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1.
Afr J Prim Health Care Fam Med ; 16(1): e1-e9, 2024 Apr 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38708726

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND:  Chronic diseases tend to affect the quality of life for older persons worldwide, especially in resource-constrained developing countries. Chronic diseases contribute to a large number of deaths among the population of South Africa. AIM:  This study examines the determinants of self-reported chronic disease diagnoses among older persons in South Africa. SETTING:  The study setting was South Africa. METHODS:  Cross-sectional data from the 2019 South Africa General Household Survey were analysed (n [weighted] = 4 887 334). We fitted a binary logistic regression model to determine the relationship between socio-demographic factors and being diagnosed with self-reported chronic diseases. RESULTS:  We found that at least 5 in 10 older persons were diagnosed with self-reported chronic disease. The bivariate findings showed that age, population group, sex, marital status, level of education, disability status, household composition and province were significantly associated with self-reported chronic disease diagnoses. At the multivariate level, we found that age, sex, population group, marital status, educational level, disability status, household wealth status, household composition and province were key predictors of self-reported chronic disease diagnoses. CONCLUSION:  We found that various factors were key determinants of being diagnosed with self-reported chronic diseases. This study offers important insights into the main correlations between older adults and self-reported chronic illness diagnoses. More study is required on the health of the elderly as it will help direct policy discussions and improve the development of health policies about the elderly.Contribution: This study highlights the need for a better understanding of, and continued research into, the determinants health among older populations to guide future healthcare strategies.


Asunto(s)
Autoinforme , Humanos , Sudáfrica/epidemiología , Masculino , Femenino , Anciano , Enfermedad Crónica/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Factores Socioeconómicos , Modelos Logísticos , Factores de Edad
2.
Trends Hear ; 28: 23312165241253653, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38715401

RESUMEN

This study aimed to preliminarily investigate the associations between performance on the integrated Digit-in-Noise Test (iDIN) and performance on measures of general cognition and working memory (WM). The study recruited 81 older adult hearing aid users between 60 and 95 years of age with bilateral moderate to severe hearing loss. The Chinese version of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment Basic (MoCA-BC) was used to screen older adults for mild cognitive impairment. Speech reception thresholds (SRTs) were measured using 2- to 5-digit sequences of the Mandarin iDIN. The differences in SRT between five-digit and two-digit sequences (SRT5-2), and between five-digit and three-digit sequences (SRT5-3), were used as indicators of memory performance. The results were compared to those from the Digit Span Test and Corsi Blocks Tapping Test, which evaluate WM and attention capacity. SRT5-2 and SRT5-3 demonstrated significant correlations with the three cognitive function tests (rs ranging from -.705 to -.528). Furthermore, SRT5-2 and SRT5-3 were significantly higher in participants who failed the MoCA-BC screening compared to those who passed. The findings show associations between performance on the iDIN and performance on memory tests. However, further validation and exploration are needed to fully establish its effectiveness and efficacy.


Asunto(s)
Cognición , Disfunción Cognitiva , Audífonos , Memoria a Corto Plazo , Humanos , Anciano , Femenino , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Memoria a Corto Plazo/fisiología , Disfunción Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Ruido/efectos adversos , Percepción del Habla/fisiología , Prueba del Umbral de Recepción del Habla , Factores de Edad , Personas con Deficiencia Auditiva/psicología , Personas con Deficiencia Auditiva/rehabilitación , Pérdida Auditiva/rehabilitación , Pérdida Auditiva/diagnóstico , Pérdida Auditiva/psicología , Pruebas de Estado Mental y Demencia , Memoria , Estimulación Acústica , Valor Predictivo de las Pruebas , Corrección de Deficiencia Auditiva/instrumentación , Umbral Auditivo
3.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 70(4): e2023075, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38716931

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: History, electrocardiogram, age, risk factors, troponin risk score and troponin level follow-up are used to safely discharge low-risk patients with suspected non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome from the emergency department for a 1-month period. We aimed to comprehensively investigate the 6-month mortality of patients with the history, electrocardiogram, age, risk factors, troponin risk score. METHODS: A total of 949 non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome patients admitted to the emergency department from 01.01.2019 to 01.10.2019 were included in this retrospective study. History, electrocardiogram, age, risk factors, troponin scores of all patients were calculated by two emergency clinicians and a cardiologist. We compared the 6-month mortality of the groups. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 67.9 (56.4-79) years; 57.3% were male and 42.7% were female. Six-month mortality was significantly lower in the high-risk history, electrocardiogram, age, risk factors, troponin score group than in the low- and moderate-risk groups: 11/80 (12.1%), 58/206 (22%), and 150/444 (25.3%), respectively (p=0.019). CONCLUSION: Patients with high history, electrocardiogram, age, risk factors, troponin risk scores are generally treated with coronary angioplasty as soon as possible. We found that the mortality rate of this group of patients was lower in the long term compared with others. Efforts are also needed to reduce the mortality of moderate and low-risk patients. Further studies are needed on the factors affecting the 6-month mortality of moderate and low-risk acute coronary syndrome patients.


