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1.
Am J Pharm Educ ; 83(1): 6500, 2019 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30894765

RESUMEN

Objective. To determine how the standards for teaching pharmacy history were met by U.S. pharmacy schools, whether schools wanted to expand their commitment to pharmacy history, what pedagogical assistance, if any, was desired, and whether elective courses were offered. Methods. There were 133 school deans who were asked to identify the responsible faculty for teaching pharmacy history. A 10-question online survey instrument was designed and emailed to these faculty or the dean if no faculty were identified. Follow-up emails were sent at 2-week intervals. If they were non-responsive after three attempts, then telephone solicitation was attempted. Results. There were 100 schools (75%) that responded. Fifty-three percent were public and 47% were private; with 50% having class sizes of 100 or less, 41% with 101-250, and 9% having over 250. Eighty-six percent of respondents meet the ACPE requirement within a required course. Seventy-two percent devote only one to five hours of instruction to meet the requirement. Sixty-eight percent use no supporting literature, and among those who do, there was no common textbook. Interestingly, 21% wanted more teaching time, and 91% desired pedagogical assistance, varying from a packaged course (26%) to a syllabus with assignments and assessment banks (23%). Conclusion. Since no time or material guidelines were established to fulfill the ACPE pharmacy history educational requirements, these results provide a starting point to judge what is adequate and/or preferred. With the development of teaching guidelines and adoptable teaching materials, the pedagogical solution to this ACPE standard may become more complete and consistent.


Asunto(s)
Educación en Farmacia/organización & administración , Historia de la Farmacia , Facultades de Farmacia/organización & administración , Enseñanza/organización & administración , Historia del Siglo XVII , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
3.
Am J Pharm Educ ; 82(9): 6430, 2018 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30559497

RESUMEN

Objective. To describe how clinical pharmacokinetics is being delivered across curricula in pharmacy programs, including the curricular position of clinical pharmacokinetic topics, topics currently taught, and instructional methods used in delivering the course content. Methods. A survey was distributed to one representative faculty member from each pharmacy college who was most able to answer questions about their institution's delivery of clinical pharmacokinetic material. Results. Responses were collected from 82 out of the 108 pharmacy colleges who participated in the study. Clinical pharmacokinetics was integrated within other courses through the curriculum in 41% of colleges and includes a substantial amount of math-based material. The most common instructional methods were lectures and practice with actual pharmacokinetic cases. The majority of the schools used examinations and quizzes to determine students' grades. Certain drugs remain popular (ie, aminoglycosides, vancomycin, digoxin) while others have fallen out of favor (ie, procainamide, phenytoin, theophylline). Various methods were used to deliver the material and assess student learning. Conclusion. The delivery of clinical pharmacokinetic material has changed in the recent past across pharmacy colleges in the United States. Spreading clinical pharmacokinetics throughout the curriculum while maintaining the math-centric nature of the material has occurred. Clinical pharmacokinetics is a changing field and these results can be used to compare an institution's current content and delivery methods with other institutions. These aggregate results may be useful for schools that are redesigning their curriculum or are considering doing so.


Asunto(s)
Curriculum/normas , Educación en Farmacia/tendencias , Enseñanza/educación , Educación de Pregrado en Medicina , Educación en Farmacia/métodos , Docentes , Humanos , Preparaciones Farmacéuticas , Farmacocinética , Instituciones Académicas , Facultades de Farmacia/organización & administración , Estudiantes de Farmacia , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Estados Unidos , Universidades
4.
Curr Pharm Teach Learn ; 10(10): 1391-1405, 2018 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30527369

