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1.
Clin Sports Med ; 40(1): 1-18, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33187601

RESUMEN

Sport-related concussions are common in the United States. Concussion rates have increased over time, likely due to improved recognition and awareness. Concussion rates vary across level (high school vs college), sex, and sport. Concussion rates are the highest among men, particularly in football, wrestling, ice hockey, and lacrosse where collisions and contact are inherent to the sports, although girls'/women's soccer rates are high. In gender-comparable sports, women have higher concussion rates. Continued data collection will increase understanding of sport-related concussion and provide areas for targeted prevention in the future.


Asunto(s)
Traumatismos en Atletas/epidemiología , Conmoción Encefálica/epidemiología , Distribución por Edad , Femenino , Fútbol Americano/lesiones , Hockey/lesiones , Humanos , Incidencia , Masculino , Deportes de Raqueta/lesiones , Distribución por Sexo , Fútbol/lesiones , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Universidades , Lucha/lesiones
2.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 14(10): 1084-1089, 2020 Oct 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33175700

RESUMEN

These indications were drawn up by the Federal Medical-Scientific Commission (FIGC Commission), supplemented for the necessary time by some experts on the subject; currently they are intended to grant the highest achievable guarantee level to protect the health of players, referees and all professionals involved in case of resumption of collective training (Document dated 18 April 2020). They were designed to minimize the risk of contagion were thus based on the fact that during that phase of SARS-COV-2 virus pandemic (COVID-19) and in the absence of an effective vaccine, the zero-contagion risk did not exist and does not exist to date. Those guidelines have been updated on the basis of ongoing medical-scientific evidence, taking into account the indications given by the Technical-Scientific Committee and the opinion of the Italian Football Federation representatives, during a meeting that took place on May 7 and was transmitted to FIGC on May 11, 2020; these indications are to be considered stringent and binding for the purposes of sport training resumption.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Volver al Deporte/normas , Fútbol , Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Descontaminación , Humanos , Italia , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Instalaciones Deportivas y Recreativas/normas
3.
Sensors (Basel) ; 20(21)2020 Oct 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33138115

RESUMEN

During the COVID-19 pandemic, the temporary closure of physical activity and sports facilities, and the generalized cancellation or postponement of sports events have a massive impact on social and economic development. In this study, we explored the feasibility of using tracking data from a football match to assess interpersonal contact between individuals by calculating two measures of respiratory exposure. The dynamic tracking positioning of all players and referees during one international football match was analyzed. For each individual, two measures of respiratory exposure were calculated, based on the 2 m interpersonal distance recommendations for contact tracing for COVID-19 control. Overall, individuals spent a median of 0.12 mm:ss (IQR = 0.45 mm:ss) exposed to interpersonal contact of fewer than 2 m from others. The highest value of exposure was observed between two players of opposing teams (6.35 mm:ss). The results suggest that tracking data can be used to assess respiratory exposure to interpersonal contact in team sports, such as football. The measures of exposure calculated can be used to the prompt identification of high-risk contacts of COVID-19 cases during a match or a training session, but also the risk stratification of different sports and physical activities.


Asunto(s)
Trazado de Contacto/métodos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Fútbol , Betacoronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Coronavirus/patología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Neumonía Viral/patología , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Neumonía Viral/virología , Grabación en Video
4.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239507, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33096545