Asunto(s)
Síndrome Coronario Agudo , Electrocardiografía , Troponina , Humanos , Femenino , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Retrospectivos , Anciano , Síndrome Coronario Agudo/mortalidad , Síndrome Coronario Agudo/sangre , Factores de Riesgo , Troponina/sangre , Medición de Riesgo/métodos , Factores de Edad , Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital/estadística & datos numéricos , Factores de Tiempo , Biomarcadores/sangre , Anamnesis
4.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 70(4): e20231368, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38716947

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The study evaluated the opinions of polycystic ovary syndrome on the life quality of women. METHODS: A total of 249 women with polycystic ovary syndrome participated in this descriptive study between October 2022 and July 2023 in Istanbul, Turkey. FINDINGS: Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Quality of Life was significantly correlated with age (p=0.000) and frequent weight loss diets (p=0.000) (p<0.01). Among the Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Quality of Life total score and polycystic ovary syndrome symptoms, those with hormone imbalance and insulin resistance had the highest mean scores, while those with menstrual irregularity and fatigue had the lowest. CONCLUSION: Advancing age changes the quality of life of women with polycystic ovary syndrome. To prevent the negative impact of polycystic ovary syndrome on women's quality of life, it is recommended that health professionals develop effective care plans utilizing available evidence.


Asunto(s)
Síndrome del Ovario Poliquístico , Calidad de Vida , Humanos , Síndrome del Ovario Poliquístico/psicología , Síndrome del Ovario Poliquístico/fisiopatología , Síndrome del Ovario Poliquístico/complicaciones , Femenino , Adulto , Adulto Joven , Turquía , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adolescente , Factores de Edad , Resistencia a la Insulina/fisiología , Índice de Masa Corporal
5.
Int J Circumpolar Health ; 83(1): 2341988, 2024 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38718274

RESUMEN

Many people with diabetes mellitus experience minimal or no complications. Our objective was to determine the proportion of Alaska Native people who experienced four major complications or mortality and to identify factors that may be associated with these outcomes. We used records in a diabetes registry and clinical and demographic variables in our analyses. We used logistic regression and Cox Proportional Hazards models to evaluate associations of these parameters with death and complications that occurred prior to 2013. The study included 591 Alaska Native people with non-type 1 diabetes mellitus, diagnosed between 1986 and 1992. Over 60% of people in this study remained free of four major diabetes-related complications for the remainder of life or throughout the approximately 20-year study period. Lower BMI, higher age at diagnosis of diabetes, and use of at least one diabetes medication were associated with death and a composite of four complications. A majority of Alaska Native people with DM had none of four major complications over a 20-year period. Lower BMI and use of diabetes medications were associated with higher hazard for some deleterious outcomes. This suggests that goals in care of elders should be carefully individualised. In addition, we discuss several programme factors that we believe contributed to favourable outcomes.


Asunto(s)
Nativos Alasqueños , Complicaciones de la Diabetes , Diabetes Mellitus , Humanos , Alaska/epidemiología , Masculino , Femenino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Nativos Alasqueños/estadística & datos numéricos , Anciano , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiología , Diabetes Mellitus/etnología , Complicaciones de la Diabetes/epidemiología , Complicaciones de la Diabetes/etnología , Adulto , Índice de Masa Corporal , Modelos de Riesgos Proporcionales , Modelos Logísticos , Factores de Edad , Adulto Joven
6.
Syst Rev ; 13(1): 124, 2024 May 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38720357

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Psychosocial approaches are the first-line treatments for cocaine dependence, although they still present high dropout and relapse rates. Thus, there is a pressing need to understand which variables influence treatment outcomes to improve current treatments and prevent dropout and relapse rates. The aim of this study is to explore predictors of treatment retention and abstinence in CUD. METHODS: This systematic review was performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). We searched three databases-PubMed, PsychINFO and Web of Science-for randomized clinical trials (RCTs) published in English and Spanish from database inception through April 1, 2023. We selected all studies that met the inclusion criteria (adults aged ≥ 18, outpatient treatment, CUD as main addiction, and no severe mental illness) to obtain data for the narrative synthesis addressing cocaine abstinence and treatment retention as main outcome variables. After data extraction was completed, risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane risk-of-bias tool for randomized trials (RoB-2). RESULTS: A total of 566 studies were screened, and, of those, 32 RCTs were included in the synthesis. Younger age, more years of cocaine use, and craving levels were significant predictors of relapse and treatment dropout. Fewer withdrawal symptoms, greater baseline abstinence, greater treatment engagement, and more self-efficacy were all predictors of longer duration of abstinence. The role of impulsivity as a predictor of CUD is unclear due to conflicting data, although the evidence generally suggests that higher impulsivity scores can predict more severe addiction and withdrawal symptoms, and earlier discontinuation of treatment. CONCLUSION: Current evidence indicates which variables have a direct influence on treatment outcomes, including well-studied cocaine use-related variables. However, additional variables, such as genetic markers, appear to have a high impact on treatment outcomes and need further study. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: This systematic review is registered at PROSPERO (ID: CRD42021271847). This study was funded by the Spanish Ministry of Science, Innovation and Universities, Instituto Carlos III (ISCIII) (FIS PI20/00929) and FEDER funds and Fundació Privada Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau (Pla d'acció social 2020).


