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1.
Bioresour Technol ; 329: 124897, 2021 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33657501

RESUMEN

This study proposed a novel intermittent-aeration constructed wetland (CW) to resolve the vertical loss of oxygen in tertiary treatment. Compared to the non-aeration CW, the intermittent-aeration CW presented a better removal performance (90.8% chemical oxygen demand, 94.3% ammonia nitrogen, 91.5% total nitrogen and 94.1% total phosphorus) at a dissolved oxygen of 3 mg L-1 and hydraulic retention time of 2 days. It was mainly attributed to the higher abundance and greater diversity of bacterial community due to the oxygen supply. High-throughput sequencing indicated that high abundance of phyla Proteobacteria (35.34%) and Bacteroidetes (18.20%) in intermittent-aeration CW were responsible for simultaneous nitrogen and phosphorus removal. Besides, the dominant families Burkholderiaceae (11.16%), Microtrichales (6.88%) and Saprospiraceae (6.50%) were also detected, which was vital to hydrolyze and utilize complex organic matters. In general, oxygen supply upregulated the metabolism pathways of amino acid and carbohydrate, bringing a greater biodegradation potential for removing contaminants.


Asunto(s)
Nitrógeno , Humedales , Análisis de la Demanda Biológica de Oxígeno , Humanos , Nutrientes , Fósforo , Eliminación de Residuos Líquidos
2.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 214: 111994, 2021 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33711576

RESUMEN

This study investigated the vermicomposting of spent drilling fluid (SDF) from the nature-gas industry mixed with cow dung in 0% (T1), 20% (T2), 30% (T3), 40% (T4), 50% (T5), and 60% (T6) ratio employing Eisenia fetida under a 6 weeks trial. Eisenia. fetida showed better growth and reproduction performances in the first three vermireactors (T1-T3), and the mortality was higher in the vermireactors that contained more spent drilling fluid (≥40%). Vermicomposting results in a decrease in total organic carbon, C/N ratio, and an increase in EC, total nitrogen, total phosphorous, total potassium compared to their initial values. The RadViz and VizRank showed that vermicomposting results in a greater impact on the C/N ratio (15.24-35.48%) and EC (7.29-26.45%) compared to other parameters. Activities of urease and alkaline phosphatase during vermicomposting initially increased and then declined suggesting vermicompost maturity. Also, seed germination, mitotic index and chromosomal abnormality assays using cowpea signified that the vermicomposts T2 is suitable for agricultural use due to the lower phytotoxicity and cytotoxicity. The results indicated that SDF could be converted into good quality manure by vermicomposting if mixed up to 20% with cow dung.


Asunto(s)
Compostaje/métodos , Oligoquetos , Animales , Biodegradación Ambiental , Bovinos , Estudios de Factibilidad , Heces , Femenino , Estiércol , Nitrógeno , Fósforo , Reproducción , Suelo
3.
Bioresour Technol ; 329: 124922, 2021 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33713899

RESUMEN

In China, more than 3.5 million tons of Camellia oleifera discarded shells are produced every year. This work first prepared phosphorus-containing biochar (PBC) from C. oleifera shells and was successfully applied to the efficient removal of tetracycline (TC) from solutions. The prepared PBC exhibits superior TC adsorption capacity of 451.5 mg/g, and TC uptake rapidly reached 315.5 mg/g at the first 5 min (C0 = 50 mg/L). Furthermore, PBC also shows excellent applicability to the broad range pH value (1-9) and superior selective removal in the presence of various high concentration coexisting ions (1 mM). Mechanisms underlying TC adsorption were also put forward, and analysis suggested that pyrophosphate-like surface functional groups (C-O-P bond) played a critical role in this process. Notably, treating pharmaceutical wastewater with PBC can efficiently reduce chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total organic carbon (TOC) concentration below the discharge standard of China (GB21904-2008).


