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1.
Int J Public Health ; 67: 1604946, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36090830

RESUMEN

Objectives: This paper examines the gender gap in unhealthy life expectancy across education levels and age in Spain to understand the extent to which the gender paradox exists over education and across ages. Methods: Death registrations and vital status were taken from the Spanish Statistical Office, while the three health measures (chronic conditions, bad-self rated health and cognitive impairment) from the 2019 European Health Interview Survey. We used Sullivan's method to compute unhealthy life expectancy by education level. We computed the gender and the education ratios of the proportion of unhealthy life years in each health measure by education and age. Results: At almost all ages and all education levels, women significantly lived longer but in poorer health than men. Marked gender differences are seen across most age-groups, particularly among the low educated. We detected greater health inequalities by education level for women (confirming the gender paradox) and a health gradient due to aging and across the health measures charting the disablement process. Conclusion: The new education distribution might improve the unhealthy life expectancy and might reduce the gender gap in the number of years spent in poor health.


Asunto(s)
Disfunción Cognitiva , Esperanza de Vida , Adulto , Envejecimiento , Escolaridad , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Factores Sexuales
3.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 23(1): 863, 2022 Sep 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36109717

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Rotator cuff (RC) tendinopathy is a common shoulder pain condition. Extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) and hyaluronic acid peritendinous injection are viable treatment options for RC tendinopathy. The aim of this study is to evaluate the response in two different therapeutic rehabilitative approaches, the combined treatment ESWT plus hyaluronic acid injections (E + Hy) compared to ESWT alone (ESWT-al), in a cohort of patients with RC tendinopathy according to gender differences. METHODS: This is a retrospective longitudinal cohort study of patients with painful RC tendinopathy. Patients that had received a clinical evaluation, a shoulder ultra sound examination, as well as the Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI) questionnaire, and the Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) for pain at baseline, 1-month (T1) and 2-month follow-ups (T2) were included. RESULTS: Medical records of 53 patients were analyzed. In the comparison between baseline to T1 and similarly from baseline to T2, a statistically significant reduction has been reported in the NRS (p < 0.001) and in the SPADI (p < 0.001) in the entire study group. At T1, patients in the E + Hy compared to ESWT-al group, showed a slight but statistically significant reductions in both NRS and SPADI score, while these changes were more evident at T2 (p < 0.001). Interestingly, a gender dimorphism in NRS and in SPADI was found, with female patients that apparently responded better to the combined E + Hy compared to ESWT-al approach. CONCLUSION: This retrospective cohort study suggests that the combination of ESWT plus HyA injections seems to be more effective than ESWT alone in RC tendinopathy in both genders. Moreover, in ESWT alone treatment, male patients reported better outcomes compared to females. However, further randomized controlled trials should be structured to confirm and enforce these conclusions.


Asunto(s)
Tratamiento con Ondas de Choque Extracorpóreas , Tendinopatía , Femenino , Humanos , Ácido Hialurónico , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Estudios Retrospectivos , Manguito de los Rotadores , Factores Sexuales , Dolor de Hombro/diagnóstico , Dolor de Hombro/tratamiento farmacológico , Dolor de Hombro/etiología , Tendinopatía/complicaciones , Tendinopatía/tratamiento farmacológico , Resultado del Tratamiento
4.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 15624, 2022 Sep 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36115920

RESUMEN

Cannabis Use Disorder (CUD) has been linked to a complex set of neuro-behavioral risk factors. While many studies have revealed sex and gender differences, the relative importance of these risk factors by sex and gender has not been described. We used an "explainable" machine learning approach that combined decision trees [gradient tree boosting, XGBoost] with factor ranking tools [SHapley's Additive exPlanations (SHAP)] to investigate sex and gender differences in CUD. We confirmed that previously identified environmental, personality, mental health, neurocognitive, and brain factors highly contributed to the classification of cannabis use levels and diagnostic status. Risk factors with larger effect sizes in men included personality (high openness), mental health (high externalizing, high childhood conduct disorder, high fear somaticism), neurocognitive (impulsive delay discounting, slow working memory performance) and brain (low hippocampal volume) factors. Conversely, risk factors with larger effect sizes in women included environmental (low education level, low instrumental support) factors. In summary, environmental factors contributed more strongly to CUD in women, whereas individual factors had a larger importance in men.