Asunto(s)
Trastornos Relacionados con Cocaína , Humanos , Trastornos Relacionados con Cocaína/terapia , Trastornos Relacionados con Cocaína/psicología , Resultado del Tratamiento , Recurrencia , Ansia , Autoeficacia , Pacientes Desistentes del Tratamiento/estadística & datos numéricos , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Factores de Edad , Síndrome de Abstinencia a Sustancias
7.
BMJ Open Gastroenterol ; 11(1)2024 May 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38724254

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: In 2019, a BMJ Rapid Recommendation advised against colorectal cancer (CRC) screening for adults with a predicted 15-year CRC risk below 3%. Using Switzerland as a case study, we estimated the population-level impact of this recommendation. DESIGN: We predicted the CRC risk of all respondents to the population-based Swiss Health Survey. We derived the distribution of risk-based screening start age, assuming predicted risk was calculated every 5 years between ages 25 and 70 and screening started when this risk exceeded 3%. Next, the MISCAN-Colon microsimulation model evaluated biennial faecal immunochemical test (FIT) screening with this risk-based start age. As a comparison, we simulated screening initiation based on age and sex. RESULTS: Starting screening only when predicted risk exceeded 3% meant 82% of women and 90% of men would not start screening before age 65 and 60, respectively. This would require 43%-57% fewer tests, result in 8%-16% fewer CRC deaths prevented and yield 19%-33% fewer lifeyears gained compared with screening from age 50. Screening women from age 65 and men from age 60 had a similar impact as screening only when predicted risk exceeded 3%. CONCLUSION: With the recommended risk prediction tool, the population impact of the BMJ Rapid Recommendation would be similar to screening initiation based on age and sex only. It would delay screening initiation by 10-15 years. Although halving the screening burdens, screening benefits would be reduced substantially compared with screening initiation at age 50. This suggests that the 3% risk threshold to start CRC screening might be too high.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias Colorrectales , Detección Precoz del Cáncer , Sangre Oculta , Humanos , Neoplasias Colorrectales/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorrectales/epidemiología , Neoplasias Colorrectales/prevención & control , Masculino , Femenino , Detección Precoz del Cáncer/métodos , Anciano , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto , Suiza/epidemiología , Medición de Riesgo/métodos , Tamizaje Masivo/métodos , Simulación por Computador , Factores de Edad , Guías de Práctica Clínica como Asunto
8.
BMC Oral Health ; 24(1): 543, 2024 May 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38724952

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In complex teeth like maxillary premolars, endodontic treatment success depends on a complete comprehension of root canal anatomy. The research on mandibular premolars' root canal anatomy has been extensive and well-documented in existing literature. However, there appears to be a notable gap in available data concerning the root canal anatomy of maxillary premolars. This study aimed to explore the root canal morphology of maxillary premolars using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging, considering age and gender variations. METHODS: From 500 patient CBCT scans, 787 maxillary premolar teeth were evaluated. The sample was divided by gender and age (10-20, 21-30, 31-40, 41-50, 51-60, and 61 years and older). Ahmed et al. classification system was used to record root canal morphology. RESULTS: The most frequent classifications for right maxillary 1st premolars were 2MPM1 B1 L1 (39.03%) and 1MPM1 (2.81%), while the most frequent classifications for right maxillary 2nd premolars were 2MPM1 B1 L1 (39.08%) and 1MPM1 (17.85%). Most of the premolars typically had two roots (left maxillary first premolars: 81.5%, left maxillary second premolars: 82.7%, right maxillary first premolars: 74.4%, right maxillary second premolars: 75.7%). Left and right maxillary 1st premolars for classes 1MPM1 and 1MPM1-2-1 showed significant gender differences. For classifications 1MPM1 and 1MPM1-2-1, age-related changes were seen in the left and right maxillary first premolars. CONCLUSION: This study provides novel insights into the root canal anatomy of maxillary premolars within the Saudi population, addressing a notable gap in the literature specific to this demographic. Through CBCT imaging and analysis of large sample sizes, the complex and diverse nature of root canal morphology in these teeth among Saudi individuals is elucidated. The findings underscore the importance of CBCT imaging in precise treatment planning and decision-making tailored to the Saudi population. Consideration of age and gender-related variations further enhances understanding and aids in personalized endodontic interventions within this demographic.