Asunto(s)
Camellia , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Adsorción , Carbón Orgánico , China , Difosfatos , Cinética , Fósforo , Tetraciclina/análisis , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 772: 145594, 2021 Jun 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33770866

RESUMEN

Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) in sediments is an important source of bioavailable nitrogen in aquatic systems. However, the effect of habitat change caused by eutrophication on nitrogen fixation within sediments is still unclear. In this study, nitrogen fixation rates and diazotroph diversities in sediments with heterogeneous ecological status in one eutrophic lake were investigated by using an isotope tracer method and sequencing of nitrogen-fixing (nif) genes. The results showed that both nitrogenase activity (NA) and nifH abundance in sediments of blooms area were higher than those in vegetation-dominated habitats. Correlation analysis showed that NA was correlated closely to nifH abundance, dissolved sulfide, and iron. The diazotrophic assemblage contained mainly Proteobacterial sequences belonging to Cluster I and III, and the variations of diazotrophic community could be explained by total nitrogen content, total phosphorus content, organic matters, sulfides, ammonium and iron content. Moreover, the co-occurrence network analysis showed the Alphaproteobacteria shaped the major interactions in diazotrophic community, and sediment properties had stronger effect on diazotrophic community in cyanobacteria-dominated habitat. This study revealed that habitat heterogeneity in eutrophic lakes shaped different succession of BNF in sediments and cyanobacterial blooms significantly improved the nitrogen-fixing activity in sediments, which broadened our understanding of nitrogen cycle and nutrient management in eutrophic freshwater lakes.


Asunto(s)
Lagos , Fijación del Nitrógeno , China , Ecosistema , Eutrofización , Sedimentos Geológicos , Nitrógeno/análisis , Fósforo/análisis
5.
Science ; 371(6533): 1033-1037, 2021 03 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33674490

RESUMEN

Microbial production of antibiotics is common, but our understanding of their roles in the environment is limited. In this study, we explore long-standing observations that microbes increase the production of redox-active antibiotics under phosphorus limitation. The availability of phosphorus, a nutrient required by all life on Earth and essential for agriculture, can be controlled by adsorption to and release from iron minerals by means of redox cycling. Using phenazine antibiotic production by pseudomonads as a case study, we show that phenazines are regulated by phosphorus, solubilize phosphorus through reductive dissolution of iron oxides in the lab and field, and increase phosphorus-limited microbial growth. Phenazines are just one of many examples of phosphorus-regulated antibiotics. Our work suggests a widespread but previously unappreciated role for redox-active antibiotics in phosphorus acquisition and cycling.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/biosíntesis , Fenazinas/metabolismo , Fósforo/metabolismo , Pseudomonas/metabolismo , Técnicas de Cultivo Celular por Lotes , Disponibilidad Biológica , Oxidación-Reducción , Pseudomonas/genética , Pseudomonas/crecimiento & desarrollo
6.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 214: 112072, 2021 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33691243

RESUMEN

The Green Revolution faced a great cost to meet ever-increasing demands for food, where indiscriminate use of agrochemicals resulted in non-friendly habitats. Therefore, the development of a sustainable approach to better crop production of onion seeds (Allium cepa L.) is very crucial. It is time to use organic waste as a replacement for agrochemicals by using arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and Trichoderma. Fish waste as representative of food waste acts as a leading cause of contamination of the environment. The interaction of AMF and Trichoderma viride on biomass, total soluble protein, mycorrhizal colonization, amino acids, phosphatases and phosphorus and nitrogen contents of onion plants grown in fish waste amended soil was studied. Fish waste has caused a slight increase in onions biomass, total free amino acids, and soluble protein content while with AMF and T. viride dual inoculation more increments were recorded; such increases were related to an increase in mycorrhizal colonization. T. viride application significantly increased the mycorrhizal colonization levels, but these were significantly reduced with waste addition. Analysis of amino acids in plants showed that their concentrations had changed as a result of waste addition combined with AMF and/or T. viride. The effectiveness of fish waste combined with low cost and health/environmental safety leads to a prediction that the introduction of fish waste coupled with fungi will become a more popular feature of agriculture in the future.


