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1.
An. psicol ; 37(2): 243-252, mayo-sept. 2021. tab
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-202548

RESUMEN

El estudio de la resiliencia como recuperación del estrés se ha extendido, y se requiere dar cuenta del desarrollo y las propiedades psicométricas de las escalas que permiten utilizarla. El objetivo fue adaptar transculturalmente la Brief Resilience Scale (BRS) y evaluar sus propiedades psicométricas en población joven chilena. Participaron en el año 2016, tres traductores, y 1,237 estudiantes de 18 a 24 años de una universidad de la zona Central de Chile, 60.8% mujeres y 39.2% hombres. Se consiguió la equivalencia lingüística y conceptual después de una doble traducción, retro traducción y de realizar las entrevistas cognitivas con la población diana. Se observaron dificultades en el ítem 2. Del Análisis Factorial Exploratorio surgieron dos factores. Los índices de ajuste del Análisis Factorial Confirmatorio fueron adecuados: χ2 = 9.256(6), p = .160; CFI = .995; TLI = .988; RMSEA = .035, IC 90% [.000, .076]. El omega total .81. La estabilidad por ítem fue moderada y para la puntuación total, elevada. Las medias en general fueron menores en mujeres, pero similares entre grupos de edad. Hubo evidencia de validez concurrente y convergente. La versión chilena de la BRS puede ser útil para medir la resiliencia en jóvenes chilenos


The study of resilience as recovery from stress has been extended, and it is necessary to account for the development and psychometric properties of the scales that allow it to be used. The aim was to report on the cross-cultural adaptation process and psychometric properties of the Brief Resilience Scale (BRS) in young Chilean population. In 2016, three translators, and 1,237 students between 18 and 24 years old from a university in the Fifth Region of Chile participated. Linguistic and conceptual equivalence was achieved after carried out a double translation, back-translation and cognitive interviews with the target population. Difficulties were observed in item 2. From the Exploratory Factor Analysis, two factors emerged. In the Confirmatory Factorial Analysis, the fit indexes were suitable: χ2 = 9.256(6), p = .160; CFI = .995; TLI = .988; RMSEA = .035 IC 90% .000, .076. Total omega was .81. The stability per item was moderate; and high for the total score. Means were generally lower in women than in men but similar among age groups. It has evidence for concurrent and convergent validity. The BRS Chilean version might be useful for measuring resilience in young Chileans


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adolescente , Adulto Joven , Comparación Transcultural , Resiliencia Psicológica , Encuestas y Cuestionarios/normas , Psicometría , Análisis Factorial , Factores Sexuales , Calidad de Vida/psicología , Escala de Evaluación de la Conducta , Traducciones , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Chile , Estudiantes/psicología
2.
An. psicol ; 37(2): 253-264, mayo-sept. 2021. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-202549

RESUMEN

Ambivalent sexism is a multidimensional construct composed of two elements: hostile sexism and benevolent sexism. The main aim of this study is to analyse the acceptance of ambivalent sexist attitudes in a sample of future teachers from Spain and Latin America. The research is based on a quantitative methodological strategy. The sample is composed of 2798 trainee teachers, and their mean age is 22.62 years (SD = 6.23), they were residing in seven countries: Spain, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Colombia, Chile, Argentina and Mexico. The data collection technique was the structured questionnaire. The results show that ambivalent sexist attitudes exist to a varying degree in future teachers of every country. The assumption of sexism varies significantly between men and women and among countries. There seems to be a relationship between levels of sexism with indices of gender inequality and human development. Education institutions are not exempt from obstacles and gender bias that impede the attainment of equality between women and men. Sexist attitudes of teachers can be transmitted through the education system and the socialization process, so including gender issues in initial and in service teacher training plans is essential


El sexismo ambivalente es un constructo multidimensional compuesto por dos componentes: el sexismo hostil y el sexismo benévolo. El objetivo de este estudio ha sido analizar la aceptación de las actitudes sexistas ambivalentes en una muestra de futuros y futuras docentes de España y Latinoamérica. En la investigación participaron 2798 docentes en formación con una edad media de 22.62 años (DE = 6.23) que residían en siete países: España, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Colombia, Chile, Argentina y México. Los resultados muestran que las actitudes sexistas están presentes, con diferentes grados de aceptación, en el profesorado en formación de todos los países. La aceptación del sexismo varía significativamente entre hombres y mujeres y entre los países de la muestra. Parece existir una relación entre los niveles de sexismo y los índices de desigualdad de género y desarrollo humano. Las actitudes sexistas del profesorado pueden transmitirse a través del sistema educativo y de los procesos de socialización, por lo que es fundamental incluir la perspectiva de género en los planes de formación inicial y continua del profesorado


