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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(35): e27115, 2021 Sep 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34477153

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT: Gallbladder polyps (GBPs), especially GBPs ≥5 mm in diameter, are clinically important because they can progress to gallbladder cancer. The known modifiable risk factors for GBP are obesity, metabolic syndrome, and dyslipidemia; however, there is limited evidence regarding specific modifiable risk factors for GBPs ≥5 mm in diameter. Therefore, this study is aimed to investigate the existence of modifiable risk factors affecting the prevalence of GBPs and GBPs ≥5 mm in diameter in a Korean population.A total of 10,119 subjects who visited a single health-screening center at Jeju National University Hospital between January 2009 and December 2019 was included in this study. Binary logistic analyses were performed to identify risk factors affecting the prevalence of GBPs and GBPs ≥5 mm in diameter.The overall prevalence of GBPs and GBPs ≥5 mm in diameter were 9.0% and 4.1%, respectively. Multivariable analysis identified male gender as an independent risk factor affecting the prevalence of GBPs. Moreover, multivariable analysis revealed age and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels as independent risk factors for GBPs ≥5 mm in diameter.This study showed that gender was a risk factor affecting the prevalence of GBPs and that age and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels were risk factors for the presence of GBPs ≥5 mm in diameter. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels could be a modifiable risk factor affecting the prevalence of large-diameter GBPs.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de la Vesícula Biliar/epidemiología , Pólipos/epidemiología , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Vesícula Biliar/patología , Enfermedades de la Vesícula Biliar/patología , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pólipos/patología , Prevalencia , República de Corea/epidemiología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Factores Sexuales
2.
J Glob Health ; 11: 13004, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34484711

RESUMEN

Objective: Early marriage and childbearing have substantial detrimental effects on both, the affected girls and women at the micro level, as well as entire economies on the macro level. West and Central African countries have some of the highest prevalence rates of early marriage and maternity worldwide. This work attempts to quantify the long-term economic, societal, and fertility effects of marriage and pregnancy in early and late adolescence in West and Central Africa. Methods: We used pooled cross-sectional data collected between 1986 and 2017 in 21 West and Central African countries within the DHS and MICS programs to estimate the associations of marriage and maternity during early (10-14) and late (15-19) adolescence retrospectively on wealth accumulation, educational attainment, as well as the woman's lifetime fertility. Results: Descriptively, women who married or gave birth as young or very young adolescents are overrepresented among the poorest and least educated quintiles of the adult population and underrepresented among the richest and most educated. These gradients were confirmed within a regression analysis which additionally controlled for current age of the woman and PSU fixed effects. Marrying in early/late adolescence was associated with a 12%/6% higher likelihood of being in the poorest wealth quintile in later life and 29%/20% increased likelihood of not completing primary education, as compared to women who married as adults. Maternity in early/late adolescence was associated with a 7%/4% higher likelihood of belonging to the poorest quintile and 17%/10% higher likelihood of being uneducated. Moreover, women who married/gave birth during early or late adolescence, on average, have 2.2/2.3 or 1.4/1.5 more children than those who have married/become mothers as adults. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the dire consequences of early marriage and maternity hit youngest girls the hardest - both immediately and long-term. Hence, it is not only worthwhile to prevent adolescent marriage and pregnancy in general, but also specifically target very young girls below age 15 to attempt to at least delay such far-reaching demographic life events.