Asunto(s)
Micorrizas/fisiología , Cebollas/fisiología , Trichoderma/fisiología , Agricultura , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Biomasa , Alimentos , Hongos/metabolismo , Hypocreales , Micorrizas/metabolismo , Nitrógeno/metabolismo , Cebollas/química , Monoéster Fosfórico Hidrolasas/metabolismo , Fósforo/metabolismo , Eliminación de Residuos , Suelo , Trichoderma/metabolismo
7.
Bioresour Technol ; 330: 124958, 2021 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33756183

RESUMEN

This study investigated the feasibility of coupling simultaneous partial nitrification and denitrification (SPND) to biological phosphorus removal in continuous-flow intermittently-aerated moving bed biofilm reactors (MBBRs) fed with different carbon sources, i.e. ethanol and acetate. Bacterial cultivation at pH 8.2 (±0.2), 26-28 °C and SRT of 4 day and microaerobic/aerobic MBBR operation allowed to achieve average dissolved organic carbon (DOC), total inorganic nitrogen (TIN) and P-PO43- removal efficiencies (REs) of 100%, 81-88% and 83-86% at HRT of 1 day, dissolved oxygen (DO) range of 0.2-3 mg L-1 and feed C/N and C/P ratios of 3.6 and 11, respectively. Acetate supplementation favored a diversified microbial community, while overgrowth of heterotrophs was observed when increasing feed C/N ratio in ethanol-fed MBBR. Illumina sequencing displayed the presence of putative phosphorus accumulating organisms (PAOs) such as Hydrogenophaga and Pseudomonas in MBBR biofilm and suspended biomass, whereas no typical NOB was identified during the study.


Asunto(s)
Nitrificación , Fósforo , Acetatos , Biopelículas , Reactores Biológicos , Desnitrificación , Etanol , Nitrógeno , Aguas del Alcantarillado , Eliminación de Residuos Líquidos
8.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 42(4): 1847-1860, 2021 Apr 08.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33742820

RESUMEN

In this work, the influence of an integrated method based on calcium nitrate, denitrifying bacteria, and zirconium-modified zeolite (CN+DB+ZZ) on the transport and transformation of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in sediments was investigated, and the risk of nitrate release from the calcium nitrate-injected sediment was evaluated. The effects of the single calcium nitrate injection (CN), calcium nitrate, and denitrifying bacteria combined treatment (CN+DB) and the combined treatment using calcium nitrate injection and zirconium-modified zeolite capping (CN+ZZ) on the mobilization of N and P in sediment were compared, and the nitrate releasing risk of these methods was also evaluated. The results indicated that although CN treatment could effectively control the P release from the sediment, this method could not effectively control the release of ammonium-nitrogen from sediment and has a high risk of releasing nitrate-nitrogen. The CN+DB combined method not only could effectively control the liberation of sedimentary P but also reduce the risk of nitrate-nitrogen release from the calcium nitrate-injected sediment compared with the single CN method. However, the CN+DB combined method could not effectively control the release of ammonium-nitrogen from the sediment. The CN+ZZ combined treatment not only could effectively prevent the release of sedimentary P but could also greatly reduce the release of ammonium-nitrogen from the sediment. However, the CN+ZZ combined method could result in a substantial release of nitrate-nitrogen from the calcium nitrate-injected sediment. The CN+DB+ZZ combined technology could effectively control the release of P from sediment as well as greatly reduce the risk of ammonium-nitrogen release from the sediment. Furthermore, the CN+DB+ZZ combined method resulted in a significant reduction of nitrate-nitrogen released from the calcium nitrate-injected sediment compared with the CN and CN+ZZ treatment methods. The prevention of the dissolution of the P-bound iron oxide/hydroxide in the sediment, the reduction of redox-sensitive P in sediment, and the improvement of the phosphate and ammonium adsorption abilities of sediment by the CN+DB+ZZ combined method is critical to control the release of phosphorus and ammonium-nitrogen from sediment using this method. Results of this study reveal that the CN+DB+ZZ combined technology could be a promising method for the control of phosphorus and ammonium-nitrogen release from sediments.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Zeolitas , Bacterias , Compuestos de Calcio , Sedimentos Geológicos , Nitratos , Nitrógeno/análisis , Fósforo , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , Circonio
9.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 42(4): 1861-1869, 2021 Apr 08.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33742821