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adolescente , Adulto Joven , Adulto , Maestros/estadística & datos numéricos , Formación del Profesorado , Sexismo/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios Transversales , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Factores Sexuales , Sexismo/psicología , Maestros/psicología , Valores de Referencia , Hostilidad , Empatía , España , América Latina
3.
An. psicol ; 37(2): 298-310, mayo-sept. 2021. tab
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-202553

RESUMEN

En el marco del Espacio Europeo de Educación Superior, el profesorado ha de contar con capacidades profesionales para impulsar en el alumnado la competencia aprender a aprender, que hace referencia a la capacidad de autorregulación del propio proceso de aprendizaje. El objetivo del presente trabajo consistió en diseñar y validar un cuestionario para medir los contextos facilitadores de aprendizaje que el profesorado universitario activa para el desarrollo de la competencia aprender a aprender, el CAA. En primer lugar, en base a la revisión teórica y empírica, se definieron 86 ítems. A continuación, se examinaron la validez de contenido (n = 20 expertos), la validez basada en los procesos de respuesta (n = 10 docentes), la validez basada en la estructura interna (n = 415 docentes), la validez concurrente y la validez externa. Los resultados mostraron una adecuada calidad psicométrica, consistencia interna, fiabilidad y bondad de ajuste. La versión final del CAA comprendió 4 dimensiones y 39 ítems. Este instrumento puede ser una herramienta de rápida aplicación, válida y fiable, para conocer el desarrollo de los contextos facilitadores de aprendizaje de la competencia aprender a aprender. Asimismo, puede servir para detectar necesidades de formación profesional en el desarrollo de dicha competencia


Within the European Higher Education Area framework, educators must have acquired professional skills in order to promote the learning to learn competence, which refers to the ability to self-regulate the learning process itself, in their students. The objective of this work was to design and validate a questionnaire, the learning to learn questionnaire (LLQ), to measure the facilitative learning contexts implemented by university educators to develop the learning to learn competence. First, based on a theoretical and empirical review, 86 items belonging to 7 dimensions were de-fined. Next, content validity (n = 20 experts), validity based on response processes (n = 10 teachers), validity based on internal structure (n = 415 teachers), and concurrent validity were examined. Our results showed sufficient psychometric quality, reliability of scores and goodness of fit. The final version of the LLQ consisted of 4 dimensions and 39 items. This instrument can be considered a valid and reliable tool that can be quickly ap-plied in order to identify the development of facilitative learning contexts in the evolution of the learning to learn competence. Likewise, it can also serve to detect training needs in the development of this competence in university educators


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Aprendizaje , Encuestas y Cuestionarios/normas , Docentes/psicología , Competencia Profesional , Psicometría , Calidad de Vida , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Análisis Factorial , Escolaridad , Factores de Tiempo , Factores Sexuales
4.
An. psicol ; 37(2): 311-322, mayo-sept. 2021. tab, graf
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-202554

RESUMEN

Desde la teoría del liderazgo transformacional, este estudio tenía como objetivo analizar las propiedades psicométricas de una versión adaptada al ámbito educativo del Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ-5X). Un total de 1551 estudiantes españoles (M = 15,47 años ± 0,72; 679 chicos y 872 chicas) de 31 centros de enseñanza secundaria participaron en el estudio. El análisis factorial confirmatorio de la estructura inicial de nueve factores de la escala determinó la necesidad de eliminar dos ítems del factor dirección por excepción pasiva, agrupando en un solo factor el liderazgo pasivo. En un segundo modelo de ocho factores, se hallaron altas correlaciones entre los factores del liderazgo transformacional, señalando la necesidad de establecer un factor de primer orden. Finalmente, se testó un tercer modelo que obtuvo valores adecuados de validez y fiabilidad, que estaba compuesto por 34 ítems distribuidos en 4 factores principales (liderazgo transformacional, recompensa contingente, dirección por excepción activa y liderazgo pasivo) y 5 factores secundarios para el liderazgo transformacional (influencia idealizada conducta, influencia idealizada atribuida, motivación inspiracional, estimulación intelectual y consideración individualizada. Por tanto, la versión española del MLQ-5X en el ámbito educativo puede ser utilizada para evaluar el liderazgo transformacional de los docentes desde la percepción del alumnado


Drawing on the transformational leadership theory, this study aimed to analyze the psychometric properties of a version adapted to the educational environment of the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ-5X). A total of 1551 Spanish students (M = 15.47 years ± 0.72; 679 boys and 872 girls) from 31 secondary schools participated in the study. The confirmatory factor analysis of the initial nine-factor structure of the scale determined the need to eliminate two items of the passive exception management factor, grouping passive leadership into a single factor. A second eight-factor model found high correlations between the factors of transformational leadership, revealing the need to establish a first-order factor. Finally, a third model, which obtained adequate values of validity and reliability, was composed of 34 items distributed in 4 main factors (transformational leadership, contingent reward, leadership by active exception, and passive leadership) and 5 secondary factors for transformational leadership (idealized influence behavior, attributed idealized influence, inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation, and individualized consideration). The Spanish version of the MLQ-5X in the educational field can be used to assess the students' perception of teacher leadership


