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1.
Artif Organs ; 46(4): 688-696, 2022 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34694655

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (V-V ECMO) support is increasingly used in the management of COVID-19-related acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). However, the clinical decision-making to initiate V-V ECMO for severe COVID-19 still remains unclear. In order to determine the optimal timing and patient selection, we investigated the outcomes of both COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 patients undergoing V-V ECMO support. METHODS: Overall, 138 patients were included in this study. Patients were stratified into two cohorts: those with COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 ARDS. RESULTS: The survival in patients with COVID-19 was statistically similar to non-COVID-19 patients (p = .16). However, the COVID-19 group demonstrated higher rates of bleeding (p = .03) and thrombotic complications (p < .001). The duration of V-V ECMO support was longer in COVID-19 patients compared to non-COVID-19 patients (29.0 ± 27.5 vs 15.9 ± 19.6 days, p < .01). Most notably, in contrast to the non-COVID-19 group, we found that COVID-19 patients who had been on a ventilator for longer than 7 days prior to ECMO had 100% mortality without a lung transplant. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that COVID-19-associated ARDS was not associated with a higher post-ECMO mortality than non-COVID-19-associated ARDS patients, despite longer duration of extracorporeal support. Early initiation of V-V ECMO is important for improved ECMO outcomes in COVID-19 ARDS patients. Since late initiation of ECMO was associated with extremely high mortality related to lack of pulmonary recovery, it should be used judiciously or as a bridge to lung transplantation.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Oxigenación por Membrana Extracorpórea , Síndrome de Dificultad Respiratoria , COVID-19/complicaciones , COVID-19/terapia , Oxigenación por Membrana Extracorpórea/efectos adversos , Hemorragia/etiología , Humanos , Síndrome de Dificultad Respiratoria/etiología , Síndrome de Dificultad Respiratoria/terapia , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Tiempo
2.
Forensic Sci Int Genet ; 57: 102661, 2022 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35063923

RESUMEN

Non-self DNA is normally present on skin due to DNA transfer occurring during daily activities. The understanding of persistence and accumulation of foreign DNA on the neck can assist in the interpretation of DNA evidence collected from an assaulted victim. Establishing the composition and level of non-self DNA present is relevant, especially in cases where the victim cohabits with other individuals, such as partner and children. This study investigated the persistence and accumulation of non-self DNA on the neck, over the course of 24 h. DNA samples were collected from the neck of 20 adult volunteers at three time-points, on two days. The detection of a partner's DNA and DNA from unknown sources was studied in relation to the living arrangement and to the activities performed by each individual. An increased number of non-self alleles were detected over time. Partner's DNA was observed to accumulate during the day and to persist when an individual was absent from the shared home environment. DNA from unknown contributors was found on the neck of individuals that used public transport, attended public spaces and had social interactions. The data acquired from this study will help to increase knowledge on the composition of DNA present on an individual's neck in a daily situation.


Asunto(s)
Víctimas de Crimen , ADN , Adulto , Alelos , Niño , ADN/genética , Humanos , Factores de Tiempo
3.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 21: e225757, jan.-dez. 2022. ilus
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, BBO - Odontología | ID: biblio-1366215

RESUMEN

Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of frozen storage on the physical properties of a silicone-based test food material, highly used to evaluate the masticatory performance in research settings. Methods: A total of 1,666 silicone cubes of Optosil Comfort® with 5.6-mm edges were shaped and stored at -18°C. The cubes were subsequently tested for flexural strength (maximum force, displacement, stress, and strain) before breaking (n = 136), changes in weight and size (n = 170), and masticatory performance (n = 1360) at eight timepoints: immediately after cube preparation (baseline, no freezing), and 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks, and 2, 4 and 6 months after frozen storage. The cubes were thawed 8 h before each assessment. Results: The maximum force, stress, maximum displacement, and deformation values for the cubes were not affected by freezing (P > 0.05). At all of the time points, the cubes exhibited similar weight (P = 0.366) and size (identical values). The masticatory performance for the cubes also showed no differences from baseline through 6 months (P = 0.061). Conclusion: Freezing Optosil Comfort® silicone cubes did not alter the physical and mechanical properties of the material, being suitable to optimize the assessment of masticatory parameters for research purposes


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Elastómeros de Silicona , Ensayo de Materiales/métodos , Fenómenos Físicos , Congelación , Resistencia Flexional , Masticación , Factores de Tiempo
4.
Exp Clin Transplant ; 20(7): 668-673, 2022 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35924745

