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1.
Eur. j. psychol. appl. legal context (Internet) ; 12(2): 69-75, jul.-dic. 2020. tab
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-190651

RESUMEN

This study analyses the psychosocial characteristics based on recidivism risk of juvenile offenders in conditions of internment. A sample of 102 juvenile offenders (92 male, 10 female) who were serving sentences in the only detention centre in Navarra (Spain) was used. Data on sociodemographic and psychosocial characteristics as well as features related to recidivism risk were collected through the Youth Level of Service/Case Management Inventory (YLS/CMI) and data on personality characteristics were obtained through the Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory (MACI). The results showed that risk of reoffending was high for 21.6% of the sample, moderate for 31.4%, and low for 47.1%. Statistically significant differences were found between groups for various psychosocial and personality characteristics. In addition, the main variables related to the different risk levels of criminal recidivism were the presence/absence of history of violent behaviour, school performance, problem-solving skills, and submission as a personality trait. These four variables correctly classified 80.4% of the sample. According to the results, these variables must be considered in the development of effective intervention programmes in detention centres with juvenile offenders in order to decrease criminal reoffending rates


En este estudio se analizan las características psicosociales de una muestra de menores infractores en un centro de internamiento en función del riesgo de reincidencia. Se evaluó una muestra de 102 menores infractores (92 varones y 10 mujeres) que cumplían una medida judicial en el único centro de internamiento de Navarra (España). Se recogió información sobre las características sociodemográficas, psicosociales y el riesgo de reincidencia a través del Inventario para la Gestión y la Intervención con Jóvenes (IGI-J), así como sobre las características de personalidad a través del Inventario Clínico de Adolescentes de Millon (MACI). Los resultados mostraron que el riesgo de reincidencia era alto para el 21.6% de la muestra, moderado para el 31.4% y bajo para el 47.1%. Se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre los grupos en numerosas características psicosociales y de personalidad. Además, las principales variables relacionadas con los diferentes niveles de riesgo de reincidencia fueron la presencia/ausencia de una historia de conductas violentas, el rendimiento escolar, las habilidades para la solución de problemas y la sumisión como características de personalidad. Estas cuatro variables clasificaban correctamente al 80.4% de la muestra. Con arreglo a los resultados encontrados, estas variables se deben tener en cuenta en el desarrollo de programas de intervención eficaces en los centros de internamiento con menores infractores con el objetivo de disminuir la tasa de reincidencia


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adolescente , Trastornos de la Personalidad , Delincuencia Juvenil/psicología , Reincidencia/psicología , Factores Socioeconómicos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Riesgo
2.
Eur. j. psychol. appl. legal context (Internet) ; 12(2): 77-84, jul.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-190652

RESUMEN

Motivational strategies are among the most promising approaches to improve the effectiveness of batterer intervention programs (BIPs). An individualized motivational plan (IMP) is one of these motivational strategies. The present study aimed to explore whether adding an IMP to a standard BIP improved the participant-facilitator working alliance and participants' protherapeutic behaviors. To this end a randomized controlled trial was conducted. One hundred fifty-three men convicted of intimate partner violence were randomly assigned to either a standard BIP (control condition, n = 79) or a standard BIP plus IMP (experimental condition, n = 74). Working alliance (i.e., general working alliance, agreement, and bond) was assessed with the Working Alliance Inventory-Observer, short version. Protherapeutic behaviors (i.e., assumption of responsibility, participant role behavior, and group value) were assessed with the Observational Coding of Protherapeutic Group Behavior. Both working alliance and protherapeutic behaviors were assessed by an external observer early and late in intervention. Our results showed that both general working alliance and agreement and bond, were significantly higher in the standard BIP plus IMP intervention condition, both early and late in intervention. All protherapeutic behaviors were significantly higher in the standard BIP plus IMP early in intervention, and also late in intervention for assumption of responsibility and group value. Our findings have important practical implications as our results clearly showed that a motivational strategy tool such as the IMP improves key intervention processes (i.e., working alliance and protherapeutic behaviors) in BIPs, therefore increasing their effectiveness