Asunto(s)
Cannabis , Abuso de Marihuana , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Aprendizaje Automático , Masculino , Abuso de Marihuana/diagnóstico , Trastornos de la Personalidad , Factores Sexuales
5.
Nutrients ; 14(17)2022 Aug 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36079861

RESUMEN

The role of microbiota in eating disorders has recently emerged. Previous data reported that lipopolysaccharides induce anorexia and a decrease of body weight through the activation of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). In the activity-based anorexia (ABA) mouse model, an increase of TLR4 expression in intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) has been described. We thus aimed to characterize the role of TLR4 in IEC in the ABA model in male and female mice. For this purpose, Vill-CreERT2-TLR4 LoxP, which are depleted for TLR4 in IEC in response to 4-OH tamoxifen, were submitted (ABA) or not (CT) to the ABA procedure that combined free access to a running wheel and progressive time-limited access to food. We thus compared CT and ABA TLR4IEC-/- mice to CT and ABA TLR4IEC+/+ mice. In response to the ABA model, TLR4IEC+/+ male and female mice exhibited a body weight loss associated to a decrease of lean mass. In TLR4IEC-/- male mice, body weight loss was delayed and less pronounced compared to TLR4IEC+/+ male mice. We did not observe a difference of body weight loss in female mice. The body composition remained unchanged between TLR4IEC-/- and TLR4IEC+/+ mice in both sexes. In both sexes, ABA TLR4IEC+/+ mice exhibited an increase of food-anticipatory activity, as well as an increase of immobility time during the open field test. However, female TLR4IEC-/- mice showed a decrease of the time spent at the centre and an increase of the time spent at the periphery of the open field area, whereas we did not observe differences in the male mice. In conclusion, the invalidation of TLR4 in IEC modified the response to the ABA model in a sex-dependent manner. Further studies should decipher the underlying mechanisms.


Asunto(s)
Anorexia , Receptor Toll-Like 4 , Animales , Peso Corporal , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Femenino , Intestinos , Masculino , Ratones , Factores Sexuales , Receptor Toll-Like 4/genética , Pérdida de Peso
6.
J Womens Health (Larchmt) ; 31(9): 1241-1245, 2022 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36112424

RESUMEN

Introduction: Emerging data suggest that the COVID-19 pandemic has disproportionately impacted women in academic medicine, potentially eliminating recent gains that have been made toward gender equity. This study examined possible pandemic-related gender disparities in research grant submissions, one of the most important criteria for academic promotion and tenure evaluations. Methods: Data were collected from two major academic institutions (one private and one public) on the gender and academic rank of faculty principal investigators who submitted new grants to the National Institutes of Health (NIH) during COVID-19 (March 1st, 2020, through August 31, 2020) compared with a matched period in 2019 (March 1st, 2019, through August 31, 2019). t-Tests and chi-square analyses compared the gender distribution of individuals who submitted grants during the two periods of examination. Results: In 2019 (prepandemic), there was no significant difference in the average number of grants submitted by women compared with men faculty. In contrast, women faculty submitted significantly fewer grants in 2020 (during the pandemic) than men. Men were also significantly more likely than women to submit grants in both 2019 and 2020 compared with submitting in 2019 only, suggesting men faculty may have been more likely than their women colleagues to sustain their productivity in grant submissions during the pandemic. Discussion: Women's loss of extramural funding may compound over time, as it impedes new data collection, research progress, and academic advancement. Efforts to support women's research productivity and career trajectories are urgently needed in the following years of pandemic recovery.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiología , Femenino , Organización de la Financiación , Humanos , Masculino , National Institutes of Health (U.S.) , Pandemias , Factores Sexuales , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
7.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 15559, 2022 Sep 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36114235

RESUMEN

Mental rotation (MR) is a spatial skill considered to be a key-component of intellectual ability. Studies have suggested that the response time (RT) in a MR task (MRt) might be influenced, with possible gender differences, by the practice of a physical activity (PA) and depending on the plane, direction, degrees of the MR and the frame of reference to perform it. The present study aimed at examining the respective influences of all these variables on the RT by developing a linear mixed-effect model from the RTs varying according to the MR plane, direction, degrees and frame of reference. The MRt was performed by 96 males and females, all undergraduate students, distributed in three groups (sedentary subjects, artistic gymnasts, and futsal players). The results showed that only gender had a main effect (faster log RT in males), probably task-dependent. The other variables interacted among them showing that: (a) the log RT may be influenced by rotations experienced during PA, in particular during the locomotion on a horizontal ground and (b) such influence mainly depends on the compatibility of the physical rotations experienced with the plane and the degrees of the MRt.


