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1.
Pan Afr Med J ; 40: 40, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34795821

RESUMEN

The post-independence era in Nigeria ushered in an array of fundamental structuring and development in all sectors of the Nigerian economy including medical education and training. This era saw the establishment of medical schools across the country which mirrored the medical curriculum of British universities. This paper dives into the general structure of undergraduate medical education in Nigeria, its historical background and how it compares with neighboring and distant countries. Since the undergraduate medical education curriculum has not seen significant modifications since conception, this paper presents the challenges of the existent structure to include biased admission process, emphasis on irrelevant pre-medical courses, paucity of of technologically-advanced teaching and learning aids, increased workloads of lecturers amongst others. Importantly, solutions and recommendations are prescribed in this paper, which if considered, may improve undergraduate medical training in Nigeria, and ultimately improve the standard of healthcare service provision in the country.


Asunto(s)
Curriculum/normas , Educación de Pregrado en Medicina/normas , Facultades de Medicina/normas , Educación de Pregrado en Medicina/historia , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Nigeria , Facultades de Medicina/historia
3.
AMA J Ethics ; 23(3): E271-275, 2021 03 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33818380

RESUMEN

The Flexner Report damaged and marginalized historically Black medical schools, which today produce more than their fair share of Black medical graduates. As physicians, graduates of Black medical schools have confronted head-on the inequities of American responses to COVID-19 that the pandemic has laid bare to the world. Black physicians' leadership roles in American health care and in American communities have informed the reimagination of health care and medical education as just and inclusive.


Asunto(s)
Afroamericanos/educación , Racismo/historia , Informe de Investigación , Facultades de Medicina/historia , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos
8.
World Neurosurg ; 149: 32-37, 2021 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33388461

RESUMEN

Modern neurosurgery has been developing worldwide for more than a century, whereas in China, as stated in previous literature, only 7 decades have passed since the development of neurosurgery during the early 1950s after World War II and China's War of Liberation. However, as increasing evidence before the wars from medical records, annual hospital reports, and journal archives emerge, the history of neurosurgery in China, especially the initial stage, needs to be reassessed. The establishment of the Peking Union Medical College Hospital (PUMCH) in 1921, funded by the Rockefeller Foundation, marked the start of Western medicine in China. Meanwhile, modern neurosurgery started to take root in the nation. Chinese neurosurgeons at PUMCH, Song-Tao Guan, M.D. and Yi-Cheng Zhao, M.D., both of whom graduated from PUMC and received further training abroad, made great contributions to the initial growth of Chinese neurosurgery. Although neurosurgery experienced slow and even stagnant development in China during the wars that took place from 1941-1949, the prewar period from 1921-1940 witnessed substantial improvement in operative skills, bedside education, resident training, and scientific research in neurosurgery at PUMCH, providing indispensable contributions that have allowed Chinese neurosurgery to flourish during the past 7 decades.


Asunto(s)
Centros Médicos Académicos/historia , Neurocirugia/historia , Facultades de Medicina/historia , China , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos
9.
J Med Biogr ; 29(1): 19-23, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30382792

RESUMEN

The medical history of Iran and Islam is marked by the presence of renowned physicians, some of whom are not well known outside Iran. Abυ¯ Man⋅υ¯r ῌasan ibn Nυ¯h Qamari Bukhara 'i was an Iranian physician living in the fourth century AH (10th century CE). The scientific works of this sage indicate his skill and expertise in medical science. He was a man of such scientific stature that the renowned Iranian philosopher and physician, Avicenna, use may have been one of his disciples. Qamari may be credited as one of the promoters of the medical school of Muhammad Ibn Zakariyya Razi. Some of his works, including Al-Tanwir Fi 'Istilahat Al-Tibbiyyah and Al-Ghina and Al-Muna are still extant. In this paper, his scientific life and works, based on primary sources, have been studied in order to shed light on his role in formation of the Muslim Medical School.


Asunto(s)
Médicos/historia , Facultades de Medicina/historia , Historia Medieval , Irán , Persia
10.
J Med Biogr ; 29(1): 23-29, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30382798

RESUMEN

Dr Gilbert Kymer (d. 1463) was a leading royal physician, scholar, cleric and university administrator of the first half of the 15th century. He was physician to Henry V & VI, and principally to Humphrey Duke of Gloucester, for whom he wrote an extensive Dietarium. He collected medical books and facilitated their translation, and helped to set up Duke Humfrey's library at Oxford. He became Dean of Salisbury, and for 11 years was Chancellor of the University of Oxford.