Las estrategias motivacionales se encuentran entre los enfoques más prometedores para mejorar la eficacia de los programas de intervención con maltratadores. El plan motivacional individualizado (PMI) es una de estas estrategias motivacionales. El presente estudio tiene como objetivo explorar si añadir un plan motivacional individualizado a un programa estándar de intervención con maltratadores mejora la alianza de trabajo facilitador-participante y la conducta proterapéutica de los participantes. Para ello se realizó un ensayo clínico aleatorizado. Ciento cincuenta y tres hombres condenados por violencia de género fueron asignados aleatoriamente bien a un programa estándar de intervención con maltratadores (condición control, n = 79) o bien a un programa estándar de intervención con maltratadores más PMI (condición experimental, n = 74). La alianza de trabajo (i.e., alianza general, acuerdo y vínculo) se evaluó con la versión breve del Working Alliance Inventory-Observer. Las conductas proterapéuticas (i.e., asunción de responsabilidad, rol conductual del participante y valoración del grupo) fueron evaluadas con el Observational Coding of Protherapeutic Group Behavior. Tanto la alianza de trabajo como las conductas proterapéuticas fueron evaluadas por un observador externo al principio y al final de la intervención. Los resultados mostraron que tanto la alianza de trabajo general como el acuerdo y el vínculo fueron significativamente mayores en la condición experimental, tanto al principio como al final de la intervención. La expresión de todas las conductas proterapéuticas al inicio de la intervención fue significativamente mayor en la condición experimental, así como al final de la intervención para la asunción de responsabilidad y la valoración del grupo. Los resultados tienen importantes implicaciones prácticas, puesto que muestran con claridad que una estrategia motivacional como el PMI mejora procesos clave de la intervención con maltratadores (i.e., la alianza de trabajo y las conductas proterapéuticas), mejorando por lo tanto la efectividad de estos programas


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Violencia de Género/prevención & control , Psicoterapia de Grupo , Procesos de Grupo , Motivación , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Factores Socioeconómicos
3.
Rev. bioét. derecho ; (50): 239-253, nov. 2020.
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-191356

RESUMEN

Las carencias sociales de México empeorarán por la pandemia SARS-COV2. A saber, el acceso a la salud, derechos laborales básicos, y la infructuosa respuesta del gobierno para erradicar la violencia machista contra las mujeres. El desinterés histórico para fomentar una cultura del apoyo mutuo y el autocuidado ha provocado que gran parte de la ciudadanía se haya desconectado de sus derechos sociales y sanitarios. Así, no se sigue una indicación -quédate en casa- por desigualdades estructurales. Propongo que la libertad efectiva puede conseguirse mediante la aprobación de la renta básica universal desde una perspectiva feminista. Concluyo que las secuelas de la pandemia, que definirán la vida cotidiana, ameritan la aprobación de esta medida. Igualmente, las mujeres como clase sexual requieren protección desde una perspectiva feminista


Many of the social deprivations of Mexico will be worsened due to SARS-COV2 pandemic. Namely, the insufficient access to public health, lack of labor rights, and the unsuccessful government's response to eradicate male violence against women. The historical unconcern in promoting a culture rooted in mutual aid and self-care has provoked many citizens are disconnected from their social and health rights. Thus, people's inability to carry through one direction -stay home- is unfulfilled, in part, due to structural inequalities. I affirm that effective liberty could be obtained by approving a Universal Basic Income from a feminist perspective. I conclude that the aftermath of COVID-19, which will define everyday life for a while, require the endorsement of such measure. Likewise, women as a class deserve protection from a feminist critical framework


Les mancances socials de Mèxic empitjoraran per la pandèmia SARS-COV-2. A saber, l'accés a la salut, els drets laborals bàsics I la infructuosa resposta de govern per eradicar la violència masclista contra les dones. El desinterès històric per fomentar una cultura de suport mutu I l'autocura ha provocat que gran part de la ciutadania s'hagi desconnectat dels seus drets socials I sanitaris. Així, no se segueix una indicació -queda't a casa- per desigualtats estructurals. Proposo que la llibertat efectiva pot aconseguir-se mitjançant l'aprovació de la renda bàsica universal des d'una perspectiva feminista. Concloc que les seqüeles de la pandèmia, que definiran la vida quotidiana, mereixen l'aprovació d'aquesta mesura. Igualment, les dones com a classe sexual requereixen protecció des d'una perspectiva feminista