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adolescente , Encuestas y Cuestionarios/normas , Liderazgo , Estudiantes/psicología , Educación Primaria y Secundaria , Análisis Factorial , Valores de Referencia , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Factores Sexuales , España
5.
An. psicol ; 37(2): 352-360, mayo-sept. 2021.
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-202558

RESUMEN

El presente estudio bibliométrico tuvo como objetivo conocer y analizar la actividad científica disponible sobre percepción y detección de violencia de género (VG) e identificación como víctimas. Se realizó una búsqueda sin límite temporal en la base de datos Scopus hallando 2.152 documentos. Para reducir el ruido documental de la búsqueda, se cribaron los resultados y se analizaron 974 documentos finales procedentes de 465 fuentes documentales, 160 revistas, 2.758 autores/as, 159 instituciones y 79 países. Los resultados muestran un aumento en la producción en los últimos años, destacando la publicación de artículos originales. Asimismo, predomina la autoría única por país, siendo Estados Unidos el país puntero. Entre los objetivos de los documentos más citados se encuentra la detección de VG por el personal sanitario, la valoración del riesgo de reincidencia mediante la percepción de las víctimas, así como el estudio de percepciones y actitudes de diferentes actores hacia la VG


This bibliometric study seeks to know and analyse the available scientific activity on the perception and detection of gender violence as well as in the identification as victims. An unlimited search was conducted in the Scopus database, finding 2,152 documents. Subsequently, the results were screened by reducing the documentary noise. The results were obtained from 1984-2020 and the final 974 documents were analysed from 465 documentary sources, 160 journals, 2,758 authors, 159 institutions, and 79 countries. The results show an increase in production in recent years, highlighting the publication of original articles. Likewise, the single author-ship per country predominates, being the United States the leading country. The main objectives of the most cited documents are detection of gender violence by healthcare personnel, assessment of the risk of recidivism through the perception of the victims, as well as the study of perceptions and attitudes of different actors towards gender-violence


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adolescente , Adulto Joven , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Liderazgo , Estudiantes/psicología , Aspiraciones Psicológicas , Compromiso Laboral , Identidad de Género , Factores Sexuales , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Autoevaluación (Psicología) , Análisis Factorial
6.
An. psicol ; 37(2): 393-402, mayo-sept. 2021. tab, graf
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-202562

RESUMEN

Professional drivers often have problems sleeping or resting properly. This may be due to various factors, both personal and specific to their working conditions. In this study, we set out to develop a predictive model for the quality of sleep in professional drivers using the following indicators: Age, Gender, Seat Comfort, Seat Suspension, Adjustable Lum-bar Support of the Driver's Seat, Driving Hours, Musculoskeletal Problems, Driver Stress, Irritation, Resistant Personality, Burnout, Safety Behaviors and Impulsivity. METHOD: The participants were 369 professional drivers from different transport sectors, obtained through non-probabilistic sampling. The SPSS 25.0 program was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: The predictive capacity of certain variables that affect drivers' sleep quality is determined. CONCLUSIONS: Sleep quality can be predicted by means of certain variables, the best predictor of which is Exhaustion (Burnout). This research contributes to the body of knowledge on sleep quality and on improving the health of professional drivers


Los conductores profesionales suelen padecer problemas para dormir o descansar correctamente. Esto puede deberse a diversos factores tanto personales como específicos de las condiciones laborales. En el presente trabajo nos hemos planteado desarrollar un modelo predictivo sobre la calidad del sueño en conductores profesionales utilizando los indicadores siguientes: Edad, Género, Confort del asiento, suspensión del asiento, Soporte lumbar ajustable del asiento del conductor, Horas de conducción, Problemas musculoesqueléticos, Drivers Stress, Irritación, Personalidad resistente, Burnout, conductas de seguridad e Impulsividad. MÉTODO: Los participantes han sido 369 conductores profesionales, de distintos sectores del transporte, obtenidos mediante un muestreo no probabilístico. Se han utilizado el programa SPSS 25.0. RESULTADOS: Se determina la capacidad predictiva de algunas variables que afectan a los conductores sobre la calidad del sueño. CONCLUSIONES: La calidad del sueño se puede predecir a través de determinadas variables, siendo la mejor predictora Exhaustion (Burnout). Esta investigación contribuye a un mayor conocimiento de la calidad del sueño y a la mejora de la salud de los conductores profesionales


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Conducción de Automóvil/psicología , Sueño/fisiología , Salud Laboral , Agotamiento Profesional/psicología , Conducta Impulsiva , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Valores de Referencia , Análisis de Regresión , Factores Sexuales , Factores de Edad , Condiciones de Trabajo , Factores de Tiempo
7.
Pol Merkur Lekarski ; 49(291): 171-175, 2021 Jun 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34218233