Asunto(s)
Fertilidad , Matrimonio , Adolescente , Adulto , África Central , Factores de Edad , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Escolaridad , Femenino , Humanos , Embarazo , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores Socioeconómicos
3.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34486864

RESUMEN

The characteristics of development of vascular lines are important for development and improvement of of surgical treatment, decreasing risk of complications and development of personalized approach to treatment of patients. The purpose of the study is to reveal prevalence of different variants of development of common carotid artery bifurcation and to assess their significance for clinical medicine. The sample included 70 volunteers of average age 43.4 ± 10.7 years. The 3D reconstructions of MRI data 1.5 T Brivo 355 were evaluated. The observation data was grouped and processed using software Microsoft Excel 2007 and IBM SPSS Statistics 20. To summarize the data, 5 main variants of location of great vessels were identified. The most rare types of development and course of carotid arteries in bifurcation area were variants "II" and "III" (8.2% of all observations). The most common development options were "I" (51.4%) and "IV" (31.4%). The variants "I" and "IV" were determined relatively evenly.The variants "II" and "III" were found on the right in 60% and 66.7% correspondingly and "V" option was found on the left in 61.5%. The typical options of location of carotid arteries near the bifurcation (variants "I" and "IV"), 82.8% in total. The cases of ventral position of external carotid artery (variants "II" and "V") were established in 12.9%. The variant III was found in 4.3% of all cases. The distribution of vascular development options depending on the gender of patients was investigated. The study did not reveal significantly pronounced deviations in distribution of variants of vascular development, taking into account the age factor. The mentioned data permits to judge with confidence about necessity of developing personalized treatment of diseases of carotid arteries, considering their anatomical features of development in bifurcation area.


Asunto(s)
Arterias Carótidas , Vasos Coronarios , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Vasos Coronarios/diagnóstico por imagen , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad
4.
BMJ ; 374: n1593, 2021 08 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465575

RESUMEN

Age is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. With the accelerated growth of the population of older adults, geriatric and cardiac care are becoming increasingly entwined. Although cardiovascular disease in younger adults often occurs as an isolated problem, it is more likely to occur in combination with clinical challenges related to age in older patients. Management of cardiovascular disease is transmuted by the context of multimorbidity, frailty, polypharmacy, cognitive dysfunction, functional decline, and other complexities of age. This means that additional insight and skills are needed to manage a broader range of relevant problems in older patients with cardiovascular disease. This review covers geriatric conditions that are relevant when treating older adults with cardiovascular disease, particularly management considerations. Traditional practice guidelines are generally well suited for robust older adults, but many others benefit from a relatively more personalized therapeutic approach that allows for a range of medical circumstances and idiosyncratic goals of care. This requires weighing of risks and benefits amidst the patient's aggregate clinical status and the ability to communicate effectively about this with patients and, where appropriate, their care givers in a process of shared decision making. Such a personalized approach can be particularly gratifying, as it provides opportunities to optimize an older patient's function and quality of life at a time in life when these often become foremost therapeutic priorities.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/terapia , Toma de Decisiones Conjunta , Factores de Edad , Servicios de Salud para Ancianos , Humanos , Factores de Riesgo
5.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5276, 2021 09 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34489429

RESUMEN

A promise of genomics in precision medicine is to provide individualized genetic risk predictions. Polygenic risk scores (PRS), computed by aggregating effects from many genomic variants, have been developed as a useful tool in complex disease research. However, the application of PRS as a tool for predicting an individual's disease susceptibility in a clinical setting is challenging because PRS typically provide a relative measure of risk evaluated at the level of a group of people but not at individual level. Here, we introduce a machine-learning technique, Mondrian Cross-Conformal Prediction (MCCP), to estimate the confidence bounds of PRS-to-disease-risk prediction. MCCP can report disease status conditional probability value for each individual and give a prediction at a desired error level. Moreover, with a user-defined prediction error rate, MCCP can estimate the proportion of sample (coverage) with a correct prediction.