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Pandemias , Renta per Cápita , Apoyo Social , Incertidumbre , Política Pública , Política de Salud , Factores Socioeconómicos , México/epidemiología
4.
Rev. bioét. derecho ; (50): 407-423, nov. 2020. tab, graf
Artículo en Portugués | IBECS | ID: ibc-191365

RESUMEN

O processo de consentimento informado para participação de pesquisa com seres humanos visa fornecer as informações adequadas ao indivíduo possibilitando que este tome a decisão de participar de maneira voluntária, livre de pressões externas. A possibilidade de remuneração poderia interferir na voluntariedade deste processo de consentir. O presente estudo objetivou avaliar percepção de influência da remuneração monetária por meio de simulações de pesquisa que variam em nível de risco (Bioequivalência e de Fase I) e tipo de remuneração monetária (com e sem). Participaram do estudo 80 voluntários. Os resultados sugerem que a remuneração não constituiu uma interferência na voluntariedade do processo de consentimento, visto que participantes aceitaram convite para participar da primeira pesquisa para a qual foram convidados e não se sentiram influenciados indebidamente


El proceso de consentimiento informado para la participación de sujetos humanos en investigación tiene por objeto dar la información adecuada al individuo, permitiendo que tome la decisión de participar de manera voluntaria y libre de presiones externas. La posibilidad de remuneración podría interferir en la voluntariedad de este proceso de consentir. El presente estudio evalúa la percepción de la influencia de la remuneración monetaria a través de simulaciones de investigación que varían en nivel de riesgo (Bioequivalencia y de Fase I) y tipo de remuneración monetaria (con y sin). Participaron del estudio 80 voluntarios. Los resultados sugieren que la remuneración no constituyó una interferencia en la voluntariedad del proceso de consentimiento, ya que los participantes aceptaron una invitación para participar en la primera encuesta a la que fueron invitados y no se sintieron influenciados incorrectamente


El procés de consentiment informat per a la participació de subjectes humans en recerca té per objecte donar la informació adequada a l'individu, permetent que prengui la decisió de participar de manera voluntària I lliure de pressions externes. La possibilitat de remuneració podria interferir en la voluntarietat d'aquest procés de consentir. El present estudi avalua la percepció de la influència de la remuneració monetària a través de simulacions de recerca que varien en nivell de risc (Bioequivalencia I de Fase I) I tipus de remuneració monetària (amb I sense). Van participar de l'estudi 80 voluntaris. Els resultats suggereixen que la remuneració no va constituir una interferència en la voluntarietat del procés de consentiment, ja que els participants van acceptar una invitació per a participar en la primera enquesta a la qual van ser convidats I no es van sentir influenciats incorrectament


The process of informed consent for research participation with human beings aims to provide appropriate information to individuals enabling him or her to make the decision to participate voluntarily, free of external pressures. The possibility of remuneration could interfere in the willingness to consent. The present study aims to evaluate the perception of influence of the monetary payment through research simulations that vary in the level of risk (Bioequivalence and Phase I) and type of monetary payment (with and without). Eighty volunteers participated in the study. The results suggest that remuneration did not interfere with the willingness of the consent process, as participants accepted an invitation to participate in the first research option to which they were invited to and did not feel undue influence


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adolescente , Adulto Joven , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Investigación Biomédica/economía , Remuneración , Decisiones , Consentimiento Informado , Ética en Investigación , Factores Socioeconómicos
6.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 23: e200095, 2020.
Artículo en Portugués, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027434

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To assess, through space-time analyses, whether the income inequality of the Federative Units (FUs) in Brazil can be associated with the risk of infection and death by COVID-19. METHODS: This was an ecological study, based on secondary data on incidence and mortality rates for COVID-19. Data were analyzed at the state level, having the Gini coefficient as the main independent variable. Records of twelve days were used, spaced one week each, between April 21th and June 7th, 2020. The weekly variation in the rates was calculated through Prais-Winsten regression, aiming at measuring the evolution of the pandemic in each FU. Spearman's correlation test was used to assess correlation between the rates and their weekly evolution and the independent variables. Lastly, a spatial dependence diagnosis was conducted, and a Spatial Regression lag model was used when applicable. RESULTS: Incidence and mortality rates of COVID-19 increased in all Brazilian FUs, being more pronounced among those with greater economic inequality. Association between Gini coefficient and COVID-19 incidence and mortality rates remained even when demographic and spatial aspects were taken into account. CONCLUSION: Income inequality can play an important role in the impact of COVID-19 on the Brazilian territory, through absolute and contextual effects. Structural policies to reduce inequality are essential to face this and future health crises in Brazil.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Brasil/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/mortalidad , Humanos , Neumonía Viral/mortalidad , Medición de Riesgo , Factores Socioeconómicos
7.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 23: e200098, 2020.
Artículo en Portugués, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027435

