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1.
Sports Health ; 12(3): 234-240, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32271137

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Sleep and mood are critical factors that contribute to health and wellness and are of particular interest to collegiate athletes who are juggling high physical, academic, and social demands. The aim of this study was to examine how psychological measures, player status, and sex-related factors were associated with perceived sleep quality. HYPOTHESIS: Higher levels of global sleep dysfunction will be related to poor mood and increased anxiety, and there will be differences in sleep dysfunction in male compared with female athletes as well as regarding playing status. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level 4. METHODS: During the 2016 through 2018 National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) seasons, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Profile of Mood States, and Sports Anxiety Scale-2 questionnaires were administered to 230 soccer athletes at 6 separate time points throughout each season. RESULTS: PSQI results yielded scores ≥5 in 54% of observations. Increased sleep dysfunction was significantly related to decreased vigor and increased tension, depression, anger, fatigue, somatic anxiety, worry, and concentration disruption, although effect sizes (ES) were trivial (ES, -0.03 to 0.15). The odds ratio (OR) of reporting global sleep dysfunction increased by 8%, 9%, and 25% for every 1-unit increase in tension (OR, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.02-1.16; P = 0.015), fatigue (OR, 1.09; 95% CI, 1.03-1.16; P = 0.002), and concentration disruption (OR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.09-1.45; P = 0.002), respectively. The odds of reporting global sleep dysfunction were 55% lower for males than females (OR, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.25-0.79; P = 0.006). CONCLUSION: Global sleep dysfunction was prevalent in NCAA soccer players and was related to negative mental health outcomes. Female participants experienced increased odds of reporting global sleep dysfunction. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Regular monitoring allows for a greater understanding of the interrelatedness between sleep and mental health in athletes.


Asunto(s)
Genio Irritable , Trastornos del Sueño-Vigilia/epidemiología , Trastornos del Sueño-Vigilia/psicología , Fútbol/psicología , Ira , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Depresión/epidemiología , Fatiga/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudios Prospectivos , Distribución por Sexo , Estrés Psicológico/epidemiología , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
2.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0226978, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32069336

RESUMEN

The aim of this study was to investigate the combined effects of tactical and contextual indicators on achieving offensive penetration and scoring opportunities in English Premier League (EPL) soccer matches. A total of 1971 team possessions from 20 random matches were evaluated by means of multidimensional observation. The EPL matches had a great proportion of fast attacks (36.0%) followed by combinative (29.6%), direct attacks (24.1%) and counterattacks (9.5%). Multilevel logistic regression models revealed that counterattacks (OR = 3.428; 95% CI: 2.004-5.864; P<0.001) were more effective to create goal scoring opportunities than combinative attacks, while direct attacks showed to be less effective (OR = 0.472; 95% CI: 0.264-0.845; P<0.05). Playing at home increased the probability (OR = 1.530; 95% CI: 1.097-2.135; P<0.05) of creating goal scoring opportunities compared with playing away. These findings show the multifactorial character of soccer and how different contextual and tactical indicators can influence the creation of offensive penetration and goal scoring opportunities in the English Premier League.


Asunto(s)
Logro , Agresión/psicología , Rendimiento Atlético/psicología , Conducta Competitiva , Procesos de Grupo , Fútbol/psicología , Inglaterra , Humanos , Masculino
3.
J Sports Sci ; 38(6): 658-668, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32009533

RESUMEN

Visual exploratory action, in which football players turn their head to perceive their environment, improves prospective performance with the ball during match-play. This scanning action, however, is relevant for players throughout the entire match, as the information perceived through visual exploration is needed to guide movement around the pitch during both offensive and defensive play. This study aimed to understand how a player's on-pitch position, playing role and phase of play influenced the visual exploratory head movements of players during 11v11 match-play. Twenty-two competitive-elite youth footballers (M = 16.25 years) played a total of 1,623 minutes (M = 73.8). Inertial measurement units, global positioning system units and notational analysis were used to quantify relevant variables. Analyses revealed that players explored more extensively when they were in possession of the ball, and less extensively during transition phases, as compared to team ball-possession and opposition ball-possession phases of play. Players explored most extensively when in the back third of the pitch, and least when they were in the middle third of the pitch. Playing role, pitch position and phase of play should be considered as constraints on visual exploratory actions when developing training situations aimed at improving the scanning actions of players.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Competitiva/fisiología , Fútbol/psicología , Percepción Visual/fisiología , Adolescente , Niño , Sistemas de Información Geográfica , Cabeza/fisiología , Humanos , Masculino , Movimiento , Fútbol/fisiología , Análisis y Desempeño de Tareas
4.
J Sports Sci ; 38(5): 552-558, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31941416

RESUMEN

The objective of this study was to analyse the effect of the use of social networks in smartphones or playing video games on the passing decision-making performance in professional soccer athletes. Participants were 25 male professional soccer athletes (mean ± SD: age 23.4 ± 2.8 years). The participants performed three randomised conditions divided into three groups: control (CON), smartphone (SMA), and video game (VID). Before and after each experimental condition, the Stroop Task assessed the level of induced mental fatigue. Then, the athletes performed a simulated soccer match. A CANON® camera recorded the matches for further analysis on passing decision-making performance. A group effect was identified (p < .01) with impairment on passing decision-making performance for the SMA (p = .01, ES = 0.5) and VID (p = .01, ES = 0.5) conditions. We concluded that the use of social networks on smartphones and/or playing video games right before official soccer matches might impair the passing decision-making performance in professional soccer athletes.