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To share our experience of a partnership created amongst students, staff, and faculty in order to address a gap in campus information technology (IT) customer services provided to students. EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITY AND SETTING: Student reliance on a complex educational technology ecosystem requires a robust IT infrastructure; however, campus IT services are often stretched in terms of their capacity to deliver immediate customer support. Compounding this problem is the inability of campus IT services to address issues arising from pharmacy education specific hardware or software. A student help desk (SHD), a student-initiated technology user group was developed. The support provided by the SHD covers student devices to the level of ensuring access to required curriculum technological resources. FINDINGS: Over 24 months, a total of 259 cases were addressed by the SHD. When examining the type of submissions, the top five requested categories included computer-based assessment, e-mail synchronization, curricular management software synchronization, wireless printing and encryption. These results suggest the perceived value and confidence by students and faculty in the service provided by the SHD. SUMMARY: The use of a SHD helped to resolve technology issues faced by students for curriculum engagement. Regardless of the challenges institutions may face in delivering their curriculum, students have the desire to be engaged in the governance of their curriculum. By creating a collaborative triad, this represents one example of how student motivation can be leveraged to conquer not just gaps in IT customer service, but potentially other programmatic issues within an institution.


Asunto(s)
Tecnología de la Información , Apoyo a la Formación Profesional/métodos , Educación en Farmacia/métodos , Educación en Farmacia/tendencias , Conducta de Búsqueda de Ayuda , Humanos , San Francisco , Facultades de Farmacia/organización & administración , Estudiantes de Farmacia/estadística & datos numéricos , Apoyo a la Formación Profesional/normas
5.
Curr Pharm Teach Learn ; 10(12): 1636-1640, 2018 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30527831

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Pharmacy schools would benefit from new models of experiential education. The University of Saskatchewan (Canada) recently opened a patient care clinic called the Medication Assessment Centre (MAC) as new experiential education model. The purpose of this paper is to describe the structure and function of the MAC and to report program evaluation data. EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITY AND SETTING: The MAC is a unique application of an existing experiential education model in that it is an pharmacist-run ambulatory clinic (which is common) that is physically located on campus amongst the classrooms and supervised by pharmacy faculty (which is unique). Students are all required to participate in the clinic on a regular basis, in between lectures, throughout the four years of the pharmacy program. FINDINGS: Students were invited to participate in one of five focus groups to assess the value of the experience. Transcripts were analyzed using thematic analysis, and the results identified strong satisfaction amongst students. The overall themes fell into three categories: (1) aspects that students liked, (2) aspects that students found challenging, and (3) positive impact on student learning. Previously published studies have found strong support for the MAC amongst patients and physicians. SUMMARY: Students felt that a faculty supervised experiential education clinic that is physically located within their pharmacy school was a valuable learning experience. This paper provides a description of how the MAC has been integrated into an existing pharmacy curriculum, which may be valuable to schools contemplating a similar addition to existing experiential learning.


Asunto(s)
Instituciones de Atención Ambulatoria/normas , Percepción , Aprendizaje Basado en Problemas/normas , Estudiantes de Farmacia/psicología , Instituciones de Atención Ambulatoria/organización & administración , Curriculum , Educación en Farmacia/métodos , Educación en Farmacia/normas , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Aprendizaje Basado en Problemas/métodos , Saskatchewan , Facultades de Farmacia/organización & administración , Facultades de Farmacia/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudiantes de Farmacia/estadística & datos numéricos
6.
Curr Pharm Teach Learn ; 10(11): 1466-1473, 2018 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30514536

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: With over a third of the doctor of pharmacy curriculum relying on experiential education (EE), it is critical that students are assessed and graded in accordance with their actual performance. The objective of this paper is to review advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) grading across the Big Ten Academic Alliance to describe how APPE grading occurs at these institutions and highlight differences in approach and outcomes. METHODS: Experiential directors/deans were asked to import de-identified data (e.g., APPE curriculum, midpoint and final evaluation score and grade, number of preceptors, number of students, number of years of pharmacy school, total hours of APPEs offered, number and duration of APPEs per year, grading scale information). A chi-square test including pairwise comparisons with a Bonferroni p-value adjustment for multiple comparisons was performed. RESULTS: Seven college/schools submitted data from over 3600 students between 2012-2015. The distribution of letter grades differed significantly across all colleges/schools in 2012-2013, 2013-2014 and 2014-2015 (p < 0.0001). Similarly, the distribution of letter grades by rotation type varied significantly for all colleges/schools (p < 0.0001). Students in acute care, ambulatory care, and other patient care rotation types were less likely to obtain an "A" and more likely to obtain a "B" compared to students in other rotation types. CONCLUSIONS: When letter grades are used for APPEs, the trend suggests over 95% of students receive an "A" or "B" grade. Final grades varied by rotation type with more "B" grades observed in patient care rotations than "A" grades over the three-year period.