RESUMEN

The purpose of this study was to test the effect of subconcussive head impacts on acute changes in plasma S100B. In this randomized controlled trial, 79 healthy adult soccer players were randomly assigned to either the heading (n = 41) or kicking-control groups (n = 38). The heading group executed 10 headers with soccer balls projected at a speed of 25 mph, whereas the kicking-control group performed 10 kicks. Plasma samples were obtained at pre-, 0h post-, 2h post- and 24h post-intervention and measured for S100B. The primary hypothesis was that there would be a significant group difference (group-by-time interaction) in plasma S100B at 2h post-intervention. Secondary hypotheses included (1) no significant group differences in plasma S100B concentrations at 0h post- and 24h post-intervention; (2) a significant within-group increase in S100B concentrations in the heading group at 2h post-intervention compared to pre-intervention; and (3) no significant within-group changes in plasma S100B in the kicking-control group. Data from 68 subjects were available for analysis (heading n = 37, kicking n = 31). There were no differences in S100B concentrations between heading and kicking groups over time, as evidenced by nonsignificant group-by-time interaction at 2h post-intervention (B = 2.20, 95%CI [-22.22, 26.63], p = 0.86) and at all the other time points (0h post: B = -11.05, 95%CI [-35.37, 13.28], p = 0.38; 24h post: B = 16.11, 95%CI [-8.29, 40.51], p = 0.20). Part of the secondary outcome, the heading group showed elevation in plasma S100B concentrations at 24h post-intervention compared to pre-heading baseline (B = 19.57, 95%CI [3.13, 36.02], p = 0.02), whereas all other within-group comparisons in both remained nonsignificant. The data suggest that 10 bouts of acute controlled soccer headings do not elevate S100B concentrations up to 24-hour post-heading. Further dose-response studies with longer follow-up time points may help determine thresholds of acute soccer heading exposure that are related to astrocyte activation. The protocol was registered under ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT03488381; retrospectively registered.).


Asunto(s)
Cabeza/fisiología , Movimiento , Subunidad beta de la Proteína de Unión al Calcio S100/sangre , Fútbol/fisiología , Conmoción Encefálica/sangre , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Joven
5.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239977, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33007010

RESUMEN

The primary aim of the present study was to analyze mechanical responses during inertial knee- and hip-dominant hamstring strengthening exercises (flywheel leg-curl and hip-extension in conic-pulley), and the secondary aim was to measure and compare regional muscle use using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Mean power, peak power, mean velocity, peak velocity and time in the concentric (CON) and eccentric (ECC) phases were measured. The transverse relaxation time (T2) shift from pre- to post-exercise were calculated for the biceps femoris long (BFl) and short (BFs) heads, semitendinosus (ST) and semimembranosus (SM) muscles at proximal, middle and distal areas of the muscle length. Peak and mean power in flywheel leg-curl were higher during the CON than the ECC phase (p<0.01). ECC peak power was higher than CON phase (p<0.01) in conic-pulley hip-extension exercise, while mean power was higher during the CON than ECC phase (p<0.01). Flywheel leg-curl showed a higher T2 values in ST and BFs and BFl (p<0.05), while the conic-pulley hip-extension had a higher T2 values in the proximal region of the ST and BFl (p<0.05). In conclusion, ECC overload was only observed in peak power during the conic-pulley hip-extension exercise. Flywheel leg-curl involved a greater overall use of the 4 muscle bellies, more specifically in the ST and BFs, with a selective augmented activity (compared with the conic-pulley) in the 3 regions of the BFs, while conic-pulley hip-extension exercise selectively targeted the proximal and medial regions of the BFl. Physiotherapists and strength and conditioning coaches should consider this when optimizing the training and recovery process for hamstring muscles, especially after injury.


Asunto(s)
Atletas , Ejercicio Físico , Músculos Isquiosurales/fisiología , Cadera/fisiología , Rodilla/fisiología , Fenómenos Mecánicos , Fútbol , Fenómenos Biomecánicos , Músculos Isquiosurales/diagnóstico por imagen , Cadera/diagnóstico por imagen , Humanos , Rodilla/diagnóstico por imagen , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Masculino , Fuerza Muscular , Soporte de Peso , Adulto Joven
6.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238702, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32936807

RESUMEN

Goal celebration in sport is mostly spontaneous and is manifested via vocal expressions and bodily gestures aimed at communicating emotions. The aim of this study is to deconstruct the celebratory acts among elite professional football players in the European Champions League following scoring a goal, and to capture the multiple acts and functions of the celebrations. In examining the 2018/19 season of the European Champions League tournament, we draw attention to the players' celebrations and their corresponding social and individual functions. All goals/celebrations (K = 366) were used for the analyses. To analyze the goal celebration acts, a socio-psychological model was established which is comprised of several theories. To describe the goal celebration acts across the competition stages (e.g., preliminary and final), match location (i.e., home or away), time phase (0-15, 15-45, 45-75, 75-90, 90+ minutes), scoring mode (i.e., prior to the goal, after the goal), and players' continent origin (Europe, Africa, Asia, South/Central, and North America), the number and percent of all the celebratory acts were counted and presented in their respective mode (i.e., single, double, and team). The main findings indicate that (a) most of the goal celebration acts were performed interactively by the scoring player and his teammates, (b) the interactive modes of celebration lasted longer than the modes which were performed non-interactively, (c) the celebration lasted longer following goal scoring in the final stage than in the preliminary stage, (d) the celebration duration lasted the longest time when the goal was scored during the overtime phase (90+ min) of the final but not the preliminary stage, and (e) players from Africa and South America demonstrated religious acts more than their European counterparts. We assert that our conceptual model enables the categorization of a variety of personal and social meanings to the celebrations on the field during the most thrilling moments of the game.