Asunto(s)
Diente Premolar , Tomografía Computarizada de Haz Cónico , Cavidad Pulpar , Maxilar , Humanos , Diente Premolar/diagnóstico por imagen , Diente Premolar/anatomía & histología , Masculino , Femenino , Adolescente , Maxilar/diagnóstico por imagen , Maxilar/anatomía & histología , Cavidad Pulpar/diagnóstico por imagen , Cavidad Pulpar/anatomía & histología , Adulto , Arabia Saudita , Persona de Mediana Edad , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Adulto Joven , Factores Sexuales , Factores de Edad
9.
J Glob Health ; 14: 04099, 2024 May 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38726560

RESUMEN

Background: To explore trends of the association between body mass index (BMI) and age at menarche or spermarche and its urban-rural disparities from 1995 to 2019. Methods: A total of 912 753 children and adolescents - including 519 940 9-18 years old girls and 392 813 11-18 years old boys - were involved in six successive cross-sectional surveys conducted across 30 provinces in China from 1995 to 2019. Data on menarche and spermarche was collected using the status quo method, where same-gender physicians conducted face-to-face interviews to determine if children and adolescents had experienced their first menstrual cycle or ejaculation (yes/no). The median age at menarche or spermarche was estimated by probit analysis. Anthropometric measurements measured the height and weight of the study subjects. Children and adolescents were classified into thinness, normal range of weight, overweight, and obesity. t test was used to compare the differences in BMI between premenarchal and postmenarchal girls or prespermarcheal and postspermarcheal boys. Logistic regression was used to explore the associations between BMI/nutritional status and menarche or spermarche stratified by urban or rural residency status. Results: From 1995 to 2019, BMI in all age groups growth over time, and the values of BMI among children and adolescents under 15 who had menarche or spermarche were more significant than those without menarche or spermarche. In 2019, for girls, thinness was associated with delayed menarche (odds ratio (OR) = 0.26; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.24-0.28), while overweight (OR = 1.99; 95% CI = 1.85-2.14) and obesity (OR = 2.20; 95% CI = 1.92-2.53) was associated with advanced menarche. For boys, thinness was associated with delayed spermarche (OR = 0.71; 95% CI = 0.65-0.78), overweight was associated with advanced spermarche (OR = 1.08; 95% CI = 1.01-1.15) while obesity had no association with spermarche. The OR between BMI and menarche in 1995 was 1.35 (95% CI = 1.33-1.37), which decreased to 1.19 (95% CI = 1.18-1.20) by 2019. The OR between BMI and spermarche in 1995 was 1.10 (95% CI = 1.09-1.11), which decreased to 1.02 (95% CI = 1.02-1.03) by 2019. The trends by urban-rural stratification were consistent with the total sample. Conclusions: We have established a dose-response relationship between BMI and menarche in girls, whereas the association appears to be nonlinear in boys, and the associations were diminishing. Similar findings were observed in both urban and rural areas. Considering the dual adverse effects of obesity and early puberty on health, the results of this study suggest that sexual health education should be strengthened, especially among obese girls. Further research on the influencing factors and biological mechanisms of early puberty will be beneficial.


Asunto(s)
Índice de Masa Corporal , Menarquia , Humanos , China/epidemiología , Femenino , Adolescente , Masculino , Menarquia/fisiología , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Factores de Edad , Población Rural/estadística & datos numéricos , Población Urbana/estadística & datos numéricos , Pubertad/fisiología
10.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0303058, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38728289

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Shared decision-making (SDM) refers to a collaborative process in which clinicians assist patients in making medically informed, evidence-based decisions that align with their values and preferences. There is a paucity of literature on SDM in dermatology. OBJECTIVE: We aim to assess whether male and female psoriasis patients evaluate their clinicians' engagement in SDM differently across different age groups. METHODS: Cross-sectional study using data from the 2014-2017 and 2019 Medical Expenditure Panel Surveys (MEPS). RESULTS: A weighted total of 7,795,608 psoriasis patients were identified. SDM Scores ranged from 1 to 4, with 4 representing the most favorable patient evaluation of their clinicians' engagement in SDM. We conducted multivariate linear regression to compare mean SDM Scores in male psoriasis patients versus female psoriasis patients across different patient age groups. Female patients ages 60-69 perceived significantly greater clinician engagement in SDM compared to age-matched male patients (female patient perception of SDM 3.65 [95%CI:3.61-3.69] vs. male patient perception of SDM 3.50 [95%CI:3.43-3.58], p<0.005). The same trend of older female patients evaluating their clinicians' engagement in SDM significantly higher than their age-matched male counterparts exists for the age group >70 (p<0.005). No significant differences between male and female patients' evaluations of their clinicians' engagement in SDM were demonstrated in subjects younger than 60. All calculations were adjusted for demographic and clinical factors. CONCLUSIONS: Compared to older male psoriasis patients, older female psoriasis patients evaluated their clinicians to be more engaged in shared decision-making.


Asunto(s)
Toma de Decisiones Conjunta , Psoriasis , Humanos , Psoriasis/psicología , Psoriasis/terapia , Masculino , Femenino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto , Anciano , Estudios Transversales , Factores de Edad , Factores Sexuales , Participación del Paciente , Adulto Joven , Relaciones Médico-Paciente , Atención a la Salud , Adolescente , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Percepción
11.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 10614, 2024 05 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38719922

RESUMEN

Regional population mortality correlates with regional socioeconomic development. This study aimed to identify the key socioeconomic factors influencing mortality patterns in Chinese provinces. Using data from the Seventh Population Census, we analyzed mortality patterns by gender and urban‒rural division in 31 provinces. Using a functional regression model, we assessed the influence of fourteen indicators on mortality patterns. Main findings: (1) China shows notable gender and urban‒rural mortality variations across age groups. Males generally have higher mortality than females, and rural areas experience elevated mortality rates compared to urban areas. Mortality in individuals younger than 40 years is influenced mainly by urban‒rural factors, with gender becoming more noticeable in the 40-84 age group. (2) The substantial marginal impact of socioeconomic factors on mortality patterns generally becomes evident after the age of 45, with less pronounced differences in their impact on early-life mortality patterns. (3) Various factors have age-specific impacts on mortality. Education has a negative effect on mortality in individuals aged 0-29, extending to those aged 30-59 and diminishing in older age groups. Urbanization positively influences the probability of death in individuals aged 45-54 years, while the impact of traffic accidents increases with age. Among elderly people, the effect of socioeconomic variables is smaller, highlighting the intricate and heterogeneous nature of these influences and acknowledging certain limitations.