Asunto(s)
Toma de Decisiones , Teléfono Inteligente , Fútbol/psicología , Juegos de Video , Adulto , Rendimiento Atlético , Estudios Cruzados , Humanos , Masculino , Redes Sociales en Línea , Estado de Hidratación del Organismo/fisiología , Distribución Aleatoria , Fútbol/fisiología , Test de Stroop , Adulto Joven
5.
J Sports Sci ; 38(3): 308-319, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31783717

RESUMEN

The primary aim of this research was to generate insight into observable mentally tough behaviours, or MTb, across different contexts (e.g., training and competition) in an Australian football (AF) environment. A second aim of this research was to explore the utility of MTb as a distinct concept, and identify common behavioural qualities associated with MTb that separate it from other similar constructs. In total, 10 experienced full-time football operations staff were interviewed using a semi-structured interview guide, with inductive thematic analysis employed to analyse the data. Five main themes relating to MTb were identified: adaptive development, consistent training conduct, composed performance actions, responsible and accountable, and team supportive. Overall, the findings of the research provided preliminary support for the proposition that there exists a collection of MTb that are displayed more frequently by athletes considered to possess high levels of mental toughness compared to athletes who are perceived to have low levels of this psychological capacity. We propose a collection of necessary and sufficient behavioural qualities and a working definition of MTb to further our understanding of potential strategies to develop MT.


Asunto(s)
Rendimiento Atlético/psicología , Conducta Competitiva , Fútbol/psicología , Adaptación Psicológica , Adulto , Australia , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Acondicionamiento Físico Humano/psicología , Investigación Cualitativa , Estrés Psicológico
6.
J Sports Med Phys Fitness ; 59(11): 1812-1819, 2019 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31808328

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The physical activity and playing actions performed during a soccer match vary according to player position. The aim of the present study was to analyze the recovery kinetics of cognitive performance, physical performance and subjective ratings after a competitive soccer match. METHODS: Eight goalkeepers and eight outfield players played in the match with data collected before, 45 min, 24 h and 48 h after the match. Subjective ratings, Vienna Reaction Test (reaction time, motor time), Vienna Determination Test (number of stimuli, number of correct responses), squat jump, countermovement jump and 6-s sprint were analyzed. RESULTS: No significant interaction between position and time was found for Vienna Reaction Test and Vienna Determination Test performance. No significant interaction between position and time was found for squat jump and countermovement jump but squat jump and countermovement jump significantly decreased (P<0.01) at 24 h. Countermovement jump performance was still significantly affected at 48h (P<0.05). A significant interaction between position and time (P<0.05) was found for 6-s sprint. Sprint performance was significantly reduced for outfield players only immediately after the match (P<0.01). There was no interaction effect of position and time on subjective ratings. A significant correlation was found between number of jumps and ball kicks performed during the match by goalkeepers and the change score in squat jump (r =-0.90; P<0.01) and countermovement jump (r =-0.90; P<0.01) observed at 48 h. CONCLUSIONS: Outfield players require a longer time than goalkeepers to recover sprint performance whilst cognitive function tested in the present study is not affected by the match whatever the position.


Asunto(s)
Rendimiento Atlético/psicología , Cognición , Fútbol/fisiología , Fútbol/psicología , Adolescente , Rendimiento Atlético/fisiología , Ejercicio Físico/fisiología , Prueba de Esfuerzo , Femenino , Humanos , Cinética , Masculino , Rendimiento Físico Funcional , Recuperación de la Función , Adulto Joven
7.
J Sports Sci Med ; 18(4): 716-721, 2019 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31827356