Asunto(s)
Rendimiento Atlético , Fútbol/psicología , Geografía , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Factores de Tiempo
7.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32992687

RESUMEN

Rules determine how team sport matches occur. Match-induced fatigue is specific to each sport, and may be associated with injury incidence. For example, the injury rate in soccer is distinctly higher during matches than in training sessions. Understanding the differences between team sports rules might be useful for enhancing rules (e.g., safer sport). Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the impact of the rule-induced physical demands between soccer, futsal, basketball, and handball, focusing on substitution rules. Data from the elite team sports' rules (e.g., absolute and relative court dimensions; the number of players, substitutions allowed, total game time, time-outs) were collected, including the changes due to the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic in soccer substitutions, and comparisons were performed. The data showed that soccer has higher rule-induced physical demands: e.g., substantially lower substitution rate, higher dimensions in absolute (eight to fifteen times), and relative (four to eight times) values. Simulations also showed that soccer has extremely large differences, even considering COVID-19 substitution changes (from three to up to five). We conclude that elite soccer has remarkably higher overall rule-induced physical demands than elite futsal, basketball and handball, and increasing soccer substitutions permanently (e.g., unlimited) might mitigate overall soccer demands.


Asunto(s)
Atletas , Esfuerzo Físico , Fútbol/fisiología , Deportes/fisiología , Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Humanos , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral
8.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238461, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32903263

RESUMEN

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of mental fatigue on physical activity, technical and decision-making performance during small-sided games. Nine sub-elite soccer players were enrolled in the study. The players performed two small-sided games on two occasions within a crossover experimental design. Before each game, they underwent a mental fatiguing task (Stroop task) and a control task (documentary watching) in a randomized, counterbalanced order. Players' physical activity, technical, and decision-making performance were obtained during small-sided games by GPS and video scouting. Results showed that distance in acceleration covered per min, negative passes, passing accuracy, and shot accuracy were likely impaired than control task after a mental fatiguing protocol. Decision-making performance of negative passes, passes accuracy, and dribbling accuracy resulted also likely decreased compared with control task. These findings demonstrated that mental fatigue impacted on technical, GPS-derived, and soccer-specific decision-making performance during SSG. In conclusion, avoiding cognitively demanding tasks before playing soccer-specific activities may be advisable to preserve players' physical activity, technical, and decision-making skills.


Asunto(s)
Toma de Decisiones/fisiología , Ejercicio Físico/psicología , Fatiga Mental/fisiopatología , Adolescente , Atletas , Rendimiento Atlético , Frecuencia Cardíaca , Humanos , Masculino , Fatiga Mental/metabolismo , Fútbol , Test de Stroop , Adulto Joven
9.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238580, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32911530

RESUMEN

The change of direction (COD) ability is an important task-specific skill for success in team sports, dependent on both strength and reactive strength. The sprint approaching the COD and degrees of the turn are factors influencing the specificity of the COD. Thus, CODs have been suggested to be categorized as force- (> 90°) and velocity-dominant (< 90°) dependent on the degree of the turn. When training programmes fail to provide a significant increase in COD performance, it is often due to neglecting the task-specific demands of the COD. As such, 23 male football players volunteered to complete a randomized controlled trial, investigating the association of maximal strength and power performance with performance in a force- (180°) and velocity-dominant (45°) COD, with a 4 m and 20 m sprint approach. Three strength and three plyometric exercises, matched in movement patterns, were used. Muscle activity of the different conditions was also compared. The correlational analysis revealed that better performance in the plyometric tests were associated with less time to complete both force- and velocity-dominant CODs, supported by similarities in muscle activation. None of the performances in strength exercises correlated to COD performance, due to the slow contraction velocity of maximal lifts. It was concluded that plyometrics share more physical similarities with CODs than the strength exercises.


