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1.
J Interpers Violence ; 38(1-2): NP1239-NP1260, 2023 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35459411

RESUMEN

Intersectionality and minority stress frameworks were used to guide examination and comparisons of psychological distress (depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms) and protective factors (religiosity, spirituality, social support) among 673 Black, Latinx, and White lesbian and bisexual women with and without histories of sexual assault. Participants were from Wave 3 of the 21-year longitudinal Chicago Health and Life Experiences of Women (CHLEW) study. More than one-third (38%) of participants reported having experienced adolescent or adult sexual assault (i.e., rape or another form of sexual assault) since age 14. Confirmatory factor analysis, structural equation modeling, and multivariate analyses of covariance were used to analyze the data. Results revealed that levels of religiosity/spirituality and psychological distress varied by race/ethnicity and by sexual identity (i.e., Black lesbian, Black bisexual, Latinx lesbian, Latinx bisexual, White lesbian, White bisexual). Black lesbian women reported the highest level of religiosity/spirituality whereas White lesbian women reported the lowest level. White bisexual women reported the highest level of psychological distress whereas White lesbian women reported the lowest level. We found no significant differences in reports of sexual assault or in social support (i.e., significant other, family, friend, and total social support). However, White lesbian women had higher friend, significant other, and total social support relative to the other five groups of women with minoritized/marginalized sexual identities. Future work should examine whether religiosity, spirituality, and social support serve as protective factors that can be incorporated into mental health treatment for lesbian and bisexual who have experienced sexual assault to reduce psychological distress.


Asunto(s)
Distrés Psicológico , Delitos Sexuales , Minorías Sexuales y de Género , Adulto , Adolescente , Femenino , Humanos , Factores Protectores , Blancos , Bisexualidad/psicología , Delitos Sexuales/psicología
2.
Addict Behav ; 137: 107531, 2023 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36332517

RESUMEN

For decades, alcohol use disorder has been investigated in an attempt to understand its processes and implications. However, among all of the factors involved in alcohol use disorder, the role of guilt in alcohol use remains poorly explained, with many contradictory results. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to conduct a systematic analysis of the literature from 1990 to 2022 to review the studies investigating the link between guilt and alcohol consumption. Using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) method, 31 studies were included in this review. The results of this work enable to highlight the plurality of guilt that has been studied in the literature. Grouped in two categories: state guilt and trait guilt, they seem to have diverse implications towards alcohol use or misuse. Guilt proneness seems to act as a protective factor towards alcohol use, except for the few studies conducted on a clinical population. Numerous studies indicated that state guilt is deleterious toward alcohol use, even if some results are contradictory. Furthermore, this work allows us to shed light on the limits of the studies currently carried out, and thus to propose new directions for future studies.


Asunto(s)
Alcoholismo , Humanos , Culpa , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Factores Protectores
3.
Arch. pediatr. Urug ; 93(2): e206, dic. 2022. tab
Artículo en Español | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1383653

RESUMEN

Introducción: el intento de autoeliminación (IAE) y el suicidio han aumentado en adolescentes, es un problema de alta prioridad. Objetivo: establecer la epidemiología y su relación con factores de riesgo (FR) y protección (FP) de conducta suicida en usuarios de un Espacio Adolescente en el primer nivel de atención del subsector público (diciembre 2016-setiembre 2017). Material y método: encuesta anónima a adolescentes de ambos sexos, entre 12 y 19 años. Se compararon FR y FP entre: franjas etarias (12 a 14 años y 15 a 19 años); sexo; IAE previo versus su ausencia e institucionalización o no. Se consideró p menor a 0,05 como estadísticamente significativa. Los datos se ingresaron en Excel y se analizaron con Epi Info 7.2.0.1. Resultados: 107 entrevistados, 60 mujeres, edad: 13,3 (media); IAE previo más frecuente entre 15 y 19 años y sexo femenino (p 95%). FP p 95%: actividad recreativa, autoestima elevada, y buena resolución de problemas. FR p 95%: maltrato, abuso sexual, muerte de ser querido, consumo de sustancias y enfermedad psiquiátrica. Comparando edades, FP: familia unida, proyectos y amigos (p 95%); FR: consumo de sustancias, enfermedad psiquiátrica, maltrato, abuso sexual, familiar con enfermedad psiquiátrica, muerte de ser querido, trastorno del sueño, institucionalización, ideación y planificación suicidas (p 95%). Al comparar sexos, no se encontraron FP p 95% FR. Conclusiones: se deben estimular actividades recreativas en adolescentes y ofrecer asistencia en salud mental a aquellos que presentan FR de conducta suicida.