RESUMEN

Nitrogen and phosphorus are the leading causes of water eutrophication, and it is challenging to remove nitrogen and phosphorus effectively through a single water remediation method. In this study, an aerobic denitrifying bacterium (AD-19) isolated from eutrophic water was used to construct an immobilized biofilm and combined with Phoslock® to remove nitrogen and phosphorus from the water. The phosphorus control efficiency of Phoslock®, nitrogen removal performance of the denitrifying bacteria, and combined remediation performance for the eutrophic water were studied. The results demonstrated that the removal rate of PO43--P in the simulated eutrophic water reached 95% with a dosing ratio of 80 (mass ratio of Phoslock® to PO43--P), and phosphorus release from sediment was effectively inhibited at the same time. Strain AD-19, which was identified as Pseudomonas sp. Using the 16S rDNA method, had a good heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification ability, and more than 97% of the nitrogen was removed when NH4+-N or NO3--N was used as the nitrogen source. The feasibility of the combined remediation of the eutrophic water was demonstrated using a lake simulation device. Furthermore, this technique was used to restore a eutrophic pond in a park in Wuhan city. After 16 days of treatment, the water quality indices for nitrogen and phosphorus were improved from worse than Grade Ⅴ to Grade Ⅲ (GB 3838-2002, Ministry of Environmental Protection of China, 2002) and remained stable for more than 270 days, indicating that Phoslock® combined with the immobilized biofilm could quickly and effectively restore eutrophic water as well as maintain the water quality for long periods.


Asunto(s)
Fósforo , Agua , Bacterias , China , Desnitrificación , Nitrificación , Nitrógeno , Fósforo/análisis
10.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 42(2): 819-830, 2021 Feb 08.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33742876

RESUMEN

Periphytic algae are often used as an indicator to evaluate water quality. Here, the community structure of periphytic algae and its relationship with environment factors were analyzed in the main stream of the Songhua River during the summers of 2014 to 2019. The status and trends in ecological water quality were also evaluated based on bioassessments. Phytoplankton species belonging to 4 phyla and 58 genera were recorded, including 28 Bacillariophyta genera, 17 Chlorophyta genera, 10 Cyanophyta genera, and 3 Euglenophyta genera; Bacillariophyta, Chlorophyta, and Cyanophyta accounted for 48.28%, 29.31%, and 17.24% of the community, respectively. Cell densities varied between 1.29×104 and 8.42×104 ind·cm-3, with an average of 4.35×104 ind·cm-3. The dominant genera were Cyclotella, Melosira, Asterionella, Cymbella, Synedra, Pinnularia, Navicula, and Scenedesmus. The physicochemical water quality showed notable changes during the past six-year monitoring period. Specifically, the dissolved oxygen content increased year on year; ammonia nitrogen, total phosphorus, and total nitrogen first increased and then decreased; and, overall, water quality significantly improved in 2019. Relationship between periphytic algae and environmental factors was further examined using redundancy analysis (RDA), which showed that time was the main factor driving the succession of algal community structure. Dissolved oxygen (DO), ammonia nitrogen (NH4+-N), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), five-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), and chemical oxygen demand (COD) were also important environmental variables affecting algal community structure.


Asunto(s)
Diatomeas , Ríos , China , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Nitrógeno/análisis , Fósforo/análisis , Fitoplancton , Estaciones del Año , Calidad del Agua
11.
Life Sci ; 274: 119363, 2021 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33737083