Asunto(s)
Rendimiento Atlético , Fuerza Muscular , Ejercicio Pliométrico/métodos , Carrera , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/fisiología , Aptitud Física , Fútbol , Adulto Joven
10.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239162, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32956408

RESUMEN

Our primary aim was to explore the development of player load throughout match time (i.e., the pattern) using moving 5-min windows in an elite soccer team and our secondary aim was to compare player load patterns between different positions within the same team. The dataset included domestic home matches (n = 34) over three seasons for a Norwegian Elite League team. Player movements (mean ± SD age 25.5 ± 4.2 years, height 183.6 ± 6.6 cm, body mass 78.9 ± 7.4 kg) were recorded at 20 Hz using body-worn sensors. Data for each variable (player load, player load per meter, total distance, accelerations, decelerations, sprint distance, high-intensity running distance) were averaged within positions in each match, converted to z-scores and averaged across all matches, yielding one time series for each variable for each position. Pattern similarity between positions was assessed with cross-correlations. Overall, we observed a distinct pattern in player load throughout match time, which also occurred in the majority of individual matches. The pattern shows peaks at regular intervals (~15 min), each followed by a period of lower load, declining until the next peak. The same pattern was evident in player load per meter. The cross-correlation analyses support the visual evidence, with correlations ranging 0.88-0.97 (p < .001) in all position pairs. In contrast, no specific patterns were discernible in total distance, accelerations, decelerations, sprint distance and high-intensity running distance, with cross-correlations ranging 0.65-0.89 (p < .001), 0.32-0.64 (p < .005), 0.18-0.65 (p < .005 in nine position pairs), 0.02-0.38 (p < .05 in three pairs) and 0.01-0.52 (p < .05 in three pairs), respectively. This study demonstrated similarity in player load patterns between both matches and positions in elite soccer competition, which could indicate a physical "pacing pattern" employed by the team.


Asunto(s)
Atletas/estadística & datos numéricos , Carrera/estadística & datos numéricos , Fútbol/estadística & datos numéricos , Posición de Pie , Caminata/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Rendimiento Atlético/fisiología , Rendimiento Atlético/estadística & datos numéricos , Conjuntos de Datos como Asunto , Humanos , Masculino , Noruega , Carrera/fisiología , Fútbol/fisiología , Caminata/fisiología , Adulto Joven
11.
J Strength Cond Res ; 34(10): 2760-2768, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32986391

RESUMEN

Vera-Assaoka, T, Ramirez-Campillo, R, Alvarez, C, Garcia-Pinillos, F, Moran, J, Gentil, P, and Behm, D. Effects of maturation on physical fitness adaptations to plyometric drop jump training in male youth soccer players. J Strength Cond Res 34(10): 2760-2768, 2020-The objective of this study was to compare the effects of maturation on physical fitness adaptations to a twice weekly, 7-week plyometric drop jump training program. Seventy-six young male soccer players (aged 10-16 years) participated in this randomized controlled trial. Before and after the intervention, a physical fitness test battery was applied (countermovement jump; drop jump from 20 to 40 cm; 5 multiple bounds test; 20-m sprint time; change of direction speed; 2.4-km running time-trial; 5 repetition maximum [RM] squat; and maximal kicking distance). Participants were randomly divided into an active soccer-control group (CG) with Tanner stage maturation of 1-3 (CG-early; n = 16) or Tanner stage 4-5 (CG-late; n = 22), and to plyometric drop jump training groups with Tanner stage 1-3 (plyometric jump training [PJT]-early; n = 16) or 4-5 (PJT-late; n = 22). The analysis of variance and effect size (ES) measures revealed that when compared with their age-matched controls, the PJT-early (ES = 0.39-1.58) and PJT-late (ES = 0.21-0.65) groups showed greater improvements (p < 0.05) in sprint time, 2.4-km running time-trial, change of direction speed, 5RM squat, jumping, and kicking distance. The PJT-early exceeded the PJT-late group with greater (p < 0.05) improvements in drop jump from 20 cm (ES = 1.58 vs. 0.51) and 40 cm (ES = 0.71 vs. 0.4) and kicking distance (ES = 0.95 vs. 0.65). Therefore, a 7-week plyometric drop jump training program was effective in improving physical fitness traits in both younger and older male youth soccer players, with greater jumping and kicking adaptations in the less-mature athletes.