Introduction: self-harm (SH) and suicide have increased in adolescents, and they have become a high health priority. Objective: to establish the epidemiology and its relationship with risk factors (RF) and protection (PF) of suicidal behavior in users of a Primary Care Adolescent Center of the State Health Sector (December 2016 - September 2017). Materials and methods: confidential survey of adolescents of both sexes, between 12 and 19 years of age. We carried out a descriptive analysis in order to compare RF and PF between ages (12 to 14 and 15 to 19); sex; previous SH self-harm versus its absence and institutionalization or not. p less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Data were entered into Excel and analyzed using Epi Info 7.2.0.1. Results: 107 interviewees, 60 females, age: 13.3 (mean); Most frequent previous SH between 15 and 19 years and female sex (p 95%). PF p 95 %: recreational activity, high self-esteem, and good problem-solving skills. RF p 95 %: child abuse, sexual abuse, death of a loved one, substance use and mental illness. Comparing ages, PF: close family, projects and friends (p 95%); RF: substance use, mental illness, child abuse, sexual abuse, family with mental illness, death of loved one, sleep disorder, institutionalization, suicidal ideation and suicidal planning (p 95%). When comparing sexes, PF were not found p 95% as RF. Conclusions: recreational activities should be encouraged in adolescents and Mental Health assistance should be provided to those who present RF of suicidal behavior.


Introdução: tentativa de suicídio e suicídio tem aumentado na adolescência, adquirindo alta prioridade. Objetivo: estabelecer a epidemiologia e sua relação com fatores de risco (FR) e proteção (FP) de comportamento suicida em usuários do chamado "Espaço Adolescente" no Primeiro Nível de Atenção no Subsetor Público do Sistema de Saúde (dezembro 2016-setembro 2017). Materiais e métodos: inquérito anônimo aos adolescentes de ambos os sexos, entre 12 e 19 anos de idade. Foram comparados FR e FP entre: grupos de idades (12 a 14 e 15 a 19); sexo; tentativa de suicídio anterior versus sua ausência e institucionalização ou não. Considerou-se p menor a 0,05 como estatisticamente significativa. Os dados foram processados no programa Excel e utilizando-se o programa Epi Info 7.2.0.1. Resultados: 107 entrevistados, 60 do sexo feminino, idade: 13,3 (média); antecedentes de tentativa de suicídio mais frequentes entre 15 e 19 anos e sexo feminino (p 95%). FP p 95%: atividade recreativa, autoestima elevada, e boas habilidades de resolução de problemas. FR p 95%: maltrato, abuso sexual, perda de pessoa querida, consumo de substâncias e doença psiquiátrica. Comparadas as idades, FP: família unida, projetos e amigos (p 95%); FR: consumo de substâncias, doença psiquiátrica, maltrato, abuso sexual, familiar com doença psiquiátrica, perda de pessoa querida, transtorno do sono, institucionalização, ideação suicida e planejamento suicida (p 95%). Comparados ambos os sexos, não se encontraram FP p 95% FR. Conclusões: atividades recreativas devem ser estimuladas nos casos de adolescentes e assistência à Saúde Mental deve ser fornecida aos portadores de FR suicida.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Niño , Adolescente , Adulto Joven , Suicidio/estadística & datos numéricos , Atención Primaria de Salud , Uruguay/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Factores de Riesgo , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Sector Público , Distribución por Sexo , Factores Protectores
4.
Hum Resour Health ; 20(1): 79, 2022 Nov 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36403076

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Nurses are frequently exposed to chronic stress in the workplace generating harmful effects such as job strain and burnout. On the contrary, resilience has been shown to be a beneficial variable. The objective of this study was to analyze the relationship between dimensions of the Job Demand Control-Support model, resilience and burnout in nurses, and examine the mediating role of resilience between job strain and burnout. METHODS: A descriptive, cross-sectional study reported in line with the STROBE guidelines. Active nurses were invited to complete an online questionnaire in September, 2020. With snowball sampling, 1013 nurses, with a mean age of 34.71, filled out the Job Content Questionnaire, the Maslach Burnout Inventory and the Resilience Scale. RESULTS: The results showed the existence of four groups of professionals based on job strain. The nurses in the "High Strain" group (high demands and low control) showed higher scores in emotional exhaustion and cynicism, while those in the "Active Job" group scored higher in personal realization and resilience. The findings showed that job strain affects burnout in nurses, and this effect is mediated by resilience. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study showed that a high level of resilience could exert a fundamental role in ensuring well-being and proper job performance by nurses. Nursing managers should see to the personable variables or competencies that provide and favor an opportunity for nurses to widen and improve their practice, in pursuance of satisfying and responding better to people's needs and the systems they work for.


