359

RESUMEN

Accumulating evidence suggests that gut microbiota plays a crucial role in the development of metabolic diseases, especially type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The nutrient-rich resource Cornus Fructus (CF) showed curative effects on diabetes mellitus. However, the mechanism underlying its hyperglycemic activity remains obscure. Herein, the antidiabetic potential of four extracts from CF, including saponin (CTS), iridoid glycoside (CIG), tannin (CT), and alcohol extract (CCA) was evaluated in vivo. The results showed that all four extracts could increase the body weight, decrease the blood glucose levels, and elevate the glucose tolerance. Moreover, insulin sensitivity and lipid profile were significantly improved in fed mice. In the [Formula: see text]-diversity index of samples, compared to the DM group, the diversity and richness of gut microbiota in mice to a certain extent were reduced in both CF extracts and Metformin (PC). Among them, there was statistical significance in PC (ACE, [Formula: see text]) and CCA (ACE, [Formula: see text]; chao1: [Formula: see text]). Beta diversity showed the same trend as the UPGMA clustering trees, which revealed that CF extracts could improve intestinal homeostasis in T2DM mice. Also, CF extracts could elevate the production of short-chain fatty acids, as well as regulate the composition of gut microbiota. The key bacteria related to T2DM including Firmicutes, Bacteroides, Lactobacillus, and Clostridium were modulated by metformin and CF. Altogether, CF is a potential nutrient-rich candidate that can be used in functional foods for the treatment of T2DM, and the change of gut microbiota might be a novel mechanism underlying its hyperglycemic activity.


Asunto(s)
Cornus/química , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamiento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/microbiología , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efectos de los fármacos , Fitoterapia , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Extractos Vegetales/uso terapéutico , Animales , Glucemia/metabolismo , Peso Corporal/efectos de los fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiología , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Alimentos Funcionales , Resistencia a la Insulina , Glicósidos Iridoides , Metabolismo de los Lípidos/efectos de los fármacos , Masculino , Ratones Endogámicos ICR , Extractos Vegetales/química , Saponinas , Taninos
14.
Am J Chin Med ; 48(6): 1455-1473, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32933312

RESUMEN

Uric acid nephropathy (UAN) is caused by excessive uric acid, which results in the damage of renal tissue via urate crystals deposition in the kidneys. The roots and rhizomes of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (S. miltiorrhiza) have been clinically used in many prescriptions to treat uric acid-induced renal damage. This study investigates the uricosuric and nephroprotective effects of the ethyl acetate extract of S. miltiorrhiza (EASM) and tanshinone IIA (a major component of S. miltiorrhiza, Tan-IIA) on UAN and explores the underlying molecular mechanism. Both EASM and Tan-IIA significantly decreased serum uric acid (SUA), serum creatinine (SCR), urine uric acid (UUA), and increased urine creatinine (UCR), and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels in experimental UAN mice. In adenine and potassium oxonate-induced mice, EASM and Tan-IIA treatment alleviated renal dysfunction and downregulated the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Moreover, EASM treatment significantly prevented excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in uric acid-induced HK-2 cells and suppressed the expression of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase 4 (NOX4). EASM also suppressed ROS-activated mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in vivo and in vitro. These results suggest that both EASM and Tan-IIA demonstrated inhibitory effects on UAN through relieving NOX4-mediated oxidative stress and suppressing MAPK pathways activation.


Asunto(s)
Abietanos/farmacología , Abietanos/uso terapéutico , Cálculos Renales/tratamiento farmacológico , Cálculos Renales/metabolismo , Sistema de Señalización de MAP Quinasas/efectos de los fármacos , Estrés Oxidativo/efectos de los fármacos , Fitoterapia , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Extractos Vegetales/uso terapéutico , Salvia miltiorrhiza/química , Ácido Úrico/metabolismo , Abietanos/aislamiento & purificación , Animales , Células Cultivadas , Cristalización , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Humanos , Interacciones Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Cálculos Renales/etiología , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos , Extractos Vegetales/aislamiento & purificación
15.
Maturitas ; 140: 49-54, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32972635