Asunto(s)
Adaptación Fisiológica , Factores de Edad , Atletas , Ejercicio Pliométrico , Fútbol , Adolescente , Rendimiento Atlético , Niño , Prueba de Esfuerzo , Humanos , Masculino , Aptitud Física , Carrera
12.
J Strength Cond Res ; 34(10): 2805-2814, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32986393

RESUMEN

Hills, SP, Barrett, S, Busby, M, Kilduff, LP, Barwood, MJ, Radcliffe, JN, Cooke, CB, and Russell, M. Profiling the post-match top-up conditioning practices of professional soccer substitutes: An analysis of contextual influences. J Strength Cond Res 34(10): 2805-2814, 2020-Soccer practitioners implement "top-up" conditioning sessions to compensate for substitutes' limited match-play exposure. Although perceived to be valuable for reducing injury risk and augmenting positive physical adaptations, little research has considered the demands of post-match top-up training. To quantify post-match top-up responses, 31 professional soccer players wore 10 Hz microelectromechanical systems after 37 matches whereby they were selected in the match-day squad as substitutes (184 observations; 6 ± 5 observations·player). Linear mixed models and effect sizes (ES) assessed the influence of contextual factors on 23 physical performance variables. Top-ups lasted 17.13 ± 7.44 minutes, eliciting total and high-speed distances of 1.7 ± 6.2 km and 0.4 ± 1.7 km, respectively. Each contextual factor (i.e., position, substitution timing, match location, result, time of day, stage of the season, and fixture density) influenced at least 4 of the dependent variables profiled (p ≤ 0.05). Top-up duration; total, moderate-speed, and low-speed distance; and the number of repeated high-intensity efforts were greater for unused vs. used substitutes (ES: 0.38-0.73, small to moderate). Relative to away matches, home top-ups elicited heightened total, low-speed, and high-speed distances, alongside more moderate-speed accelerations and decelerations, and repeated high-intensity efforts (ES: 0.25-0.89, small to moderate). Although absolute and relative running distances were generally the highest when the fixture density was low, the greatest acceleration and deceleration demands were observed during the most congested fixture periods. Late-season top-ups typically elicited lower absolute physical responses than early and mid-season sessions. These data provide important information for practitioners when considering the aims and design of substitute top-up conditioning sessions, particularly with reference to contextual influences.


Asunto(s)
Atletas , Rendimiento Atlético/fisiología , Fútbol/fisiología , Aceleración , Adaptación Fisiológica , Humanos , Modelos Lineales , Sistemas Microelectromecánicos , Carrera/fisiología
13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32872427

RESUMEN

The study aimed to investigate the correlations among immune, haematological, endocrinological markers and fitness parameters, and assess if the physiological parameters could be a predictor of fitness values. Anthropometric, physical evaluations (countermovement jump-CMJ, 10 m sprint, VO2max, repeated sprint ability-RSA total time and index) and determination of blood (IL-6, IL-10, IL-17A and tumour necrosis factor) and salivary (testosterone and cortisol) samples parameters in 28 young male soccer players (age: 13.0 ± 0.2 years, body mass index (BMI): 19.5 ± 2.2 kg/m2) were analysed. To evaluate the dependence of the variables related to athletic performance, multiple linear regression with backward stepwise elimination was considered. A significant regression equation was found in CMJ (F(5,16) = 9.86, p < 0.001, R2 adjusted = 0.679) and in the RSA index (F(5,16) = 15.39, p < 0.001, R2 adjusted = 0.774) considering only five variables, in a 10 m sprint (F(4,17) = 20.25, p < 0.001, R2 adjusted = 0.786) and in the RSA total time (F(4,17) = 15.31, p < 0.001, R2 adjusted = 0.732) considering only four variables and in VO2max (F(9,12) = 32.09, p < 0.001, R2 adjusted = 0.930) considering nine variables. Our study suggests the use of regression equations to predict the fitness values of youth soccer players by blood and saliva samples, during different phases of the season, short periods of match congestion or recovery from an injury.