Asunto(s)
Agotamiento Profesional , COVID-19 , Humanos , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Factores Protectores , COVID-19/epidemiología , Agotamiento Psicológico , Agotamiento Profesional/psicología
5.
Afr Health Sci ; 22(2): 581-591, 2022 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36407353

RESUMEN

Background: University students appear to experience a significantly higher rate of depression compared to the general population. However, there is limited data showing how much Nigerian university students know about the risk and protective factors related to depression. Objectives: To assess the knowledge of risk and protective factors associated with depression in young people among students of a Nigerian university. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive survey was conducted among simple randomly selected students of the University of Nigeria, Nsukka. Two validated self-administered questionnaires were used for data collection. Descriptive statistics and multivariate binary logistic regression were used for the data analysis. Results: Out of 1591 participants, about 47% and 60% had good knowledge of risk and protective factors related to depression, respectively. The course of study, year of study, contact with a depressed person, and personal experience of depression significantly predicted students' knowledge of risk factors for depression. Similarly, course of study, year of study, and gender were the significant predictors of students' knowledge of protective factors against depression. Conclusions: The students had good knowledge of protective factors against depression, but were poor in knowledge of its associated risks. Therefore, provision of mental health services in the universities is recommended.


Asunto(s)
Depresión , Estudiantes , Humanos , Adolescente , Universidades , Factores Protectores , Depresión/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Nigeria/epidemiología , Estudiantes/psicología
6.
Acta Clin Croat ; 61(1): 107-114, 2022 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36398083

RESUMEN

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an emerging infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The usual presentation of the disease is a common cold-like illness but it can present with more severe and sometimes fatal manifestations. Immunocompromised patients such as those with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) also are among the infected population. A limited number of reports have been published concerning CVID patients with COVID-19. The main reported symptoms were fever, cough, dyspnea and fatigue while the median duration of illness was 19 (interquartile range 14-26.5) days. Total recovery rate was 88.4%. It is still unknown whether primary immunodeficiency interacts as a predisposing or protective factor against the severe forms of COVID-19. Substitute immunoglobulin (IG) therapy is the only treatment option for CVID. Some reports suggest that early administration of intravenous IGs or convalescent plasma infusion may positively influence the outcome of COVID-19 in these patients.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Inmunodeficiencia Variable Común , Humanos , Inmunodeficiencia Variable Común/complicaciones , Inmunodeficiencia Variable Común/terapia , Inmunodeficiencia Variable Común/diagnóstico , COVID-19/complicaciones , Factores Protectores , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 18898, 2022 Nov 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36344809

RESUMEN

Peer victimization have a negative impact on Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) during adolescence, however some personal skills such a person's resilience could play a significant role in this relationship. In this context, this study aims to analyse if resilience is a moderator of the relation between peer victimization and HRQoL's psychological dimensions. Sociodemographic data, peer victimization, psychological domains of HRQoL and resilience were measures in a sample of 1428 secondary school students using the following scales: "Adolescent Peer Relations Instrument-Bullying", "KIDSCREEN-52" and "Brief Resilient Coping Scale. Different multivariate analyses were carried out using linear regression. PROCESS tool was used to examine the moderating role of resilience, with John-Neyman post-hoc approach to quantify moderation. Results suggest that resilience could moderate the association between physical (ß = - 0.0021; p = 0.025) and verbal victimization (ß = - 0.0018; p = 0.024) and the "Mood and Emotions" dimension of adolescents' HRQoL. Nevertheless, this regulating influence appears to be faint (∆R2 0.004). Resilience showed no moderating effect between social victimization and psychological dimensions of HRQoL. We concluded that resilience could function as a protective factor that weakly regulates the negative association between physical and verbal victimization and the psychological sphere of adolescents' HRQoL.


Asunto(s)
Acoso Escolar , Víctimas de Crimen , Adolescente , Humanos , Calidad de Vida/psicología , Factores Protectores , Acoso Escolar/psicología , Víctimas de Crimen/psicología , Grupo Paritario
8.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36361111