Asunto(s)
Deportes , Cognición/fisiología , Ejercicio Físico , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Tiempo de Reacción/fisiología , Factores Sexuales
8.
Behav Brain Sci ; 45: e156, 2022 09 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36098408

RESUMEN

The target paper shows how cultural adaptations to ecological problems can underpin "paradoxical" patterns of phenotypic variation. We argue: (1) Gendered social learning is a cultural adaptation to an ecological problem. (2) In evolutionarily novel environments, this adaptation generates arbitrary-gendered outcomes, leading to the paradoxical case of larger sex differences in more gender equal societies.


Asunto(s)
Aprendizaje Social , Adaptación Fisiológica , Análisis por Conglomerados , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Factores Sexuales
9.
MMW Fortschr Med ; 164(15): 23, 2022 09.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36064905
10.
Neurol India ; 70(4): 1377-1383, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36076631

RESUMEN

Purpose: Surgeons are subjected to enhanced levels of work-related stress and women are likely to face unique challenges due to sub-optimal representation. The present study was conceived with a primary objective to study the gender differences faced by surgeons and neurosurgeons in particular. The secondary objective was to assess the correlation between the various stress inducers and busters of normal working and daily life and the mental state of neurosurgeons. Methods: The study was a cross-sectional, multi-centric study in which a structured questionnaire was sent to neurosurgeons through various neurosurgical forums of the country. A total of 93 complete responses were included in the study. The questions were broadly divided into four themes, demographic working data, stress inducers, stress busters, and questions to reflect the mental state of the respondent. Results: There were 74 males and 19 females in the study, with an average age of 39.34 ± 8.57 years. Statistically significant gender differences were noted in rating the out-patient department (OPD) hours, lectures and seminars, performing and assisting surgeries, attending conferences and working in the intensive care unit (ICU), with women scoring lower than men for these activities. There were no significant gender differences in the mental state of the respondents. A strong correlation was found between scoring for performance and assisting of surgery and the mental state questions, and a strong negative correlation was noted between music, playing games, going to the gym, practicing yoga and the mental state questions, indicative of a protective effect. Conclusions: There was no significant gender differences in the perceived stress levels among neurosurgeons. Women appeared more comfortable with certain normal activities of working. A strong negative correlation was reported for activities such as music, playing games, yoga, and going to the gym, indicating a protective effect.


Asunto(s)
Neurocirujanos , Neurocirugia , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Factores Sexuales , Estrés Psicológico/epidemiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
11.
Cad Saude Publica ; 38(8): e00252121, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36102381

RESUMEN

This study explores the gender differences in the use of coping strategies to reduce food insecurity in Colombian urban and rural households. Data was collected from the Colombian National Survey of Nutritional Status (ENSIN 2015), and analyzed using ordinal logistic regression models, logistic models, and simultaneous equation models. Results show that rural households have a higher prevalence of food insecurity than their urban counterparts. After adjusting for household characteristics - e.g., head of household schooling level -, urban households were more likely to present severe and moderate food insecurity, whereas rural households were more likely to experience mild food insecurity. This result was explained by self-consumption and certain coping strategies, such as selling seeds from the next harvest or animals, implemented by rural households. Even though female-headed households present on average higher levels of food insecurity than male-headed ones, because they are more likely to use coping strategies, especially in rural areas, they can reduce and even cancel out this gap. Hence, female heads are more successful in mitigating food insecurity.


Asunto(s)
Adaptación Psicológica , Abastecimiento de Alimentos , Animales , Brasil , Colombia , Femenino , Inseguridad Alimentaria , Masculino , Factores Sexuales
12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36078277

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Work exposures are known predictors of withdrawal from employment, but the associations between work exposures and withdrawal may vary with gender. This study evaluated gender differences in associations between biomechanical and psychosocial work exposures and age of withdrawal from paid employment among older workers in Norway. METHODS: 77,558 men and 67,773 women (born 1949-1953) were followed from age 62 until withdrawal from paid employment or end of follow-up in 2016 (up to five years follow-up). Information about eight biomechanical and seven psychosocial exposures was obtained from a gender-specific job exposure matrix. Using Cox regression, the difference in mean estimated time until withdrawal between non-exposed and exposed was calculated for each gender and work exposure separately. RESULTS: The largest gender difference was found for high psychological demands. Among men, the non-exposed withdrew earlier than the exposed (-3.66 months (95% CI: -4.04--3.25 months)), and contrary among women (0.71 (0.28-1.10)), resulting in a gender difference of 4.37 (3.81-4.97) months. Gender differences were also found for monotonous work (4.12 (3.51-4.69) months), hands above shoulder height (2.41 (1.76-3.10) months), and high iso-strain (2.14 (1.38-2.95) months). CONCLUSIONS: There were observed gender differences in the associations between some biomechanical and psychosocial work exposures and mean age of withdrawal from paid employment among older workers. However, the results are likely affected by the selection of who remains in the workforce at age 62 and should be interpreted accordingly.