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of a 12-week course of 5%Pueraria mirifica gel and placebo gel on the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis, vaginal fungi, vaginal pH, vaginal health index (VHI), and genitourinary symptoms in postmenopausal women. STUDY DESIGN: In a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study (TCTR20160517002), 60 postmenopausal women were randomly assigned to a 12-week course of eitherP. mirifica gel or identical placebo gel. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Vaginal Nugent score, fungal culture, pH, VHI, and genitourinary symptoms were evaluated at baseline and after 12 weeks of treatment. RESULTS: After 12 weeks of treatment, the proportion of participants with an abnormal Nugent score in the P. mirifica and the placebo groups were 6.7 % (2/30) and 23.3 % (7/30), respectively (p =  0.006). The mean changes in Nugent scores and VHI were significantly higher in the P. mirifica group (p <  0.05). There were no significant decreases in the prevalence of symptoms between the two groups after treatment (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: A 12-week course of treatment with 5 % P. mirifica vaginal gel in postmenopausal women with GSM has been proved to be effective in reducing indicators of bacterial vaginosis compared with placebo gel. Nevertheless, the effect on alleviating genital symptoms was not demonstrated.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones Bacterianas/tratamiento farmacológico , Enfermedades Urogenitales Femeninas/tratamiento farmacológico , Micosis/tratamiento farmacológico , Extractos Vegetales/uso terapéutico , Pueraria , Método Doble Ciego , Femenino , Humanos , Concentración de Iones de Hidrógeno , Persona de Mediana Edad , Fitoterapia , Posmenopausia , Síndrome , Vagina/química , Vagina/efectos de los fármacos , Cremas, Espumas y Geles Vaginales/uso terapéutico
16.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 9: CD004448, 2020 09 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32977351

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Sickle cell disease, a common recessively inherited haemoglobin disorder, affects people from sub-Saharan Africa, the Middle East, Mediterranean basin, Indian subcontinent, Caribbean and South America. It is associated with complications and a reduced life expectancy. Phytomedicines (medicine derived from plants in their original state) encompass many of the plant remedies from traditional healers which the populations most affected would encounter. Laboratory research and limited clinical trials have suggested positive effects of phytomedicines both in vivo and in vitro. However, there has been little systematic appraisal of their benefits. This is an updated version of a previously published Cochrane Review. OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and risks of phytomedicines in people with sickle cell disease of all types, of any age, in any setting. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Haemoglobinopathies Trials Register, the International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number Register (ISRCTN), the Allied and Complimentary Medicine Database (AMED), ClinicalTrials.gov and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP). Dates of most recent searches: Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Haemoglobinopathies Trials Register: 17 March 2020; ISRCTN: 19 April 2020; AMED: 18 May 2020; ClinicalTrials.gov: 24 April 2020; and the WHO ICTRP: 27 July 2017. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised or quasi-randomised trials with participants of all ages with sickle cell disease, in all settings, comparing the administration of phytomedicines, by any mode to placebo or conventional treatment, including blood transfusion and hydroxyurea. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Both authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. MAIN RESULTS: Three trials (212 participants) of three phytomedicines: Niprisan® (also known as Nicosan®), Ciklavit® and a powdered extract of Pfaffia paniculata were included. The Phase IIB (pivotal) trial suggests that Niprisan® may be effective in reducing episodes of severe painful sickle cell disease crisis over a six-month period (low-quality evidence). It did not appear to affect the risk of severe complications or the level of anaemia (low-quality evidence). The single trial of Cajanus cajan (Ciklavit®) reported a possible benefit to individuals with painful crises, and a possible adverse effect (non-significant) on the level of anaemia (low-quality evidence). We are uncertain of the effect of Pfaffia paniculata on the laboratory parameters and symptoms of SCD (very low-quality of evidence). No adverse effects were reported with Niprisan® and Pfaffia paniculata (low- to very low-quality evidence). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: While Niprisan® appeared to be safe and effective in reducing severe painful crises over a six-month follow-up period, further trials are required to assess its role in managing people with SCD and the results of its multicentre trials are awaited. Currently, no conclusions can be made regarding the efficacy of Ciklavit® and the powdered root extract of Pfaffia paniculata in managing SCD. Based on the published results for Niprisan® and in view of the limitations in data collection and analysis of the three trials, phytomedicines may have a potential beneficial effect in reducing painful crises in SCD. This needs to be further validated in future trials. More trials with improved study design and data collection are required on the safety and efficacy of phytomedicines used in managing SCD.