RESUMEN

During the COVID-19 pandemic, nurses were exposed to many stressors, which may have been associated with some mental health problems. However, most of the studies carried out on nurses' quality of life and workplace wellbeing during the COVID-19 pandemic took a pathogenic approach. Given that current scientific knowledge in this field presented too many gaps to properly inform preventive and therapeutic action, the aim of this study was to explore whether protective factors (resilience, perceived social support, and professional identification) and stressors (perceived stress and psychosocial risks in the workplace) influenced the quality of life and workplace wellbeing perceived by Portuguese nurses during the COVID-19 pandemic. Data for this cross-sectional study was collected through online self-administered questionnaires. Linear regression models were used to analyze the relationships between variables. Results showed that perceived stress, resilience and job satisfaction were associated with quality of life and workplace wellbeing among Portuguese nurses. The study's findings could serve to inform health policy and should draw the attention of nursing managers to the needs and difficulties reported by nurses, to the importance of providing them with emotional support, and to the relevance of promoting a good work environment.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Enfermeras y Enfermeros , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiología , Lugar de Trabajo/psicología , Pandemias , Calidad de Vida , Estudios Transversales , Factores Protectores , Portugal/epidemiología , Satisfacción en el Trabajo , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
9.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36361279

RESUMEN

Lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) people have more risk of suffering from violence and situations of discrimination than heterosexual people. The current study compares LGB people with heterosexual people in protective factors, violence, health and well-being factors. The sample comprises 609 Spanish people between 14 and 25 years old. We established a cross-sectional design. A survey including questions about sociodemographic information and protective, violence and health and well-being factors was designed ad hoc for this study. The results show that the LGB group (n = 342) is more at risk of verbal and physical violence and feels more isolated than the heterosexual participants (n = 267). In contrast, heterosexual participants report having more employment discrimination. No significant differences were found in social support or psychological health. These results are important to understand the state of social normalization and non-discrimination for LGB people in certain contexts in Spain, and its impact on psychological health.


Asunto(s)
Salud Mental , Minorías Sexuales y de Género , Femenino , Humanos , Adolescente , Adulto Joven , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Factores Protectores , Bisexualidad/psicología , Violencia
10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36430062

RESUMEN

Existing research continues to highlight the harm that intimate partner violence (IPV) can pose to health and well-being. However, little is done to understand the effectiveness of coping and protective mechanisms in helping women manage under adverse circumstances. The current study addresses the mental health of US Black women and the role of coping and protective moderators. An analysis of data from the National Survey of American Life (2001-2003), the most comprehensive survey on the health of US Blacks, was conducted. The association between severe physical intimate partner violence and mental health outcomes were confirmed. Resilience moderated the relationship between severe intimate partner violence and mood disorder among US Black women, but this differed between African American and Caribbean Blacks. Resilience, emotional family support, and spirituality reduced the likelihood of having a mental health condition for some African American and Caribbean Black women, while the opposite was found for religiosity. Demographic factors were also associated with mental health conditions and behaviors. The study draws our attention to potential coping and protective mechanisms that could be incorporated into counseling and intervention practices while recognizing factors that may be harmful to the mental health of individuals.


Asunto(s)
Afroamericanos , Violencia de Pareja , Femenino , Humanos , Salud Mental , Factores Protectores , Adaptación Psicológica , Región del Caribe
11.
Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol ; 61(6): 977-983, 2022 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36428001

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Postpartum depression (PPD) can occur in women soon after childbirth. The aim of this study was to investigate the risk and protective factors for immediate PPD in a baby-friendly hospital. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study of singleton term pregnancies was performed at MacKay Memorial Hospital in Taiwan from January to September 2019. The enrolled women completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) within 48 h after childbirth. Maternal characteristics, pregnancy and delivery factors, maternal comorbidities, supportive and childbirth factors, and neonatal outcomes were investigated. RESULTS: Of the 1197 enrolled women, 1104 (92.23%) were at low risk (EPDS score ≤9), 66 (5.51%) were at moderate risk (EPDS score 10 to 12), and 27 (2.26%) were at high risk (EPDS score ≥13) of PPD. Significant independent risk factors for immediate PPD included the number of miscarriages (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.33, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03-1.72, p = 0.031) and intermediate care nursery (ICN) or neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admission (aOR 2.29, 95% CI 1.13-4.64, p = 0.022). Significant independent protective factors included planned pregnancy (aOR 0.51, 95% CI 0.28-0.92, p = 0.026), husband accompanying his wife (aOR 0.41, 95% CI 0.22-0.75, p = 0.004), early mother and newborn skin-to-skin contact (aOR 0.44, 95% CI 0.24-0.84, p = 0.012), and breastfeeding (aOR 0.23, 95% CI 0.08-0.71, p = 0.010). CONCLUSION: The number of miscarriages and ICN or NICU admission were independent risk factors for immediate PPD. Planned pregnancy, husband accompanying his wife, early skin-to-skin contact, and breastfeeding were independent protective factors for immediate PPD. Health care providers should pay attention to the risk factors and promote the protective factors into hospital policies to prevent the consequences of PPD.