Asunto(s)
Predisposición Genética a la Enfermedad/genética , Aprendizaje Automático , Herencia Multifactorial/genética , Factores de Edad , Bancos de Muestras Biológicas , Neoplasias de la Mama/genética , Enfermedad de la Arteria Coronaria/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Femenino , Humanos , Enfermedades Inflamatorias del Intestino/genética , Masculino , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Esquizofrenia/genética , Suecia , Reino Unido
6.
Ann Med ; 53(1): 1642-1645, 2021 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34511013

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To compare patients with DKA, hyperglycaemic hyperosmolar syndrome (HHS), or mixed DKA-HHS and COVID-19 [COVID (+)] to COVID-19-negative (-) [COVID (-)] patients with DKA/HHS from a low-income, racially/ethnically diverse catchment area. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with patients admitted to an urban academic medical center between 1 March and 30 July 2020. Eligible patients met lab criteria for either DKA or HHS. Mixed DKA-HHS was defined as meeting all criteria for either DKA or HHS with at least 1 criterion for the other diagnosis. RESULTS: A total of 82 participants were stratified by COVID-19 status and type of hyperglycaemic crisis [26 COVID (+) and 56 COVID (-)]. A majority were either Black or Hispanic. Compared with COVID (-) patients, COVID (+) patients were older, more Hispanic and more likely to have type 2 diabetes (T2D, 73% vs 48%, p < .01). COVID(+) patients had a higher mean pH (7.25 ± 0.10 vs 7.16 ± 0.16, p < .01) and lower anion gap (18.7 ± 5.7 vs 22.7 ± 6.9, p = .01) than COVID (-) patients. COVID (+) patients were given less intravenous fluids in the first 24 h (2.8 ± 1.9 vs 4.2 ± 2.4 L, p = .01) and were more likely to receive glucocorticoids (95% vs. 11%, p < .01). COVID (+) patients may have taken longer to resolve their hyperglycaemic crisis (53.3 ± 64.8 vs 28.8 ± 27.5 h, p = .09) and may have experienced more hypoglycaemia <3.9 mmol/L (35% vs 19%, p = .09). COVID (+) patients had a higher length of hospital stay (LOS, 14.8 ± 14.9 vs 6.5 ± 6.0 days, p = .01) and in-hospital mortality (27% vs 7%, p = .02). DISCUSSION: Compared with COVID (-) patients, COVID (+) patients with DKA/HHS are more likely to have T2D. Despite less severe metabolic acidosis, COVID (+) patients may require more time to resolve the hyperglycaemic crisis and experience more hypoglycaemia while suffering greater LOS and risk of mortality. Larger studies are needed to examine whether differences in management between COVID (+) and (-) patients affect outcomes with DKA/HHS.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/complicaciones , Cetoacidosis Diabética/complicaciones , Coma Hiperglucémico Hiperosmolar no Cetósico/complicaciones , Equilibrio Ácido-Base , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Anciano , COVID-19/sangre , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/terapia , Comorbilidad , Estudios Transversales , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiología , Cetoacidosis Diabética/sangre , Femenino , Fluidoterapia , Glucocorticoides/uso terapéutico , Humanos , Concentración de Iones de Hidrógeno , Coma Hiperglucémico Hiperosmolar no Cetósico/sangre , Tiempo de Internación , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , SARS-CoV-2 , Proveedores de Redes de Seguridad
7.
Psychol Aging ; 36(6): 752-766, 2021 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34516176

RESUMEN

Views on aging (VoA) are meaningful predictors of well-being, health, cognitive impairment, and mortality. One underlying pathway could be that negative VoA promote perceived stress. However, little is known about the role of stress perceptions as an antecedent of personal VoA. In this study, we therefore investigated the longitudinal reciprocal association between perceived stress and three established constructs representing personal VoA: (a) subjective age; (b) attitude toward own aging (ATOA); and (c) aging-related cognitions comprising social loss, physical decline, and continuous growth. We also examined whether these associations are moderated by chronological age. Two adjacent measurement occasions (2014 and 2017) of the German Ageing Survey with 4,588 individuals aged between 40 and 95 years were analyzed. Cross-lagged models controlling for VoA and perceived stress at baseline, chronological age, subjective health, depressive symptoms, education, gender, region of residence, and year of individual study entry revealed significant reciprocal longitudinal relations between VoA and perceived stress. For three of the five VoA indicators, the pathway from perceived stress to subsequent VoA was of the same magnitude as the reversed pathway. With increasing chronological age, ATOA was less strongly associated with subsequent stress perceptions. Moreover, the impact of higher perceived stress on an older subjective age was weaker with advancing age. In conclusion, the trend in prior subjective aging research to conceptualize stress in midlife and old age exclusively as a consequence of VoA needs reconsideration, as higher perceived stress levels also seem to be a risk factor for less favorable personal VoA. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Envejecimiento/psicología , Actitud , Cognición , Estrés Psicológico , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad
8.
Isr Med Assoc J ; 23(9): 580-583, 2021 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34472234