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Hepatitis B virus-related acute-on-chronic liver failure remains a life-threatening syndrome, and transplant is the definitive treatment. Early allograft dysfunction is a postoperative complication and affects morbidity and mortality. We studied the risk factors associated with early allograft dysfunction in livertransplantrecipients with hepatitis B virus-related acute-on-chronic liver failure. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This single-center retrospective study of early allograft dysfunction is based on data from January 2015 to June 2020 for 323 recipients with hepatitis B virus-related acute-on-chronic liver failure and 445 with only hepatitis B virus infection (control group). Data that correlated with early allograft dysfunction and outcome were analyzed. RESULTS: Incidence of early allograft dysfunction in patients with hepatitis B virus-related acute-on-chronic liver failure was significantly higher versus the control group (39.3% vs 21.1%; P < .001). Transplant recipients with hepatitis B virus-related acute-onchronic liver failure who developed early allograft dysfunction had lower 90-day, 180-day, and 360-day patient survival rates versus patients with no early allograft dysfunction (89.0% vs 98.0%, 82.7% vs 97.5%, and 80.3% vs 96.4%, respectively; P < .001). Pretransplant kidney failure (odds ratio, 2.644; 95% CI, 1.019-6.864; P = .046), pretransplant coagulation failure (odds ratio, 2.162; 95% CI, 1.291-3.621; P = .003), and operative time (odds ratio, 1.005; 95% CI, 1.002-1.008; P = .003) were independent risk factors for early allograft dysfunction in liver transplant recipients with hepatitis B virus-related acute-onchronic liver failure. There was a synergistic effect of early allograft dysfunction and preoperative kidney/coagulation failure on survival rates of liver transplant recipients with hepatitis B virus-related acute-on-chronic liver failure. CONCLUSIONS: Preoperative kidney/coagulation failure and operative time were independent risk factors of early allograft dysfunction in deceased donor liver transplant recipients with hepatitis B virus-related acute-on-chronic liver failure. The combination of early allograft dysfunction and preoperative kidney/coagulation failure was significantly associated with lower survival of these recipients.


Asunto(s)
Insuficiencia Hepática Crónica Agudizada , Hepatitis B , Trasplante de Hígado , Insuficiencia Hepática Crónica Agudizada/diagnóstico , Insuficiencia Hepática Crónica Agudizada/etiología , Insuficiencia Hepática Crónica Agudizada/cirugía , Aloinjertos , Supervivencia de Injerto , Hepatitis B/complicaciones , Hepatitis B/diagnóstico , Virus de la Hepatitis B , Humanos , Trasplante de Hígado/efectos adversos , Donadores Vivos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Factores de Tiempo , Resultado del Tratamiento
5.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 936573, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35909563

RESUMEN

Background: The optimal break-in period (BI) of urgent-start peritoneal dialysis (USPD) initiation for patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and diabetes is unclear. We aimed to explore the safety and applicability of a BI ≤24 h in patients with ESRD and diabetes. Methods: We used a retrospective cohort design wherein we recruited patients with ESRD and diabetes who underwent USPD at five institutions in China between January 2013 and August 2020. The enrolled patients were grouped according to BI. The primary outcomes were mechanical and infectious complication occurrences, whereas the secondary outcome was technique survival. Results: We enrolled 310 patients with diabetes, of whom 155 and 155 patients were in the BI ≤24 h and BI >24 h groups, respectively. The two groups showed a comparable incidence of infectious and mechanical complications within 6 months after catheter insertion (p>0.05). Logistic regression analysis revealed that a BI ≤24 h was not an independent risk factor for mechanical or infectious complications. Kaplan-Meier estimates showed no statistically significant between-group differences in technique survival rates (p>0.05). Cox multivariate regression analysis revealed that a BI ≤24 h was not an independent risk factor for technique failure. Conclusion: USPD initiation with a BI ≤24 h may be safe and feasible for patients with ESRD and diabetes.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus , Fallo Renal Crónico , Diálisis Peritoneal , Humanos , Fallo Renal Crónico/terapia , Diálisis Peritoneal/efectos adversos , Diálisis Peritoneal/métodos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Tiempo
6.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 13197, 2022 Aug 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35915102