Asunto(s)
Aborto Espontáneo , Depresión Posparto , Embarazo , Recién Nacido , Femenino , Humanos , Depresión Posparto/epidemiología , Depresión Posparto/etiología , Factores Protectores , Estudios Transversales , Taiwán/epidemiología , Hospitales
12.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277037, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36342935

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Evidence on potentially modifiable risk factors for dementia is accumulating rapidly, including e.g. physical inactivity, hypertension, or diabetes. It is unclear to what extent these risk factors are known among the general population in Germany. We investigated knowledge on risk and protective factors for dementia and openness to eHealth interventions for brain health in the older general population in Germany. METHODS: A population-based telephone survey among randomly selected community-dwelling adults aged ≥ 60 years was conducted. We assessed sociodemographic factors, knowledge on risk and protective factors for dementia, openness towards eHealth and psychosocial outcomes (health literacy, resilience). Factors associated with interest in information on brain health and openness towards eHealth interventions were assessed using multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: Of n = 500 respondents (mean age: 74.8 years, % female: 62.8), 67.9% believed that dementia risk is modifiable. Participants mostly endorsed physical and cognitive activity as protective factors and social isolation as a risk factor. Knowledge on cardiovascular risk factors was low to moderate. 38.0% were interested in information on dementia risk reduction. Better knowledge of risk factors for dementia and higher age were linked to interest in information on brain health. Being widowed and higher levels of health literacy were associated with lower interest in information. Openness to eHealth interventions was moderate (46.2%). Younger age, better knowledge of risk and protective factors were linked to openness towards eHealth tools, as was knowing someone with dementia and interest in information on brain health. CONCLUSION: Belief in preventability of dementia was higher in our sample than previously reported. However, knowledge on cardiovascular risk factors for disease was insufficient and more information and intervention approaches targeted at older adults are needed. Interest in information on dementia risk reduction and eHealth approaches was moderate, and further studies are warranted to assess needs and concerns of older adults regarding dementia prevention.


Asunto(s)
Demencia , Alfabetización en Salud , Intervención basada en la Internet , Telemedicina , Humanos , Femenino , Anciano , Masculino , Factores Protectores , Encéfalo , Demencia/epidemiología , Demencia/prevención & control , Internet
13.
BMJ Open ; 12(11): e058297, 2022 Nov 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36428021

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Self-harm and suicide are major public health concerns among children and adolescents. Many risk and protective factors for suicide and self-harm have been identified and reported in the literature. However, the capacity of these identified risk and protective factors to guide assessment and management is limited due to their great number. This protocol describes an ongoing systematic review and meta-analysis which aims to examine longitudinal studies of risk factors for self-harm and suicide in children and adolescents, to provide a comparison of the strengths of association of the various risk factors for self-harm and suicide and to shed light on those that require further investigation. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We perform a systematic search of the literature using the databases EMBASE, PsycINFO, Medline, CINAHL and HMIC from inception up to 28 October 2020, and the search will be updated before the systematic review publication. Additionally, we will contact experts in the field, including principal investigators whose peer-reviewed publications are included in our systematic review as well as investigators from our extensive research network, and we will search the reference lists of relevant reviews to retrieve any articles that were not identified in our search. We will extract relevant data and present a narrative synthesis and combine the results in meta-analyses where there are sufficient data. We will assess the risk of bias for each study using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale and present a summary of the quantity and the quality of the evidence for each risk or protective factor. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval will not be sought as this is a systematic review of the literature. Results will be published in mental health journals and presented at conferences focused on suicide prevention. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42021228212.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Autodestructiva , Suicidio , Niño , Adolescente , Humanos , Factores Protectores , Conducta Autodestructiva/epidemiología , Conducta Autodestructiva/prevención & control , Suicidio/prevención & control , Factores de Riesgo , Salud Pública , Metaanálisis como Asunto , Revisiones Sistemáticas como Asunto
14.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 20432, 2022 Nov 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36443358

RESUMEN

Oxidative stress had been linked to hypertensive renal impairment in previous investigations. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) was a clinically available oxidative stress biomarker. The association between SOD and the microalbuminuria in hypertensive patients has not been established. From January 2017 to December 2018, data on 690 patients with essential hypertension were collected retrospectively at Shandong Provincial Qianfoshan Hospital. Patients were divided into hypertension with microalbuminuria group (HM) and hypertension without microalbuminuria group (NHM). Clinical data from patients were collected and compared between the two groups. Spearman correlation analysis was used to analyze the correlation between UACR and SOD. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to screen for the risk factors for HM. Our research included 556 patients in the NHM group and 134 patients in the HM group. Spearman correlation analysis showed a negative correlation between SOD and UACR (P < 0.001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed SOD was an independent protective factor in hypertensive patients with HM. In hypertensive patients, a substantial, negative correlation between SOD and early renal damage was found, suggesting that SOD may protect renal function.