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Oral anticoagulants (OAC) reduce the risk for stroke and death from all causes in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF). OBJECTIVES: To explore adherence rates of OAC among patients with NVAF in long-term use in a real-world setting and to examine patient characteristics associated with good adherence. METHODS: We conducted a population-based cohort study with members of Clalit Health Services, Israel. All patients aged ≥ 30 years with a diagnosis of NVAF before 2016 who were treated with OAC were included. We included patients who filled at least one prescription per year in the three consecutive years 2016-2018. We analyzed all prescriptions that were filled for the medications from 1 January 2017 to 31 December 2017. We considered purchasing of at least nine monthly prescriptions during 2017 as good medication adherence. RESULTS: We identified 26,029 patients with NVAF who were treated with OAC; 10,284 (39.5%) were treated with apixaban, 6321 (24.3%) with warfarin, 6290 (24.1%) with rivaroxaban, and 3134 (12.0%) with dabigatran. Rates of good medication adherence were 88.9% for rivaroxaban, 84.9% for apixaban, 83.6% for dabigatran, and 55.8% for warfarin (P < 0.0001). Advanced age was associated with higher adherence rates (P < 0.001). Socioeconomic status was not associated with medication adherence. Good adherence with OAC was associated with lower low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and glucose levels. CONCLUSIONS: Adherence rates to OAC in chronic use among patients with chronic NAVF are high. Investing in OAC adherence may have a wider health impact than expected.


Asunto(s)
Anticoagulantes/administración & dosificación , Fibrilación Atrial/tratamiento farmacológico , Cumplimiento de la Medicación , Accidente Cerebrovascular/prevención & control , Administración Oral , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Fibrilación Atrial/complicaciones , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Humanos , Israel , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Accidente Cerebrovascular/etiología
9.
Psychol Aging ; 36(6): 694-699, 2021 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34516173

RESUMEN

The initial phase of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic changed our lives dramatically, with stay-at-home orders and extreme physical distancing requirements. The present study suggests that how adults remember these disruptions depends, in part, on their age. In two surveys collected from American and Canadian participants during Summer 2020 (n = 551) and Fall 2020 (n = 506), older age (across ages 18-90 years) was associated with greater reflections on positive aspects of the initial phase of the pandemic. While the pandemic is a shared experience, the way it is remembered may differ across generations, with older age leading to a greater focus on the positive aspects. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Envejecimiento , COVID-19 , Recuerdo Mental , Pandemias , Adolescente , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Envejecimiento/psicología , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/psicología , Canadá/epidemiología , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
10.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34521168