RESUMEN

Dyslipidemia has been widely acknowledged as one of the major predisposing factors for the development and progression of atherosclerosis. While advanced atherosclerosis confirmed to influence the prognosis of patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS), it has not yet been established, whether this impact is gender-dependent. AIM: The aim of study was to investigate possible gender-related effect of dyslipidemia and generalized atherosclerosis on the long-term outcomes in patients with ACS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 247 patients (88 women and 159 men) with ACS were included. Sample was divided into two groups, according to gender. Patients' lipid and comorbidity profiles were assessed. Cumulative major adverse coronary events (MACE) were estimated throughout 3-year follow-up period. RESULTS: Women were older and had more comorbidities. Cumulative 3-year MACE rates were higher in women than in men (33% vs. 23%, p=0.06). In the multivariable Cox regression analysis abnormal lipid profiles were more significantly associated with higher MACE in females (HR=1.5, 95% CI [1-2,28], p<0.00001), compared with males (HR=1.0, 95% CI [0.5-2.08], p=0.4), as well as prior MI: (HR=3.8, 95% CI [1.4- 10.5], p<0.00001) vs. (HR=1.9, 95% [0.8-4.2], p=0.009) and concomitant peripheral artery disease (PAD): (HR=5.2, 95% CI [1.5-18.2], p<0.00001) vs. (HR=2.2, 95% CI [0.73-6.6], p=0.02) respectively. CONCLUSIONS: In our study dyslipidemia, concomitant PAD and history of MI were independent predictors of higher MACE more significantly in females with ACS than in males. Thus, it can be assumed that female patients require an increased medical attention with strict serum lipid control.


Asunto(s)
Síndrome Coronario Agudo , Aterosclerosis , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Pronóstico , Modelos de Riesgos Proporcionales , Factores de Riesgo , Caracteres Sexuales , Factores Sexuales
8.
Rev Med Suisse ; 17(744-2): 1262-1264, 2021 Jun 30.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34219420

RESUMEN

Sex-related differences affecting pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes result mostly from sex dimorphisms in body composition, and liver and kidney function, in addition to hormonal regulation of enzymes, transporters and drug receptors. Gender biases have long compromised the identification of these differences in clinical trials. They also modulate prescription patterns and therapeutic benefits. Men and women would benefit from different standard dosages of some anti-infectives, anticancer agents and other treatments requiring precise dosage adjustment. This would alleviate the well-documented excess of adverse reactions affecting women. However, the variability of pharmacological responses within each sex exceeds the average male-female difference, highlighting the importance of other criteria for therapeutic individualisation.


Asunto(s)
Antineoplásicos , Caracteres Sexuales , Femenino , Humanos , Hígado , Masculino , Factores Sexuales
9.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(13): 17380-17406, 2021 07 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198262

RESUMEN

The present study aimed to investigate the associations between the trajectory of blood pressure (BP) change and the risk of subsequent dementia and to explore the differences in age, gender, and hypertension subgroups. We included 10,660 participants aged ≥ 60 years from 1998 to 2018 waves of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey. Latent growth mixture models were used to estimate BP trajectories. Cox-proportional hazard models were used to analyze the effects of BP trajectories on the risk of dementia. According to the results, stabilized systolic BP (SBP) was found to be associated with a higher risk of dementia compared with normal SBP [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR): 1.62; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.27-2.07] and elevated SBP (aHR: 2.22; 95% CI: 1.51-3.28) in and only in the subgroups of the oldest-old, women, and subjects without hypertension at baseline. Similarly, stabilized pulse pressure (PP) was associated with a higher risk of dementia compared with normal PP (aHR: 1.52; 95% CI: 1.24-1.88) and elevated PP (aHR: 2.12; 95% CI: 1.48-3.04) in and only in the subgroups of the oldest-old, women, and subjects with hypertension at baseline. These findings suggest that stabilized SBP and PP have predictive significance for the occurrence of dementia in late life, and the factors of age, gender, and late-life hypertension should be considered when estimating the risk of BP decline on dementia.


Asunto(s)
Presión Sanguínea , Demencia/epidemiología , Demencia/fisiopatología , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Envejecimiento , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Asiática , China/epidemiología , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Humanos , Hipertensión/complicaciones , Hipertensión/epidemiología , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Valor Predictivo de las Pruebas , Modelos de Riesgos Proporcionales , Medición de Riesgo , Factores Sexuales
10.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34202045