RESUMEN

We propose that technical analysis tools developed to give buy/sell signals in asset trading can be applied to analyze time series datasets in the natural sciences, and we show this explicitly for a study of WHO COVID-19 data. Notably, reliable short term forecasting can provide potentially lifesaving insights into logistical planning, and in particular, into the optimal allocation of resources such as hospital staff and equipment. By reinterpreting COVID-19 daily cases in terms of candlesticks, we are able to apply some of the most popular stock market technical indicators to obtain predictive power over the course of the pandemics. By providing a quantitative assessment of MACD, RSI, and candlestick analyses, we show their statistical significance in making predictions for both stock market data and WHO COVID-19 data. In particular, we show the utility of this novel approach by considering the identification of the beginnings of subsequent waves of the pandemic. Finally, our new methods are used to assess whether current health policies are impacting the growth in new COVID-19 cases.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiología , Predicción , Humanos , Pandemias , Factores de Tiempo
7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(32): e2112656119, 2022 Aug 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35921436

RESUMEN

Since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, many dashboards have emerged as useful tools to monitor its evolution, inform the public, and assist governments in decision-making. Here, we present a globally applicable method, integrated in a daily updated dashboard that provides an estimate of the trend in the evolution of the number of cases and deaths from reported data of more than 200 countries and territories, as well as 7-d forecasts. One of the significant difficulties in managing a quickly propagating epidemic is that the details of the dynamic needed to forecast its evolution are obscured by the delays in the identification of cases and deaths and by irregular reporting. Our forecasting methodology substantially relies on estimating the underlying trend in the observed time series using robust seasonal trend decomposition techniques. This allows us to obtain forecasts with simple yet effective extrapolation methods in linear or log scale. We present the results of an assessment of our forecasting methodology and discuss its application to the production of global and regional risk maps.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiología , Predicción , Humanos , Pandemias , Factores de Tiempo
8.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 13310, 2022 Aug 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35922452

RESUMEN

More than one billion people rely on livestock for income, nutrition, and social cohesion, however livestock keeping can facilitate disease transmission and contribute to climate change. While data on the distribution of livestock have broad utility across a range of applications, efforts to map the distribution of livestock on a large scale are limited to the Gridded Livestock of the World (GLW) project. We present a complimentary effort to map the distribution of cattle and pigs in Malawi, Uganda, Democratic Republic of Congo, and South Sudan. In contrast to GLW, which uses dasymmetric modeling applied to census data to produce time-stratified estimates of livestock counts and spatial density, our work uses complex survey data and distinct modeling methods to generate a time-series of livestock distribution, defining livestock density as the ratio of animals to humans. In addition to favorable cross-validation results and general agreement with national density estimates derived from external data on national human and livestock populations, our results demonstrate extremely good agreement with GLW-3 estimates, supporting the validity of both efforts. Our results furthermore offer a high-resolution time series result and employ a definition of density which is particularly well-suited to the study of livestock-origin zoonoses.


Asunto(s)
Renta , Ganado , Animales , Bovinos , Humanos , Proyectos de Investigación , Porcinos , Factores de Tiempo , Zoonosis
9.
BMJ Open Qual ; 11(Suppl 1)2022 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35914815

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is a highly time-sensitive and life-threatening condition. Early recognition and timely management are challenging in a busy emergency department (ED), especially in low/middle-income countries where emergency systems are often fragmented. The aim of our quality improvement (QI) project was to increase the percentage of patients with STEMI undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with door to balloon (D2B) time of <90 min by 30% over 12 months. METHODS: As part of the first step in QI, baseline data were collected at different points in the process of care. Using process maps and fishbone analysis, delays in patient registration, ECG and communication with cardiology were identified as some bottlenecks, and change ideas were tested using plan-do-study-act cycles using point-of-care QI methodology. The majority of the change ideas focused on interventions in the ED like strengthening triage, training frontline staff, early diagnosis and quick transportation of patients. RESULTS: During the baseline phase, 22.22% of patients were found to have a D2B time of <90 min. We achieved an increase of 47.78% in patients receiving PCI within 90 min and hence increased to 70% at the end of the intervention phase. Data collected for 4 months after the intervention phase were found to have sustained the effort. CONCLUSION: Significant improvement in the door to reperfusion time resulted from a meticulous assessment of emergency care processes by drawing process flow chart and implementation of change ideas like introduction of fast-track policy for patients with chest pain, reducing staff turnover in the triage area, formal training of staff, continuous engagement with cardiology team and by interchanging of processes which led to a reduction in time to ECG.