RESUMEN

Objective: To evaluate the value of the age-adjusted Charlson comorbidity Index (ACCI) in predicting the prognosis and guiding the clinical treatment of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) in patients over 60 years old. Methods: Retrospective analysis of 249 cases of LSCC in Shanxi Provincial Cancer Hospital and First Hospital of Shanxi Medical University from 2008 to 2015 was performed. There were 234 males and 15 females, aged from 60 to 88 years. The clinical characteristics, treatment information and follow-up data were collected. ACCI was used to score the comorbidities of the patients. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was drawn and the patients were divided into high ACCI group and low ACCI group according to the cut-off value of ACCI. Prognostic factors were analyzed. Kaplan-Meier method was used for survival analysis, rank sum test was used for comparison between groups, χ2 test was used for enumeration data. Results: Overall survival (OS) was 54.6%, progression-free survival (PFS) was 59.4%, and cancer-specific survival (CSS) was 58.6%. Both the median survival time and PFS time were 60 months. The best cutoff point of the ACCI group was 5. Cox multivariate analysis showed that ACCI was an independent risk factor for OS, PFS and CSS (OR=1.553, 1.499 and 1.534,respectively, all P<0.05). In the high ACCI group, OS (χ2=4.120 and 4.115,P<0.05) and CSS (χ2=4.510 and 5.009,P<0.05) of patients treated with surgery plus radiotherapy and patients with radiotherapy alone were better than those of patients with surgery alone (P<0.05). But in the low ACCI group, there was no significant difference in prognosis among the three treatment regimens (P>0.05). Conclusion: High ACCI offors important prognostic information for LSCC in patients over 60 years old, and can guide clinical treatment options.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de Cabeza y Cuello , Factores de Edad , Comorbilidad , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pronóstico , Estudios Retrospectivos , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeza y Cuello
11.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5251, 2021 09 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34475392

RESUMEN

DNA methylation (DNAm) is an epigenetic regulator of gene expression and a hallmark of gene-environment interaction. Using whole-genome bisulfite sequencing, we have surveyed DNAm in 344 samples of human postmortem brain tissue from neurotypical subjects and individuals with schizophrenia. We identify genetic influence on local methylation levels throughout the genome, both at CpG sites and CpH sites, with 86% of SNPs and 55% of CpGs being part of methylation quantitative trait loci (meQTLs). These associations can further be clustered into regions that are differentially methylated by a given SNP, highlighting the genes and regions with which these loci are epigenetically associated. These findings can be used to better characterize schizophrenia GWAS-identified variants as epigenetic risk variants. Regions differentially methylated by schizophrenia risk-SNPs explain much of the heritability associated with risk loci, despite covering only a fraction of the genomic space. We provide a comprehensive, single base resolution view of association between genetic variation and genomic methylation, and implicate schizophrenia GWAS-associated variants as influencing the epigenetic plasticity of the brain.


Asunto(s)
Metilación de ADN , Genoma Humano , Sitios de Carácter Cuantitativo/genética , Esquizofrenia/genética , Factores de Edad , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/patología , Islas de CpG/genética , Epigénesis Genética , Predisposición Genética a la Enfermedad/genética , Variación Genética , Estudio de Asociación del Genoma Completo , Genotipo , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple
12.
J Res Health Sci ; 21(2): e00512, 2021 May 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465636

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to analyze the demographic and epidemiological features of identified COVID-19 cases in Kazakhstan. STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. METHODS: This cross-sectional study aimed to analyze COVID-19 cases (n=5116) collected from March 13 to June 6, 2020, in Kazakhstan. The data were obtained from a state official medical electronic database. The study investigated the geographic and demographic data of patients as well as the association of COVID-19 cases with gender and age. The prevalence of symptoms, the presence of comorbidities, complications, and COVID-19 mortality were determined for all patients. RESULTS: The mean±SD age of the patients in this study was 34.8±17.6 years, and the majority (55.7%) of COVID-19 cases were male and residents of cities (79.6%). In total, 80% of the cases had the asymptomatic/mild form of the disease. Cough (20.8 %) and sore throat (17.1%) were the most common symptoms among patients, and pneumonia was diagnosed in 1 out of 5 cases. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) was recorded in 1.2% of the patients. The fatality rate was 1% in the study population and lethality was 2.6 times higher in males compared to females.  Each additional year in age increased the probability of COVID-19 infection by 1.06 times. The presence of cardiovascular, diabetes, respiratory, and kidney diseases affected the rate of mortality (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: The results demonstrated a high proportion (40%) of the asymptomatic type of coronavirus infection in the Kazakhstan population. The severity of COVID-19 symptoms and lethality were directly related to the age of patients and the presence of comorbidities.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Portador Sano/virología , Tos/etiología , Pandemias , Faringitis/etiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Anciano , COVID-19/complicaciones , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/mortalidad , COVID-19/virología , Portador Sano/epidemiología , Niño , Comorbilidad , Tos/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Kazajstán/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Faringitis/epidemiología , Neumonía/epidemiología , Neumonía/etiología , Síndrome de Dificultad Respiratoria/epidemiología , Síndrome de Dificultad Respiratoria/etiología , Estudios Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Factores Sexuales , Adulto Joven
13.
J Res Health Sci ; 21(2): e00515, 2021 Apr 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465638