Asunto(s)
Biomarcadores , Aptitud Física , Carrera , Fútbol , Adolescente , Niño , Prueba de Esfuerzo , Humanos , Masculino , Proyectos Piloto
14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32872456

RESUMEN

The purpose of this article is to study whether the position occupied by footballers on the pitch influences their life duration. It is known that various types of sporting activity (endurance, resistance, or mixed) may influence lifespan in different ways. However, there is a paucity of data regarding the role of different positions played in team sports such as football. Our research was based on elite international football players born before 1923 who took part in the first three football World Cups (n = 443) or played in the 1946/1947 season in the leading clubs of the main European leagues (n = 280). Goalkeepers were characterized by a 5-8-year longer life duration compared to their colleagues playing in other positions (World Cup: 82.0 ± 7.0 vs. 74.0 ± 8.0, p = 0.0047; European leagues: 83.0 ± 7.5 vs. 78.0 ± 8.0, p = 0.0023), with an absence of differences between defenders, midfielders, and forwards. Moreover, in both of the analyzed subgroups, the rate of survival until the 85th birthday was significantly higher among goalkeepers than among field players (p = 0.0102 and p = 0.0048, for both studied groups, respectively).


Asunto(s)
Esperanza de Vida , Fútbol , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Humanos , Masculino , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Tiempo
15.
Braz Oral Res ; 34: e106, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876122

RESUMEN

The aim of this prospective epidemiological study was to evaluate the occurrence of incidents involving the craniofacial region of soccer players during three official FIFA competitions. The craniofacial incidents were identified by video analysis of all 144 matches of two FIFA World Cups (2014/2018) and the 2017 FIFA Confederations Cup. Data collection included incident type, incident severity, site affected, incident cause and referee decision. The multivariate Poisson regression model was performed to analyze the associations between covariates. A total of 238 incidents were observed in the craniofacial region (1.6 incidents/match), representing a rate of 48.5 incidents per 1000 hours. At least 80.6% of the matches presented at least one incident, and, in more than 60%, the referee's decision was no foul. According to severity, 26.8% of the incidents were classified as having mild or high severity. Incidents involving lacerations or fracture presented higher severity compared with hits (IRR 3.45[95%CI: 1.89-6.30]). Head-to-head impacts showed an incidence of severe incidents twice as high as those involving upper extremities (IRR 2.01[95%CI:1.07-3.76]). A high number of craniofacial incidents were observed in the last FIFA competitions. Head-to-head impacts and lacerations or fractures were associated with higher incident severity.


Asunto(s)
Traumatismos en Atletas , Fútbol , Humanos , Incidencia , Estudios Prospectivos
16.
J Sports Med Phys Fitness ; 60(8): 1072-1080, 2020 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32955833

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: This study aims at describing and comparing each other male and female soccer players kicking instep a stationary ball. The different measures we collected by the 3D motion capture system Movit G1 and the High-Speed Camera (240 fps) were considered as dependent variables, whereas the gender was considered as the independent one. METHODS: Twenty soccer well trained non-professional players: 10 men (age: 25.3±6.5 yrs; height 1.80±0.07 m; body mass 76.9±13.2 kg) and 10 women (age: 19±3.34 yrs; height 1.64±0.07 m; body mass 58.2±7.2 kg) volunteered to participate in the study. RESULTS: Gender differences were found, with a statistical significance (P<0.05) or interesting magnitude (Cohen d>0.5). The most relevant ones were the differences in hip extension of the kicking leg when the foot of the supporting one touches the ground, just before the impact on the ball (independent sample t-Test; P=0.03; Cohen d=1.64) and the speed of the ball, reached immediately after kicking (P<0.001;d=1.23). CONCLUSIONS: These results, together with the greater pelvic acceleration shown by men compared to women, highlight the need to develop a gender-differentiated training model, in order to customize the kicking technique in women and to reduce the likelihood, currently higher than for men, of kicking related injuries.