Asunto(s)
Albuminuria , Hipertensión , Humanos , Factores Protectores , Estudios Retrospectivos , Superóxido Dismutasa , Hipertensión/complicaciones
15.
Open Heart ; 9(2)2022 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36318599

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF) is a common complication affecting approximately one-third of patients after cardiac surgery and valvular interventions. This umbrella review systematically appraises the epidemiological credibility of published meta-analyses of both observational and randomised controlled trials (RCT) to assess the risk and protective factors of POAF. METHODS: Three databases were searched up to June 2021. According to established criteria, evidence of association was rated as convincing, highly suggestive, suggestive, weak or not significant concerning observational studies and as high, moderate, low or very low regarding RCTs. RESULTS: We identified 47 studies (reporting 61 associations), 13 referring to observational studies and 34 to RCTs. Only the transfemoral transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) approach was associated with the prevention of POAF and was supported by convincing evidence from meta-analyses of observational data. Two other associations provided highly suggestive evidence, including preoperative hypertension and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio. Three associations between protective factors and POAF presented a high level of evidence in meta-analyses, including RCTs. These associations included atrial and biatrial pacing and performing a posterior pericardiotomy. Nineteen associations were supported by moderate evidence, including use of drugs such as amiodarone, b-blockers, glucocorticoids and statins and the performance of TAVR compared with surgical aortic valve replacement. CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides evidence confirming the protective role of amiodarone, b-blockers, atrial pacing and posterior pericardiotomy against POAF as well as highlights the risk of untreated hypertension. Further research is needed to assess the potential role of statins, glucocorticoids and colchicine in the prevention of POAF. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42021268268.


Asunto(s)
Fibrilación Atrial , Reemplazo de la Válvula Aórtica Transcatéter , Humanos , Amiodarona , Inhibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Reductasas , Hipertensión , Metaanálisis como Asunto , Factores Protectores , Reemplazo de la Válvula Aórtica Transcatéter/efectos adversos
16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36231889

RESUMEN

This study investigates the principal risk and protective factors associated with student distress and school dropout in a group of preadolescents, through a qualitative and quantitative comparison between the perspectives of students, parents, and teachers. We administered a questionnaire to evaluate student distress and school dropout in a middle school (student's age range 13-15 years). We afterwards analyzed the responses of students at risk of school dropout. We also administered a semi-structured interview with their parents and their teachers. The results indicated significant levels of school distress in students (Collective Distress > 8.75) and a problematic relationship between parents and students (22.42%). We also found a problematic relationship between teachers and students (24.39%). The main protective factor of student distress and school drop-out indicated by the students was a more sensitive and supportive relationship with both parents and teachers. On the contrary, parents and teachers indicated as possible causes of school distress and drop-out the intrinsic students' motivation or other external factors associated with the community. The results of our study highlight the importance to apply a multidimensional and transactional psycho-educational model, in which the relationship between the students and their caretaker plays a major role.


Asunto(s)
Personal Docente , Abandono Escolar , Adolescente , Humanos , Factores Protectores , Maestros , Instituciones Académicas , Estudiantes
17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36232211

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has strained hospitals and healthcare workers engaged in combating the virus with limited knowledge and resources. Intensive care unit (ICU) nurses are among the healthcare workers most affected by the pandemic and are at risk for developing burnout syndrome. OBJECTIVE: The present study aims to explore burnout symptoms prevalence among ICU nurses and to identify the individual, organizational, and contextual risk, and protective factors of burnout in ICU nurses during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A scoping review was conducted by searching PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science. Only papers with empirical data and referred to ICU nurses were included. A total of 350 initial results were yielded, and 40 full texts were screened. Twelve papers constituted the final sample in the analysis. RESULTS: High levels of symptoms of burnout (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment) were registered among ICU nurses during the COVID-19 pandemic. Increased workload, lack of equipment, social stigma, and fear of contagion emerged as key risk factors. Social support from leaders and colleagues, professional recognition, use of personal protective tools, and witnessing patients' successful recovery emerged as major protective factors. CONCLUSIONS: The results may inform the development of timely actions to counter burnout in ICU nurses during this COVID-19 pandemic and in a post-COVID-19 scenario.