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a contagious disease caused by a newly identified coronavirus. Our knowledge about the survival rate and prognostic factors of the disease is not established well. Therefore, this study aimed to identify the risk factors associated with the survival of COVID-19 cases in Hamadan province, West of Iran. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study METHODS: This retrospective cohort study was performed in Hamadan province, West of Iran. The study included patients that referred to the provincial hospitals from February 20 to September 20, 2020. The follow-up of each subject was calculated from the date of onset of respiratory symptoms to the date of death. Demographic and clinical characteristics were extracted from patients' medical records. Kaplan-Meier method, Flemington-Harrington test, and Cox regression were used for data analysis. RESULTS: The overall 1, 5, 10, 20, 30 and 49-day survival rates were estimated at 99.57%, 95.61%, 91.15%, 87.34%, 86.91%, and 86.74%, respectively. Furthermore, survival time showed a significant association with age, gender, history of traveling to contaminated areas, co-morbidity, neoplasms, chronic diseases, and hospital units. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, elderly people, male gender, and comorbidities presented a greater risk of death. Therefore, it is important to pay more attention to this group of people to reduce the incidence and consequences after infection.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/mortalidad , Enfermedad Crónica/epidemiología , Hospitalización , Neoplasias/epidemiología , Pandemias , Viaje , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Anciano , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/epidemiología , Comorbilidad , Mortalidad Hospitalaria , Hospitales , Humanos , Irán/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pronóstico , Sistema de Registros , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , SARS-CoV-2 , Factores Sexuales , Análisis de Supervivencia , Tasa de Supervivencia
14.
J Res Health Sci ; 21(2): e00518, 2021 Apr 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465641

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: This study aimed at assessing how population density (PD), aging index (AI), use of public transport (URPT), and PM10 concentration (PI) modulated the trajectory of the main COVID-19 pandemic outcomes in Italy, also in the recrudescence phase of the epidemic. STUDY DESIGN: Ecological study. METHODS: For each region, we recovered data about cases, deaths, and case fatality rate (CFR) recorded since both the beginning of the epidemic and September 1, 2020. Data about total hospitalizations were included as well. RESULTS: PD correlated with, and was the best predictor of, total and partial cases, total and partial deaths, and total hospitalizations. Moreover, URPT correlated with, and was the best predictor of, total CFR. Besides, PI correlated significantly with total and partial cases, total and partial deaths, and total hospitalizations. CONCLUSION: PD explains COVID-19 morbidity, mortality, and severity while URPT is the best predictor of disease lethality. These findings should be interpreted with caution due to the ecological fallacy.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/mortalidad , Hospitalización , Pandemias , Densidad de Población , Transportes , Factores de Edad , Contaminación del Aire/efectos adversos , COVID-19/epidemiología , Ambiente , Humanos , Italia , Tamaño de la Partícula , Recurrencia , Factores de Riesgo , SARS-CoV-2 , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad
17.
An. psicol ; 37(2): 393-402, mayo-sept. 2021. tab, graf
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-202562