RESUMEN

Factors associated with frailty, particularly dietary patterns, are not fully understood in Mediterranean countries. This study aimed to investigate the association of data-driven dietary patterns with frailty prevalence in older Lebanese adults. We conducted a cross-sectional national study that included 352 participants above 60 years of age. Sociodemographic and health-related data were collected. Food frequency questionnaires were used to elaborate dietary patterns via the K-mean cluster analysis method. Frailty that accounted for 15% of the sample was twice as much in women (20%) than men (10%). Identified dietary patterns included a Westernized-type dietary pattern (WDP), a high intake/Mediterranean-type dietary pattern (HI-MEDDP), and a moderate intake/Mediterranean-type dietary pattern (MOD-MEDDP). In the multivariate analysis, age, waist to height ratio, polypharmacy, age-related conditions, and WDP were independently associated with frailty. In comparison to MOD-MEDDP, and after adjusting for covariates, adopting a WDP was strongly associated with a higher frailty prevalence in men (OR = 6.63, 95% (CI) (1.82-24.21) and in women (OR = 11.54, 95% (CI) (2.02-65.85). In conclusion, MOD-MEDDP was associated with the least prevalence of frailty, and WDP had the strongest association with frailty in this sample. In the Mediterranean sample, a diet far from the traditional one appears as the key deleterious determinant of frailty.


Asunto(s)
Dieta Mediterránea/estadística & datos numéricos , Dieta Occidental/estadística & datos numéricos , Anciano Frágil/estadística & datos numéricos , Fragilidad/epidemiología , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Estudios Transversales , Encuestas sobre Dietas , Dieta Mediterránea/efectos adversos , Dieta Occidental/efectos adversos , Ingestión de Alimentos , Conducta Alimentaria , Femenino , Fragilidad/etiología , Humanos , Líbano/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Análisis Multivariante , Oportunidad Relativa , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Factores Sexuales , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
11.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34207655

RESUMEN

Lower resting energy expenditure (REE) may partially explain the disproportionate prevalence of overweight/obesity among black African women. As no previous studies have investigated the REE of Southern African (South. Afr.) children, we aimed to determine, by sex and population group, the REE of 6- to 9-year-old urban school children. In a cross-sectional study with quota sampling, REE was measured with indirect calorimetry (IC). Confounders considered were: body composition (BC) (fat-free mass (FFM), FFM index, fat mass (FM), FM index), assessed using multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis, and physical activity (PA) measured with a pedometer. Multivariate regression was used to calculate REE adjusted for phenotypes (BC, z-scores of weight-for-age, height-for-age, body mass index-for-age) and PA. Sex and population differences in REE were determined with two-way ANOVA. Ninety-four healthy children (59.6% girls; 52.1% black) with similar socioeconomic status and PA opportunities participated. Despite BC variations, sex differences in REE were not significant (41 kcal/day; P = 0.375). The REE of black participants was lower than of white (146 kcal/day; P = 0.002). When adjusted for FFM and HFA z-score, the differences in REE declined but remained clinically meaningful at 91 kcal/day (P = 0.039) and 82 kcal/day (P = 0.108), respectively. We recommend the development of population-specific REE prediction equations for South. Afr. children.


Asunto(s)
Metabolismo Basal , Salud del Niño/estadística & datos numéricos , Obesidad Pediátrica/epidemiología , Salud Poblacional/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Acelerometría/métodos , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Africana/estadística & datos numéricos , Análisis de Varianza , Composición Corporal , Calorimetría Indirecta , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Impedancia Eléctrica , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea/estadística & datos numéricos , Ejercicio Físico , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidad Pediátrica/etnología , Prevalencia , Análisis de Regresión , Factores de Riesgo , Factores Sexuales , Sudáfrica/epidemiología , Sudáfrica/etnología
12.
Bone Joint J ; 103-B(7 Supple B): 25-32, 2021 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34192905

RESUMEN

AIMS: Adverse local tissue reactions associated with abnormal wear considerably slowed down the general use of metal-on-metal (MoM) hip resurfacing arthroplasty (HRA), now limited to a few specialized centres. In this study, we provide the clinical results of 400 consecutive MoM HRAs implanted more than 20 years ago in one such centre. METHODS: A total of 355 patients (400 hips) were treated with Conserve Plus HRA between November 1996 and November 2000. There were 96 female (27%) and 259 male patients (73%). Their mean age was 48.2 years (SD 10.9). The University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) hip scores and 12-item Short Form Survey (SF-12) quality of life scores were reported. Survivorship was assessed using Kaplan-Meier analyses. RESULTS: The mean follow-up was 16.5 years (0.1 to 24.0), including 34 patients (37 hips) who died. The mean UCLA hip scores were 9.3 (2 to 10), 9.1 (3 to 10), 9.0 (3 to 10), and 6.9 (2 to 10) for pain, walking, function, and activity, respectively. The mean SF-12 scores were 48.4 (16.0 to 62.1) for the physical component and 48.5 (10.5 to 66.5) for the mental component, and did not differ from those of the general population of the USA. A total of 60 hips in 55 patients were revised. Using revision for any indication as the endpoint, the Kaplan-Meier survivorship was 83.5% at 20 years. A diagnosis of developmental dysplasia (hazard ratio (HR) 2.199 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.140 to 4.239); p = 0.019) and a low BMI (HR 0.931 (95% CI 0.873 to 0.994); p = 0.032) were risk factors for revision. Female sex was a risk factor only because of hip dysplasia and small component size. There were no cases of metal sensitivity associated with revision surgery. Radiological analysis showed persistent fixation in all but one hip. CONCLUSION: The 83.5% 20-year survivorship of this initial series surpasses that of total hip arthroplasties in use 20 years ago in these young patients, suggesting satisfactory lifelong durability of the device for almost all of the remaining patients. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2021;103-B(7 Supple B):25-32.