RESUMEN

The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of inhaling 1600 µg of salbutamol (SAL) on 30 m sprint before and after the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery test. In a randomised cross over single blind study 13 male non-asthmatic, football players volunteered (mean ± SD; age 18.1 ± 0.9 years; weight 69.5 ± 8.3 kg; height 1.78 ± 0.07 m). Participants completed two visits and were randomly assigned to either (SAL) or (PLA) treatment and performed a set of three sprints of 30 m before and after the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test (Yo-Yo IRT). Best sprint and mean sprint were analysed in addition to the distance covered during the Yo-Yo IRT; rating of perceived exertion and heart rate were collected at the end of each level completed. Repeated measures ANOVA were performed to investigate changes in performance between groups. Following the inhalation of supra-therapeutic salbutamol dose (1600 µg) neither 30 m sprint time (PLA 4.43 ± 0.14 s; SAL 4.44 ± 0.15 s, p = 0.76) nor distance covered in the Yo-Yo IRT test reported significant variation between PLA conditions (1660 ± 217 m) and SAL (1610 ± 229 m, p = 0.16). Moreover, lactate values, heart rate and RPE did not differ significantly between groups. The inhalation of 1600 µg salbutamol does not enhance 30 m sprint performance in non-fatigued and fatigue conditions. Our findings suggest when football players acutely inhale double the permitted dose of salbutamol, as indicated in the World Anti-Doping Agency List of Prohibited Substances and Methods, they will not experience improvements in sprint or endurance performance.


Asunto(s)
Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/farmacología , Albuterol/farmacología , Prueba de Esfuerzo/métodos , Sustancias para Mejorar el Rendimiento , Carrera/fisiología , Fútbol/fisiología , Adolescente , Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/administración & dosificación , Afecto , Albuterol/administración & dosificación , Estudios Cruzados , Frecuencia Cardíaca/efectos de los fármacos , Humanos , Ácido Láctico/sangre , Masculino , Motivación , Percepción/efectos de los fármacos , Esfuerzo Físico/efectos de los fármacos , Carrera/psicología , Método Simple Ciego , Fútbol/psicología
8.
Rev. int. med. cienc. act. fis. deporte ; 19(76): 655-672, dic. 2019. tab
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-187238

RESUMEN

Este estudio analiza la estructura factorial de la versión española (Kim, Duda, Tomás y Balaguer, 2003) del Cuestionario de Aproximación al Afrontamiento en el Deporte (Approach to Coping in Sport Questionnaire, ACSQ-1, Kim, 1999; Kim y Duda, 1997) en 562 futbolistas. Adicionalmente, se plantea la validación de una versión adaptada del ACSQ diseñada para valorar la percepción de efectividad. Los resultados del CFA ponen de manifiesto un ajuste satisfactorio para ambos modelos ACSQ-uso y ACSQ-efectividad, observándose mejores indicadores para el modelo de efectividad (x2/gl=2.57; CFI= .913; TLI= .904; RMSEA= .058). Por otro lado, las relaciones de las diferentes dimensiones de afrontamiento en su versión uso y en su versión efectividad con las variables externas consideradas (ansiedad y autoconfianza) ponen de manifiesto el diferente papel de ambos criterios, y la necesidad, por lo tanto, de contemplar ambos indicadores en la valoración del coping en el ámbito deportivo


This study examines the factorial structure of the Spanish version (Kim, Duda, Tomás y Balaguer, 2003) of the Approach to Coping in Sport Questionnaire (ACSQ-1, Kim, 1999; Kim y Duda, 1997) in 562 soccer players. Additionally, a second aim of this study is to analyze the psychometric properties of an adapted version of ACSQ designed to assess perception of effectiveness. The results of CFA provided a satisfactory fit for both models ACSQ-use and ACSQ-effectiveness, showing better indexes for effectiveness model (x2/df = 2.57; CFI = .913; TLI = .904; RMSEA = .058). Moreover, the relations between ACSQ-use, ACSQ-effectiveness and the external variables (anxiety and self-confidence) show the different roles of both criteria, and the need, therefore, of contemplate both indicators in the assessment of coping in sport


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Niño , Adolescente , Adulto Joven , Fútbol/psicología , Adaptación Psicológica , Efectividad , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Apoyo Social , Ajuste Emocional , Ansiedad/psicología , Análisis Factorial
9.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0224150, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31851686

RESUMEN

Rules regulate behavior, but in competitive contexts they also create incentives for rule-breaking because enforcement is imperfect. Sports is a prime example of this, and one that lends itself well to investigation because strategic rule-breaking is often measurable. Professional soccer is a highly competitive team sport with economic rewards for winning given to teams and players. It has a set of rules to ensure fair play, but the enforcement is incomplete, and hence can lead to strategic behavior. Using newly available data, we examine strategic time-wasting, a behavior that help teams win games, or tie games against superior opponents, but is contrary to the objective of game play as entertainment for the spectators. We demonstrate that strategic time-wasting is widespread and is done through delayed restart of the game after goalie capture of the ball, goal kick, throw-in, free kick, corner kick, and substitution. The strategic time-wasting has substantial magnitude, and models of the value per minute predict time-wasting well. Because this time-wasting is a result of incentives created by not stopping the game clock, we predict that a change to rules with stopped game clock when the play is stopped would make game play more time efficient.


