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1.
Psychosom Med ; 86(3): 202-209, 2024 Apr 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38588496

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a severe psychiatric symptom worldwide, and the coexistence of MDD with metabolic syndrome (MetS) is common in clinical practice. However, gender differences in comorbid MetS in first-episode and drug-naïve (FEDN) MDD patients have not been reported. Here, we explored potential gender differences in the prevalence and clinical correlates of comorbid MetS in FEDN MDD patients. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 1718 FEDN MDD patients was conducted. Demographic and clinical data were collected. The Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD), Hamilton Anxiety Scale, and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale positive subscale were used to evaluate depression, anxiety, and psychotic symptoms, respectively. RESULTS: The prevalence of MetS was 1.645-fold higher in female MDD patients (38.50%) than in male patients (26.53%). Patients with MetS had higher HAMD score, Hamilton Anxiety Scale score, and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale positive subscale score than patients without MetS (p values < .001). Furthermore, suicide attempts (male: odds ratio [OR] = 1.706, p = .034; female: OR = 1.639, p = .004) and HAMD score (male: OR = 1.251, p < .001; female: OR = 1.148, p < .001) were independently associated with MetS in male and female patients, whereas age of onset was independently associated with MetS only in female patients (OR = 1.744, p = .047). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest significant gender differences in the prevalence and clinical correlates of comorbid MetS in FEDN MDD patients. Clinical variables (suicide attempts and HAMD scores) may be independently associated with MetS in MDD patients.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno Depresivo Mayor , Síndrome Metabólico , Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Trastorno Depresivo Mayor/epidemiología , Trastorno Depresivo Mayor/diagnóstico , Síndrome Metabólico/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Estudios Transversales , Factores Sexuales
2.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0301285, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38564594

RESUMEN

Increasing awareness of gender barriers and biases in academic institutions is an essential component of institutional change strategies to promote equity and inclusion. There is an established perception gap in recognizing gender inequities in the workplace, whereby men faculty under acknowledge the stressors, barriers, and biases faced by their women faculty colleagues. This study explored the gender gap in faculty perceptions of institutional diversity climate at a rural comprehensive regional university in the United States. In addition to gender, differences across academic discipline and time were explored using 2 (men and women) x 2 (STEM and other) x 2 (2017 and 2022) between-groups ANOVAs. Results revealed a gender gap that persisted across time and perceptions of stressors, diversity climate, student behavior, leadership, and fairness in promotion/tenure procedures, with marginalized (women) faculty consistently reporting greater barriers/concern for women faculty relative to the perceptions of their men faculty colleagues. These findings are largely consistent with the extant literature and are discussed both with regard to future research directions and recommendations for reducing the perception gap and addressing institutional barriers to gender equity.


Asunto(s)
Centros Médicos Académicos , Docentes Médicos , Masculino , Humanos , Femenino , Estados Unidos , Universidades , Factores Sexuales , Facultades de Medicina , Liderazgo , Movilidad Laboral
3.
Biol Sex Differ ; 15(1): 32, 2024 Apr 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38570790

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Recently implemented research policies requiring the inclusion of females and males have created an urgent need for effective training in how to account for sex, and in some cases gender, in biomedical studies. METHODS: Here, we evaluated three sets of publicly available online training materials on this topic: (1) Integrating Sex & Gender in Health Research from the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR); (2) Sex as a Biological Variable: A Primer from the United States National Institutes of Health (NIH); and (3) The Sex and Gender Dimension in Biomedical Research, developed as part of "Leading Innovative measures to reach gender Balance in Research Activities" (LIBRA) from the European Commission. We reviewed each course with respect to their coverage of (1) What is required by the policy; (2) Rationale for the policy; (3) Handling of the concepts "sex" and "gender;" (4) Research design and analysis; and (5) Interpreting and reporting data. RESULTS: All three courses discussed the importance of including males and females to better generalize results, discover potential sex differences, and tailor treatments to men and women. The entangled nature of sex and gender, operationalization of sex, and potential downsides of focusing on sex more than other sources of variation were minimally discussed. Notably, all three courses explicitly endorsed invalid analytical approaches that produce bias toward false positive discoveries of difference. CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis suggests a need for revised or new training materials that incorporate four major topics: precise operationalization of sex, potential risks of over-emphasis on sex as a category, recognition of gender and sex as complex and entangled, and rigorous study design and data analysis.