Asunto(s)
Agotamiento Profesional , COVID-19 , Agotamiento Profesional/psicología , Agotamiento Psicológico , COVID-19/epidemiología , Cuidados Críticos , Humanos , Pandemias , Prevalencia , Factores Protectores
18.
Cir Pediatr ; 35(4): 180-186, 2022 Oct 01.
Artículo en Inglés, Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36217788

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To identify whether pop-off mechanisms act as protective factors against chronic or end-stage renal disease in patients with posterior urethral valves. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of patients with posterior urethral valves treated at a tertiary care children's hospital was carried out. Demographic, clinical, analytical, and radiological variables were collected. Considered as pop-off mechanisms were: unilateral high-grade vesicoureteral reflux with ipsilateral renal dysplasia and without involvement of the contralateral kidney, urinoma, prenatal urinary ascites, large bladder diverticulum, and persistent urachus. Multiple logistic regression and multivariate Cox regression were used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: 70 patients undergoing posterior urethral valve surgery in our institution from 2010 to August 2020 were included. 14 (20%) had pop-off mechanisms and 56 (80%) did not. Pop-off mechanisms protected against developing chronic renal disease (0% vs. 27%; p = 0.03) and could protect against the need for renal replacement therapy (0% vs. 9%; p = 0.58). Nadir creatinine values (mg/dl) were predictors for the development of chronic renal disease (0.37 vs. 0.53; p < 0.0001) and the need for renal replacement therapy (0.38 vs. 1.21; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Pop-off mechanisms act as a protective factor against chronic renal disease in patients with posterior urethral valves. Nadir creatinine is a predictor of chronic renal disease and the need for renal replacement therapy. A larger sample size is needed to determine whether pop-off mechanisms protect against the need for renal replacement therapy.


OBJETIVOS: Identificar si los fenómenos pop-off actúan como factores protectores de enfermedad renal crónica o terminal en pacientes con válvulas de uretra posterior. MATERIAL Y METODOS: Estudio de cohortes retrospectivo de los pacientes con válvulas de uretra posterior tratados en un hospital infantil de tercer nivel. Se recogieron variables demográficas, clínicas, analíticas y radiológicas. Se consideraron fenómenos pop-off: reflujo vesicoureteral de alto grado unilateral con displasia renal ipsilateral y sin afectación del riñón contralateral, urinoma, ascitis urinaria prenatal, divertículo vesical grande y uraco persistente. Para el análisis estadístico se han utilizado regresiones logísticas múltiples y regresión de Cox multivariante. RESULTADOS: Se incluyeron 70 pacientes intervenidos de válvulas de uretra posterior y visitados en nuestro centro desde 2010 hasta agosto de 2020. Catorce (20%) presentaban fenómenos pop-off y 56 (80%) no. Los fenómenos pop-off fueron protectores para el desarrollo de enfermedad renal crónica (0 vs. 27%; p = 0,03) y podrían proteger de la necesidad de terapia renal sustitutiva (0 vs. 9%; p = 0,58). Los valores de creatinina nadir (mg/dl) fueron predictores de desarrollo de enfermedad renal crónica (0,37 vs. 0,53; p < 0,0001) y de necesidad de terapia renal sustitutiva (0,38 vs. 1,21; p < 0,001). CONCLUSIONES: Los fenómenos pop-off actúan como factor protector de enfermedad renal crónica en los pacientes con válvulas de uretra posterior. La creatinina nadir es un factor predictor de enfermedad renal crónica y de necesidad de terapia renal sustitutiva. Se necesita un tamaño de muestra mayor para determinar si los fenómenos pop-off protegen de la necesidad de terapia renal sustitutiva.


Asunto(s)
Fallo Renal Crónico , Insuficiencia Renal Crónica , Obstrucción Uretral , Niño , Creatinina , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Fallo Renal Crónico/complicaciones , Embarazo , Factores Protectores , Insuficiencia Renal Crónica/complicaciones , Estudios Retrospectivos , Uretra/cirugía
19.
Cir. pediátr ; 35(4): 180-186, Oct. 2022. ilus, tab, graf
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-210860