Asunto(s)
Empleo , Empleo/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Noruega , Factores Sexuales , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36078545

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To explore the influencing factors that restrict the exercise behavior of children and adolescents, investigate the effect of subjective exercise experience on exercise behavior, and reveal the mediating effect of exercise commitment between subjective exercise experience and exercise behavior so as to promote children and adolescents to maintain good health exercise habits and improve their physical and mental health. METHODS: The Subjective Exercise Experience Scale (SEES), Exercise Commitment Scale (ECC), and Physical Exercise Rating Scale (PARS-3) were used to conduct a questionnaire survey on 600 children and adolescents in Chongqing, China, and SPSS21.0 and AMOS21.0 statistical analysis software was used to carry out statistics and analyses on the questionnaires. RESULTS: (1) Among children and adolescents, boys' exercise commitment and exercise behavior were significantly higher than girls', and there was no significant gender difference in subjective exercise experience. The exercise behavior of children and adolescents aged 9-12 was significantly higher than that of children and adolescents aged 13-15, and there was no significant age difference in subjective exercise experience and exercise commitment. (2) There was a significant correlation between the subjective exercise experience, exercise commitment, and exercise behavior of children and adolescents, and subjective exercise experience could directly and positively predict exercise commitment (ß = 0.63) and exercise behavior (ß = 0.57)-exercise commitment could also directly and positively predict exercise behavior (ß = 0.52). (3) The exercise commitment of children and adolescents has a partial mediating effect between subjective exercise experience and exercise behavior (accounting for 37.50% of the total effect), and has a mediating effect between different exercise amounts, with the strongest mediating effect being on high exercise amount (32.10% of the total effect). CONCLUSIONS: The exercise behavior of children and adolescents was not only directly affected by subjective exercise experience, but also affected by the mediating effect of exercise commitment, and maintaining a good exercise experience and commitment was an effective way to effectively improve exercise behavior and amount of exercise in children and adolescents.


Asunto(s)
Ejercicio Físico , Adolescente , Niño , China , Ejercicio Físico/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Factores Sexuales , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36078687

RESUMEN

Social media addiction has become one of the typical problem behaviors during adolescence. The present study examined the mediation of social anxiety between peer victimization and adolescent mobile social addiction and tested whether gender could moderate the direct and indirect effects of peer victimization. 649 adolescents between 12 and 19 years of age (Mage = 14.80, SDage = 1.82) completed the anonymous survey. The results found that social anxiety was a mediator linking peer victimization to mobile social addiction. Gender could moderate the direct and indirect effects of peer victimization, and these two effects were stronger in girls than in boys. The results highlight the role of social anxiety in explaining how peer victimization was associated with adolescent mobile phone addiction and the role of gender in explaining when or for whom the direct and indirect associations between peer victimization and adolescent mobile social addiction were more potent. The findings would contribute to the intervention of mobile social addiction.


Asunto(s)
Acoso Escolar , Víctimas de Crimen , Adolescente , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Grupo Paritario , Factores Sexuales
15.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 23(1): 842, 2022 Sep 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36057665

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Neck pain is widespread among students in healthcare-related fields. Although neck pain is more prevalent in females, since most research involves mixed-sex samples we know very little about sex differences in contributors to neck pain. Thus, this study sought to explore sex differences in the risk factors for neck pain in this high-risk population. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted in China in 2021 and included a sample of 1921 undergraduate healthcare students (693 males, 1228 females) from 7 health professional schools at Fujian Medical University. We collected data on neck pain symptoms, demographics, behavioral and psychological factors. Multiple regression analysis was conducted to examine sex differences in the risk factors of neck pain. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of neck pain was 41.6% with female students having a higher prevalence than male students (44.4% vs. 36.7%, respectively). The adjusted analyses showed that self-study time ≥ 6 h/day (OR = 1.44, 95% CI:1.13-1.83), flexed neck posture >20 degrees (OR = 2.19, 95% CI: 1.28-3.74), static duration posture >2 h (OR = 1.42, 95% CI: 1.02-1.97), and psychological distress (high: OR = 2.04, 95% CI:1.42-2.94; very high: OR = 2.50, 95% CI:1.57-3.74; respectively) were independent factors for neck pain in females. Among males, self-study time ≥ 6 h/day (OR = 1.43, 95% CI: 1.02-2.01) and psychological distress (moderate: OR = 2.04, 95% CI:1.28-3.25; high: OR = 2.37, 95% CI:1.49-3.79; very high: OR = 2.97, 95% CI:1.75-5.02; respectively) were significant risk factors for neck pain. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that the risk profiles of neck pain differ between females and males. The modifiable risk factors for neck pain, such as prolonged self-study time and elevated psychological distress, as well as poor posture among females, could be targeted through health promotion interventions in university settings.