Recently implemented research policies requiring the inclusion of females and males have created an urgent need for effective training in how to account for sex, and in some cases gender, in biomedical studies. We evaluated three publicly available online trainings on this topic: (1) Integrating Sex & Gender in Health Research from the Canadian Institutes of Health Research; (2) Sex as a Biological Variable: A Primer from the United States National Institutes of Health; and (3) The Sex and Gender Dimension in Biomedical Research, developed as part of "Leading Innovative Measures to Reach Gender Balance in Research Activities (LIBRA)" from the European Commission. We reviewed each course with respect to their coverage of (1) What is required by the policy; (2) Rationale for the policy; (3) Handling of the concepts "sex" and "gender;" (4) Research design and analysis; and (5) Interpreting and reporting data. All three discussed the importance of including males and females to better generalize results, discover potential sex differences, and tailor treatments to men and women. The interconnectedness of sex and gender, how to operationalize sex, and potential downsides of focusing on sex more than other sources of variation were minimally discussed. Notably, all three courses explicitly endorsed invalid analytical approaches that lead to incorrect findings of differences. Our analysis suggests a need for revised or new training materials that cover four major topics: precise operationalization of sex, attention to potential risks of over-emphasizing sex, consideration of gender and sex as complex and intertwined, and rigorous study design and data analysis.


Asunto(s)
Investigación Biomédica , Humanos , Femenino , Masculino , Factores Sexuales , Canadá , Políticas , Caracteres Sexuales
5.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 25(1): 264, 2024 Apr 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38575985

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To identify MRI-detected anatomical risk factors for non-contact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries across genders. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed on 141 ACL-reconstructed patients (35 females, 106 males) and 142 controls (37 females, 105 males) from January 2020 to April 2022. Inclusion criteria were primary non-contact ACL injuries. The tibial plateau slope, lateral femoral condyle index, Insall-Salvati index, and patellar tendon angle were measured, using binary logistic regression for gender-specific risk evaluation. RESULTS: Increased lateral tibial plateau slope, reduced intercondylar notch width index, lateral femoral condyle index, and patellar tendon angle correlated with ACL injuries in both genders. The Insall-Salvati index was a significant risk factor in females but not in males. CONCLUSION: This study identifies the lateral tibial plateau slope, notch width index, lateral femoral condyle index, and patellar tendon angle at near-extension as risk factors for ACL injuries in both genders, with the Insall-Salvati index also implicated in females.


Asunto(s)
Lesiones del Ligamento Cruzado Anterior , Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Lesiones del Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/diagnóstico por imagen , Lesiones del Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/etiología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores Sexuales , Articulación de la Rodilla/diagnóstico por imagen , Tibia , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética/efectos adversos , Factores de Riesgo , Espectroscopía de Resonancia Magnética
6.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1355973, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38577278

RESUMEN

Introduction: Long COVID patients experience a decrease in their quality of life due to the symptomatology produced by the disease. It is also important to understand how long COVID affects both men and women. The objective of this study is to examine the impact of long COVID symptomatology on the quality of life of Spanish adults from a gender perspective. Methods: An observational and cross-sectional study was carried out. Participants were able to complete an online questionnaire using an online platform. A sample of 206 people participated in the study. Results: The 80.6% of the sample were women with a mean age of 46.51 (±8.28) and the 19.4% were men with a mean age of 48.03 (±9.50). The medium score in the PAC19-QoL test was 141.47 (±24.96) and segmented by gender, 141.65 (±23.95) for women and 140.82 (±28.66) for men. The most common symptoms in women were muscle and joint pain (94.6%), fatigue (94.0%), discomfort (92.2%), difficulty concentrating (91.0%), and memory loss (88.6%). For men the symptoms included muscle and joint pain (97.5%) and fatigue (97.5%) both occupying first position, discomfort (92.0%), difficulty concentrating (90.0%), mood disturbances (90.0%), and memory loss (87.5%). The chi-square test showed statistical significance (p < 0.005) for socio-demographic information, quality of life scores, and long COVID symptoms by intensities. Conclusion: This study shows that there are gender differences in the way that long COVID is experienced.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Calidad de Vida , Adulto , Masculino , Humanos , Femenino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Transversales , Factores Sexuales , Síndrome Post Agudo de COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiología , Artralgia , Fatiga , Trastornos de la Memoria
8.
J Pers Disord ; 38(2): 195-206, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38592913