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between the impact of oral health on daily life and sociodemographic variables with oral parameters in adolescents living in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with data from 5,409 adolescents who participated in the "State Oral Health Survey of São Paulo - OH", 2015. The impact of oral health on daily life was assessed by the oral impacts on daily performances (OIDP) index, prevalence (presence or absence of impact) and severity of impact (OIDP scores). The negative binomial regression model (zeros-inflated) was used, considering the complex sampling and the sample weights. Prevalence ratio (PR), ratio of means (ROM) and confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. RESULTS: The prevalence of impact was 37.4%. After adjusting for the model, the impact was more prevalent (PR = 1.59; 95%CI 1.22 ‒ 1.81) and more severe (RR = 1.49; 95%CI 1.22 ‒ 1.81) among females. Compared to white-skin people, all remaining groups had a higher prevalence of impact. Among socioeconomic characteristics, family income higher than R$ 2,501 (RR = 0.79; 95%CI 0.64 ‒ 0.98) and household crowding (RR = 1.18; 95%CI 1.00 ‒ 1.39) were associated with the severity of impact. In the oral health conditions, untreated caries (PR = 1.46; 95%CI 1.23 ‒ 1.74) and gingival bleeding (PR = 1.35; 95%CI 1.14 ‒ 1.60) were associated with higher prevalence of impact. CONCLUSION: Females, non-whites, with untreated caries and gingival bleeding were associated with higher impact of oral health on daily life. Family income higher than R$ 2,500 and living in less crowded households were factors associated with less impact.


Asunto(s)
Actividades Cotidianas , Enfermedades de la Boca/epidemiología , Adolescente , Brasil/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , Masculino , Factores Socioeconómicos
8.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 23: e200102, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027437

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The complexity of urbanization processes across Latin American societies encourages investigating its implications in health conditions, especially during childhood. One of the possible links between them is recreation, a component of the daily life of children and, therefore, essential to produce health and life itself. The objective of this study was to examine the associations between neighborhood context and active public park use among school-aged children in Cordoba, Argentina. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 1466 children, aged 9 to 11, attending 19 schools and living in 110 neighborhoods. Multilevel models with Poisson distribution were used for the analyses, stratified by gender. Socio-demographic, behavioral, and physical covariates were included at the individual level, and socioeconomic neighborhood conditions at second level. RESULTS: Girls residing in neighborhoods with a worse socioeconomic context were less likely to report frequent public park use for physical activity, while those from neighborhoods with better socioeconomic conditions were more likely to, regardless of individual characteristics. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that socioeconomic conditions of neighborhoods are associated with public park use for physical activity in school-aged girls, demonstrating gender inequality in the use and appropriation of public spaces.


Asunto(s)
Ejercicio Físico , Parques Recreativos/estadística & datos numéricos , Características de la Residencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Argentina , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Análisis Multinivel , Factores Socioeconómicos
9.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(40): 1437-1442, 2020 Oct 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031362

RESUMEN

During 2018, estimated incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among Hispanic and Latino (Hispanic/Latino) persons in the United States was four times that of non-Hispanic White persons (1). Hispanic/Latino men who have sex with men (MSM) accounted for 24% (138,023) of U.S. MSM living with diagnosed HIV infection at the end of 2018 (1). Antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence is crucial for viral suppression, which improves health outcomes and prevents HIV transmission (2). Barriers to ART adherence among Hispanic/Latino MSM have been explored in limited contexts (3); however, nationally representative analyses are lacking. The Medical Monitoring Project reports nationally representative estimates of behavioral and clinical experiences of U.S. adults with diagnosed HIV infection. This analysis used Medical Monitoring Project data collected during 2015-2019 to examine ART adherence and reasons for missing ART doses among HIV-positive Hispanic/Latino MSM (1,673). On a three-item ART adherence scale with 100 being perfect adherence, 77.3% had a score of ≥85. Younger age, poverty, recent drug use, depression, and unmet needs for ancillary services were predictors of lower ART adherence. The most common reason for missing an ART dose was forgetting; 63.9% of persons who missed ≥1 dose reported more than one reason. Interventions that support ART adherence and access to ancillary services among Hispanic/Latino MSM might help improve clinical outcomes and reduce transmission.