Asunto(s)
Educación en Farmacia/métodos , Evaluación Educacional/estadística & datos numéricos , Escolaridad , Distribución de Chi-Cuadrado , Evaluación Educacional/métodos , Humanos , Aprendizaje Basado en Problemas/métodos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Facultades de Farmacia/organización & administración , Facultades de Farmacia/estadística & datos numéricos
7.
Curr Pharm Teach Learn ; 10(9): 1280-1287, 2018 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30497632

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Although student ratings are the most common method for evaluating faculty performance in the classroom in schools of pharmacy, this should not be the sole approach to provide feedback to faculty regarding teaching. EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITY AND SETTING: This initiative targeted individuals at the ranks of Clinical Assistant or Assistant Professor who taught during the 2016-2017 academic year. As part of the process, the peer reviewer(s) attended a class taught by the faculty member under review. During the observation, the peer reviewer(s) completed rubrics and noted strengths and areas for improvement. Participating faculty members were asked to complete a post-evaluation survey to evaluate the pilot program and offer suggestions for enhancement FINDINGS: Based on a 64.3% response rate (9/14) from reviewers and 92.9% (13/14) from faculty members under review, 100% (9/9) of reviewers and 92.3% (12/13) of faculty members under review would recommend the peer review program to their colleagues. However, 77.8% (7/9) of the reviewers and only 46.2% (6/13) of faculty members under review supported the use of the peer review method as part of the annual faculty evaluation and development process. DISCUSSION/SUMMARY: Ultimately, this process of peer review will be implemented across the college, benefiting faculty evaluation and development, as part of the promotion and tenure process. With our positive feedback and suggestions for improvement, the authors hope this will serve as a guide for institutions to develop peer review programs that will positively supplement student ratings and provide an additional, meaningful form of evaluation for self- improvement and promotion/tenure.


Asunto(s)
Docentes de Farmacia , Revisión por Pares/métodos , Facultades de Farmacia/normas , Retroalimentación , Humanos , Proyectos Piloto , Facultades de Farmacia/organización & administración
8.
Curr Pharm Teach Learn ; 10(9): 1303-1320, 2018 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30497635

RESUMEN

OUR SITUATION: The Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education outlines ability statements that pharmacy students should be able to demonstrate prior to beginning their Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences (APPEs). Practice laboratory courses offer extensive opportunities for students to participate in activities and assessments that enable them to meet the objectives outlined in the Pre-APPE Core Domains in Standards 2016. This review identifies selected published literature, activities, and assessment methods that can be adapted and implemented in practice laboratory courses to help achieve the abilities outlined within the Pre-APPE Core Domains. METHODOLOGICAL LITERATURE REVIEW: The Medline database and journals related to pharmacy education were searched to identify activities and assessments for each domain. Search terms for each core domain were extracted from the domain titles, ability statements, and performance competencies and coupled with "laboratory" or "lab." "Pharmacy" was also added as a search term when searching the Medline database. Preference was given to example activities published in the last 15 years. Abstracts and activities based on author experience were also included. OUR RECOMMENDATIONS AND THEIR APPLICATIONS: Specific examples of how activities and assessments can be included in practice laboratories to develop or refresh skills identified in the pre-APPE core domains were described. POTENTIAL IMPACT: The practice laboratory setting is an ideal place for students to learn and practice the skills necessary to demonstrate readiness for APPEs. This paper serves as a resource for instructors, curriculum committees, or pharmacy programs looking for ideas to expand specific training or develop particular skill areas.