Asunto(s)
Mortalidad , Población Rural , Factores Socioeconómicos , Humanos , China/epidemiología , Masculino , Femenino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Adulto , Población Rural/estadística & datos numéricos , Mortalidad/tendencias , Preescolar , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Adolescente , Adulto Joven , Niño , Lactante , Población Urbana , Recién Nacido , Factores Económicos , Urbanización , Factores de Edad
12.
BMC Oral Health ; 24(1): 544, 2024 May 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38730322

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to determine if there is a relationship between the presence of maxillary sinus pathology, nasal septum deviation and various lengths of the osteomeatal complex. METHODS: A total of 223 CBCT images were included in the study. The lengths of the osteomeatal complex (maxillary sinus ostium width, infundibulum length, maxillary sinus ostium height) were analyzed. The presence of maxillary sinus pathology, nasal septum deviation, age, sex, right-left, septum deviation level, and the relationship between pathology level and all variables were evaluated. RESULTS: The average maxillary sinus ostium width, ostium height and infundibulum length were 3.06 ± 0.70 mm, 30.10 ± 5.43 mm and 8.82 ± 1.86 mm, respectively. Ostium width was significantly higher in the healthy group than in the groups evaluated in the presence of deviation and pathology. A significant difference was found in infundibulum length only between the healthy condition and the condition evaluated in the presence of deviation. No significant difference was observed between the groups in terms of ostium height. In all groups, ostium height and infundibulum length were significantly higher in men than in women. The age group with the highest average ostium height was found in the 35-44 age group (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Identifying normal and abnormal conditions in the osteomeatal complex area is important for diagnosing the cause of a patient's complaint, guiding the surgical procedures to be performed, and preventing possible complications that may arise during surgical procedures.


Asunto(s)
Tomografía Computarizada de Haz Cónico , Seno Maxilar , Tabique Nasal , Humanos , Tomografía Computarizada de Haz Cónico/métodos , Masculino , Femenino , Tabique Nasal/diagnóstico por imagen , Tabique Nasal/patología , Tabique Nasal/anomalías , Seno Maxilar/diagnóstico por imagen , Seno Maxilar/patología , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adolescente , Anciano , Adulto Joven , Factores Sexuales , Factores de Edad , Enfermedades de los Senos Paranasales/diagnóstico por imagen , Enfermedades de los Senos Paranasales/patología
13.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 24(1): 248, 2024 May 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38730326

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND AIM: The impact of trace elements and heavy metals on human health has attracted widespread attention. However, the correlation between urinary chromium concentrations and blood pressure remains unclear and inadequately reported, and the aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between urinary chromium concentrations and blood pressure in adults in the United States (US). METHODS: We utilized data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2017-2018 for this study. Multivariate logistic regression and multivariate linear regression were used to explore the association of urinary chromium concentrations with hypertension and blood pressure. Additionally, we also performed subgroup analysis and restricted cubic splines (RCS). RESULTS: A total of 2958 participants were enrolled in this study. The overall mean systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure were 123.98 ± 0.60, 72.66 ± 0.57 mmHg, respectively. The prevalence of hypertension was found in 41.31% of the whole participants. In the fully adjusted model, we did not observe a correlation between urinary chromium concentrations and the risk of hypertension and systolic blood pressure. However, we found a negative association between urinary chromium concentrations and diastolic blood pressure. In subgroup analysis, we observed a positive association between urinary chromium and the risk of hypertension among participants older than 60 years of age and those who were Non-Hispanic Black. The interaction term highlighted the influence of age and race on this positive association. We also found a negative association of urinary chromium with diastolic blood pressure in male, participants who were current smokers, overweight, and other races, as well as those without alcohol use and anti-hypertensive drug use. However, the interaction term only revealed the influence of alcohol consumption on the negative association. CONCLUSION: Our study suggested that urinary chromium concentrations may show a negative association with diastolic blood pressure and this association was significantly dependent on alcohol consumption. Besides, a positive association between urinary chromium and the risk of hypertension was also found among participants older than 60 years of age and those who were Non-Hispanic Black.