Asunto(s)
Antirretrovirales/uso terapéutico , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por VIH/etnología , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Hispanoamericanos/psicología , Homosexualidad Masculina/etnología , Cumplimiento de la Medicación/etnología , Adolescente , Adulto , Hispanoamericanos/estadística & datos numéricos , Homosexualidad Masculina/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Cumplimiento de la Medicación/estadística & datos numéricos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Factores Socioeconómicos , Estados Unidos , Adulto Joven
10.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(39): 1385-1390, 2020 Oct 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33001877

RESUMEN

Homicide is the 13th leading cause of death among infants (i.e., children aged <1 year) in the United States (1). Infant homicides occurring within the first 24 hours of life (i.e., neonaticide) are primarily perpetrated by the mother, who might be of young age, unmarried, have lower educational attainment, and is most likely associated with concealment of an unintended pregnancy and nonhospital birthing (2). After the first day of life, infant homicides might be associated with other factors (e.g., child abuse and neglect or caregiver frustration) (2). A 2002 study of the age variation in homicide risk in U.S. infants during 1989-1998 found that the overall infant homicide rate was 8.3 per 100,000 person-years, and on the first day of life was 222.2 per 100,000 person-years, a homicide rate at least 10 times greater than that for any other time of life (3). Because of this period of heightened risk, by 2008 all 50 states* and Puerto Rico had enacted Safe Haven Laws. These laws allow a parent† to legally surrender an infant who might otherwise be abandoned or endangered (4). CDC analyzed infant homicides in the United States during 2008-2017 to determine whether rates changed after nationwide implementation of Safe Haven Laws, and to examine the association between infant homicide rates and state-specific Safe Haven age limits. During 2008-2017, the overall infant homicide rate was 7.2 per 100,000 person-years, and on the first day of life was 74.0 per 100,000 person-years, representing a 66.7% decrease from 1989-1998. However, the homicide rate on first day of life was still 5.4 times higher than that for any other time in life. No obvious association was found between infant homicide rates and Safe Haven age limits. States are encouraged to evaluate the effectiveness of their Safe Haven Laws and other prevention strategies to ensure they are achieving the intended benefits of preventing infant homicides. Programs and policies that strengthen economic supports, provide affordable childcare, and enhance and improve skills for young parents might contribute to the prevention of infant homicides.


Asunto(s)
Maltrato a los Niños/legislación & jurisprudencia , Niño Abandonado/legislación & jurisprudencia , Homicidio/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Femenino , Homicidio/prevención & control , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Madres/estadística & datos numéricos , Riesgo , Factores Socioeconómicos , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
11.
Medwave ; 20(8): e8031, 2020 Sep 25.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33017383

RESUMEN

Objective: To compare excess mortality by district quintiles according to the Human Development Index (HDI) in Metropolitan Lima, the capital of Peru, and analyze the socioeconomic factors associated with excess mortality within the context of COVID-19. Methods: Retrospective cross-sectional analysis of the mortality records from non-violent causes registered in the National Death Information System in the 50 districts of Metropolitan Lima of the first 24 weeks of the years 2019 and 2020. Descriptive analysis was performed using contingency tables and time series graphs by sex, age group, and quintile of the district of residence according to the HDI. Negative binomial regression analysis was performed to identify possible explanatory factors for excess mortality. Results: An excess of 20 093 non-violent deaths and 2,979 confirmed deaths from COVID-19 were registered in Metropolitan Lima during the study period. The increase was observed primarily in men and adults aged 60 and over. Residents in the districts belonging to the fifth quintile, according to HDI, presented, in most cases, the lowest rates. Multivariate analysis revealed that a higher HDI level (p = 0.009) and a higher proportion of inhabitants living in extreme poverty (p = 0.014) decreased the excess mortality. Conclusion: Excess of non-violent deaths in Metropolitan Lima is higher in the quintiles with the lowest HDI, in men, and the age group from 60 to more years of age. The study of social and economic health determinants in Peru is crucial for the design of measures to be taken by the government against the COVID-19 pandemic.