Asunto(s)
Servicios Médicos de Urgencia , Infarto del Miocardio , Intervención Coronaria Percutánea , Infarto del Miocardio con Elevación del ST , Electrocardiografía , Humanos , Infarto del Miocardio/diagnóstico , Infarto del Miocardio/terapia , Atención al Paciente , Infarto del Miocardio con Elevación del ST/diagnóstico , Infarto del Miocardio con Elevación del ST/terapia , Centros de Atención Terciaria , Factores de Tiempo
11.
Parasit Vectors ; 15(1): 277, 2022 Aug 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35922821

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Dengue is a major public health problem in Sri Lanka. Aedes vector surveillance and monitoring of larval indices are routine, long-established public health practices in the country. However, the association between Aedes larval indices and dengue incidence is poorly understood. It is crucial to evaluate lagged effects and threshold values of Aedes larval indices to set pragmatic targets for sustainable vector control interventions. METHODS: Monthly Aedes larval indices and dengue cases in all 10 Medical Officer of Health (MOH) divisions in Kalutara district were obtained from 2010 to 2019. Using a novel statistical approach, a distributed lag non-linear model and a two-staged hierarchical meta-analysis, we estimated the overall non-linear and delayed effects of the Premise Index (PI), Breteau Index (BI) and Container Index (CI) on dengue incidence in Kalutara district. A set of MOH division-specific variables were evaluated within the same meta-analytical framework to determine their moderator effects on dengue risk. Using generalized additive models, we assessed the utility of Aedes larval indices in predicting dengue incidence. RESULTS: We found that all three larval indices were associated with dengue risk at a lag of 1 to 2 months. The relationship between PI and dengue was homogeneous across MOH divisions, whereas that with BI and CI was heterogeneous. The threshold values of BI, PI and CI associated with dengue risk were 2, 15 and 45, respectively. All three indices showed a low to moderate accuracy in predicting dengue risk in Kalutara district. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed the potential of vector surveillance information in Kalutara district in developing a threshold-based, location-specific early warning system with a lead time of 2 months. The estimated thresholds are nonetheless time-bound and may not be universally applicable. Whenever longitudinal vector surveillance data areavailable, the methodological framework we propose here can be used to estimate location-specific Aedes larval index thresholds in any other dengue-endemic setting.


Asunto(s)
Aedes , Dengue , Animales , Dengue/epidemiología , Humanos , Larva , Mosquitos Vectores , Sri Lanka/epidemiología , Factores de Tiempo
12.
JAMA ; 328(5): 451-459, 2022 08 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35916847

RESUMEN

Importance: Care of adults at profit vs nonprofit dialysis facilities has been associated with lower access to transplant. Whether profit status is associated with transplant access for pediatric patients with end-stage kidney disease is unknown. Objective: To determine whether profit status of dialysis facilities is associated with placement on the kidney transplant waiting list or receipt of kidney transplant among pediatric patients receiving maintenance dialysis. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study reviewed the US Renal Data System records of 13 333 patients younger than 18 years who started dialysis from 2000 through 2018 in US dialysis facilities (followed up through June 30, 2019). Exposures: Time-updated profit status of dialysis facilities. Main Outcomes and Measures: Cox models, adjusted for clinical and demographic factors, were used to examine time to wait-listing and receipt of kidney transplant by profit status of dialysis facilities. Results: A total of 13 333 pediatric patients who started receiving maintenance dialysis were included in the analysis (median age, 12 years [IQR, 3-15 years]; 6054 females [45%]; 3321 non-Hispanic Black patients [25%]; 3695 Hispanic patients [28%]). During a median follow-up of 0.87 years (IQR, 0.39-1.85 years), the incidence of wait-listing was lower at profit facilities than at nonprofit facilities, 36.2 vs 49.8 per 100 person-years, respectively (absolute risk difference, -13.6 (95% CI, -15.4 to -11.8 per 100 person-years; adjusted hazard ratio [HR] for wait-listing at profit vs nonprofit facilities, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.75-0.83). During a median follow-up of 1.52 years (IQR, 0.75-2.87 years), the incidence of kidney transplant (living or deceased donor) was also lower at profit facilities than at nonprofit facilities, 21.5 vs 31.3 per 100 person-years, respectively; absolute risk difference, -9.8 (95% CI, -10.9 to -8.6 per 100 person-years) adjusted HR for kidney transplant at profit vs nonprofit facilities, 0.71 (95% CI, 0.67-0.74). Conclusions and Relevance: Among a cohort of pediatric patients receiving dialysis in the US from 2000 through 2018, profit facility status was associated with longer time to wait-listing and longer time to kidney transplant.