Asunto(s)
Anemia de Células Falciformes/tratamiento farmacológico , Antidrepanocíticos/uso terapéutico , Fitoterapia , Extractos Vegetales/uso terapéutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Amaranthaceae/química , Anemia/inducido químicamente , Anemia de Células Falciformes/sangre , Antidrepanocíticos/efectos adversos , Niño , Preescolar , Ensayos Clínicos Fase II como Asunto , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Fitoterapia/efectos adversos , Extractos Vegetales/efectos adversos , Raíces de Plantas/química , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto
17.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 9: CD008294, 2020 09 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32990945

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Pine bark (Pinus spp.) extract is rich in bioflavonoids, predominantly proanthocyanidins, which are antioxidants. Commercially-available extract supplements are marketed for preventing or treating various chronic conditions associated with oxidative stress. This is an update of a previously published review. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and safety of pine bark extract supplements for treating chronic disorders. SEARCH METHODS: We searched three databases and three trial registries; latest search: 30 September 2019. We contacted the manufacturers of pine bark extracts to identify additional studies and hand-searched bibliographies of included studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating pine bark extract supplements in adults or children with any chronic disorder. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two authors independently assessed trial eligibility, extracted data and assessed risk of bias. Where possible, we pooled data in meta-analyses. We used GRADE to evaluate the certainty of evidence. Primary outcomes were participant- and investigator-reported clinical outcomes directly related to each disorder and all-cause mortality. We also assessed adverse events and biomarkers of oxidative stress. MAIN RESULTS: This review included 27 RCTs (22 parallel and five cross-over designs; 1641 participants) evaluating pine bark extract supplements across 10 chronic disorders: asthma (two studies; 86 participants); attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (one study; 61 participants), cardiovascular disease (CVD) and risk factors (seven studies; 338 participants), chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) (two studies; 60 participants), diabetes mellitus (DM) (six studies; 339 participants), erectile dysfunction (three studies; 277 participants), female sexual dysfunction (one study; 83 participants), osteoarthritis (three studies; 293 participants), osteopenia (one study; 44 participants) and traumatic brain injury (one study; 60 participants). Two studies exclusively recruited children; the remainder recruited adults. Trials lasted between four weeks and six months. Placebo was the control in 24 studies. Overall risk of bias was low for four, high for one and unclear for 22 studies. In adults with asthma, we do not know whether pine bark extract increases change in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) % predicted/forced vital capacity (FVC) (mean difference (MD) 7.70, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.19 to 12.21; one study; 44 participants; very low-certainty evidence), increases change in FEV1 % predicted (MD 7.00, 95% CI 0.10 to 13.90; one study; 44 participants; very low-certainty evidence), improves asthma symptoms (risk ratio (RR) 1.85, 95% CI 1.32 to 2.58; one study; 60 participants; very low-certainty evidence) or increases the number of people able to stop using albuterol inhalers (RR 6.00, 95% CI 1.97 to 18.25; one study; 60 participants; very low-certainty evidence). In children with ADHD, we do not know whether pine bark extract decreases inattention and hyperactivity assessed by parent- and teacher-rating scales (narrative synthesis; one study; 57 participants; very low-certainty evidence) or increases the change in visual-motoric coordination and concentration (MD 3.37, 95% CI 2.41 to 4.33; one study; 57 participants; very low-certainty evidence). In participants with CVD, we do not know whether pine bark extract decreases diastolic blood pressure (MD -3.00 mm Hg, 95% CI -4.51 to -1.49; one study; 61 participants; very low-certainty evidence); increases HDL cholesterol (MD 0.05 mmol/L, 95% CI -0.01 to 0.11; one study; 61 participants; very low-certainty evidence) or decreases LDL cholesterol (MD -0.03 mmol/L, 95% CI -0.05 to 0.00; one study; 61 participants; very low-certainty evidence). In participants with CVI, we do not know whether pine bark extract decreases pain scores (MD -0.59, 95% CI -1.02 to -0.16; one study; 40 participants; very low-certainty evidence), increases the disappearance of pain (RR 25.0, 95% CI 1.58 to 395.48; one study; 40 participants; very low-certainty evidence) or increases physician-judged treatment efficacy (RR 4.75, 95% CI 1.97 to 11.48; 1 study; 40 participants; very low-certainty evidence). In type 2 DM, we do not know whether pine bark extract leads to a greater reduction in fasting blood glucose (MD 1.0 mmol/L, 95% CI 0.91 to 1.09; one study; 48 participants;very low-certainty evidence) or decreases HbA1c (MD -0.90 %, 95% CI -1.78 to -0.02; 1 study; 48 participants; very low-certainty evidence). In a mixed group of participants with type 1 and type 2 DM we do not know whether pine bark extract decreases HbA1c (MD -0.20 %, 95% CI -1.83 to 1.43; one study; 67 participants; very low-certainty evidence). In men with erectile dysfunction, we do not know whether pine bark extract supplements increase International Index of Erectile Function-5 scores (not pooled; two studies; 147 participants; very low-certainty evidence). In women with sexual dysfunction, we do not know whether pine bark extract increases satisfaction as measured by the Female Sexual Function Index (MD 5.10, 95% CI 3.49 to 6.71; one study; 75 participants; very low-certainty evidence) or leads to a greater reduction of pain scores (MD 4.30, 95% CI 2.69 to 5.91; one study; 75 participants; very low-certainty evidence). In adults with osteoarthritis of the knee, we do not know whether pine bark extract decreases composite Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index scores (MD -730.00, 95% CI -1011.95 to -448.05; one study; 37 participants; very low-certainty evidence) or the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medication (MD -18.30, 95% CI -25.14 to -11.46; one study; 35 participants; very low-certainty evidence). We do not know whether pine bark extract increases bone alkaline phosphatase in post-menopausal women with osteopenia (MD 1.16 ug/L, 95% CI -2.37 to 4.69; one study; 40 participants; very low-certainty evidence). In individuals with traumatic brain injury, we do not know whether pine bark extract decreases cognitive failure scores (MD -2.24, 95% CI -11.17 to 6.69; one study; 56 participants; very low-certainty evidence) or post-concussion symptoms (MD -0.76, 95% CI -5.39 to 3.87; one study; 56 participants; very low-certainty evidence). For most comparisons, studies did not report outcomes of hospital admissions or serious adverse events. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Small sample sizes, limited numbers of RCTs per condition, variation in outcome measures, and poor reporting of the included RCTs mean no definitive conclusions regarding the efficacy or safety of pine bark extract supplements are possible.