Asunto(s)
Presión Sanguínea , Cromo , Hipertensión , Encuestas Nutricionales , Humanos , Masculino , Hipertensión/epidemiología , Hipertensión/fisiopatología , Hipertensión/orina , Hipertensión/diagnóstico , Persona de Mediana Edad , Femenino , Presión Sanguínea/efectos de los fármacos , Cromo/orina , Factores de Riesgo , Adulto , Prevalencia , Estudios Transversales , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Medición de Riesgo , Biomarcadores/orina , Anciano , Factores de Edad
14.
BMC Geriatr ; 24(1): 413, 2024 May 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38730354

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: There is growing evidence linking the age-adjusted Charlson comorbidity index (aCCI), an assessment tool for multimorbidity, to fragility fracture and fracture-related postoperative complications. However, the role of multimorbidity in osteoporosis has not yet been thoroughly evaluated. We aimed to investigate the association between aCCI and the risk of osteoporosis in older adults at moderate to high risk of falling. METHODS: A total of 947 men were included from January 2015 to August 2022 in a hospital in Beijing, China. The aCCI was calculated by counting age and each comorbidity according to their weighted scores, and the participants were stratified into two groups by aCCI: low (aCCI < 5), and high (aCCI ≥5). The Kaplan Meier method was used to assess the cumulative incidence of osteoporosis by different levels of aCCI. The Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to estimate the association of aCCI with the risk of osteoporosis. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was adapted to assess the performance for aCCI in osteoporosis screening. RESULTS: At baseline, the mean age of all patients was 75.7 years, the mean BMI was 24.8 kg/m2, and 531 (56.1%) patients had high aCCI while 416 (43.9%) were having low aCCI. During a median follow-up of 6.6 years, 296 participants developed osteoporosis. Kaplan-Meier survival curves showed that participants with high aCCI had significantly higher cumulative incidence of osteoporosis compared with those had low aCCI (log-rank test: P < 0.001). When aCCI was examined as a continuous variable, the multivariable-adjusted model showed that the osteoporosis risk increased by 12.1% (HR = 1.121, 95% CI 1.041-1.206, P = 0.002) as aCCI increased by one unit. When aCCI was changed to a categorical variable, the multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios associated with different levels of aCCI [low (reference group) and high] were 1.00 and 1.557 (95% CI 1.223-1.983) for osteoporosis (P <  0.001), respectively. The aCCI (cutoff ≥5) revealed an area under ROC curve (AUC) of 0.566 (95%CI 0.527-0.605, P = 0.001) in identifying osteoporosis in older fall-prone men, with sensitivity of 64.9% and specificity of 47.9%. CONCLUSIONS: The current study indicated an association of higher aCCI with an increased risk of osteoporosis among older fall-prone men, supporting the possibility of aCCI as a marker of long-term skeletal-related adverse clinical outcomes.


Asunto(s)
Accidentes por Caídas , Osteoporosis , Humanos , Masculino , Anciano , Osteoporosis/epidemiología , Osteoporosis/diagnóstico , Estudios Retrospectivos , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Incidencia , Medición de Riesgo/métodos , Factores de Riesgo , Comorbilidad , China/epidemiología , Factores de Edad
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(9)2024 Apr 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38731797

RESUMEN

Adipocyte P2 (aP2), also known as FABP4, is an adipokine that adipose tissue produces and expresses in macrophages. Its primary role is to facilitate the transportation of fatty acids across cell membranes. Numerous studies have reported associations between FABP4 and the development of metabolic disorders. However, there is limited knowledge regarding FABP4 expression in diabetes and obesity, especially about different age groups, genders, and ethnicities. This study aims to investigate the association between FABP4 levels, diabetes mellitus, and obesity within various ethnic groups. We measured plasma FABP4 concentrations in a cohort of 2083 patients from the KDEP study and gathered anthropometric data. Additionally, we collected and analyzed clinical, biochemical, and glycemic markers using multivariate regression analysis. The average FABP4 concentration was significantly higher in female participants than in males (18.8 ng/mL vs. 14.4 ng/mL, p < 0.001, respectively), and in those over 50 years old compared to those under 50 years of age (19.3 ng/mL vs. 16.2 ng/mL, p < 0.001, respectively). In this study, significant positive associations were found between the plasma level of FABP4 and obesity markers: BMI (r = 0.496, p < 0.001), hip circumference (r = 0.463, p < 0.001), and waist circumference (WC) (r = 0.436, p < 0.001). Similar observations were also seen with glycemic markers, which included HbA1c (r = 0.126, p < 0.001), fasting blood glucose (FBG) (r = 0.184, p < 0.001), fasting insulin (r = 0.326, p < 0.001), and HOMA-IR (r = 0.333, p < 0.001). Importantly, these associations remained significant even after adjusting for age, gender, and ethnicity. Furthermore, FABP4 levels were negatively associated with male gender (ß: -3.85, 95% CI: -4.92, -2.77, p < 0.001), and positively associated with age (ß: 0.14, 95% CI: 0.096, 0.183, p < 0.001), BMI (ß: 0.74, 95% CI: 0.644, 0.836, p < 0.001), and fasting insulin (ß: 0.115, 95% CI: 0.091, 0.138, p < 0.001). In this study, plasma FABP4 levels were significantly higher in diabetic and obese participants, and they were strongly influenced by age, gender, and ethnicity. These findings suggest that FABP4 may serve as a valuable prognostic and diagnostic marker for obesity and diabetes, particularly among female patients, individuals over 50 years old, and specific ethnic groups.