Asunto(s)
Causas de Muerte , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Mortalidad/tendencias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribución por Edad , Niño , Preescolar , Infecciones por Coronavirus/mortalidad , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Perú/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/mortalidad , Pobreza , Estudios Retrospectivos , Distribución por Sexo , Factores Socioeconómicos , Adulto Joven
13.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 27(3): 374-378, 2020 Sep 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32955217

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Scabies is a contagious parasitic disease, a skin infestation caused by Scaroptes scabieri, tiny mites that burrow under the skin. Outbreaks of scabies can be difficult to control and require the implementation of appropriate control programme. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study was to analyze the epidemiology of scabies in north-east Poland, considering socio-economic and selected climatic factors. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The analysis was based on data reports (n=26,362) obtained from the Polish National Health Fund (NFZ) for the period 2007-2014. Monthly climate data were collected from the Institute of Meteorology and Water Management/National Research Institute (IMGW-PIB) in Warsaw, including data on temperature and relative humidity. Additionally, the influence of socio-economic factors on the prevalence of scabies was analyzed. Data on population size, medical staff, and unemployment rate were obtained from the Central Statistical Office (GUS) in Warsaw, and analyzed using SPSS Statistics 24.0 programme. RESULTS: The age group of 10-19 years showed the highest infestation rates. Seasonality of scabies was demonstrated. The highest numbers of cases were reported during the autumn and winter months. There was a significant negative correlation (rho = -0.499; p<0.001) between air temperature and the incidence of scabies, and a positive correlation (r = 0.532; p<0.001) between relative humidity and the number of cases reported. A rise in the unemployment rate also caused an increase in the scabies incidence rate (r = 0.294; p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that an improvement of socio-economic conditions may contribute to a reduction in the number of scabies infections. The possibility should be considered of monitoring the parameters, such as air temperature and humidity, particularly when scabies outbreaks occur.


Asunto(s)
Escabiosis/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Humedad , Incidencia , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Polonia/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Escabiosis/parasitología , Factores Socioeconómicos , Temperatura , Adulto Joven
14.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 27(3): 401-406, 2020 Sep 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32955222

RESUMEN

When faced with a chronic disease such as rheumatoid arthritis, the patient attempts to cope with the stressful situation by applying coping strategies. The main aim of rheumatoid treatment is not only improving health but also increasing the quality of life. The research objective was to determine the relationship among socio demographic factors, duration of the disease and its associated ailments, attitude to the disease, self-assessment of one's knowledge of RA, and the application of coping strategies in stressful situations by women with rheumatoid arthritis. The study involved 193 patients of the Clinic of Rheumatology and Systemic Connective Tissue Diseases, and the Rheumatology Unit of the Specialist Outpatient Clinic of the Independent Public Teaching Hospital No. 4 in Lublin, from November 2016 - June 2017. The Coping Orientations to Problems Experienced Inventory (COPE) Questionnaire and an author's Original Questionnaire were used in the study. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's range test were applied for statistical analysis. A p-value<0.05 defined the statistical differences. Analysis was performed using the commercial SPSS Statistics 19 software (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, USA). The respondents usually use instrumental social support (11.5±1.7), focus on and vent emotions (11.4±1.9), use emotional social support (11.4±1.8), employ active coping (11.4±2.1) and positive reinterpretation and growth (11.2±1.8), and least often rely on their sense of humour (5.5±1.4) or use alcohol or drugs (5±1.1). The factors which determine the types of strategy used are age, education, the duration of the disease, ailments experienced, and attitude towards the disease. Those respondents who declared a greater knowledge of RA more often applied positive reinterpretation and growth, and more rarely used alcohol or drugs. In the treatment and rehabilitation processes it is important to reinforce in the patient positive expectations for the treatment, seek advantages and benefits in one's present health status, and educate patients about the disease, its therapy and appropriate coping strategies.