Asunto(s)
Curriculum/tendencias , Educación en Farmacia/métodos , Humanos , Seguridad del Paciente , Preceptoría/métodos , Facultades de Farmacia/organización & administración
9.
Am J Health Syst Pharm ; 75(19): 1478-1485, 2018 Oct 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30131324

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: The evolution and expansion of a school of pharmacy-sponsored resident teaching and learning program (RTLP) are described. SUMMARY: Since its establishment in 2012, Auburn University Harrison School of Pharmacy's RTLP has grown to include up to 12 residency programs in Alabama and on the Gulf Coast of Mississippi and Florida. Program requirements include seminar attendance, teaching experiences and observations, and development of an electronic teaching portfolio. Residents are provided support and guidance from an assigned faculty mentor and from chosen teaching mentors in each teaching activity. A program satisfaction survey was developed to assess residents' reasons for RTLP participation and their views on the manageability of program requirements, the level of residency program support received, the usefulness of seminar content, and other aspects of the program. Resident feedback has been used by RTLP coordinators to modify and refine program requirements. Major changes have included a switch to alternative information delivery mechanisms, clarification of mentor roles and responsibilities, and a transition from longitudinal seminars to intensive workshop days. At the end of the 2016-17 residency year, the RTLP had hosted a total of 66 residents from 12 different residency programs, with a 93.9% retention rate and a more than 3-fold increase in total resident enrollment. CONCLUSION: Evolution of a school of pharmacy-sponsored RTLP was essential to meet the growing needs of affiliated residency programs while optimizing faculty resources.


Asunto(s)
Educación en Farmacia/organización & administración , Residencias en Farmacia/organización & administración , Facultades de Farmacia/organización & administración , Certificación , Comunicación , Curriculum , Evaluación Educacional , Retroalimentación , Humanos , Gestión de la Información , Aprendizaje , Mentores , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud , Enseñanza
10.
Curr Pharm Teach Learn ; 10(6): 695-700, 2018 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30025768

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To investigate relationships between different prerequisite course grades and grade point average (GPA) of different types of academic performance in a Canadian entry-to-practice pharmacy program while controlling for important demographic variables. METHODS: Data from eight years of recently admitted students (2007-2014) were used to conduct a series of multiple linear regression analyses to assess relationships between prerequisite course GPA and eight different pharmacy school academic performance variables including: GPA in each of the first three years of the program, overall Y1-Y3 GPA, and GPA in pharmaceutical science, clinical science, clinical practice, and behavioral, social, and administrative (BSA) science courses. Demographic predictor variables including gender, mature status, and whether students attended ranked versus non-ranked universities were included as control variables. RESULTS: Analysis reveals that Biology and Biochemistry prerequisite GPA consistently predicts all eight academic performance variables while prerequisite English GPA was found to predict only clinical practice and BSA GPA. Being female and attending ranked universities were revealed as positively associated with most types of performance. Being classified as a mature student generally predicted lower academic performance. CONCLUSIONS: The consistent relationship between biology-based prerequisites and academic performance warrants consideration for increasing their weight in admissions GPA calculations. The fact that the set of prerequisites and demographic variables are weaker predictors of clinical practice and BSA performance than pharmaceutical science performance provides empirical support for recent moves to include non-traditional admission criteria.


Asunto(s)
Rendimiento Académico/normas , Evaluación Educacional/estadística & datos numéricos , Rendimiento Académico/estadística & datos numéricos , Alberta , Evaluación Educacional/métodos , Humanos , Análisis de Regresión , Criterios de Admisión Escolar/estadística & datos numéricos , Facultades de Farmacia/organización & administración , Facultades de Farmacia/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudiantes de Farmacia/estadística & datos numéricos
11.
Curr Pharm Teach Learn ; 10(6): 701-711, 2018 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30025769