Asunto(s)
Dolor de Cuello , Caracteres Sexuales , Estudios Transversales , Atención a la Salud , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Dolor de Cuello/diagnóstico , Dolor de Cuello/epidemiología , Dolor de Cuello/etiología , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Factores Sexuales , Estudiantes , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
16.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2022: 4641-4644, 2022 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36085950

RESUMEN

Many studies in neuroscience have focused on interpreting brain activity using functional connectivity (FC). The most widely used approach for measuring FC is based on linear correlation (e.g., the Pearson correlation), where the temporal cofluctuations between functional brain regions are computed. However, such approaches ignore nonlinear dependencies among regions that might carry distinctive information across groups of subjects. In this study, we offer a deep learning-based approach that also captures nonlinear temporal relationships between brain networks. Our approach consists of two main parts: an encoder that learns domain-specific embeddings of time courses estimated from independent component analysis (ICA) and a similarity metric that measures the similarities between the embeddings. We call such similarities as nonlinear functional relationships between networks. Our findings on a large dataset (including above 11k normal control subjects) suggest that male subjects exhibit stronger nonlinear network-network relationships than female subjects in most cases. Furthermore, we observe that, unlike FC, our approach could capture some intra-network relationships, especially between cognitive control and visual networks, which are significantly different between males and females, suggesting that our approach can provide a complementary interpretation of the functional brain activity to FC.


Asunto(s)
Encéfalo , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagen , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Factores Sexuales
17.
Lancet Public Health ; 7(9): e775-e786, 2022 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36057276

RESUMEN

Globally, billions of hours are spent on unpaid labour every year, a burden that is disproportionately carried by women. However, the potential health effects of unpaid labour have largely been unexplored. This Review examines the gendered association between unpaid labour and mental health among employed adults. We did a search of six databases and examined the association between different forms of unpaid labour and mental health. 19 studies (totalling 70 310 participants) were included. We found substantial heterogeneity, and low-to-moderate methodological quality, in the existing research. Our Review indicates substantial gender differences in exposure to unpaid labour and confirms persistent inequities in the division of unpaid work. Overall, our findings indicate that, among employed adults, unpaid labour is negatively associated with women's mental health, with effects less apparent for men. Globally, women spend a greater number of hours on unpaid labour; this review suggests that inequities in the division of unpaid labour expose women to greater risk of poorer mental health than men.


Asunto(s)
Empleo , Salud Mental , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Factores Sexuales
19.
Turk Kardiyol Dern Ars ; 50(6): 438-444, 2022 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36068980

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Despite efforts spent on promotion of gender equity in the academia, the gender gap is feared to have widened after the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. Herein, we aimed to compare the distribution of female authorship by Turkish adult cardiologists in journals indexed at PubMed before and after the pandemic. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, an advanced search on PubMed (https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/) was carried out based on the following criteria: "entrez date" and keywords "Turkey" and "cardiology" to identify papers that entered the online database in April-September 2019 and April-September 2020. After the study sample was determined, type of the article and details of the author list were recorded. RESULTS: Of 1318 articles screened, 708 met the inclusion criteria. Overall, 85 (12.0%) of first authors and 67 (10.0%) of senior authors were female. Females were less likely to first author original articles, editorials, case reports/series and papers with international participation (9.5%, P = .012; 33.3%, P = .045; 18.3%, P = .033; 4.8%, P = .032, respectively). A higher proportion of females were in first and corresponding author positions in original articles (73.2%, P = .032; 76.5%, P = .019, respectively), but not in other article types (all P > .05), after emergence of the pandemic. CONCLUSION: These suggest that significant gender differences exist with regard to authorships of scientific publications that were submitted by Turkish adult cardiologists. Future studies may aim to evaluate the trends across a wider time span and based on a more extensive scientific output follow-up.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiólogos , Autoria , COVID-19/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Factores Sexuales
20.
MMW Fortschr Med ; 164(16): 24-25, 2022 Sep.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36123468
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