Asunto(s)
Adaptación Psicológica , Artritis Reumatoide/psicología , Actitud , Factores Socioeconómicos , Estrés Psicológico/psicología , Anciano , Femenino , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Autoevaluación
15.
Nature ; 586(7828): 201-202, 2020 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32968243
16.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 44, sept. 2020
Artículo en Español | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52680

RESUMEN

Objetivo. Determinar si existen disparidades asociadas a la estratificación socioeconómica, la etnicidad, los servicios médicos y la región geográfica en la progresión de la enfermedad por coronavirus (COVID-19) en adultos mexicanos infectados por SARS-CoV-2. Método. Se analizaron los datos registrados por la Dirección General de Epidemiología de la Secretaría de Salud del Gobierno Federal de México respecto de los casos confirmados de infección por SARS-CoV-2. El análisis se limitó a los datos de adultos de 20 años o más registrados hasta el 10 de julio del 2020 (n=234 870). Los indicadores de severidad de la COVID-19 fueron hospitalización, desarrollo de neumonía, requerimiento de intubación o ingreso a la unidad de cuidados intensivos, y muerte. Se estimaron diferencias de acuerdo con el nivel de marginación municipal, la pertenencia a un grupo indígena, la región geográfica y el sector de los servicios. A partir de modelos de regresión multinivel se estimaron razones de prevalencias (RP). Resultados. Las personas que residían en municipios con mayor marginación tuvieron mayor riesgo de presentar los cuatro indicadores de formas severas de COVID-19 (RP=1,05 o 1,06). Las personas indígenas tuvieron mayor riesgo de neumonía (RP=1,22), hospitalización (RP=1,14) y muerte (RP=1,23). Entre los casos atendidos en servicios privados fue menor el riesgo de muerte (RP=0,40), pero mayor el uso de intubación o ingreso a la unidad de cuidados intensivos (RP=4,45). Conclusiones. Las tendencias observadas indican que los efectos de la COVID-19 no solo se deben a las características biológicas del SARS-CoV-2, sino también a los recursos (o falta de ellos) para enfrentarlo, los cuales están distribuidos por procesos sociales.


Objective. To determine if there are disparities associated with socioeconomic stratification, ethnicity, medical services, and geographic region in the progression of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in Mexican adults infected with SARS-CoV-2. Method. We analyzed data registered by the General Direction of Epidemiology of the Ministry of Health of the Federal Government of Mexico regarding the confirmed cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection. The analysis was limited to data from adults 20 years and older recorded up to July 10, 2020 (n=234 870). Indicators of severity of COVID-19 were hospitalization, development of pneumonia, requirement for intubation or admission to the intensive care unit, and death. Differences were estimated according to the level of municipal marginalization, belonging to an indigenous group, geographic region, and service sector. Prevalence ratios (PR) were estimated using multilevel regression models. Results. People who lived in municipalities with greater marginalization were at greater risk of presenting the four indicators of severe forms of COVID-19 (PR=1.05 or 1.06). Indigenous people were at greater risk of pneumonia (PR=1.22), hospitalization (PR=1.14) and death (PR=1.23). Among the cases treated in the private health sector, the risk of death was lower (PR=0.40), but the use of intubation or admission to the intensive care unit was higher (PR=4.45). Conclusions. The trends observed indicate that the effects of COVID-19 are not only related to the biological characteristics of SARS-CoV-2, but also to the resources (or lack thereof) to deal with it, which are distributed by social processes.


Asunto(s)
Inequidad Social , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Factores Socioeconómicos , Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , Grupos Étnicos , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Inequidad Social , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Factores Socioeconómicos , Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , Grupos Étnicos , México
17.
Nutrients ; 12(9)2020 Sep 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32887422