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: To determine the allocation of faculty and curricular time to the teaching of transitions of care (ToC) concepts by colleges of pharmacy (COPs) to equip students with the necessary skills for the provision of these services. METHODS: A novel 15-question anonymous electronic survey was sent to 136 pharmacy practice chairpersons. RESULTS: Response rate was 26.5% (n = 36). Of these, 47% employed ToC faculty while 44% are not actively recruiting for that position in the foreseeable future. Median total curriculum hours dedicated to teaching ToC was four (interquartile range two to 10 hours). Medication reconciliation skills were taught didactically and via interactive lab sessions by 53% of respondents. Only 11% offered an interdisciplinary ToC program. A significant association between not having ToC faculty and lack of implementation of ToC concepts within a pharmacy curriculum (p = 0.02, Fisher's Exact) and practice site (p = 0.045, Pearson's) was observed. Barriers to adopting ToC within the curriculum (e.g., uncertainty of placement within curriculum, resistance by faculty and administrators) and at a practice site (e.g., inadequate infrastructure to accommodate ToC delivery, ToC faculty unavailability and resistance by other health care providers) were reported. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that COPs devote curricular time to ToC activities and involve dedicated faculty in the provision of these services. Several barriers to employing ToC faculty and planning additional time in the curriculum for teaching these skills were identified. Future research should determine the best methods for training students to ensure competence in performing ToC tasks.


Asunto(s)
Docentes de Farmacia/estadística & datos numéricos , Transferencia de Pacientes/métodos , Asignación de Recursos/métodos , Factores de Tiempo , Educación en Farmacia/métodos , Educación en Farmacia/normas , Educación en Farmacia/tendencias , Humanos , Conciliación de Medicamentos/métodos , Asignación de Recursos/normas , Facultades de Farmacia/organización & administración , Facultades de Farmacia/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
12.
Am J Pharm Educ ; 82(5): 6478, 2018 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30013245

RESUMEN

Objective. To determine professionalism factors of interest to the University of South Florida (USF) College of Pharmacy (COP) and develop a programmatic plan to monitor the professionalization of students, faculty, preceptors and staff. Methods. In 2013, the USF COP began investigating how best to incorporate processes to capture professionalism across all aspects of the program. A Professionalism Task Force was convened to identify key professionalism factors valued by faculty and preceptors to be incorporated in pharmacy practice experiences, didactic courses, faculty, and preceptor performance evaluations. A factor analysis was performed to identify items for inclusion in professional practice experience evaluations, course syllabi, faculty, preceptor and staff evaluations. Results. The analysis identified 11 factors for practice experiences, three for syllabi, and five for performance evaluations. The information from the factor analysis spurred additional discussion that led to the development of a programmatic plan for professionalization. Conclusion. A brief description of the programmatic professionalization plan is provided, including possible assessment processes. The goal of this endeavor was to ensure appropriate support and development of professionalization across the COP community.


Asunto(s)
Educación en Farmacia/métodos , Educación en Farmacia/normas , Práctica Profesional/normas , Facultades de Farmacia/normas , Competencia Clínica , Servicios Comunitarios de Farmacia , Curriculum , Docentes , Florida , Humanos , Motivación , Farmacéuticos , Farmacia , Preceptoría , Aprendizaje Basado en Problemas , Práctica Profesional/organización & administración , Profesionalismo , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud , Facultades de Farmacia/organización & administración
13.
Am J Pharm Educ ; 82(5): 6603, 2018 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30013247

RESUMEN

The integration of foundational science and clinical science education is a hallmark of educational reform within the health professions, and an increasing number of pharmacy schools are implementing integrated curricula in professional pharmacy programs. Although the foundational sciences serve as an essential framework for understanding clinical knowledge, instructors may face challenges when integrating clinical science into foundational science courses. Here we present practical learner-centered teaching tips to address these challenges.


Asunto(s)
Disciplinas de las Ciencias Biológicas/educación , Curriculum , Educación en Farmacia/métodos , Facultades de Farmacia/organización & administración , Educación Médica , Educación en Farmacia/tendencias , Humanos , Facultades de Farmacia/tendencias , Estudiantes de Farmacia
14.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak ; 28(3): 229-232, 2018 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29544583

RESUMEN

Clinical pharmacists should be increasingly important members of the healthcare team in developing countries such as Pakistan. Survey of literature was conducted to identify the determinants of clinical pharmacy in Pakistan. Lack of trained human capital, shortage of resources, patient overburden, inefficient pharmacy education curriculum, and limited job opportunities are some of the determinants of clinical pharmacy profession in developing countries. The underutilization of clinical pharmacists paves the way for an increased incidence of medication errors, adverse drug events, irrational prescribing, and suboptimal therapeutic outcomes. Integration mapping is an important framework for providing guidelines in protocol planning for improvement in a profession. A step by step change is required to promote the growth of clinical pharmacy profession in Pakistan.