Asunto(s)
Agresión/psicología , Rendimiento Atlético/psicología , Problema de Conducta/psicología , Fútbol/psicología , Humanos , Análisis y Desempeño de Tareas , Factores de Tiempo
10.
Licere (Online) ; 22(4): 415-447, dez.2019.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS | ID: biblio-1051020

RESUMEN

Este trabalho tem por objetivo analisar, comparativamente, relações de territorialidade construídas em torno dos estádios San Lorenzo (Buenos Aires) e West Ham (Londres), consideradas sob perspectiva histórica. Embora tenham se constituído como equipamentos materiais e simbólicos, nos quais gerações vivenciaram experiências e estabeleceram redes de sociabilidade, recentemente passaram por mudanças significativas: o projeto de retorno do San Lorenzo ao Viejo Gasómetro, ativando a memória da ditadura argentina e a partida do West Ham para o Estádio Olímpico, após mais de 100 anos no Upton Park. Neste sentido, pretende-se, através de análise das narrativas memoriais produzidas na mídia escrita, analisar a maneira pela qual os agentes acionam o elemento memorial para referir-se aos estádios como monumentos afetivos e marcas territoriais.


This work has for objective to analyze comparatively territoriality relationships built around the stadiums of San Lorenzo (Buenos Aires) and West Ham (London) considered under historical perspective. Although they have been constituted as material and symbolic equipment, where generations have gone through experiences and established social networks, they recently went through significant changes: the project of return of the San Lorenzo to the Viejo Gasómetro, activating the memory of the Argentine dictatorship and the departure of the West Ham to the Olympic Stadium after more than 100 years at Upton Park. In this sense, it is intended, through analysis of the narratives memorials produced in written media, analyze the way in which the agents trigger the memorial element to refer to the stadiums as affective monuments and territorial markings.


Asunto(s)
Fútbol/psicología , Identificación Social , Cultura , Historia , Relaciones Interpersonales
11.
J Sports Sci ; 37(24): 2789-2797, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31631809

RESUMEN

In team sports, peripheral vision might be useful to simultaneously monitor movements of opponents and teammates. Until now, however, little is known about the perceptual-cognitive processes underlying peripheral vision in a sporting task. Therefore, we used a mixed-methods approach with in-situ decision making (3 vs. 3 situations) and retrospective verbal reports to identify perceptual strategies used for optimal information pick-up in high- and low-skilled football players. Our results show that the use of peripheral vision by central defenders depends on the position of the ball and the position of the direct opponent. Players were shown to either use a pivot strategy, whereby they frequently look at the direct opponent if he is not in the possession of the ball in addition to making saccades to monitor other players, or they employ a more direct strategy, in which gaze is anchored on this location, avoiding saccades and monitoring the other players with peripheral vision. Based on our findings we make recommendations about how these gaze strategies can be further tested in future research and how sports practice can benefit from these results.


Asunto(s)
Rendimiento Atlético/psicología , Fijación Ocular , Movimientos Sacádicos , Fútbol/psicología , Percepción Visual , Adulto , Toma de Decisiones , Humanos , Masculino , Movimiento , Grabación en Video , Adulto Joven
12.
Arch. med. deporte ; 36(193): 296-301, sept.-oct. 2019. tab
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-186892

RESUMEN

En el ámbito deportivo competitivo se hace necesaria la creación de un perfil de "riesgo a la lesión" útil y eficaz que permita elaborar programas específicos de intervención. En este estudio se planteó como objetivo relacionar el número de lesiones deportivas (gravedad de lesión) con los diferentes grados de vulnerabilidad a la lesión de los deportistas (vulnerabilidad alta, media y baja), atendiendo a la modalidad deportiva bajo la diferenciación entre deporte de oposición o individual (deportistas federados de atletismo, natación y tenis) y deporte de oposición-cooperación de contacto o deporte colectivo (deportistas federados de fútbol, baloncesto y balonmano).La muestra total del estudio fue de 452 deportistas individuales y colectivos (284 hombres y 168 mujeres). Para la evaluación de las variables psicológicas se utilizó la Escala de Personalidad Resistente, el SCAT y la Escala de Competitividad-10. Se realizó un análisis de conglomerados y se obtuvieron 3 perfiles de vulnerabilidad a la lesión, estableciéndose un perfil de vulnera-bilidad alta que confirmaba la hipótesis (aumenta la vulnerabilidad a la lesión a menor personalidad resistente y motivación orientada al éxito y a mayor ansiedad competitiva y motivación orientada a evitar el fracaso).Entre las principales conclusiones se destaca que ser deportista individual o colectivo influye en la relación entre cualquier perfil de vulnerabilidad y el número de lesiones leves, siendo el número de lesiones leves superior en deportistas colectivos. Por otro lado, puede que los deportistas, en ambas modalidades, que se sitúen en una vulnerabilidad media, posean mayor número de lesiones leves y moderadas, y que los deportistas que se sitúen en una vulnerabilidad alta posean un mayor número de lesiones graves y muy graves