RESUMEN

Women are predominantly diagnosed with BPD, with studies estimating a 3:1 female-to-male diagnostic ratio in clinical settings. Previous studies present conflicting findings regarding gender-level criterion differences, with some indicating differences in contradictory criteria. These studies primarily utilize outpatient samples, highlighting gaps in the literature. Thus, the current study investigates gender-level criterion differences, functioning, and impairment within a novel, partial hospital sample. Participants included (a) a sample of 1,153 individuals from the total population of partial hospital patients regardless of BPD diagnosis and (b) 365 BPD-positive patients who were assessed via semistructured clinical interview and provided consent for data collection during the intake process. Results indicated that (a) women endorsed higher relationship instability than men and (b) there were no significant differences in level of functioning across the gender subsamples. Examining gender differences in BPD symptomatology has clinical implications in improving recognition and addressing potential biases associated with men and mental health.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno de Personalidad Limítrofe , Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Trastorno de Personalidad Limítrofe/diagnóstico , Trastorno de Personalidad Limítrofe/epidemiología , Trastorno de Personalidad Limítrofe/psicología , Factores Sexuales , Pacientes Internos , Pacientes Ambulatorios
9.
Nutrients ; 16(5)2024 Mar 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38474861

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Low plasma B12 and folate levels or hyperhomocysteinemia are related to cognitive impairment. This study explores the relationships among diet pattern, blood folate-B12-homocysteine levels, and cognition measurement in Alzheimer's disease (AD) while exploring whether a gender effect may exist. METHODS: This cross-sectional study enrolled 592 AD patients (246 males, 346 females) and the demographic data, blood biochemical profiles, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), and a Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) for quantitative assessment of dietary frequency were collected. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was employed to explore the associations among dietary patterns, blood profiles, and cognition. A least absolute shrinkage and selection operator regression model, stratified by gender, was constructed to analyze the weighting of possible confounders. RESULTS: Higher MMSE scores were related to higher frequencies of coffee/tea and higher educational levels, body mass index, and younger age. The SEM model revealed a direct influence of dietary frequencies (skimmed milk, thin pork, coffee/tea) and blood profiles (homocysteine, B12, and folate) on cognitive outcomes. At the same time, the influence of dietary pattern on cognition was not mediated by folate-B12-homocysteine levels. In males, a direct influence on the MMSE is attributed to B12, while in females, homocysteine is considered a more critical factor. CONCLUSIONS: Dietary patterns and blood profiles are both associated with cognitive domains in AD, and there are gender differences in the associations of dietary patterns and the levels of B12 and homocysteine. To enhance the quality of dietary care and nutritional status for individuals with dementia, our study results still require future validations with multi-center and longitudinal studies.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad de Alzheimer , Ácido Fólico , Masculino , Femenino , Humanos , Enfermedad de Alzheimer/psicología , Estudios Transversales , Factores Sexuales , Café , Vitamina B 12 , Dieta , Cognición , , Homocisteína
11.
Arch Psychiatr Nurs ; 48: 36-42, 2024 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38453280

RESUMEN

This cross-sectional study investigates the self-reported emotional distress of medical, nursing, dental, pharmacy, and public health students and identifies gender-related differences through an online survey. The data of 364 students were analyzed using Pearson correlation coefficients and multiple logistic regression. Emotional distress was more prevalent among female respondents (11.7 %) than male (3.8 %) respondents. The stigma, isolation, and depression experienced by female respondents influenced their emotional distress, whereas only the depression of male respondents influenced their emotional distress. Our findings suggest that mental health professionals should consider gender-specific factors when developing interventions for the study population to minimize emotional distress.


Asunto(s)
Distrés Psicológico , Estudiantes , Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Estudios Transversales , Factores Sexuales , Estudiantes/psicología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
12.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 24(1): 102, 2024 Mar 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38481138

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Evidences of comparison of sex difference in Chinese irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients were few. We aim to compare gender difference in the biopsychosocial characteristics of Chinese patients of IBS predominant with diarrhea (IBS-D). METHODS: IBS-D patients meeting Rome III criteria were enrolled. We administered IBS symptom questionnaires, evaluation of psychological status (HAMD and HAMA scales) and IBS quality of life (IBS-QOL), dietary habits, healthcare seeking behaviors, and compared biopsychosocial characteristics between male and female patients. RESULTS: Four hundred and ninety patients were enrolled including 299 males and 191 females. More female patients reported abdominal pain associated with defecation (84.3% vs. 74.9%, P = 0.014) while males reported more abdominal discomfort (39.8% vs. 26.7%, P = 0.003). Females had higher IBS symptom score (9.7 ± 1.7 vs. 9.4 ± 1.4, P = 0.025) and more of females had severe abdominal pain/discomfort (17.8% vs. 12.4%, P = 0.013) while there were no significant differences of other bowel symptoms. Females reported higher incidence of comorbid anxiety state (64.9% vs. 52.8%, P = 0.008) and depression state (35.6% vs. 19.7%, P < 0.001) than males. Female patients also had lower IBS-QOL score (70.2 ± 20.4 vs. 75.1 ± 16.8, P = 0.028) and more frequent consultations, as well as less response for dietary modification than males. CONCLUSIONS: Chinese female patients with IBS-D had more prominent psychosocial disorders compared to male patients and their abdominal symptoms had minor differences.