RESUMEN

AIMS: Post-fracture calcium and phosphorus excretion is greater than influx, which might be caused by stress. Glucocorticoid is known to enhance calcium and phosphorous excretion, and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been shown to exert inhibitory effects on glucocorticoid. Therefore, this study explored whether H2S could inhibit calcium and phosphorus loss after fracture by regulating glucocorticoid and/or its receptor. MAIN METHODS: The following properties were analyzed in rats with femur fractures: serum and urinary calcium and phosphorus (by colorimetry); bone turnover markers alkaline phosphatase, serum type 1 collagen amino terminal peptide, type 1 procollagen carboxy terminal peptide, and anti-tartaric acid phosphatase (by ELISA); factors related to calcium-phosphorus metabolism including glucocorticoid, parathyroid hormone, calcitonin, fibroblast growth factor 23, and 1,25(OH)2D3 (by ELISA); and sulfhydration of glucocorticoid receptor α in the kidney (by immunoprecipitation linked biotin-switch assay), after supplementing with mifepristone, the H2S donor GYY4137 or H2S generating enzyme inhibitors aminooxyacetic acid and propargylglycine. KEY FINDINGS: Serum H2S decreased and glucocorticoid secretion increased in rats post-fracture. The glucocorticoid receptor inhibitor mifepristone partly blunted calcium and phosphorus loss. Furthermore, supplementation with GYY4137 reduced glucocorticoid secretion; inhibited glucocorticoid receptor α activity by sulfhydration; downregulated vitamin D 1α-hydroxylase expression; and upregulated 24-hydroxylase, calbindin-D28k, and sodium phosphate cotransporter 2a expression in the kidney; thereby inhibiting calcium and phosphorus loss induced by fracture. Moreover, inhibiting endogenous H2S generation showed opposite effects. SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings suggest that H2S antagonized calcium and phosphorus loss after fracture by reducing glucocorticoid secretion and inhibiting glucocorticoid receptor α activity by sulfhydration.


Asunto(s)
Calcio/metabolismo , Fracturas del Fémur/tratamiento farmacológico , Regulación de la Expresión Génica/efectos de los fármacos , Sulfuro de Hidrógeno/farmacología , Morfolinas/farmacología , Compuestos Organotiofosforados/farmacología , Fósforo/metabolismo , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/antagonistas & inhibidores , Animales , Fracturas del Fémur/metabolismo , Fracturas del Fémur/patología , Gasotransmisores/farmacología , Masculino , Ratas , Ratas Sprague-Dawley
12.
Water Res ; 196: 117025, 2021 May 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33765499

RESUMEN

Phosphorus (P) loadings to the Great Lakes have been regulated for decades, but re-eutrophication and seasonal hypoxia have recently been increasingly reported. It is of paramount importance to better understand the fate, transformation, and biogeochemical cycling processes of different P species across the river-lake interface. We report here results on chemical speciation of P in the seasonally hypoxic Fox River-Green Bay system and variations in sources and partitioning of P species along the aquatic continuum. During midsummer when productivity is generally high, phosphate and dissolved organic P (DOP) were the major species in river water while particulate-organic-P predominated in open bay waters, showing a dynamic change in the chemical speciation of P along the river-bay transect with active transformations between inorganic and organic P and between colloidal and particulate phases. Colloidal organic P (COP, >1 kDa) comprised 33‒65% of the bulk DOP, while colloidal inorganic P was generally insignificant and undetectable especially in open bay water. Sources of COP changed from mainly allochthonous in the Fox River, having mostly smaller sized colloids (1-3 kDa) and a lower organic carbon to phosphorus (C/P) ratio, to predominantly autochthonous in open bay waters with larger sized colloids (>10 kDa) and a higher organic C/P ratio. The observed high apparent distribution coefficients (Kd) of P between dissolved and particulate phases and high-abundant autochthonous colloidal and particulate organic P in the hypereutrophic environment suggest that, in addition to phosphate, colloidal/particulate organic P may play a critical role in the biogeochemical cycling of P and the development of seasonal hypoxia.


Asunto(s)
Estuarios , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Eutrofización , Fósforo/análisis , Ríos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
13.
Water Sci Technol ; 83(5): 1130-1140, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33724942

RESUMEN

Algal bloom (AB) is a serious water environment problem in China, but it is still unclear how AB affects microorganisms with special functions (such as nitrogen-, phosphorus-, sulfur- and iron-related bacteria) at different AB stages. Samples of water and sediment were taken in the AB region and free algal bloom (FAB) region of Chaohu Lake at different AB stages, and the numbers of N-, P-, S- and Fe-related bacteria were determined by culture-dependent methods. Results showed that during the whole experiment, numbers of N-, P-, S-, and Fe-related bacteria in the AB region were significantly higher than those in the FAB region, especially at the AB outbreak stage. In the FAB region, numbers of above bacteria showed little variation with time. In the AB region, however, numbers of N-, S-, and Fe-related bacteria evidently changed as 'Λ'-type with AB process. They presented an upward trend at the AB formation stage and the initial stage of AB outbreak, and then showed a downward trend. Numbers of P-related bacteria also showed a similar trend as the above bacteria, but they kept high level for long time at the AB outbreak stage. This study indicated that AB produced different effects on microorganisms with special functions at different AB stages.