Asunto(s)
Extremidad Inferior/fisiología , Fútbol/fisiología , Aceleración , Adulto , Fenómenos Biomecánicos , Femenino , Pie/fisiología , Cadera/fisiología , Humanos , Rodilla/fisiología , Masculino , Pelvis/fisiología , Caracteres Sexuales , Factores Sexuales , Estudios de Tiempo y Movimiento , Adulto Joven
17.
J Sports Med Phys Fitness ; 60(8): 1128-1136, 2020 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32955839

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the changes in biomechanical risk factors for an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury after participation in a pelvic and core strength training (PCST) program in female team players. METHODS: This is a randomized controlled trial for which a total of 29 female soccer players were recruited from a soccer club and split into two groups, namely, experimental group (EG, N.=18; mean [SD] age, 17.8 [2.0 years], weight 64.0 [6.6] kg and height 1.7 [0.0] m) and control group (control, N.=11; mean [SD] age, 16.2 [1.2] years, weight 61.6 [7.3] kg and height 1.7 [0.0] m). The EG participated in an in-season 8-week PCST program (twice/week). Participants in the CG performed their normal training without additional pelvic and core strengthening. Pre- and postintervention knee frontal plane projection angle (FPPA), hip, knee and ankle peak flexion angles and jump height were collected during bilateral and unilateral drop jumps. RESULTS: PCST significantly reduced FPPA at dynamic landing, in both dominant (-7.1º) and non-dominant lower extremities (-8º). Further, this training significantly increased the peak hip (24.4º) and knee flexion angles (14.94º), but not the peak ankle dorsiflexion angle (P>0.05) which, significantly decreased in the CG (-3.5º). Following the intervention, EG significantly increased measures obtained for both bilateral (2.84 cm) and unilateral jumps (1.33 cm for the dominant leg and 1.22 cm for the non-dominant leg) (P<0.05), not so for CG (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: PCST resulted in improvements on ACL injury risk factors and vertical drop jump performance, suggesting that strengthening this body part warrants not only injury prevention, but increases jumping performance.


Asunto(s)
Lesiones del Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/prevención & control , Fuerza Muscular/fisiología , Pelvis/fisiología , Entrenamiento de Resistencia/métodos , Fútbol/lesiones , Fútbol/fisiología , Adolescente , Tobillo/fisiología , Fenómenos Biomecánicos , Femenino , Cadera/fisiología , Humanos , Lactante , Rodilla/fisiología , Factores de Riesgo
18.
J Sports Med Phys Fitness ; 60(8): 1159-1166, 2020 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32955842

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Endothelial function assessment may provide important insights into the cardiovascular function and long-term effects of exercise training. Many studies have investigated the possible negative effects on cardiovascular function due to extreme athletic performance, leading to undesirable effects. The purposes of this study were to investigate the acute effects of maximal intensity exercise on endothelium-dependent vasodilation, and to understand the patterns of flow-mediated dilation (FMD) change following maximal exercise in elite female athletes with a high-volume training history. METHODS: Twenty-six elite female soccer players (mean age, 22±4 years; BMI, 21±2 kg/m2; VO2max, 41±4 mL/kg/min) were evaluated. Brachial artery FMD was determined using high-resolution ultrasound at rest, and after 15 and 60 min of maximal cardiopulmonary exercise (CPX) testing on a treadmill. Flow velocity was measured at baseline and during reactive hyperemia at the same periods. RESULTS: Rest FMD was 12.4±5.5%. Peak diameter in response to reactive hyperemia was augmented after 15 min of CPX (3.5±0.4 vs. 3.6±0.4 mm, P<0.05), returning to resting values after 60 min. However, %FMD did not change among time periods. There were two characteristic patterns of FMD response following CPX. Compared to FMD at rest, half of the subjects responded with an increased FMD following maximum exercise (10.5±6.1 vs. 17.8±7.5%, P<0.05). The other subjects demonstrated a reduced FMD response following maximum exercise (14.2±4.3 vs. 10.9±3.2%, P<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that elite female soccer players presented robust brachial artery FMD at rest, with a heterogeneous FMD response to acute exercise with a 50% FMD improvement rate.