RESUMEN

Professional drivers often have problems sleeping or resting properly. This may be due to various factors, both personal and specific to their working conditions. In this study, we set out to develop a predictive model for the quality of sleep in professional drivers using the following indicators: Age, Gender, Seat Comfort, Seat Suspension, Adjustable Lum-bar Support of the Driver's Seat, Driving Hours, Musculoskeletal Problems, Driver Stress, Irritation, Resistant Personality, Burnout, Safety Behaviors and Impulsivity. METHOD: The participants were 369 professional drivers from different transport sectors, obtained through non-probabilistic sampling. The SPSS 25.0 program was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: The predictive capacity of certain variables that affect drivers' sleep quality is determined. CONCLUSIONS: Sleep quality can be predicted by means of certain variables, the best predictor of which is Exhaustion (Burnout). This research contributes to the body of knowledge on sleep quality and on improving the health of professional drivers


Los conductores profesionales suelen padecer problemas para dormir o descansar correctamente. Esto puede deberse a diversos factores tanto personales como específicos de las condiciones laborales. En el presente trabajo nos hemos planteado desarrollar un modelo predictivo sobre la calidad del sueño en conductores profesionales utilizando los indicadores siguientes: Edad, Género, Confort del asiento, suspensión del asiento, Soporte lumbar ajustable del asiento del conductor, Horas de conducción, Problemas musculoesqueléticos, Drivers Stress, Irritación, Personalidad resistente, Burnout, conductas de seguridad e Impulsividad. MÉTODO: Los participantes han sido 369 conductores profesionales, de distintos sectores del transporte, obtenidos mediante un muestreo no probabilístico. Se han utilizado el programa SPSS 25.0. RESULTADOS: Se determina la capacidad predictiva de algunas variables que afectan a los conductores sobre la calidad del sueño. CONCLUSIONES: La calidad del sueño se puede predecir a través de determinadas variables, siendo la mejor predictora Exhaustion (Burnout). Esta investigación contribuye a un mayor conocimiento de la calidad del sueño y a la mejora de la salud de los conductores profesionales


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Conducción de Automóvil/psicología , Sueño/fisiología , Salud Laboral , Agotamiento Profesional/psicología , Conducta Impulsiva , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Valores de Referencia , Análisis de Regresión , Factores Sexuales , Factores de Edad , Condiciones de Trabajo , Factores de Tiempo
18.
Law Hum Behav ; 45(3): 243-255, 2021 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34351206

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Although researchers, policymakers, and practitioners recognize the importance of the public's perceptions of police, few studies have examined developmental trends in adolescents and young adults' views of police. HYPOTHESES: Hypothesis 1: Perceptions of police legitimacy would exhibit a U-shaped curve, declining in adolescence before improving in young adulthood. Hypothesis 2: At all ages, Black youth would report more negative perceptions of police legitimacy than Latino youth, who would report more negative perceptions than White youth. Hypothesis 3: Perceptions of police bias would be consistently associated with worse perceptions of police legitimacy. METHOD: Utilizing longitudinal data from the Crossroads Study, this study examined within-person trends in males' perceptions of police legitimacy from ages 13 to 22, as well as whether perceptions of police bias were associated with perceptions of police legitimacy. RESULTS: Perceptions of police legitimacy followed a U-shaped curve that declined during adolescence, reached its lowest point around age 18, and improved during the transition to young adulthood. Compared with White youth, Latino and Black youth had shallower curves in perceptions of police legitimacy that exhibited less improvement during the transition to adulthood. Further, perceptions of police bias were consistently associated with more negative perceptions of police legitimacy across races and ages. CONCLUSIONS: While perceptions of police legitimacy may decline during adolescence before improving during the transition to adulthood, perceptions of police bias are consistently negatively related to youth and young adults' perceptions of police legitimacy. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Africana/psicología , Actitud/etnología , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea/psicología , Hispanoamericanos/psicología , Percepción , Policia , Racismo/etnología , Adolescente , Factores de Edad , Humanos , Aplicación de la Ley , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Estados Unidos/etnología , Adulto Joven
19.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 393, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34381537