Asunto(s)
Síndrome del Colon Irritable , Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Síndrome del Colon Irritable/complicaciones , Síndrome del Colon Irritable/epidemiología , Síndrome del Colon Irritable/diagnóstico , Calidad de Vida , Factores Sexuales , Diarrea/epidemiología , Diarrea/etiología , Diarrea/diagnóstico , Dolor Abdominal/etiología , Dolor Abdominal/complicaciones , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud , China/epidemiología
13.
Methodist Debakey Cardiovasc J ; 20(2): 59-69, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38495661

RESUMEN

Heart failure affects over 2.6 million people in the United States. While women have better overall survival rates, they also suffer from higher morbidity as shown by higher rates of hospitalization and worse quality of life. Several anatomical differences in women's hearts affect both systolic and diastolic cardiac physiology. Despite these findings, women are significantly underrepresented in clinical trials, necessitating extrapolation of data from males. Because women have sex-specific etiologies of heart failure and unique manifestations in genetic-related cardiomyopathies, meaningful sex-related differences affect heart failure outcomes as well as access to and outcomes in advanced heart failure therapies in women. This review explores these gender-specific differences and potential solutions to balance care between women and men.


Asunto(s)
Cardiomiopatías , Insuficiencia Cardíaca , Masculino , Humanos , Femenino , Estados Unidos , Calidad de Vida , Cardiomiopatías/diagnóstico , Cardiomiopatías/epidemiología , Cardiomiopatías/genética , Insuficiencia Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Insuficiencia Cardíaca/epidemiología , Insuficiencia Cardíaca/terapia , Factores Sexuales
14.
FASEB J ; 38(6): e23552, 2024 Mar 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38498336

RESUMEN

Sex and gender disparities in biomedical research have been emphasized to improve scientific knowledge applied for the health of both men and women. Despite sex differences in cancer incidence, prognosis, and responses to therapeutic agents, mechanistic explanations at molecular levels are far from enough. Recent studies suggested that cell sex is an important biological variable due to differences in sex chromosome gene expression and differences in events associated with developmental biology. The objective of this study was to analyze the reporting of sex of cells used in cancer research using articles published in Cancer Cell, Molecular Cancer, Journal of Hematology & Oncology, Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer, and Cancer Research in 2020, and to examine whether there exists any sex bias. We found that the percentage of cells with sex notation in the article was 36.5%. Primary cells exhibited higher sex notation compared to cell lines. A higher percentage of female cells were used in cell cultures with sex notation. Also, sex-common cells omitted sex description more often compared to sex-specific cells. None of the cells isolated from embryo and esophagus reported the cell sex in the article. Our results indicate cell sex report in cancer research is limited to a small proportion of cells used in the study. These results call for acknowledging the sex of cells to increase the applicability of biomedical research discoveries.


Asunto(s)
Investigación Biomédica , Células Cultivadas , Neoplasias , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Publicaciones , Factores Sexuales , Sexismo
15.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0299591, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38507356

RESUMEN

'Good things come to those who wait' is a popular saying, which goes along with numerous daily life decisions requiring trade-offs between immediate-small and later-larger rewards; however, some individuals have a tendency to prefer sooner rewards while discounting the value of delayed rewards, known as delay discounting. The extant literature indicates that emotions and gender can modulate intertemporal choices, but their interplay remains hitherto poorly investigated. Here, 308 participants were randomized to different conditions, inducing distinct emotions-fear, joy, a neutral state-through standardized movie clips, and then completed a computerized delay discounting task for hypothetical money rewards. Following the induction of fear, women discount the future steeper than men, thus preferring immediate-smaller rewards rather than larger-delayed ones. Also, women were more prone to choose immediate rewards when in a fearful condition than when in a positive state of joy/happiness. By contrast, men were unaffected by their emotional state when deciding on monetary rewards. Our findings provide evidence that fear can trigger different intertemporal choices according to gender, possibly reflecting the adoption of different evolutionary strategies.