Asunto(s)
Endotelio Vascular/fisiología , Ejercicio Físico/fisiología , Acondicionamiento Físico Humano/fisiología , Fútbol/fisiología , Vasodilatación/fisiología , Adulto , Velocidad del Flujo Sanguíneo , Arteria Braquial/diagnóstico por imagen , Arteria Braquial/fisiología , Prueba de Esfuerzo , Femenino , Humanos , Flujo Sanguíneo Regional/fisiología , Adulto Joven
19.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0229194, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32966305

RESUMEN

The current study determined the area-per-player during small- or large-sided games with or without goalkeeper that replicates the relative (m·min-1) total distance, high-intensity running distance, sprint distance and metabolic power covered during official matches. Time-motion analysis was performed on twenty-five elite soccer-players during 26 home-matches. A total of 2565 individual samples for SSGs using different pitch sizes and different number of players were collected and classified as SSGs with (SSG-G) or without goalkeeper (SSG-P). A between-position comparison was also performed. The area-per-player needed to replicate the official match demands was largely higher in SSG-G vs SSG-P for total distance [187±53 vs 115±35 m2, effect size (ES): 1.60 95%CI 0.94/2.21], high-intensity running distance [262±72 vs 166±39 m2, ES: 1.66(0.99/2.27)] and metabolic power [177±42 vs 94±40, ES: 1.99(1.31/2.67)], but similar for sprint distance [(316±75 vs 295±99 m2, ES: 0.24(-0.32/0.79)] with direction of larger area-per-player for sprint distance > high-intensity running > total distance ≌ metabolic power for both SSG-G and SSG-P. In SSG-G, forwards required higher area-per-player than central-defenders [ES: 2.96(1.07/4.35)], wide-midfielders [ES: 2.45(0.64/3.78)] and wide-defenders [ES: 3.45(1.13/4.99)]. Central-midfielders required higher area-per-player than central-defenders [ES: 1.69(0.20/2.90)] and wide-midfielders [ES: 1.35(-0.13/2.57)]. In SSG-P, central defenders need lower area-per-player (ES: -6.01/-0.92) to overall replicate the match demands compared to all other positions. The current results may be used to gain knowledge of the SSGs relative to the match demands. This imply manipulating SSGs using higher or lower ApP, the presence of the goalkeeper or design specific rules to increase or decrease the position-specific demands with respect to the desired external load outcomes.


Asunto(s)
Rendimiento Atlético/fisiología , Carrera/psicología , Fútbol/fisiología , Aceleración , Adulto , Humanos , Italia , Masculino , Estudios de Tiempo y Movimiento , Adulto Joven
20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32867306

RESUMEN

This study examined postural control during single leg stance test with progressively increased balance-task difficulty in soccer players with unilateral transfemoral amputation (n = 11) compared to able-bodied soccer players (n = 11). The overall stability index (OSI), the anterior/posterior stability index, and the medial/lateral stability index during three balance tasks with increasing surface instability were estimated. The oculomotor and visuomotor contribution to postural control in disabled athletes was analyzed. Oculomotor function, simple and choice reaction times, and peripheral perception were assessed in a series of visuomotor tests. The variation in OSI demonstrated significantly greater increases during postural tests with increased balance-task difficulty in the able-bodied soccer players compared to amputees (F(2,40) = 3.336, p < 0.05). Ocular mobility index correlated (p < 0.05) with OSI in conditions of increasing balance-task difficulty. Moreover, speed of eye-foot reaction has positive influence (p < 0.05) on stability indexes in tasks with an unstable surface. Amputee soccer players displayed comparable postural stability to able-bodied soccer players. Disabled athletes had better adaptability in restoring a state of balance in conditions of increased balance-task difficulty than the controls. The speed of visuomotor processing, characterized mainly by speed of eye-foot reaction, significantly contributed to these results.


Asunto(s)
Amputación , Atletas , Equilibrio Postural/fisiología , Fútbol/fisiología , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Músculos Oculomotores , Rango del Movimiento Articular , Análisis y Desempeño de Tareas
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