Asunto(s)
Antioxidantes/uso terapéutico , Enfermedad Crónica/tratamiento farmacológico , Flavonoides/uso terapéutico , Corteza de la Planta/química , Extractos Vegetales/uso terapéutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Asma/tratamiento farmacológico , Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad/tratamiento farmacológico , Sesgo , Enfermedades Óseas Metabólicas/tratamiento farmacológico , Lesiones Traumáticas del Encéfalo/tratamiento farmacológico , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/tratamiento farmacológico , Niño , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamiento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamiento farmacológico , Disfunción Eréctil/tratamiento farmacológico , Femenino , Humanos , Hipertensión/tratamiento farmacológico , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Osteoartritis/tratamiento farmacológico , Pinus , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Disfunciones Sexuales Psicológicas/tratamiento farmacológico , Insuficiencia Venosa/tratamiento farmacológico
18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(37): e22209, 2020 Sep 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925798

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Vascular dementia has become the second most common type of dementia after Alzheimer disease. At present, there is no uniform standard for VaD treatment guidelines among countries. The efficacy of ginkgo biloba in the treatment of vascular dementia is still controversial. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of ginkgo biloba in the treatment of vascular dementia through meta-analysis. METHODS: Six English databases (PubMed, Web of science, Medline, EBASE, Springer Cochrane Library, and WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform) and 4 Chinese databases (Wan fang Database, Chinese Scientific Journal Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure Database(CNKI) and Chinese Biomedical Literature Database) will be searched normatively according to the rule of each database from the inception to August 1, 2020. Two reviewers will independently conduct article selection, data collection, and risk of bias evaluation. Any disagreement will be resolved by discussion with the third reviewer. Either the fixed-effects or random-effects model will be used for data synthesis based on the heterogeneity test. The change in the scores on mini-mental state examination, activity of daily living scale and Montreal cognitive assement will be used as the main outcome measure, Hamilton depression scale, Hastgawa dementia scale, blessed dementia scale, clinical dmentia rating scale as the secondary outcome. Treatment emergent symptom scale, general physical examination (temperature, pulse, respiration, blood pressure), Routine examination of blood, urine and stool, electrocardiogram, liver and kidney function examination as the security indexs. RevMan5.3.5 will be used for meta-analysis. RESULTS: This study will provide high-quality evidence to assess the effectiveness and safety of ginkgo preparation for vascular dementia. CONCLUSION: This systematic review will explore whether ginkgo preparation is an effective and safe intervention for vascular dementia. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval are not required for this study. The systematic review will be published in a peer-reviewed journal, presented at conferences, and will be shared on social media platforms. This review will be disseminated in a peer-reviewed journal or conference presentation. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: PROSPERO CRD42020167851.