RESUMEN

Introduction: the relationship between asthma control and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in adult asthmatics is fairly established, but the unique contribution of atopy to this relationship has received less attention. The aim of this study was to quantify the contribution of atopy to this relationship. Methods: in a cross-sectional study, we assessed HRQoL using mini-Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (AQLQ). Asthma control, atopy and lung function were assessed using the Asthma Control Test (ACT), skin prick test and spirometry respectively. Hierarchical multiple regression was used to examine the association between of HRQol and asthma control, atopy and other clinical and demographical factors. Results: eighty-two adult asthmatics (59 females), with median age of 44 years and median duration of asthma of 15 years were recruited from a tertiary hospital. Fifty-two (63%) were classified as atopic based on sensitization to at least one aeroallergen. The atopic individuals were younger and had better quality of life in activity domain; however, there was no significant difference between the atopic and non-atopic asthmatics in ACT score (19.0 vs 18.0) p=0.91, total AQLQ score (4.9 vs 4.6) p=0.22. The ACT scores correlated positively with total AQLQ scores [rho= 0.53, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.35, 0.67; p< 0.001]. However, atopy contributed significantly to the emotional domain of HRQoL score, p=0.028. Conclusion: we concluded that better asthma control is associated with better quality of life and atopy contributed uniquely to emotional domain in health-related quality of life.


Asunto(s)
Alérgenos/inmunología , Asma/fisiopatología , Hipersensibilidad/inmunología , Calidad de Vida , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Asma/inmunología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Nigeria , Pruebas Cutáneas , Espirometría , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
20.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4813, 2021 08 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34376664

RESUMEN

Differences in immune responses to viruses and autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) can show sexual dimorphism. Age-associated B cells (ABC) are a population of CD11c+T-bet+ B cells critical for antiviral responses and autoimmune disorders. Absence of DEF6 and SWAP-70, two homologous guanine exchange factors, in double-knock-out (DKO) mice leads to a lupus-like syndrome in females marked by accumulation of ABCs. Here we demonstrate that DKO ABCs show sex-specific differences in cell number, upregulation of an ISG signature, and further differentiation. DKO ABCs undergo oligoclonal expansion and differentiate into both CD11c+ and CD11c- effector B cell populations with pathogenic and pro-inflammatory function as demonstrated by BCR sequencing and fate-mapping experiments. Tlr7 duplication in DKO males overrides the sex-bias and further augments the dissemination and pathogenicity of ABCs, resulting in severe pulmonary inflammation and early mortality. Thus, sexual dimorphism shapes the expansion, function and differentiation of ABCs that accompanies TLR7-driven immunopathogenesis.


Asunto(s)
Envejecimiento/inmunología , Linfocitos B/inmunología , Diferenciación Celular/inmunología , Lupus Eritematoso Sistémico/inmunología , Factores de Edad , Envejecimiento/genética , Animales , Linfocitos B/citología , Linfocitos B/metabolismo , Antígeno CD11c/inmunología , Antígeno CD11c/metabolismo , Diferenciación Celular/genética , Células Cultivadas , Proteínas de Unión al ADN/genética , Proteínas de Unión al ADN/inmunología , Proteínas de Unión al ADN/metabolismo , Femenino , Factores de Intercambio de Guanina Nucleótido/genética , Factores de Intercambio de Guanina Nucleótido/inmunología , Factores de Intercambio de Guanina Nucleótido/metabolismo , Estimación de Kaplan-Meier , Lupus Eritematoso Sistémico/genética , Lupus Eritematoso Sistémico/metabolismo , Masculino , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Ratones Noqueados , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidad Menor/genética , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidad Menor/inmunología , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidad Menor/metabolismo , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/inmunología , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Factores Sexuales , Proteínas de Dominio T Box/inmunología , Proteínas de Dominio T Box/metabolismo
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