In the competitive sports field is necessary to create a profile of "risk to the injury" useful and effective that allows to elaborate specific intervention programs. The purpose of this study was to relate the number of sports injuries (severity of injury) to the different degrees of vulnerability to injury of athletes (high, medium and low vulnerability), based on the sports modality under the differentiation between opposition or individual sport (federated athletes of athletics, swimming and tennis) and contact sport with opposition and cooperation or collective sport (federated athletes of football, basketball and handball).Total sample of this study was 452 individual and collective athletes (284 men and 168 women). For the evaluation of the psychological variables, Resistant Personality Scale, the SCAT and Competitiveness Scale-10 was used. A cluster analysis was carried out and 3 profiles of vulnerability to injury were obtained, establishing a high vulnerability profile that confirmed the hypothesis (increases the vulnerability to injury to a less resistant personality and motivation oriented to success and greater competitive anxiety and oriented motivation to avoid failure).Among the main conclusions is that being an individual or collective athlete influences the relationship between any profile of vulnerability and the number of minor injuries, the number of minor injuries being higher in collective athletes. On the other hand, athletes, in both modalities, who are in a medium vulnerability, have a greater number of mild and moderate injuries, and athletes who are in a high vulnerability have a greater number of serious injuries and very serious


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto , Adulto Joven , Deportes/psicología , Traumatismos en Atletas/psicología , Ansiedad/psicología , Atletismo/psicología , Natación/psicología , Tenis/psicología , Fútbol/psicología , Baloncesto/psicología , Estudios Transversales , Género y Salud
13.
Res Q Exerc Sport ; 90(4): 651-665, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31478798

RESUMEN

Purpose: The concepts of creativity and intuition have been well studied in isolation, but less is known about their distinctive contributions to option generation in decision making. Method: We examined the relation between creative and intuitive decision making in two studies-one involving coaches and one involving soccer players-using video footage of real soccer matches. Additionally, we analyzed whether this relation is culture generic or culture specific by conducting matched cross-cultural studies in a European and a South American country. Results: In Study 1, results indicate a conceptual overlap of creativity and intuition for Brazilian and German soccer coaches. Furthermore, coaches did not differ in their evaluation of creative and intuitive actions of players of both cultures. In Study 2, we found that for both subsamples the total number of generated options was positively correlated with the quality of the first and the final option and that the quality of players' first (intuitive) option was higher than that of options generated later. Moreover, results indicate a positive correlation between a player's creativity score and the quality of the first generated option for the whole sample. Conclusion: Overall, our findings provide meaningful information regarding athletes' and coaches' option-generation processes in decision making in complex team sports.


Asunto(s)
Creatividad , Comparación Transcultural , Toma de Decisiones , Intuición , Tutoría , Fútbol/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil , Alemania , Frecuencia Cardíaca/fisiología , Humanos , Masculino , Fútbol/fisiología , Análisis y Desempeño de Tareas , Adulto Joven
14.
Scand J Psychol ; 60(6): 609-615, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31489980

RESUMEN

Women's football has been far less studied than men's. This work's objectives were to: (1) analyze the differences in psychological skills, mental toughness (MT), and anxiety in women football players according to their level (national team, first division, and second division); and (2) predict those three levels (using a multivariate model) according to the players' psychological skills, mental toughness, and anxiety. One hundred and forty-two Icelandic women football players (23.5 ± 3.5 years) participated in the study. They were classified into three groups according to their level: national team, and first and second divisions. Three questionnaires were used: the Test of Performance Strategies Questionnaire, the Sport Mental Toughness Questionnaire, and the Sport Anxiety Scale-2 questionnaire. A one-way ANOVA with Bonferroni post hoc correction was used to examine differences between teams. Applying a classification tree analysis, the participants were classified into three groups according to their level. There were few differences between the three groups in psychological skills, but in mental toughness and anxiety the national team had the highest and lowest values respectively, and the first and second division players differed in relaxation in competition (TOPS), total score and confidence (SMTQ), and worry (SAS-2). The classification tree correctly classified 54.9% of the sample with the variables total score (SMTQ) and activation in practice (TOPS). Therefore, given the relevance that psychological attributes appear to have for women football players' performance, it would seem indispensable to incorporate the figure of the sports psychologist into national and club teams.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad/psicología , Atletas/psicología , Rendimiento Atlético/psicología , Fútbol/psicología , Mujeres/psicología , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Islandia , Adulto Joven
15.
Estud. interdiscip. envelhec ; 24(2): 7-28, set. 2019.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS, Index Psicología - Revistas técnico-científicas | ID: biblio-1096003