Asunto(s)
Demencia Vascular/tratamiento farmacológico , Extractos Vegetales/uso terapéutico , Actividades Cotidianas , Demencia Vascular/epidemiología , Depresión/epidemiología , Estado de Salud , Humanos , Pruebas de Estado Mental y Demencia , Extractos Vegetales/efectos adversos , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Proyectos de Investigación
19.
Life Sci ; 261: 118353, 2020 Nov 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877649

RESUMEN

AIMS: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a widespread chronic reproductive disorder that is associated with metabolic disturbances. Traditionally, the marjoram plant is well-known to restore hormonal balance and regulate the menstrual cycle. We aimed to investigate the ameliorative effects of marjoram extract on hormonal profiles, body and ovaries weight, insulin sensitivity, inflammation, and oxidative stress in a rat model of PCOS. MAIN METHODS: A 75 postpubertal (42 days old) female Wistar rats were randomly assigned into five groups (control, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) induced-PCOS model, marjoram-treated PCOS rats, metformin-treated PCOS rats and the combination of marjoram+metfomin treated PCOS model). PCOS induction was performed by subcutaneous injection of DHEA 60 mg/kg daily for 24 days. Ovaries weight, adiponectin, hormonal levels, inflammatory, and oxidative stress biomarker levels were measured at the end of the treatment period using ELISA assay. KEY FINDINGS: The current study showed that marjoram significantly decreased ovaries' weight and the estradiol levels (P-value<0.05) compared to the DHEA group. Interestingly, marjoram improved insulin sensitivity as manifested by a significant increase in the adiponectin serum levels (P-value<0.05). Marjoram alone or in combination with metformin prominently decreased the IL-6 level and improved the levels of ovarian SOD and GPx enzymes (P-value<0.05). Additionally, the group treated with the combination of marjoram and metformin remarkably decreased the level of TBARS (P-value<0.05). SIGNIFICANCE: The present study established the beneficial effects of marjoram administration on DHEA-induced PCOS in female Wistar rats. The mechanistic effect includes improvement in the hormonal levels, ovaries weight, insulin sensitivity, antioxidants, and anti-inflammatory parameters.


Asunto(s)
Origanum/química , Síndrome del Ovario Poliquístico/inducido químicamente , Síndrome del Ovario Poliquístico/tratamiento farmacológico , Adiponectina/sangre , Animales , Biomarcadores/sangre , Peso Corporal/efectos de los fármacos , Deshidroepiandrosterona , Femenino , Hormonas Esteroides Gonadales/sangre , Mediadores de Inflamación/sangre , Tamaño de los Órganos/efectos de los fármacos , Ovario/efectos de los fármacos , Ovario/patología , Estrés Oxidativo/efectos de los fármacos , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Extractos Vegetales/uso terapéutico , Síndrome del Ovario Poliquístico/sangre , Ratas Wistar
20.
J Biosci Bioeng ; 130(5): 457-463, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32747300

RESUMEN

Inflammatory responses stimulated by Propionibacterium acnes have been shown to be major etiological factors in the pathogenesis of acne. Scutellaria baicalensis, a popular traditional Chinese medicine, has been widely shown to have anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, primary component analysis and primary effective component analysis were conducted. The results showed that wogonin (1.15 mg/g S. baicalensis extract) possessed better anti-acne effects than wogonoside (8.71 mg/g S. baicalensis extract) in inhibiting the up-regulation of IL-1ß and IL-8 level caused by P. acnes via inactivation of the MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways. To enhance the anti-acne effects of S. baicalensis extract, an environmentally friendly and healthy plant fermentation strategy was used to efficiently convert glycoside-type constituents into bioactive aglycone. S. baicalensis extract was fermented by symbiotic fungus Penicillium decumbens f3-1 to transform wogonoside into wogonin with a conversion rate of 91.0% after 4 days. Fermented S. baicalensis extract (FSE) showed higher potential anti-acne effects than non-fermented S. baicalensis extract (NSE) by inhibiting the up-regulation of IL-1ß and IL-8. Thus, P. decumbens-fermented S. baicalensis Extract may be used for developing new anti-acne cosmetic ingredients.


Asunto(s)
Acné Vulgar/tratamiento farmacológico , Acné Vulgar/microbiología , Fermentación , Penicillium/fisiología , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Simbiosis , Acné Vulgar/metabolismo , Acné Vulgar/patología , Regulación de la Expresión Génica/efectos de los fármacos , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Interleucina-8/metabolismo , FN-kappa B/metabolismo , Extractos Vegetales/uso terapéutico , Transducción de Señal/efectos de los fármacos
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