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated economic vulnerabilities and disrupted the Australian food supply, with potential implications for food insecurity. This study aims to describe the prevalence and socio-demographic associations of food insecurity in Tasmania, Australia, during the COVID-19 pandemic. A cross-sectional survey (deployed late May to early June 2020) incorporated the U.S. Household Food Security Survey Module: Six-Item Short Form, and fifteen demographic and COVID-related income questions. Survey data (n = 1170) were analyzed using univariate and multivariate binary logistic regression. The prevalence of food insecurity was 26%. The adjusted odds of food insecurity were higher among respondents with a disability, from a rural area, and living with dependents. Increasing age, a university education, and income above $80,000/year were protective against food insecurity. Food insecurity more than doubled with a loss of household income above 25% (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR): 2.02; 95% CI: 1.11, 3.71; p = 0.022), and the odds further increased with loss of income above 75% (AOR: 7.14; 95% CI: 2.01, 24.83; p = 0.002). Our results suggest that the prevalence of food insecurity may have increased during the COVID-19 pandemic, particularly among economically vulnerable households and people who lost income. Policies that support disadvantaged households and ensure adequate employment opportunities are important to support Australians throughout and post the COVID-19 pandemic.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Abastecimiento de Alimentos/estadística & datos numéricos , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Infecciones por Coronavirus/complicaciones , Infecciones por Coronavirus/economía , Estudios Transversales , Demografía , Personas con Discapacidad , Escolaridad , Empleo , Familia , Femenino , Abastecimiento de Alimentos/economía , Humanos , Renta , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias/economía , Neumonía Viral/complicaciones , Neumonía Viral/economía , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Población Rural , Factores Sexuales , Factores Socioeconómicos , Tasmania/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
18.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237637, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866157

RESUMEN

Comprehensive assessment of food insecurity across all college community members is lacking. This research surveyed a random sample of an entire campus population at a Northeast University in two surveys (spring 2017, n = 1,037 and fall 2017, n = 1,123). Analysis of variance, t-tests, and multivariable logit models were used to understand food insecurity outcomes and comparisons among groups. The overall rate of food insecurity on campus was 19.6% (spring) and 15.0% (fall). Food insecurity rates were highest among undergraduates, graduate and medical students, and staff as compared to faculty. First generation students and off-campus students were also more likely to be food insecure in both surveys, while people of color were more likely to be food insecure in the spring survey. Findings suggest university members beyond undergraduates also face high rates of food insecurity, which has important implications for efforts to reduce food insecurity on college campuses.


Asunto(s)
Abastecimiento de Alimentos/estadística & datos numéricos , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Estudiantes/psicología , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Universidades/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Factores de Riesgo , Factores Socioeconómicos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
19.
Mar Environ Res ; 160: 105042, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32907740

RESUMEN

Economic development, coastal population growth, and expansion of tourism-related activities along coastlines have been the leading causes of marine debris pollution worldwide. While the problem of marine debris pollution has been increasingly recognized, there has been limited research on its socioeconomic drivers, primarily due to a paucity of consistent data on debris. The research described here utilizes newly available data from the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Association (NOAA) on marine debris along eight coastal states of North America to examine the relationship of such debris pollution with socioeconomic variables including population, age, education, and tourism, as well as the mitigating effect of social capital on debris pollution. The results indicate that marine debris increases with income; however, at higher income levels the amount of pollution starts to decline, supporting the "Environmental Kuznets" hypothesis. We also find that population growth along coastlines contributes to greater debris accumulation. Our results further highlight the significant roles social capital and education play in curbing debris pollution. Understanding the socioeconomic drivers of marine debris is an important first step in informing abatement policy and allocation of resources by public agencies to address the marine pollution problem.


Asunto(s)
Monitoreo del Ambiente , Factores Socioeconómicos , Residuos Sólidos , Residuos , Contaminantes del Agua , América del Norte , Océanos y Mares
20.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238214, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32946442

RESUMEN

Brazil detected community transmission of COVID-19 on March 13, 2020. In this study we identified which areas in the country were the most vulnerable for COVID-19, both in terms of the risk of arrival of cases, the risk of sustained transmission and their social vulnerability. Probabilistic models were used to calculate the probability of COVID-19 spread from São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, the initial hotspots, using mobility data from the pre-epidemic period, while multivariate cluster analysis of socio-economic indices was done to identify areas with similar social vulnerability. The results consist of a series of maps of effective distance, outbreak probability, hospital capacity and social vulnerability. They show areas in the North and Northeast with high risk of COVID-19 outbreak that are also highly socially vulnerable. Later, these areas would be found the most severely affected. The maps produced were sent to health authorities to aid in their efforts to prioritize actions such as resource allocation to mitigate the effects of the pandemic. In the discussion, we address how predictions compared to the observed dynamics of the disease.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Modelos Teóricos , Morbilidad/tendencias , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Brasil/epidemiología , Análisis por Conglomerados , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Brotes de Enfermedades/estadística & datos numéricos , Predicción/métodos , Humanos , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Factores Socioeconómicos
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