RESUMEN

O objetivo do presente estudo foi analisar o processo de construção e manutenção de uma representação social positiva sobre os jogadores veteranos, presentes no campo futebolístico amador existente na cidade de Ponta Grossa (PR). Para tanto, optou-se pelos direcionamentos metodológicos da etnografia, pois eles guiam os pesquisadores no processo interpretativo da "visão sobre o mundo" dos indivíduos pertencentes ao grupo social investigado, através das interpretações de suas práticas simbólicas. As representações revelaram que mesmo no campo esportivo em que, tradicionalmente, o rendimento técnico-físico é o que determina a visão sobre os diferentes agentes; na análise em questão descobriu-se que através de ancoragens compensatórias, tais como não se tem vigor físico mas tem sabedoria/experiência, somado ao capital simbólico adquirido historicamente os idosos foram representados como figuras centrais deste espaço social. Conclui-se que em Ponta Grossa o futebol amador veterano apresenta-se como uma manifestação sociocultural, que tensiona o olhar negativo que comumente é estabelecido para o processo de envelhecimento e para a velhice. (AU)


The objective of the present study was to analyze the process of building and maintaining a positive social representation about the veteran players of the amateur football field in the city of Ponta Grossa, PR. In order to do so, we chose the methodological orientations of ethnography, since they guide the researchers in the interpretative process of the "world view" of the individuals belonging to the social group investigated, through the interpretations of their symbolic practices. It is concluded that in Ponta Grossa football presents itself as a sociocultural manifestation, which makes it possible to hold the negative eye on the process of aging and old age. The social representations revealed that even in the sports field, where it is aprioristically imagined that the performance is what determines the vision on the different agents, in the analysis in question it was discovered that through compensatory anchorages (there is no physical force, but has intelligence) and the acquired symbolic capital, legitimize the elderly as nuclear figures of the field. (AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Fútbol/psicología , Percepción Social , Envejecimiento/psicología , Atletas/psicología , Acontecimientos que Cambian la Vida , Brasil
16.
Interv. psicosoc. (Internet) ; 28(2): 91-100, ago. 2019. graf, tab
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-183650

RESUMEN

The aim of this research was to examine the relationships between transformational parenting, autonomy support displayed by mothers and fathers, and sport burnout in 360 junior soccer players (324 males, range age = 12-18 years). To this end, four steps were followed. Steps 1 and 2 tested the psychometric properties (i.e., factorial structure, internal consistency, and evidence of discriminant validity) of the Spanish version of the Transformational Parenting Questionnaire (TPQ), and steps 3 and 4 examined the proposed relationships. Overall, the Spanish TPQ demonstrated adequate factorial validity and satisfactory internal consistency, representing a valid and reliable adaptation of the instrument. The results also suggested a positive association between transformational parenting and autonomy support by both parents, and a negative association between transformational parenting and sport burnout, mediated by autonomy support by mothers but not by fathers. Additionally, players who perceived their families as employing highly transformational parenting displayed lower levels of sport burnout than players who perceived their families as displaying low levels of transformational parenting behaviours. Findings support the positive consequences of displaying transformational parenting and autonomy-supportive environments in preventing young soccer players' burnout


El objetivo de esta investigación fue examinar las relaciones entre el estilo y el burnout deportivo de 360 jugadores de fútbol juvenil (324 hombres, rango de edad = 12-18 años). Para ello, se siguieron cuatro pasos. Los pasos 1 y 2 pusieron a prueba las propiedades psicométricas (i.e., estructura factorial, consistencia interna y evidencia de validez discriminante) de la versión en español del Cuestionario de Estilo Parental Transformacional [TPQ, según sus siglas en inglés] y a través de los pasos 3 y 4 se examinaron las relaciones propuestas. En general, la versión española del TPQ español demostró una validez factorial adecuada y una consistencia interna satisfactoria, lo que representa una adaptación válida y fiable del instrumento. Los resultados también sugirieron una asociación positiva entre el estilo parental transformacional y el apoyo a la autonomía de ambos padres y una asociación negativa entre el estilo parental transformacional y el burnout deportivo, mediado por el apoyo a la autonomía de las madres, pero no de los padres. Además, los jugadores que percibían que tenían una familia con un estilo parental muy transformacional mostraron niveles más bajos de burnout deportivo que los jugadores que percibían que tenían una familia con un estilo transformacional bajo. Los resultados apoyan las consecuencias positivas que derivan de un entorno de apoyo a la autonomía y un estilo parental transformacional para prevenir el burnout en jugadores de fútbol jóvenes


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adolescente , Niño , Agotamiento Psicológico/psicología , Deportes/psicología , Conducta del Adolescente/psicología , Autonomía Personal , Fútbol/psicología , Relaciones Padre-Hijo , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Análisis Factorial
17.
Nutr. hosp ; 36(4): 926-930, jul.-ago. 2019. tab
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-184720