Asunto(s)
Eutrofización , Lagos , China , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Sedimentos Geológicos , Nitrógeno/análisis , Fósforo/análisis
14.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 42(3): 1433-1442, 2021 Mar 08.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33742940

RESUMEN

The loss of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from aquaculture has caused eutrophication of freshwater systems. Here, surface flow constructed wetland (SFCW) planted with Myriophyllum elatinoides were used to treat swine wastewater from a medium-sized hoggery in subtropical Central China. Inflow concentrations of NH4+-N, TN, TP, and COD ranged from 535.4 to 591.09, 682.09 to 766.96, 57.73 to 82.29, and 918.4 to 1940.43 mg·L-1, respectively. The mean removal efficiencies of NH4+-N, TN, TP, and COD were 97.4%, 97.1%, 91.0%, and 90.2%, respectively, and CW1 had the largest contributions of 37.3%, 38.4%, 43.3%, and 27.4%, respectively. Plant N and P uptake ranged 23.87-79.96 g·m-2 and 5.34-18.98 g·m-2, accounting for 19.1% and 20.2% of removal, respectively. Sediment N and P accumulation ranged 19.17-56.62 g·m-2 and 10.59-26.62 g·m-2, accounting for 19.8% and 61.7% of removal, respectively. Multiple linear regression showed that environmental factors explained 79.9% of the N removal and 70.1% of the P removal; DO was the main factor affecting N removal, and sediment adsorption was the key process in P removal. These results show that M. elatinoides constructed wetland can efficiently treat swine wastewater, thereby reduce the discharge of pollutants downstream.


Asunto(s)
Aguas Residuales , Humedales , Animales , China , Nitrógeno/análisis , Fósforo , Porcinos , Eliminación de Residuos Líquidos
15.
Chemosphere ; 270: 128640, 2021 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33757273

RESUMEN

This study assessed the convenience of using magnetic particles (MPs) to reduce phosphorus (P) concentration in treated wastewater. The working hypothesis is that MP addition increases P removal in artificial wastewater treatment ponds. Water samples were collected at the inlet and outlet of a semi-natural pond receiving secondary municipal effluent that is discharged in a Ramsar site (Fuente de Piedra, Málaga, Spain). Then, laboratory batch experiments were run to (i) assess the effect of adding MPs on the chemical composition of treated wastewater, (ii) identify the number of adsorption cycles (by reusing MPs) which are able to trap a high percentage of P (>50%) and (iii) select the optimum ratio between MP mass and initial dissolved inorganic P (DIP) concentration. The results show the suitability of using MPs to remove P in treated wastewater due to both their high equilibrium adsorption capacity (q) and P removal efficiency. Lastly, considering its practical and economical relevance, based on the advantages (P removal efficiency) and disadvantages (economic price), the optimum dose of MPs (0.16 g MP mg-1 P) to achieve a high P removal efficiency (>50%) was identified.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Purificación del Agua , Fenómenos Magnéticos , Fosfatos , Fósforo/análisis , España , Eliminación de Residuos Líquidos , Aguas Residuales , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , Humedales
16.
Waste Manag ; 125: 67-76, 2021 Apr 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33684666