Asunto(s)
Médicos/historia , Facultades de Medicina/historia , Inglaterra , Historia del Siglo XV , Historia Medieval , Gales
11.
J Med Biogr ; 29(2): 84-91, 2021 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30799672

RESUMEN

After graduating in medicine from the Edinburgh Extramural School of Medicine, William Keiller trained in obstetrics and became anatomy lecturer at the Edinburgh College of Medicine for Women, where he successfully devised and developed an anatomical curriculum. In 1891, Keiller was appointed as the Professor of anatomy at the state medical department of the University of Texas, at the age of 30. He built up a nationally recognised anatomy department, museum and teaching curriculum informed by his experience in Edinburgh. Keiller left the University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston a rich legacy, including anatomical specimens and drawings.


Asunto(s)
Anatomistas/historia , Arte/historia , Museos/historia , Facultades de Medicina/historia , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Escocia , Texas
12.
Rev. cuba. med. mil ; 49(4): e1018,
Artículo en Español | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1156493

RESUMEN

El 7 de octubre de 1981, por el acuerdo No. 1074 del Comité Ejecutivo del Consejo de Ministros, se creó el Instituto Superior de Medicina Militar, hoy Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de las Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias, como centro de educación superior, adscrito al Ministerio de las Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias. Constituye la única institución docente de nivel superior de su tipo en el Cuba, para la formación de médicos militares, estomatólogos, enfermeros y tecnólogos de la salud. Las vías de ingreso a la universidad, son los alumnos egresados de las escuelas militares Camilo Cienfuegos y del servicio militar. La universidad arriba a su 39 aniversario, con satisfacción y logros en las ciencias médicas, pedagógicas y de la educación médica. Tiene un claustro de profesores, que responde a las exigencias y necesidades de la educación superior cubana, la salud pública y el Ministerio de las Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias. Dentro de los profesores, es un honor contar varios que ostentan la Orden Carlos J. Finlay, por sus aportes a la ciencia; con miembros del contingente Henry Reeve, que han trabajado y trabajan en varias partes del mundo; así como poseedores de la Distinción por la Educación Cubana...(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Facultades de Medicina/historia , Medicina Militar/historia , Cuba
13.
Br J Hosp Med (Lond) ; 81(10): 1-2, 2020 Oct 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33135924

RESUMEN

Fifty years ago, in 1970, academic surgical units had finally been established throughout the universities in the UK. Such departments had been created in the Scottish university cities in the 19th century; some medical schools in London had resisted this custom, but by now these bastions of the old system had surrendered!


Asunto(s)
Cirugía General/educación , Facultades de Medicina , Universidades , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos , Facultades de Medicina/historia , Sociedades , Reino Unido , Universidades/historia
14.
Twin Res Hum Genet ; 23(5): 298-299, 2020 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33092677

RESUMEN

A brief account is given by E. M. Nicholls, M.D., of the formation and demise of the School of Human Genetics of the University of New South Wales.


Asunto(s)
Genética Médica , Facultades de Medicina , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos , Nueva Gales del Sur , Facultades de Medicina/historia
16.
J Anesth Hist ; 6(3): 143-150, 2020 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32921484

RESUMEN

After the first successful public demonstration of modern anesthesia in 1846, most female anesthetists were nurses by trade since none were yet allowed to attend medical school to become physicians. The turn of the twentieth century, however, brought about greater opportunity for female physician-anesthetists. We explore the life and career of Barbara E. Waud (1931-), a pioneering woman physician and researcher in the field of anesthesiology. Waud chose to pursue a career in medicine at a time when most women did not even attend college, and for most of her training and practice, she was the only woman in her department. Personal interviews with Waud, her daughter, and her colleagues highlight her rebellious and resilient nature that helped her overcome the obstacles put forth by male colleagues, and the judgment she received from female acquaintances for being a working mother. Waud's impressive career of dedicated clinical practice and ground-breaking research spanned four decades and inspired generations of physicians.