RESUMEN

Introducción: cualquier situación de estrés, entre las cuales se incluye la realización de ejercicio físico, implica la posibilidad de una excesiva producción de radicales libres y, por acción de estos, un estrés oxidativo en las células. Para combatir estos efectos, las células disponen de unos mecanismos de defensa denominados sistemas antioxidantes. Objetivos: el objetivo del presente estudio se basa en analizar los posibles cambios fisiológicos en relación a parámetros relacionados con el estrés oxidativo (MDA) y con la actividad antioxidante (vitamina A, vitamina C y vitamina E) en los eritrocitos de jugadores profesionales de fútbol, en comparación con sujetos no entrenados. Métodos: cuarenta y dos varones divididos en 21 jugadores de fútbol (SG) (24,95 ± 3,03 años) y 21 estudiantes sedentarios (CG) (23,71 ± 2,42 años) participaron en el estudio. Se les evaluaron los niveles basales de MDA, vitamina C, vitamina A y vitamina E en eritrocitos, así como las características antropométricas y el VO2max. Resultados: se observaron diferencias significativas en las características antropométricas (p < 0,05) y VO2max (p > 0,01). SG presentó niveles estadísticamente inferiores de MDA (p > 0,01), vitamina C (p > 0,05), vitamina E (p > 0,05) y vitamina A (p > 0,01). Conclusiones: existe un mayor estrés oxidativo en jugadores de fútbol que en sedentarios, por lo que puede ser necesaria una suplementación con antioxidantes en este grupo


Introduction: the situations of stress among which physical exercise is included imply the possibility of an excessive production of free radicals and, by their action, an oxidative stress in the cells. To combat these effects, cells have defense mechanisms called antioxidant systems. Objectives: the objective of this study is to analyze the possible physiological changes in relation to parameters related to oxidative stress (MDA) and antioxidant activity (vitamin A, vitamin C and vitamin E) in the erythrocytes of professional soccer players, in comparison with untrained subjects. Methods: forty-two men divided into 21 soccer players (SG) (24.95 ± 3.03 years) and 21 sedentary students (CG) (23.71 ± 2.42 years) participated in the study. Their basal levels of MDA, vitamin C, vitamin A and vitamin E in erythrocytes, as well as their anthropometric characteristics and VO2max, were evaluated. Results: significant differences were observed in the anthropometric characteristics (p < 0.05) and VO2max (p > 0.01). SG presented statistically lower levels of MDA (p > 0.01), vitamin C (p > 0.05), vitamin E (p > 0.05) and vitamin A (p > 0.01). Conclusions: there is higher oxidative stress in soccer players than in sedentary players and it may be necessary to supplement with antioxidants in this group


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Fútbol/psicología , Estrés Oxidativo , Eritrocitos/fisiología , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Consumo de Oxígeno/fisiología , Conducta Sedentaria , Radicales Libres , Antropometría , Vitamina A , Ácido Ascórbico , Vitamina E , Prueba de Esfuerzo , Esfuerzo Físico
18.
J Sport Exerc Psychol ; 41(4): 230-241, 2019 08 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31319400

RESUMEN

Over the last decade, research on the visual focus of attention has become increasingly popular in psychological science. The focus of attention has been shown to be important in fast team-sport games. The authors developed a method that measures the extent of the attentional focus and perceptual capabilities during performance of a sport-specific task. The participants were required to judge different player configurations on their left and right sides with varying visual angles between the stimuli. In keeping with the notion that the focus of attention is smaller than the visual field, attentional performance was poorest at the wider viewing angles compared with perceptual performance. Moreover, the team-sport players were better able to enlarge their attentional focus and make correct decisions more frequently than individual athletes, particularly when a motor response was required. The findings provide a new perspective, dissociating the attentional and perceptual processes that affect decision making under various response modes.


Asunto(s)
Atención , Toma de Decisiones , Desempeño Psicomotor , Fútbol/psicología , Percepción Visual , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Joven
19.
Rev. int. med. cienc. act. fis. deporte ; 19(74): 225-241, jun. 2019. ilus, graf, tab
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-183689

RESUMEN

El comportamiento motor surge de la continua interacción entre tres limitadores (organismo, entorno y tarea), que nunca actúan de forma aislada. Este artículo estudia su efecto en el rendimiento, comportamiento motor y comportamiento visual de porteros de fútbol durante el lanzamiento de córner. 31 participantes, divididos en tres grupos en función del nivel de juego, intentaron atrapar el balón procedente del lanzamiento de córner en dos situaciones (estática y dinámica), mientras que se registraron sus movimientos oculares. Entre los resultados se observa que los expertos tienen un rendimiento más estable, mientras que los otros grupos rinden peor en la situación más difícil; que los expertos realizan un inicio más tardío de la carrera hacia el balón y un patrón motor más rápido para atraparlo; y que la información contenida en los jugadores implicados no es relevante, ya que los porteros dedican valores cercanos al 0% del tiempo total a su fijación