Asunto(s)
Curriculum , Farmacéuticos , Rol Profesional , Facultades de Farmacia/organización & administración , Actitud del Personal de Salud , Prestación de Atención de Salud , Humanos , Pakistán , Grupo de Atención al Paciente
15.
Curr Pharm Teach Learn ; 9(3): 344-348, 2017 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29233269

RESUMEN

Transitioning from a pharmacy practice faculty member into an administrator will offer new challenges you have never faced in your career. Whether you are currently considering a transition in your career or have recently made such a transition, many questions will come up along the way. Through this commentary, I offer some advice from my own personal trials and errors as I continue on my administrative journey, and I hope this will help you in yours.


Asunto(s)
Personal Administrativo , Movilidad Laboral , Docentes de Farmacia , Facultades de Farmacia/organización & administración , Selección de Profesión , Comunicación , Objetivos , Humanos , Liderazgo , Confianza
16.
Curr Pharm Teach Learn ; 9(6): 966-971, 2017 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29233393

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: This study quantifies and describes student self-assessment approaches in colleges of pharmacy across the United States. METHODS: Faculty members identified as assessment directors from college websites at U.S. colleges of pharmacy were electronically surveyed. Prior to distribution, feedback and question validation was sought from select assessment directors. Surveys were distributed and recorded, via Qualtrics® survey software and analyzed in Microsoft Excel®. RESULTS: Responses were received from 49 colleges of pharmacy (n = 49/134, 37% response rate). The most commonly used strategies were reflective essays (n = 44/49, 90%), portfolios (n = 40/49, 82%), student self-evaluations (n = 35/49, 71%) and questionnaires/surveys/checklists (n = 29/49, 59%). Out of 49 submitted surveys, 35 programs noted students received feedback on self-assessment. Feedback came most commonly from faculty (n = 31/35, 88%). Thirty-four programs responded regarding self-assessment integration including fifteen colleges (n = 15/34, 44%) that integrated self-assessment both into the curriculum and co-curricular activities, while 14 (n = 14/34, 41%) integrated self-assessment exclusively into the curriculum, and five (n = 5/34, 15%) used self-assessment exclusively in co-curricular activities. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: Student self-assessment is a critical first step of the Continuing Professional Development (CPD) process. Colleges and schools of pharmacy use a wide variety of methods to develop this skill in preparing future practitioners.


Asunto(s)
Educación en Farmacia/métodos , Facultades de Farmacia/normas , Autoevaluación , Curriculum/normas , Curriculum/tendencias , Evaluación Educacional/métodos , Evaluación Educacional/normas , Humanos , Facultades de Farmacia/organización & administración , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Estados Unidos , Universidades/organización & administración , Universidades/tendencias
17.
Curr Pharm Teach Learn ; 9(6): 972-979, 2017 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29233394

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: With increased emphasis placed on non-academic skills in the workplace, a need exists to identify an admissions process that evaluates these skills. This study assessed the validity and reliability of an application review process involving three dedicated application reviewers in a multi-stage admissions model. METHODS: A multi-stage admissions model was utilized during the 2014-2015 admissions cycle. After advancing through the academic review, each application was independently reviewed by two dedicated application reviewers utilizing a six-construct rubric (written communication, extracurricular and community service activities, leadership experience, pharmacy career appreciation, research experience, and resiliency). Rubric scores were extrapolated to a three-tier ranking to select candidates for on-site interviews. Kappa statistics were used to assess interrater reliability. A three-facet Many-Facet Rasch Model (MFRM) determined reviewer severity, candidate suitability, and rubric construct difficulty. RESULTS: The kappa statistic for candidates' tier rank score (n = 388 candidates) was 0.692 with a perfect agreement frequency of 84.3%. There was substantial interrater reliability between reviewers for the tier ranking (kappa: 0.654-0.710). Highest construct agreement occurred in written communication (kappa: 0.924-0.984). A three-facet MFRM analysis explained 36.9% of variance in the ratings, with 0.06% reflecting application reviewer scoring patterns (i.e., severity or leniency), 22.8% reflecting candidate suitability, and 14.1% reflecting construct difficulty. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: Utilization of dedicated application reviewers and a defined tiered rubric provided a valid and reliable method to effectively evaluate candidates during the application review process. These analyses provide insight into opportunities for improving the application review process among schools and colleges of pharmacy.