RESUMEN

Bioponics integrates the biological treatment of nutrient-rich waste streams with hydroponics. However, there are several challenges of bioponics, especially nutrient availability and qualities, which affect plant yield. In this study, chicken manure based-nutrient film technique bioponics was examined at manure loadings of 200, 300, and 400 g dry wt. per bioponic system (total of 18 plants). Bioponics effectively released nitrogen and phosphorus (total ammonia nitrogen of 5.8-8.0 mgN/L, nitrate of 7.0-11.2 mgN/L, and phosphate of 48.7-74.2 mgP/L) for efficient growth of lettuce (Lactuca sativa; total yield of 1208-2030 g wet wt. per 18 plants). Nitrogen and phosphorus use efficiencies were 35.1-41.8% and 6.8-8.0%, respectively, and were comparable to aquaponics. Next-generation sequencing was used to examine the microbial communities in digested chicken manure and plant roots in bioponics. Results showed that several microbial genera were associated with organic degradation (e.g., Nocardiopsis spp., Cellvibrio spp.), nitrification (Nitrospira spp.), phosphorus solubilization, and plant growth promotion (e.g., WD2101_soil_group, and Bacillus spp.). Nocardiopsis spp., Romboutsia spp. and Saccharomonospora spp. were found at high abundances and a high degree of co-occurrences among the microbiota, suggesting that the microbial organic decomposition to nitrogen and phosphorus release could be the key factors to achieve better nutrient recovery in bioponics.


Asunto(s)
Estiércol , Microbiota , Animales , Pollos , Nitrógeno/análisis , Fósforo
17.
Waste Manag ; 125: 293-302, 2021 Apr 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33721702

RESUMEN

The recovery of valuable materials from waste fits the principle of circular economy and sustainable use of resources, but contaminants in the waste are still a major obstacle. This works proposes a novel approach to recover high-purity phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) from digestate of municipal solid waste based on the combination of two independent membrane processes: electrodialytic (ED) process to extract P, and gas permeable membranes (GPM) for N extraction. A laboratory ED cell was adapted to accommodate a GPM. The length of waste compartment (10 cm; 15 cm), current intensity (50 mA; 75 mA) and operation time (9 days; 12 days) were the variables tested. 81% of P in the waste was successfully extracted to the anolyte when an electric current of 75 mA was applied for 9 days, and 74% of NH4+ was extracted into an acid-trapping solution. The two purified nutrient solutions were subsequently used in the synthesis of a biofertilizer (secondary struvite) through precipitation, achieving an efficiency of 99.5%. The properties of the secondary struvite synthesized using N and P recovered from the waste were similar to secondary struvite formed using synthetic chemicals but the costs were higher due to the need to neutralize the acid-trapping solution, highlighting the need to further tune the process and make it economically more competitive. The high recycling rates of P and N achieved are encouraging and widen the possibility of replacing synthetic fertilizers, manufactured from finite sources, by secondary biofertilizers produced using nutrients extracted from wastes.


Asunto(s)
Fósforo , Eliminación de Residuos Líquidos , Nitrógeno , Nutrientes , Fosfatos , Estruvita , Aguas Residuales
18.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 214: 112112, 2021 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33714140

RESUMEN

Sole biochar addition or microbial inoculation as a soil amendment helps to reduce cadmium (Cd) toxicity in polluted agricultural soils. Yet the synergistic effects of microorganisms and biochar application on Cd absorption and plant productivity remain unclear. Therefore, a pot experiment was conducted to investigate the combined effect of microorganisms (Trichoderma harzianum L. and Bacillus subtilis L.), biochar (maize straw, cow manure, and poultry manure), and Cd (0, 10, and 30 ppm) on plant physiology and growth to test how biochar influences microbial growth and plant nutrient uptake, and how biochar ameliorates under Cd-stressed soil. Results showed that in comparison to non-Cd polluted soil, the highest reduction in chlorophyll content, photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, water use efficiency, and intercellular CO2 were observed in Cd2 (30 ppm), which were 9.34%, 22.95%, 40.45%, 29.07%, 20.67%, and 22.55% respectively less than the control Cd0 (0 ppm). Among sole inoculation of microorganisms, highest stomatal conductance, water use efficiency, and intercellular CO2 were recorded with combined inoculation of both microorganisms (M3), which were 5.92%, 7.65%, and 7.28% respectively higher than the control, and reduced the Cd concentration in soil, root, and shoot by 21.34%, 28.36%, and 20.95%, respectively, compared to the control. Similarly, co-application of microorganisms and biochar ameliorated the adverse effect of Cd in soybean as well as significantly improved plant biomass, photosynthetic activity, nutrient contents, and antioxidant enzyme activities, and minimized the production of reactive oxygen species and Cd content in plants. Soil amended with poultry manure biochar had significantly improved the soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, total phosphorous, and available potassium by 43.53%, 36.97%, 22.28%, and 4.24%, respectively, and decreased the concentration of Cd in plant root and shoot by 34.68% and 47.96%, respectively, compared to the control. These findings indicate that the combined use of microorganisms and biochar as an amendment have important synergistic effects not only on the absorption of nutrients but also on the reduction of soybean Cd intake, and improve plant physiology of soybean cultivated in Cd-polluted soils as compared to sole application of microorganisms or biochar.