Asunto(s)
Instituciones de Atención Ambulatoria , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Fallo Renal Crónico , Trasplante de Riñón , Diálisis Renal , Listas de Espera , Adolescente , Instituciones de Atención Ambulatoria/economía , Instituciones de Atención Ambulatoria/organización & administración , Instituciones de Atención Ambulatoria/estadística & datos numéricos , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Administración de Instituciones de Salud/economía , Administración de Instituciones de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud/economía , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud/organización & administración , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Fallo Renal Crónico/economía , Fallo Renal Crónico/epidemiología , Fallo Renal Crónico/terapia , Trasplante de Riñón/economía , Trasplante de Riñón/estadística & datos numéricos , Masculino , Organizaciones sin Fines de Lucro/economía , Organizaciones sin Fines de Lucro/organización & administración , Organizaciones sin Fines de Lucro/estadística & datos numéricos , Propiedad/economía , Propiedad/estadística & datos numéricos , Diálisis Renal/economía , Diálisis Renal/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Tiempo
13.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1484, 2022 Aug 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35927638

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have investigated the short-term effects of meteorological factors and air pollution on the incidence of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). Several meteorological indicators, such as relative humidity and the diurnal temperature range (DTR), significantly modify the relationship between short-term exposure to temperature and HFMD incidence. However, it remains unclear whether (and how) long-term air pollution levels modify the short-term relationships of HFMD incidence with meteorological factors and air pollution. METHODS: We obtained daily data on meteorological factors, air pollutants, and HFMD counts in children from 21 prefecture-level cities in Sichuan Province in Southwest China from 2015 to 2017. First, we constructed a distributed lag nonlinear model (DLNM) at each prefecture-level site to evaluate the short-term impacts of meteorological variables and air pollutants on HFMD incidence. Then, we assessed the pooled effects of the exposures and incorporated long-term city-specific air pollutant indicators as meta-predictors to examine their potential modification effects by performing multivariate meta-regression models. RESULTS: We found that long-term SO2 and CO concentrations significantly modified the short-term relationships between climatic variables and HFMD incidence. Specifically, high concentrations of CO (P = 0.027) and SO2 (P = 0.039) reduced the risk of HFMD at low temperatures. The relationship between relative humidity and HFMD incidence was weakened at high SO2 concentrations (P = 0.024), especially when the relative humidity was below the median level. When the minimum relative humidity (32%) was compared to the median relative humidity (77%), the risk ratio (RR) was 0.77 (95% CI: 0.51-1.17) in the 90th percentile of SO2 (19.6 µg/m3) and 0.41 (95% CI: 0.27-0.64) in the 10th percentile of SO2 (10.6 µg/m3). CONCLUSION: Our results indicated that long-term SO2 and CO levels modified the short-term associations between HFMD incidence in children and meteorological variables. These findings may inform health authorities to optimize targeted public health policies including reducing ambient air pollution and reinforcing self-protective actions to weaken the adverse health impacts of environmental factors on HFMD incidence.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire , Enfermedad de Boca, Mano y Pie , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/efectos adversos , Contaminación del Aire/efectos adversos , Niño , China/epidemiología , Enfermedad de Boca, Mano y Pie/epidemiología , Humanos , Incidencia , Conceptos Meteorológicos , Dinámicas no Lineales , Temperatura , Factores de Tiempo
14.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2022: 9649825, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35785050

RESUMEN

Aiming at some existing issues in the sports industry, the existing model is optimized by deep learning and time series theory based on the relevant algorithm, and the scale of the sports industry is analyzed and predicted by the model. The results show the following: (1) Based on the single-step prediction of time series, MNTS structural algorithm can be used to describe and study the sports industry scale with the single factor, and the correlation fitting degree is high. (2) Curves of different evaluation methods can include parts linear stage and nonlinear stage according to the magnitude of change. (3) Seen from the optimization model in this paper, the proposed method can describe both global and local trends of data. (4) It can be seen from the prediction curve that the overall state of fluctuation indicates that time will have a great impact on the relevant scale of the sports industry. Compared with single-step prediction, the accuracy of multistep prediction is higher, and the multistep prediction model based on time series can well characterize and predict the scale of the sports industry. By using the relevant time algorithm, the sports industry scale can be predicted and analyzed so as to provide theoretical support for the formulation and implementation of relevant policies.