Asunto(s)
Evaluación Educacional/métodos , Criterios de Admisión Escolar , Facultades de Farmacia/tendencias , Humanos , Variaciones Dependientes del Observador , Facultades de Farmacia/organización & administración , Estudiantes de Farmacia/estadística & datos numéricos , Universidades/organización & administración , Universidades/estadística & datos numéricos
19.
Am J Pharm Educ ; 81(1): 6, 2017 Feb 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28289296

RESUMEN

Objective. To identify the methods used by US colleges and schools of pharmacy to prepare student pharmacists for academic careers. Method. An 18-item survey instrument was developed and distributed to US colleges and schools of pharmacy. Representatives were asked about faculty responsibilities, experiences in academia currently offered to student pharmacists, and representatives' perception of their student pharmacists' preparedness for careers in academia, including barriers in current programming. Results. Representatives from 96 colleges/schools responded. The vast majority (96%) provided academia-focused advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs), 40% provided didactic coursework in academia, 28% offered a longitudinal research track, and 42% offered academia-focused independent studies. Teaching methods and creating learning objectives were the most common pedagogical content, while assessment activities were diverse. Time was the most prevalent barrier to providing training for academic careers; however, degree of student pharmacist interest, faculty inexperience, and lack of leadership support were also commonly reported. Conclusions: Colleges and schools of pharmacy vary in the extent to which they prepare student pharmacists for careers in academia. Advanced pharmacy practice experiences were the most common method of training offered. Standardization of training for academia may better promote this career path to student pharmacists.


Asunto(s)
Selección de Profesión , Educación en Farmacia/métodos , Facultades de Farmacia/organización & administración , Estudiantes de Farmacia , Actitud del Personal de Salud , Curriculum , Educación de Postgrado en Farmacia , Docentes de Farmacia , Humanos , Farmacéuticos , Sociedades Farmacéuticas , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Estados Unidos
20.
Am J Pharm Educ ; 81(1): 9, 2017 Feb 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28289299

RESUMEN

Objectives. To launch and evaluate a comparative effectiveness research education and dissemination program as part of an introductory pharmacy practice experience (IPPE). Methods. First- through third-year PharmD students received training on comparative effectiveness research and disseminated printed educational materials to patients in the community who they were monitoring longitudinally (n=314). Students completed an assessment and initial visit documentation form at the first visit, and a follow-up assessment and documentation form at a subsequent visit. Results. Twenty-three diabetes patients, 29 acid-reflux patients, 30 osteoarthritis patients, and 50 hypertension patients received materials. Aside from the patient asking questions, which was the most common outcome (n=44), the program resulted in 38 additional actions, which included stopping, starting, or changing treatments or health behaviors, or having additional follow-up or diagnostic testing. Small but positive improvements in patient understanding, confidence, and self-efficacy were observed. Conclusions. Dissemination of comparative effectiveness research materials in an IPPE program demonstrated a positive trend in markers of informed decision-making.


Asunto(s)
Investigación sobre la Eficacia Comparativa , Educación del Paciente como Asunto/métodos , Aprendizaje Basado en Problemas/métodos , Características de la Residencia , Documentación , Educación en Farmacia/métodos , Femenino , Humanos , Difusión de la Información , Masculino , Facultades de Farmacia/organización & administración , Autocuidado , Autoeficacia , Estudiantes de Farmacia , Adulto Joven
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