Asunto(s)
Bacillus subtilis , Cadmio/análisis , Carbón Orgánico , Hypocreales , Contaminantes del Suelo/análisis , Soja/crecimiento & desarrollo , Soja/metabolismo , Cadmio/metabolismo , Estiércol , Nitrógeno/metabolismo , Fósforo/metabolismo , Raíces de Plantas/crecimiento & desarrollo , Raíces de Plantas/metabolismo , Brotes de la Planta/crecimiento & desarrollo , Brotes de la Planta/metabolismo , Potasio/metabolismo , Contaminantes del Suelo/metabolismo , Zea mays
19.
Water Res ; 196: 117048, 2021 May 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33773451

RESUMEN

Toxic cyanobacteria bloom is a ubiquitous phenomenon worldwide in eutrophic lakes or reservoirs. Microcystis, is a cosmopolitan genus in cyanobacteria and exists in many different forms. Microcystis aeruginosa (M. aeruginosa) can produce microcystins (MCs) with strong liver toxicity during its growth and decomposition. Phosphorus (P) is a typical growth limiting factor of M. aeruginosa. Though different forms and concentrations of P are common in natural water, the molecular responses in the growth and MCs formation of M. aeruginosa remain unclear. In this study, laboratory experiments were conducted to determine the uptake of P, cell activity, MCs release, and related gene expression under different concentrations of dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) and dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP). We found that the growth of M. aeruginosa was promoted by increasing DIP concentration but coerced under high concentration (0.6 and 1.0 mg P/L) of DOP after P starvation. The growth stress was not related to the alkaline phosphatase activity (APA). Although alkaline phosphatase (AP) could convert DOP into algae absorbable DIP, the growth status of M. aeruginosa mainly depended on the response mechanism of phosphate transporter expression to the extracellular P concentration. High-concentration DIP promoted MCs production in M. aeruginosa, while high-concentration DOP triggered the release of intracellular MCs rather than affecting MCs production. Our study revealed the molecular responses of algal growth and toxin formation under different P sources, and provided a theoretical basis and novel idea for risk management of eutrophic lakes and reservoirs.


Asunto(s)
Cianobacterias , Microcystis , Fosfatasa Alcalina , Lagos , Microcistinas , Fósforo
20.
J Environ Manage ; 287: 112308, 2021 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33706092

RESUMEN

The effects of clay mineral bentonite on the growth process of submerged macrophyte V. spiralis and sediment microenvironment were investigated in the study for the first time, aiming to determine whether it is suitable for application in the field of ecological restoration. The growth index, and physiological and biochemical index of V. spiralis in the experiments were measured once a month, and the changes of rhizosphere microorganisms and physicochemical properties of sediments were also studied at the same time. The results demonstrated that bentonite can effectively promote the growth of V. spiralis. The treatment groups of RB1/1 and MB1/5 (the mass ratios of bentonite to sediment were 1/1 and 1/5, respectively.) showed the best V. spiralis growth promotion rates which were 18.78%, and 11.79%, respectively. The highest microbial diversity and abundance existed in group of RB10 (the mass ratio of sediment to bentonite was 10/1), in which the OTUs, Shannon, Chao and Ace were 1521.0, 5.20, 1712.26, and 1686.31, respectively. Bentonite was conducive to the propagation of rhizosphere microorganisms, and further changed the physical and chemical properties of the sediment microenvironment. The nutrient elements dissolved from bentonite may be one of the main reasons that promoted the growth of V. spiralis. The purpose of this result is to prove that bentonite can be further applied as sediment improver and growing media in ecological restoration projects in eutrophic shallow lakes.


Asunto(s)
Bentonita , Sedimentos Geológicos , Lagos , Minerales , Fósforo , Rizosfera
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