Asunto(s)
Aprendizaje Profundo , Deportes , Algoritmos , Factores de Tiempo
15.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 11236, 2022 Jul 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35788626

RESUMEN

Measuring sentiment in social media text has become an important practice in studying emotions at the macroscopic level. However, this approach can suffer from methodological issues like sampling biases and measurement errors. To date, it has not been validated if social media sentiment can actually measure the temporal dynamics of mood and emotions aggregated at the level of communities. We ran a large-scale survey at an online newspaper to gather daily mood self-reports from its users, and compare these with aggregated results of sentiment analysis of user discussions. We find strong correlations between text analysis results and levels of self-reported mood, as well as between inter-day changes of both measurements. We replicate these results using sentiment data from Twitter. We show that a combination of supervised text analysis methods based on novel deep learning architectures and unsupervised dictionary-based methods have high agreement with the time series of aggregated mood measured with self-reports. Our findings indicate that macro level dynamics of mood expressed on an online platform can be tracked with social media text, especially in situations of high mood variability.


Asunto(s)
Medios de Comunicación Sociales , Afecto , Emociones , Humanos , Factores de Tiempo
16.
Chaos ; 32(6): 063117, 2022 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35778132

RESUMEN

Computational modeling and experimental/clinical prediction of the complex signals during cardiac arrhythmias have the potential to lead to new approaches for prevention and treatment. Machine-learning (ML) and deep-learning approaches can be used for time-series forecasting and have recently been applied to cardiac electrophysiology. While the high spatiotemporal nonlinearity of cardiac electrical dynamics has hindered application of these approaches, the fact that cardiac voltage time series are not random suggests that reliable and efficient ML methods have the potential to predict future action potentials. This work introduces and evaluates an integrated architecture in which a long short-term memory autoencoder (AE) is integrated into the echo state network (ESN) framework. In this approach, the AE learns a compressed representation of the input nonlinear time series. Then, the trained encoder serves as a feature-extraction component, feeding the learned features into the recurrent ESN reservoir. The proposed AE-ESN approach is evaluated using synthetic and experimental voltage time series from cardiac cells, which exhibit nonlinear and chaotic behavior. Compared to the baseline and physics-informed ESN approaches, the AE-ESN yields mean absolute errors in predicted voltage 6-14 times smaller when forecasting approximately 20 future action potentials for the datasets considered. The AE-ESN also demonstrates less sensitivity to algorithmic parameter settings. Furthermore, the representation provided by the feature-extraction component removes the requirement in previous work for explicitly introducing external stimulus currents, which may not be easily extracted from real-world datasets, as additional time series, thereby making the AE-ESN easier to apply to clinical data.


Asunto(s)
Aprendizaje Automático , Redes Neurales de la Computación , Potenciales de Acción , Simulación por Computador , Factores de Tiempo
17.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 11901, 2022 Jul 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35831415

RESUMEN

Although in-hospital cardiac arrest is uncommon, it has a high mortality rate. Risk identification of at-risk patients is critical for post-cardiac arrest survival rates. Early warning scoring systems are generally used to identify hospitalized patients at risk of deterioration. However, these systems often require clinical data that are not always regularly measured. We developed a more accurate, machine learning-based model to predict clinical deterioration. The time series early warning score (TEWS) used only heart rate, systolic blood pressure, and respiratory data, which are regularly measured in general wards. We tested the performance of the TEWS in two tasks performed with data from the electronic medical records of 16,865 adult admissions and compared the results with those of other classifications. The TEWS detected more deteriorations with the same level of specificity as the different algorithms did when inputting vital signs data from 48 h before an event. Our framework improved in-hospital cardiac arrest prediction and demonstrated that previously obtained vital signs data can be used to identify at-risk patients in real-time. This model may be an alternative method for detecting patient deterioration.