Asunto(s)
Proteínas de Unión a Ácidos Grasos , Obesidad , Humanos , Proteínas de Unión a Ácidos Grasos/sangre , Proteínas de Unión a Ácidos Grasos/metabolismo , Masculino , Femenino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Obesidad/sangre , Obesidad/metabolismo , Adulto , Estudios de Cohortes , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Etnicidad , Índice de Masa Corporal , Biomarcadores/sangre , Diabetes Mellitus/sangre , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolismo , Glucemia/metabolismo
16.
Reprod Fertil Dev ; 362024 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38713807

RESUMEN

Context Seasonal microclimatic fluctuations can cause changes in sperm quality even in dairy bulls bred under temperate climate. These changes can vary between sires of different age and affect sperm freezability. Aims We aimed to evaluate the modulating effect of bull age and equilibration time before freezing on the seasonal pattern of sperm viability and DNA integrity post-thaw. Methods In the frame of systematic sperm quality control, we assessed the integrity of sperm plasma membrane and acrosome (PMAI) in 15,496 cryopreserved bovine batches, and the percentage of sperm with high DNA fragmentation index (%DFI) after 0h and 3h incubation at 38°C post-thaw (3h) in 3422 batches. Semen was equilibrated for 24h before freezing if collected on Monday or Wednesday and 72h if produced on Friday. We investigated the effect of season, bull age, equilibration, and temperature-humidity index (THI) on the day of semen collection on sperm traits using mixed-effects linear models. Key results PMAI and %DFI (0h and 3h) deteriorated with increasing THI. The effect of THI on %DFI was detected with a 30-day time lag. Seasonal fluctuations of sperm quality were similar between young, mature, and older sires. Prolonged equilibration did not affect PMAI but was linked to elevated %DFI (3h) in summer. Conclusions Extending equilibration from 24 to 72h is compatible with commercial standards of bovine sperm quality post-thaw; however, it could interfere with the seasonal pattern of the latter. Implications Systematic monitoring of bovine sperm quality enables the prompt detection of stress factors related to microclimate and semen processing.


Asunto(s)
Criopreservación , Fragmentación del ADN , Estaciones del Año , Análisis de Semen , Preservación de Semen , Espermatozoides , Animales , Bovinos , Masculino , Criopreservación/veterinaria , Preservación de Semen/veterinaria , Preservación de Semen/métodos , Espermatozoides/efectos de los fármacos , Espermatozoides/fisiología , Análisis de Semen/veterinaria , Fragmentación del ADN/efectos de los fármacos , Supervivencia Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Microclima , Factores de Edad , Motilidad Espermática/efectos de los fármacos
17.
Saudi Med J ; 45(5): 502-509, 2024 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38734437

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate clinical indicators in order to examine the intensity of diabetes ketoacidosis (DKA) episodes in children and adolescents diagnosed with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). METHODS: Data from 156 T1DM patients aged 6 months to 14 years, who presented with DKA to the emergency room, were retrospectively reviewed from 2018 to 2022. Data on demographic characteristics, economic status, initial clinical presentation, glycemic control, DKA severity, and laboratory evaluations were also collected. RESULTS: Diabetes ketoacidosis episodes were more prevalent among male patients during the middle childhood age group. Notably, these episodes displayed seasonal patterns. The severity was found to be inversely associated with economic status and positively correlated with early adolescence. Newly diagnosed T1DM patients constituted 52.9%, with a statistically significant connection observed between severe DKA and this subgroup. Furthermore, there was a significant escalation in poor glycemic control with episode severity. Prolonged episode duration also exhibited a statistically significant association with more severity. Gastrointestinal symptoms were commonly reported during the presentation. Moreover, several clinical signs and symptoms, including decreased consciousness, reduced activity, drowsiness, Kussmaul breathing, shortness of breath, vomiting, tachycardia, and severe dehydration, were significantly correlated with the severity of DKA (p<0.05). Hypernatremia was more frequent among children with severe DKA. CONCLUSION: Diabetes ketoacidosis was observed to occur more frequently among males in middle childhood with seasonal variations. Furthermore, the severity of DKA was associated with lower economic status, early adolescence, and the presence of hypernatremia.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Cetoacidosis Diabética , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Humanos , Cetoacidosis Diabética/complicaciones , Masculino , Adolescente , Niño , Femenino , Lactante , Preescolar , Estudios Retrospectivos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/complicaciones , Factores Sexuales , Estaciones del Año , Factores de Edad , Hipernatremia/etiología , Hipernatremia/epidemiología , Glucemia/análisis
18.
J Prev Med Hyg ; 65(1): E83-E92, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38706770

RESUMEN

Introduction: Falling is a serious problem for all ages. There are several tests to assess balance. Mini-BESTest and brief-BESTest are balance tests for which there are no normative values for Iranian people. We aimed to provide the normative values of mini-BESTest and brief-BESTest among healthy Iranian adults. Methods: A cross-sectional study was designed. Three hundred healthy adults (150 males and 150 females) in six age groups (18-29, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69, +70 years) completed the tests using Persian mini-BESTest and brief-BESTest. Normative values were calculated for age groups. Results: Normative values of mini-BESTest and brief- BESTest decreased significantly with age (from 27 to 21.9 for mini-BESTest and from 22.9 to 15.4 for brief BESTest). There were no significant differences between genders except for females in 30-39 and 40-49 years age groups which scored better on brief-BESTest and mini-BESTest, respectively. Males had significantly scored better in brief- BESTest in 60-69 and ≥ 70 age groups. Conclusions: The normative values of the mini-BESTest and brief-BESTest provided for healthy Iranian adults can help clinicians when assessing subjects with balance dysfunction.