Asunto(s)
Artroplastia de Reemplazo de Cadera/métodos , Prótesis de Cadera/efectos adversos , Prótesis Articulares de Metal sobre Metal/efectos adversos , Actividades Cotidianas , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Estimación de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Dimensión del Dolor , Falla de Prótesis , Calidad de Vida , Recuperación de la Función , Factores de Riesgo , Factores Sexuales
13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34215570

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: COVID-19 has put a strain on regular healthcare worldwide. For inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), gastrointestinal surgeries were postponed and changes in treatment and diagnostic procedures were made. As abrupt changes in treatment regimens may result in an increased morbidity and consequent well-being of patients with IBD, the aim of this study was to determine the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with IBD. DESIGN: All patients with IBD who completed both Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire (IBDQ) and 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) questionnaire between 31 August and 13 September 2020 were included in our cohort study. The primary end point was to determine the HRQoL in patients with IBD, measured by the IBDQ and SF-36 questionnaire. The secondary end point was determining which factors influence the HRQoL in patients with IBD. RESULTS: 582 patients with IBD filled in the IBDQ and SF-36 questionnaire. The HRQoL in our study population was low according to the questionnaires on both physical and mental subscales. In addition, multivariate analysis showed that increased age, female sex and patients who underwent surgery had a significantly lower HRQoL, most frequently on the physical domains in both questionnaires. CONCLUSION: Patients with IBD had an overall low HRQoL during the COVID-19 pandemic. Furthermore, older patients, women and patients who underwent surgical procedures had the lowest physical HRQoL.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/epidemiología , Enfermedades Inflamatorias del Intestino/psicología , Pandemias , Calidad de Vida , Adolescente , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Femenino , Humanos , Enfermedades Inflamatorias del Intestino/fisiopatología , Enfermedades Inflamatorias del Intestino/cirugía , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Países Bajos/epidemiología , Cuestionario de Salud del Paciente , SARS-CoV-2 , Factores Sexuales , Tiempo de Tratamiento , Adulto Joven
14.
Med Arch ; 75(2): 144-148, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34219875

RESUMEN

Background: In the year 2020 we observe the world adapting to "new normal" due to the COVID-19 pandemic, ways of which include physical distancing, hand hygiene, and wearing a face mask. There is no conclusive evidence about ocular manifestations of the new coronavirus infection, but cases of conjunctivitis, keratitis, and episcleritis have been reported in infected individuals. Objective: Determining if wearing a face mask during COVID-19 pandemic causes a new onset or deterioration of previously existing dry eye disease (DED). Methods: A prospective cohort study included 203 participants, all using surgical facemasks daily due to new regulations during COVID-19 pandemic. Participants completed a survey, containing modified Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) questionnaire. They were divided into groups according to: sex, age, duration of face mask-wear, and existence of prior DED history. Results: Our results indicate that women have a statistically higher OSDI score compared to men (14.4 (IQR = 2.4 - 41.7) vs. 5.0 (IQR = 0.0 - 24.4); P = .004). Age did not significantly affect OSDI median values. Group that used masks from 3 to 6 hours/day demonstrated significantly higher OSDI scores compared to <3 hour/day group (15.3 (IQR = 8.3 - 47.7) vs. 8.3 (IQR = 0.0 - 35.1); P = .001). OSDI score was significantly greater in participants with prior DED history compared to those without it (36.1 (IQR = 14.1 - 61.6) vs. 4.2 (IQR = 2.3 - 8.3); P <.001). Participants with prior DED exhibited greater worsening of their disturbances during mask wearing period compared to the ones without previous DED (54.8% vs. 17.7%, Chi-Square 28.3 DF1; P <.001), regardless of daily mask wear duration. Conclusion: Our study confirmed the existence of mask-associated dry eye (MADE), most profoundly in females, subjects with a history of prior DED, and if wearing a face mask lasts longer than 3 hours per day. Ophthalmologists should advise their patients of the potential ocular surface health risks related to inadequately fitted facemasks.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/prevención & control , Síndromes de Ojo Seco/epidemiología , Máscaras , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Estudios de Cohortes , Croacia/epidemiología , Síndromes de Ojo Seco/etiología , Síndromes de Ojo Seco/fisiopatología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Máscaras/efectos adversos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Prospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Factores Sexuales , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Factores de Tiempo
15.
WMJ ; 120(2): 152-155, 2021 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34255958