Asunto(s)
Anestesiólogos/historia , Docentes Médicos/historia , Médicos Mujeres/historia , Anestesiología/educación , Anestesiología/historia , Investigación Biomédica/historia , Canadá , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Massachusetts , Publicaciones Periódicas como Asunto/historia , Facultades de Medicina/historia , Sexismo/historia
17.
J Anesth Hist ; 6(3): 133-142, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32921483

RESUMEN

After a brief "golden age" in the late 1800s, the patriarchal establishment fought back and women faced increasing restrictions in practicing medicine. In 1900, 18.2% of all physicians in the city of Boston were women, but this number decreased to 8.7% by 1930. The relatively young field of anesthesiology was one of the more welcoming specialties for women during this time. History has been unkind to these early female trailblazers who have often been overlooked in favor of the men in their fields. Julia Gordon Arrowood (1900-1984) was a forerunner for women in medicine and a prominent anesthesiologist in Boston from the 1930s until the 1950s. Her work included not only clinical medicine, but also research and teaching. She attended Boston University School of Medicine, graduating as valedictorian in the class of 1933. She interned at Belmont Hospital in Worcester, MA where she decided on a career in anesthesiology. She was accepted as a resident at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) by chief-anesthetist Henry Beecher in 1935, thereby becoming the first woman anesthesiology resident in Massachusetts. She remained at MGH and was named Acting Chief of Anesthesia in 1943. In 1944, she became president of the New England Society of Anesthesiologists, another first for a woman. In 1946, she joined Reginald Smithwick's team as Chief of Anesthesia at Massachusetts Memorial Hospital, Boston, and concurrently held the position of Professor of Anesthesiology at Boston University School of Medicine. Arrowood led many of the earliest studies on spinal anesthesia, muscle relaxants, and spinal headaches. In 1957, she moved to Kentucky and joined the United Mine Workers hospital system where she worked until her retirement in 1970. Women such as Julia Arrowood remain underrepresented in the annals of the history of medicine. Much work is needed to recognize the many contributions made by women physicians and to provide equal opportunities, pay, and status.


Asunto(s)
Anestesiólogos/historia , Médicos Mujeres/historia , Anestesiología/historia , Boston , Historia del Siglo XX , Internado y Residencia/historia , Facultades de Medicina/historia , Sexismo/historia , Estados Unidos
18.
Yale J Biol Med ; 93(3): 441-451, 2020 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32874151

RESUMEN

In this review of 100 years of the Yale System of Medical Education, a portrait emerges of what it is and what it has made possible. Founded in the 1920s under the leadership of Dean Milton C. Winternitz, the Yale System abandoned most educational mainstays including: grades, class rankings, roll call, daily assignments, course exams, and class year affiliations. Instead, a thesis and two broad qualifying examinations were required. Revised over decades, the essential elements endure. The Yale System has cultivated generations of humane physicians, academics, and leaders through the rise of modern medicine, and medicine's constantly evolving knowledge base.


Asunto(s)
Facultades de Medicina/historia , Curriculum , Educación Médica/historia , Educación de Postgrado en Medicina/métodos , Educación de Postgrado en Medicina/organización & administración , Escolaridad , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Médicos , Facultades de Medicina/organización & administración , Estados Unidos
19.
P R Health Sci J ; 39(2): 178-183, 2020 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32663914

RESUMEN

The essay examines the scientific representations that unfolded and evolved at the University of Puerto Rico School of Tropical Medicine (STM) under the auspices of Columbia University (1926-1949). This article on the STM's scientific endeavors is the fourth in a historical serial collection about the images and evolution of sciences at the institution and it portrays the diagrammatic representations of special technical research aspects and studies (i.e., personnel, epidemiology, methodology, animal studies, biology, field studies, treatment and immunology, and chemotherapy agents). The essay focuses on the emerged scientific representations and on the nature and evolution of sciences at the School, and has been divided into four sections: a) images of science, b) evolution during the first two eras, c) the third and last era unfolding, and d) special technical studies. In this paper the scientific representations have been brought about mainly through the analyses of research publications in external and local venues. The analysis of the STM's scientific evolution has been organized in three distinct historical stages: 1926-31, 1932-40, and 1941-49. These representations open an exploration pathway for a better understanding of the intricate interrelationships between the techné and the episteme horizons of tropical medical science in Puerto Rico.


Asunto(s)
Salud Pública/historia , Facultades de Medicina/historia , Medicina Tropical/historia , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos , Salud Pública/educación , Puerto Rico , Medicina Tropical/educación
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