Asunto(s)
Equilibrio Postural , Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto , Irán , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Transversales , Anciano , Adulto Joven , Adolescente , Valores de Referencia , Accidentes por Caídas/prevención & control , Factores de Edad
19.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 18(4): 542-549, 2024 Apr 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38728648

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Liver transplant (LT) recipients were at a high risk of infection during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Our purpose was to compare the clinical characteristics of severe and non-severe groups of LT recipients with COVID-19, and to analyze their risk factors for severe disease. METHODOLOGY: 79 LT recipients with COVID-19 were divided into a non-severe group (n = 60) and a severe group (n = 19), and differences in clinical characteristics, laboratory tests, and chest computed tomography (CT) performance were analyzed. Logistic regression was used to identify risk factors with severe COVID-19. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were plotted and the area under curve (AUC) values were calculated to assess the predictive value for severe COVID-19. RESULTS: Age was statistically different (p < 0.001) between the two groups. The difference in neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), serum creatinine (Scr), D-dimer, urea, C-reactive protein (CRP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and the number of lung segments involved in inflammation between the two groups were statistically significant (p < 0.05). The results revealed that age (OR = 1.255, 95% CI 1.079-1.460), NLR (OR = 1.172, 95% CI 1.019-1.348), and Scr (OR = 1.041, 95% CI 1.016-1.066) were independent risk factors for severe COVID-19. The ROC results showed that high values for age, NLR and Scr predicted severe COVID-19, with AUC values of 0.775, 0.841 and 0.820, respectively, and 0.925 for the three factors combined. CONCLUSIONS: Advanced age, and elevated NLR and Scr are independent risk factors for severe COVID-19 in LT recipients.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Trasplante de Hígado , SARS-CoV-2 , Receptores de Trasplantes , Humanos , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/complicaciones , COVID-19/epidemiología , Masculino , Factores de Riesgo , Femenino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto , Receptores de Trasplantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Factores de Edad , Estudios Retrospectivos , Anciano , Curva ROC , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X , Neutrófilos
20.
Neurology ; 102(11): e209391, 2024 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38728654

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To investigate the underlying reasons for variability in the incidence rate of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) within the Irish population between the years 1996 and 2021. METHODS: The Irish ALS register was used to calculate the incidence and to subsequently extract age at diagnosis (age), year of diagnosis (period), and date of birth (cohort) for all incident patients within the study period (n = 2,771). An age-period-cohort (APC) model using partial least squares regression was constructed to examine each component separately and their respective contribution to the incidence while minimizing the well-known identifiability problem of APC effects. A dummy regression model consisting of 5 periods, 19 cohorts, and 16 age groups was used to examine nonlinear relationships within the data over time. The CIs for each of these were estimated using the jackknife method. RESULTS: The nonlinear model achieved R2 of 99.43% with 2-component extraction. Age variation was evident with those in the ages 65-79 years contributing significantly to the incidence (ßmax = 0.0746, SE = 0.000410, CI 0.00665-0.00826). However, those aged 25-60 years contributed significantly less (ßmin = -0.00393, SE = 0.000291, CI -0.00454 to -0.00340). Each successive period showed an increase in the regression model coefficient suggesting an increasing incidence over time, independent of the other factors examined-an increase of ß from -0.00489 (SE = 0.000264, CI -0.00541 to -0.00437) to 0.00973 (SE = 0.000418, CI 0.0105-0.00891). A cohort effect was demonstrated showing that the contribution of those born between 1927 and 1951 contributed to a significantly greater degree than the other birth cohorts (ßmax = 0.00577, SE = 0.000432, CI 0.00493-0.00662). DISCUSSION: Using the Irish population-based ALS Register, robust age, period, and cohort effects can be identified. The age effect may be accounted for by demographic shifts within the population. Changes in disease categorization, competing risks of death, and improved surveillance may account for period effects. The cohort effect may reflect lifestyle and environmental factors associated with the challenging economic circumstances in Ireland between 1927 and 1951. Age-period-cohort studies can help to account for changes in disease incidence and prevalence, providing additional insights into likely demographic and environmental factors that influence population-based disease risk.


Asunto(s)
Esclerosis Amiotrófica Lateral , Humanos , Esclerosis Amiotrófica Lateral/epidemiología , Irlanda/epidemiología , Incidencia , Anciano , Persona de Mediana Edad , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto , Análisis de los Mínimos Cuadrados , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Sistema de Registros , Factores de Edad , Efecto de Cohortes , Estudios de Cohortes
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