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to determine the associations between heart disease, obesity, and demographic factors and increased COVID-19 mortality. METHODS: We extracted deidentified patient-level data from the Froedtert Health System and Children's Hospital of Wisconsin and used descriptive statistics and multivariable logistic regression to characterize relationships between heart disease, obesity, age group, sex, race and ethnicity and mortality following COVID-19 diagnosis. RESULTS: We found heart disease (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.85; 95% CI, 2.11-8.83) and other demographic factors are significant predictors of increased mortality in COVID-19 patients. However, obesity was not a significant predictor of mortality (AOR 1.04; 95% CI, 0.53- 3.10). DISCUSSION: These unique results indicate some comorbid conditions and patient demographics contribute more strongly to mortality in COVID-19 patients.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/etnología , COVID-19/mortalidad , Cardiopatías/complicaciones , Hispanoamericanos/estadística & datos numéricos , Obesidad/complicaciones , Adolescente , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Femenino , Cardiopatías/etnología , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Obesidad/etnología , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Factores Sexuales , Wisconsin/epidemiología
16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34265874

RESUMEN

Objective: To measure the mental health effects (perceived stress, anxiety, and depression) among health care workers and medical students in Lebanon during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and subsequent to the Beirut blast.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a self-administered online questionnaire was developed and distributed between late December 2020 and early February 2021 among health care workers and medical students via social media. The 10-item Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10) and the 4-item Patient Health Questionnaire for Depression and Anxiety (PHQ-4) were administered. P values between variables were calculated using χ2 test.Results: Overall, 98% of the respondents had a low PSS-10 score and 89% had a low PHQ-4 score. About 58.1% of health care workers and 69.0% of student respondents had moderate to severe stress on the PSS-10, and 48.7% and 46.8%, respectively, reported moderate to severe anxiety and depression on the PHQ-4. Prevalence of depression and anxiety was relatively higher among health care workers with monthly incomes < LBP 4 million (57.1%) and higher in women (39.9%) compared to men (17.2%). Furthermore, the prevalence of depression and anxiety was higher among health care workers traveling between different districts (63.0%) compared to those with residence and work location within the same district and was higher among females (65.4%) compared to males (34.6%).Conclusions: The resilience of the Lebanese people as well as their ability to adapt in the face of trauma, tragedy, threats, or any significant source of stress is remarkable and seen in their everyday lives, especially subsequent to the Beirut blast. However, the psychological well-being and mental health of health care workers and medical students in Lebanon should be carefully surveilled and recorded during the COVID-19 pandemic, especially within the ongoing socioeconomic crisis.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Desastres , Personal de Salud/psicología , Salud Mental , Pandemias , Estudiantes de Medicina/psicología , Adulto , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Ansiedad/psicología , Estudios Transversales , Depresión/epidemiología , Depresión/psicología , Recesión Económica , Femenino , Humanos , Líbano , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Resiliencia Psicológica , Factores Sexuales , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
17.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4015, 2021 07 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34230477

RESUMEN

Sex and gender differences impact the incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 mortality. Furthermore, sex differences influence the frequency and severity of pharmacological side effects. A large number of clinical trials to develop new therapeutic approaches and vaccines for COVID-19 are ongoing. We investigated the inclusion of sex and/or gender in COVID-19 studies on ClinicalTrials.gov, collecting data for the period January 1, 2020 to January 26, 2021. Here, we show that of the 4,420 registered SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 studies, 935 (21.2%) address sex/gender solely in the context of recruitment, 237 (5.4%) plan sex-matched or representative samples or emphasized sex/gender reporting, and only 178 (4%) explicitly report a plan to include sex/gender as an analytical variable. Just eight (17.8%) of the 45 COVID-19 related clinical trials published in scientific journals until December 15, 2020 report sex-disaggregated results or subgroup analyses.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/terapia , Estudios Clínicos como Asunto/estadística & datos numéricos , COVID-19/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Selección de Paciente , SARS-CoV-2 , Factores Sexuales
18.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4144, 2021 07 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34230476