RESUMEN

Objetivos: Identificar si los fenómenos pop-off actúan como factoresprotectores de enfermedad renal crónica o terminal en pacientes conválvulas de uretra posterior. Material y métodos: Estudio de cohortes retrospectivo de los pa-cientes con válvulas de uretra posterior tratados en un hospital infantil detercer nivel. Se recogieron variables demográficas, clínicas, analíticas yradiológicas. Se consideraron fenómenos pop-off: reflujo vesicoureteralde alto grado unilateral con displasia renal ipsilateral y sin afectación delriñón contralateral, urinoma, ascitis urinaria prenatal, divertículo vesicalgrande y uraco persistente. Para el análisis estadístico se han utilizadoregresiones logísticas múltiples y regresión de Cox multivariante. Resultados: Se incluyeron 70 pacientes intervenidos de válvulas deuretra posterior y visitados en nuestro centro desde 2010 hasta agostode 2020. Catorce (20%) presentaban fenómenos pop-off y 56 (80%)no. Los fenómenos pop-off fueron protectores para el desarrollo deenfermedad renal crónica (0 vs. 27%; p = 0,03) y podrían proteger de lanecesidad de terapia renal sustitutiva (0 vs. 9%; p = 0,58). Los valores decreatinina nadir (mg/dl) fueron predictores de desarrollo de enfermedadrenal crónica (0,37 vs. 0,53; p < 0,0001) y de necesidad de terapia renalsustitutiva (0,38 vs. 1,21; p < 0,001). Conclusiones: Los fenómenos pop-off actúan como factor protectorde enfermedad renal crónica en los pacientes con válvulas de uretraposterior. La creatinina nadir es un factor predictor de enfermedad renalcrónica y de necesidad de terapia renal sustitutiva. Se necesita un tamañode muestra mayor para determinar si los fenómenos pop-off protegende la necesidad de terapia renal sustitutiva.(AU)


Objective: To identify whether pop-off mechanisms act as protec-tive factors against chronic or end-stage renal disease in patients withposterior urethral valves. Materials and methods: A retrospective cohort study of patients withposterior urethral valves treated at a tertiary care children’s hospital wascarried out. Demographic, clinical, analytical, and radiological variableswere collected. Considered as pop-off mechanisms were: unilateral high-grade vesicoureteral reflux with ipsilateral renal dysplasia and withoutinvolvement of the contralateral kidney, urinoma, prenatal urinary ascites,large bladder diverticulum, and persistent urachus. Multiple logistic regres-sion and multivariate Cox regression were used for statistical analysis. Results: 70 patients undergoing posterior urethral valve surgery inour institution from 2010 to August 2020 were included. 14 (20%) hadpop-off mechanisms and 56 (80%) did not. Pop-off mechanisms pro-tected against developing chronic renal disease (0% vs. 27%; p = 0.03)and could protect against the need for renal replacement therapy (0%vs. 9%; p = 0.58). Nadir creatinine values (mg/dl) were predictors forthe development of chronic renal disease (0.37 vs. 0.53; p < 0.0001)and the need for renal replacement therapy (0.38 vs. 1.21; p < 0.001). Conclusions: Pop-off mechanisms act as a protective factor againstchronic renal disease in patients with posterior urethral valves. Nadircreatinine is a predictor of chronic renal disease and the need for renalreplacement therapy. A larger sample size is needed to determine whetherpop-off mechanisms protect against the need for renal replacement therapy.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Niño , Uretra , Insuficiencia Renal Crónica , Sistema Urinario , Riñón/anomalías , Obstrucción Uretral , Factores Protectores , Estudios de Cohortes , Estudios Retrospectivos , Pediatría , Cirugía General , Salud Infantil
20.
J Prev (2022) ; 43(6): 801-821, 2022 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36301450

RESUMEN

The misuse of substances by adolescents is a serious public health concern in the United States, and the three most used substances by adolescents are alcohol, cannabis, and electronic cigarettes. In accordance with the Social Development Model, a better understanding of the risk and protective factors across these three substances can assist in predicting potential substance use as well as strategies for prevention. The purpose of the current study is to examine the similar or differential influence that a specific set of risk and protective factors (i.e., favorable attitudes toward substance use, perceived risk of harm, peer substance use, interaction with prosocial peers, parental favorable attitudes toward substance use, family management, perceived availability substances, and rewards for prosocial involvement) have on past 30-day alcohol, cannabis, and e-cigarette use by adolescents. The present study is based on a secondary data analysis of the 2019 Prevention Needs Assessment Survey, which is administered every two years in the State of Utah to a large sample of students in grades 6, 8, 10, and 12 grades. A subsample of students (n = 44,728) was included in the present analysis. Logistic regression was used to examine the predictive relation for the set of four risk and four protective factors on past 30-day use of alcohol, cannabis, and e-cigarette use. In general, the results indicated that endorsement of the four risk factors predicted increases in the use of each substance whereas endorsement of the four protective factors predicted decreases in use. Implications of these findings suggest that there may be more similarities in risk and protective factors across alcohol, cannabis, and electronic cigarettes than between them. In addition, this study adds to the budding literature on the risk and protective factors associated with adolescent e-cigarette use.


Asunto(s)
Cannabis , Sistemas Electrónicos de Liberación de Nicotina , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias , Vapeo , Adolescente , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Factores Protectores , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/prevención & control , Etanol
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