Asunto(s)
Paro Cardíaco , Habitaciones de Pacientes , Adulto , Paro Cardíaco/diagnóstico , Humanos , Pacientes Internos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Tiempo , Signos Vitales
18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35805443

RESUMEN

Road traffic accidents result in injury or even death of passengers. One potential cause of these accidents is mechanical failures due to a lack of vehicle maintenance. In the quest to identify these mechanical failures, this paper aims to set up the procedure to identify the mechanical failures that contribute to traffic accidents in cities located in developing countries, including the city of Cuenca-Ecuador. For present research, a database provided by the entity responsible for the Vehicle Technical Inspection, the Empresa Pública Municipal de Movilidad, Tránsito y Transporte and for the ones responsible of managing traffic accident data, Oficina de Investigación de Accidentes de Tránsito and Sección de Investigación de Accidentes de Tránsito was used. The vehicle subcategories M1 and M3 (bus type) and N1, so named according to Ecuadorian technical standards, were considered the most relevant regarding accident rates. The database was analysed with descriptive statistics, a Pareto chart and time series with the quadratic trend. From this analysis, the most significant failures found in the VTI in all three subcategories were the alignment of the driver headlight, both horizontal and vertical, braking imbalance on the 2nd axle, insufficient tire tread and parking brake effectiveness. All these failures showed a decreasing trend over time and in the forecast at a maximum of two to three years. The most relevant causes of road accidents recorded during the period 2009-2018 related to mechanical failures were the braking system (65.5%) and the steering system (17.2%) for subcategory M1.


Asunto(s)
Accidentes de Tránsito , Ciudades , Ecuador/epidemiología , Factores de Tiempo
19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35805737

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The health effect of air pollution is rarely quantified in Africa, and this is evident in global systematic reviews and multi-city studies which only includes South Africa. METHODS: A time-series analysis was conducted on daily mortality (cardiovascular (CVD) and respiratory diseases (RD)) and air pollution from 2006-2015 for the city of Cape Town. We fitted single- and multi-pollutant models to test the independent effects of particulate matter (PM10), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulphur dioxide (SO2) and ozone (O3) from co-pollutants. RESULTS: daily average concentrations per interquartile range (IQR) increase of 16.4 µg/m3 PM10, 10.7 µg/m3 NO2, 6 µg/m3 SO2 and 15.6 µg/m3 O3 lag 0-1 were positively associated with CVD, with an increased risk of 2.4% (95% CI: 0.9-3.9%), 2.2 (95% CI: 0.4-4.1%), 1.4% (95% CI: 0-2.8%) and 2.5% (95% CI: 0.2-4.8%), respectively. For RD, only NO2 showed a significant positive association with a 4.5% (95% CI: 1.4-7.6%) increase per IQR. In multi-pollutant models, associations of NO2 with RD remained unchanged when adjusted for PM10 and SO2 but was weakened for O3. In CVD, O3 estimates were insensitive to other pollutants showing an increased risk. Interestingly, CVD and RD lag structures of PM10, showed significant acute effect with evidence of mortality displacement. CONCLUSION: The findings suggest that air pollution is associated with mortality, and exposure to PM10 advances the death of frail population.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares , Ozono , Enfermedades Respiratorias , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/efectos adversos , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/análisis , Humanos , Dióxido de Nitrógeno/análisis , Ozono/análisis , Material Particulado/análisis , Enfermedades Respiratorias/inducido químicamente , Sudáfrica/epidemiología , Dióxido de Azufre/análisis , Factores de Tiempo
20.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(13)2022 Jun 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35808421

RESUMEN

Nowadays, even with all the tremendous advances in medicine and health protocols, cardiovascular diseases (CVD) continue to be one of the major causes of death. In the present work, we focus on a specific abnormality: ST-segment deviation, which occurs regularly in high-performance athletes and elderly people, serving as a myocardial infarction (MI) indicator. It is usually diagnosed manually by experts, through visual interpretation of the printed electrocardiography (ECG) signal. We propose a methodology to detect ST-segment deviation and quantify its scale up to 1 mV by extracting statistical, point-to-point beat characteristics and signal quality indexes (SQIs) from single-lead ECG. We do so by applying automated machine learning methods to find the best hyperparameter configuration for classification and regression models. For validation of our method, we use the ST-T database from Physionet; the results show that our method obtains 98.30% accuracy in the case of a multiclass problem and 99.87% accuracy in the case of binarization.


Asunto(s)
Electrocardiografía , Infarto del Miocardio , Anciano , Humanos , Infarto del Miocardio/diagnóstico , Factores de Tiempo
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