RESUMEN

To investigate the duration of humoral immune response in convalescent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients, we conduct a 12-month longitudinal study through collecting a total of 1,782 plasma samples from 869 convalescent plasma donors in Wuhan, China and test specific antibody responses. The results show that positive rate of IgG antibody against receptor-binding domain of spike protein (RBD-IgG) to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in the COVID-19 convalescent plasma donors exceeded 70% for 12 months post diagnosis. The level of RBD-IgG decreases with time, with the titer stabilizing at 64.3% of the initial level by the 9th month. Moreover, male plasma donors produce more RBD-IgG than female, and age of the patients positively correlates with the RBD-IgG titer. A strong positive correlation between RBD-IgG and neutralizing antibody titers is also identified. These results facilitate our understanding of SARS-CoV-2-induced immune memory to promote vaccine and therapy development.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Neutralizantes/sangre , Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , Inmunoglobulina G/sangre , Receptores Virales/inmunología , SARS-CoV-2/inmunología , Adulto , Animales , Donantes de Sangre , COVID-19/terapia , Línea Celular , China , Chlorocebus aethiops , Convalecencia , Femenino , Humanos , Inmunidad Humoral/inmunología , Inmunización Pasiva , Memoria Inmunológica/inmunología , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Factores Sexuales , Glicoproteína de la Espiga del Coronavirus/inmunología , Células Vero
19.
Tuberk Toraks ; 69(2): 144-152, 2021 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34256504

RESUMEN

Introduction: Oxygen desaturation is a significant event during bronchoscopy. In this study, it was aimed to identify factors related to oxygen desaturation during flexible bronchoscopy (FB) and Endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS). Materials and Methods: From 16 April 2019 to 14 February 2020, 196 consecutive patients (146 FB and 50 EBUS) undergoing bronchoscopy were evaluated retrospectively. The patients' oxygen saturations were monitored on admission and during the procedure by finger pulse oximetry. Desaturation was defined as saturation below 90%. Demographic characteristics, comorbidities, types of interventions, vitals before and during the procedure, amount of saturation decline, and sedative agents used were recorded. The data obtained were compared between the desaturated and non-desaturated groups in both FB and EBUS. We evaluated the risk factors for desaturation during bronchoscopic procedures. Result: The mean age of those who underwent FB was higher (62 [52-68] years vs. 55 [44-65] years, p= 0.05), and males were more frequent (54%, vs 19.2%, p<0.001) in the desaturated group. In FB, short lavage was more frequent in the non-desaturated group (28.8% vs. 9.5%, p<0.001). In EBUS, hypertension, diabetes mellitus and thyroid diseases were higher, and duration of procedure was longer (p= 0.02, p= 0.04, p= 0.01 and p<0.001 and p= 0.01, respectively), and SpO2 decline during procedures was higher (11% vs. 1% in FB, 18% vs. 3% in EBUS, p<0.001, each) in the desaturated group. Conclusions: This study suggested that baseline SpO2 and SpO2 decline during procedures as well as sex, hypertension, and concomitant endocrine - metabolic diseases, duration of procedure were factors associated with desaturation in patients who had undergone FB and EBUS.


Asunto(s)
Broncoscopía/efectos adversos , Oxígeno/sangre , Ultrasonografía/métodos , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Bronquios/crecimiento & desarrollo , Broncoscopía/métodos , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiología , Humanos , Hipertensión/epidemiología , Hipoxia/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Factores Sexuales
20.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 8(1)2021 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34272254

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Although several studies have reported an association between atherosclerosis-related diseases and COVID-19, the relationship between COVID-19 severity and atherosclerosis progression remains unclear. The aim of this study is to determine the coronary artery calcium score (CACS) prognostic value in patients with COVID-19 using indices such as deterioration in oxygenation and CT images of the chest. METHODS: This was a single-centre retrospective study of 53 consecutive patients with COVID-19 in Narita who were admitted to our hospital between March 2020 and August 2020. CACS was calculated based on non-gated CT scans of the chest performed on admission day. The patients were divided into the following two groups based on CACS: group 1 (CACS ≥180, n=11) and group 2 (CACS <180, n=42). Following univariate analysis of the main variables, multivariate analysis of variables that may be associated with COVID-19 progression was performed. RESULTS: Multivariable logistic regression analysis of age, sex, smoking history, diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, number of days from symptom onset to hospitalisation and CACS of ≥180 was performed. It revealed that unlike CACS of <180, CACS of ≥180 is associated with exacerbation of oxygenation or CT images of the chest during hospitalisation (OR: 12.879, 95% CI: 1.399 to 380.401). Furthermore, this model of eight variables showed good calibration (Hosmer-Lemeshow p=0.119). CONCLUSION: CACS may be a prognosis marker of COVID-19 severity. Although coronary artery calcification is not typically assessed in pneumonia cases, it may provide a valuable clinical indicator for predicting severe COVID-19 outcomes.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/fisiopatología , Enfermedad de la Arteria Coronaria/diagnóstico por imagen , Calcificación Vascular/diagnóstico por imagen , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , COVID-19/epidemiología , Enfermedad de la Arteria Coronaria/epidemiología , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiología , Progresión de la Enfermedad , Dislipidemias/epidemiología , Femenino , Hospitalización , Humanos , Hipertensión/epidemiología , Tiempo de Internación/estadística & datos numéricos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Análisis Multivariante , Pronóstico , Estudios Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Factores Sexuales , Fumar/epidemiología , Factores de Tiempo , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X , Calcificación Vascular/epidemiología
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