Asunto(s)
Descuento por Demora , Masculino , Humanos , Femenino , Factores Sexuales , Emociones , Recompensa , Miedo
16.
J Emerg Manag ; 22(1): 53-70, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38533700

RESUMEN

This study examined gender differences in commitment to volunteering and its explanatory variables among Israeli volunteers in the first wave of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. Commitment to volunteering was assessed based on tendency to continue volunteering over time, expected intensity of volunteering, and tendency to recommend volunteering to others. The sample included 173 men and 331 women. The social-structural and psychological approaches formed the theoretical basis for explaining commitment to volunteering. Data processing was conducted through path analysis. For both genders, routine volunteering explained commitment to volunteering over time. Instrumental motives for volunteering were stronger for men than for women. A positive correlation was found for both genders between the level of anxiety and motive to escape from reality through volunteering. For women, fear of contracting the coronavirus correlated negatively with expected intensity of volunteering. Recommendations are made to volunteer organizations to adopt a gender-sensitive approach when managing volunteers in an emergency.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Factores Sexuales , Israel , Voluntarios/psicología
17.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0299601, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38536864

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In the last two decades, sex and gender differences have been documented in chronic kidney disease (CKD) management, including access to renal replacement therapy and its outcomes. The objectives of this study were to 1) compare the pre-dialysis healthcare utilization in men and women, and 2) examine the sex-specific factors associated with emergency dialysis start. METHODS: Adult patients with CKD who started dialysis in France in 2015 were extracted from the Renal Epidemiology and Information Network registry. Patients were matched to the French National Health Data System database to extract healthcare utilization data for the 2 years before dialysis start. Frequencies and monthly rates of consultations and hospitalizations were compared between men and women. Logistic regression analyses were performed separately in the two groups. RESULTS: Among the 8856 patients included, 3161 (35.7%) were women. Median age (71 years) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (8.1 and 7.7 ml/min for men and women) were similar between groups at dialysis start. Monthly consultations rates with a general practitioner and nephrology-related care were similar between women and men. Some sex-specific differences were found: higher frequencies of consultations with a psychiatrist in women and more frequent hospitalizations for circulatory system diseases in men. Emergency dialysis start rate was 30% in both groups. Emergency dialysis start was associated with acute nephropathy, compared with slowly progressive nephropathy, in women but not in men (OR = 1.48, p<0.01 vs 1.15, p = 0.18). CONCLUSIONS: This study found similar quantitative pre-dialysis healthcare utilization in men and women. To better understand sex/gender differences in CKD care trajectories, future research should focus on patients with CKD who are unknown to nephrology services, on patients receiving conservative care and on the sex/gender-specific mechanisms underlying care decision-making.


Asunto(s)
Fallo Renal Crónico , Insuficiencia Renal Crónica , Masculino , Adulto , Humanos , Femenino , Anciano , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores Sexuales , Diálisis , Diálisis Renal , Insuficiencia Renal Crónica/epidemiología , Insuficiencia Renal Crónica/terapia , Fallo Renal Crónico/epidemiología , Fallo Renal Crónico/terapia
19.
BMJ Open ; 14(3): e080687, 2024 Mar 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38553083

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Alcohol drinking among adolescents is associated with their health development. However, the prevalence of alcohol drinking among adolescents in Southwestern China remains largely unexplored. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of alcohol drinking, with a particular focus on gender differences, among primary and middle school students in Zigong, a city in Southwestern China. Additionally, we examined the association between alcohol consumption and demographic and family factors. METHODS: A school-based cross-sectional survey was conducted in a city in Southwestern China, encompassing a total of 89 360 students from 132 different ordinary schools, including both primary and middle schools. Participants were recruited through cluster sampling. The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test Consumption was employed to assess alcohol consumption. Gender differences in the prevalence of alcohol drinkers across various schools and grades were analysed. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to investigate factors associated with hazardous drinking. RESULTS: Out of the 89 360 participants, 19.0% reported alcohol drinking, with 2.1% classified as hazardous drinkers. There was a higher prevalence of alcohol drinking among boys compared with girls, as well as hazardous drinking. There were significant gender disparities in alcohol drinking observed across various schools and grade levels. A notable divergence between boys and girls was observed starting from grade 10, with a rising prevalence of hazardous drinking among boys and a decline among girls. Additionally, older age, male gender and being left-behind children were identified as risk factors for hazardous drinking, while belonging to a nuclear family and having parents who do not drink were protective factors against hazardous drinking. CONCLUSIONS: Alcohol consumption is prevalent among Chinese adolescents, with some even classified as hazardous drinkers. These findings may offer valuable insights for policymakers and caregivers, guiding them in formulating appropriate interventions and support strategies.


Asunto(s)
Alcoholismo , Femenino , Niño , Humanos , Masculino , Adolescente , Alcoholismo/epidemiología , Factores Sexuales , Estudios Transversales , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Factores de Riesgo
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