Motor behavior arises from the continuous interaction between three constraints (organism, environment and task), which never act in isolation. This paper studies the effect of the constraints on the performance, motor behavior and visual search behavior of soccer goalkeepers during the corner kick. 31 participants, divided into three groups depending on the level of play, tried to catch the ball out of a corner kick in two situations (static and dynamic), while their eye movements were recorded. Among the results it is observed that the experts have a more stable performance, while the other groups perform worse in the most difficult situation; that the experts make a later start of their run up towards the ball and a faster motor pattern to catch it; and that the that the information of the players involved is not relevant, goalkeepers dedicate values ​​close to 0% of their visual total time to them


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Fútbol/psicología , Fútbol/normas , Rendimiento Atlético/fisiología , Rendimiento Atlético/psicología , Conducta , Declaración de Helsinki , Análisis Estadístico , Análisis de Varianza
20.
Rev. andal. med. deporte ; 12(2): 76-82, jun. 2019. tab, graf
Artículo en Portugués | IBECS | ID: ibc-184502

RESUMEN

Objetivo: Este estudo propôs uma aplicação de método multicritério para ordenamento e construção de atributos de análise de desempenho em equipes de futebol, possibilitando o entendimento do perfil de comportamento técnico-tático das mesmas. Método: Foram coletados dados referentes a 34 critérios técnicos presentes em partidas de futebol do Campeonato Espanhol entre as temporadas de 2013-2014 a 2017-2018. Após a coleta, aplicou-se um método matemático denominado Multi-Attribute Value Theory, possibilitando a obtenção de um indicador de desempenho único. Em complemento a este indicador, foram criados 6 atributos para a composição de análise e descrição do estilo de jogo das equipes, sendo eles: Resultados, Finalização, Construção do Jogo, Recuperação da Posse, Proteção da Meta e Infrações. Resultado: A equipe que obteve maior pontos no ordenamento geral foi o Barcelona, sendo que a mesma ainda obteve os maiores índices em atributos como Resultados, Construção de Jogo e Infrações. Já nos atributos de Recuperação da Posse e Proteção da Meta, o maior valor foi obtido pelo Atlético de Madrid. Já o atributo de Finalização foi liderado pela equipe do Real Madrid. Conclusão: O estudo se demonstrou satisfatório, pois, o ordenamento obtido mostrou-se relacionado com a tabela de classificação, além de proporcionar a obtenção de indicadores de desempenho que contribuem para a análise do perfil de comportamento técnico-tático das equipes


Objetivo: Este estudio propuso una aplicación de método multicriterio de atributos de análisis de rendimiento en equipos de fútbol, permitiendo el entendimiento del perfil de comportamiento técnico-táctico de estos equipos. Método: Se han recogido datos referentes a 34 criterios técnicos de partidos de fútbol de la Liga Española, entre las temporadas 2013/2014 y 2017/2018. En seguida se aplicó un método matemático llamado Multi-Attribute Value Theory, que posibilitó la obtención de un solo indicador de rendimiento. Además de este indicador, se crearon 6 atributos para la composición del análisis y descripción del estilo de juego de los equipos, a saber: Resultados, Remates, Construcción del Juego, Recuperación del Balón, Protección de la Portería e Infracciones. Resultado: El equipo que obtuvo más pontos en el ordenamiento general fue el Barcelona, mientras que todavía logra los valores más altos en atributos como Resultados, Construcción del Juego e Infracciones. Sin embargo, en los atributos de Recuperación del Balón y Protección de la Portería, el mayor valor fue obtenido por el Atlético de Madrid. Finalmente, el atributo Remates fue liderado por el equipo del Real Madrid. Conclusión: El estudio se demostró satisfactorio, pues el ordenamiento obtenido se relacionó con la tabla de clasificación, además de proporcionar la obtención de indicadores de rendimiento que contribuyen para el análisis del perfil de comportamiento técnico-táctico de los equipos


Objective: This study proposed the application of a multicriteria method for ordering and building of performance analysis attributes in soccer teams, thus enabling the understanding of their technical and tactical profiles. Method: Data from thirty-four technical criteria from matches of the Spanish League between the 2013/2014 and 2017/2018 seasons were gathered. Following data collection, a mathematical method - named Multi-Attribute Value Theory - was used, enabling the acquisition of a single performance indicator. In addition to this indicator, six attributes were generated to compose the analysis and description of the teams' style of play: Outcomes, Shots, Buildup Play, Ball Recovery, Goal Protection and Fouls. Results: The team with the most points in the overall ordering was Barcelona, whereas it also displayed the highest indexes in attributes such as Results, Buildup Play and Fouls. As for the attributes Ball Recovery, and Goal Protection, the highest values were obtained by Atletico Madrid. Lastly, the highest values regarding the attribute Shots were obtained by Real Madrid. Conclusion: The study was satisfactory, since the ordering obtained was related to the final league table, besides providing performance indicators that contribute to the analysis of the teams' technical and tactical behavior


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Rendimiento Atlético/psicología , Conducta Competitiva , Fútbol/psicología , Deportes/psicología , Estrategias , Procesos de Grupo , Logro
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