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1.
Praxis (Bern 1994) ; 109(2): 109-115, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32019460

RESUMEN

A Holiday Souvenir with Consequences - an Interdisciplinary Challenge Abstract. We describe a patient with a diabetic foot and challenging infectious complications. After a hospital stay in Sri Lanka due to a soft tissue infection of the foot he was relocated to Switzerland. After proof of multiple resistant bacteria, an amputation of the forefoot with a split skin cover was performed, followed by a short resistance-adapted antibiotic treatment, with good clinical results. This case illustrates the increase of multidrug-resistant bacteria, even in Switzerland. It emphasizes the importance of infection control measures in travellers returning from countries with high prevalence of multidrug-resistant bacteria (especially after a hospitalisation), and the need of a close interdisciplinary collaboration in these cases to guarantee the best treatment and to limit the spreading of multidrug-resistant bacteria.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos , Pie Diabético , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Pie Diabético/tratamiento farmacológico , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana Múltiple , Humanos , Masculino , Suiza
2.
Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol ; 129(1): 5-11, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390881

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Intranasal septal splints are often used in nasal septal surgeries. Routine use of postoperative antibiotics is an accepted practice, although data regarding its efficacy in preventing postsurgical complications are limited. This study aimed to examine bacterial colonization on septal splints following prophylactic antibiotic therapy and the association with postoperative infections. METHODS: Fifty-five patients underwent septoplasty by a single surgeon between March 2015 and April 2016. All had intranasal septal splints and were given antibiotic prophylaxis for 7 days until removal of splints. Nasal cultures were taken before surgery, and septal splints were examined for bacterial colonization following their removal. RESULTS: Thirty-six patients (65%) had positive nasal culture prior to surgery. The most common isolates were Staphylococcus aureus (30%) and Enterobacteriaceae species (66%). All these patients had postoperative bacterial colonization on septal splints. In 15 patients with negative preoperative cultures, bacteria were isolated postoperatively. An increased resistance profile was documented postoperatively in 9 patients (16%), including two with multidrug resistance. In two of these patients preoperative wild-type strains acquired antibiotic resistance postoperatively. No adverse drug reactions to antibiotics were reported. CONCLUSIONS: Increased bacterial growth and emergence of resistant strains were observed on intranasal septal splints despite prophylactic antibiotic treatment. Nonetheless, this did not translate into clinical infection. Thus, considering antibiotics overuse and increasing bacterial resistance, further research is needed to determine the role of antibiotic prophylaxis in the setting of intranasal splints.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Profilaxis Antibiótica , Cavidad Nasal/microbiología , Tabique Nasal/cirugía , Procedimientos Quírurgicos Nasales/métodos , Férulas (Fijadores)/microbiología , Infección de la Herida Quirúrgica/prevención & control , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Combinación Amoxicilina-Clavulanato de Potasio/uso terapéutico , Cefalexina/uso terapéutico , Técnicas de Cultivo , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana Múltiple , Enterobacteriaceae/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Enterobacteriaceae/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Infecciones Estafilocócicas/epidemiología , Staphylococcus aureus/aislamiento & purificación , Infección de la Herida Quirúrgica/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
3.
APMIS ; 128(1): 25-34, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31628820

RESUMEN

Eradication failure of Helicobacter pylori infection could play a causal role in progression of gastric disorders. In this study, infection with H. pylori was followed in gastric biopsies of symptomatic adult patients at two phases during 1-year period. Analyses were done to show association of therapeutic regimens with the refractory infection, changes in sequence types (STs) and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values, and progression of histopathological changes. Infection with H. pylori was confirmed in 32.3% (57/170) of the patients. Persistent infection with H. pylori was confirmed in 14 out of the 25 patients (56%) who participated at the second phase of the study. A difference between primary and secondary resistance rates to clarithromycin (49% vs 64.3%), metronidazole (76.36% vs 100%), and ciprofloxacin (45% vs 57.1%) was detected. Although the re-emerged strains in patients with refractory infection did not show alteration in STs, their MIC50 values showed twofold increases for clarithromycin and ciprofloxacin. While ciprofloxacin containing regimens were more successful, failure of metronidazole containing regimens was detected in 77% of the patients. Consequently, inappropriate medication has an impact on refractory H. pylori infection, which could cause to a rise in resistance levels to antibiotics and progression of pathological disorders.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana Múltiple , Infecciones por Helicobacter/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por Helicobacter/patología , Helicobacter pylori/efectos de los fármacos , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Técnicas de Tipificación Bacteriana , Biopsia , Ciprofloxacino/farmacología , Claritromicina/farmacología , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Técnicas Histológicas , Humanos , Concentración 50 Inhibidora , Masculino , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Persona de Mediana Edad , Tipificación de Secuencias Multilocus , Estómago/microbiología , Estómago/patología
5.
Equine Vet J ; 52(1): 112-119, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31033041

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Horses are one of the potential reservoirs of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) determinants that could be transferred to human subjects. OBJECTIVE: To describe the AMR patterns of major bacteria isolated from diseased horses in France. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective observational study. METHODS: Data collected between 2012 and 2016 by RESAPATH, the French national surveillance network for AMR, were analysed. Only antimicrobials relevant in veterinary and human medicine for the isolated bacteria were considered. Mono- and multidrug resistance were calculated. The resistance proportions of major equine diseases were assessed and compared. Where data permitted, resistance trends were investigated using nonlinear analysis (generalised additive models). RESULTS: A total of 12,695 antibiograms were analysed. The five most frequently isolated bacteria were Streptococcus spp., Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Pantoea spp. and Klebsiella spp. The highest proportions of resistance to gentamicin were found for S. aureus (22.1%) and Pseudomonas spp. (26.9%). Klebsiella spp. and E. coli had the highest proportions of resistance to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (15.5 and 26.2%, respectively). Proportions of resistance to tetracycline were among the highest for all the bacteria considered. Resistance to third-generation cephalosporins was below 10% for all Enterobacteriaceae. The highest proportions of multidrug resistance (22.5%) were found among S. aureus isolates, which is worrying given their zoonotic potential. From 2012 to 2016, resistance proportions decreased in Pseudomonas spp. isolates, but remained the same for S. aureus. For Streptococcus spp. and E. coli, resistance proportions to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole increased. MAIN LIMITATIONS: Since antibiograms are not systematic analyses, any selection bias could impact the results. CONCLUSIONS: Such studies are essential to estimate the magnitude of the potential threat of AMR to public health, to design efficient control strategies and to measure their effectiveness. These findings may also guide the initial empirical treatment of horse diseases.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/farmacología , Infecciones Bacterianas/veterinaria , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana Múltiple , Enfermedades de los Caballos/microbiología , Animales , Infecciones Bacterianas/epidemiología , Infecciones Bacterianas/microbiología , Francia/epidemiología , Enfermedades de los Caballos/epidemiología , Caballos , Salud Pública , Estudios Retrospectivos
6.
Khirurgiia (Mosk) ; (12): 74-83, 2019.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31825346

RESUMEN

AIM: To determine the place of new drugs with activity against multidrug resistant strains of microorganisms in the treatment of complicated intraabdominal infections. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The incidence and distribution of pathogens isolated from intra-abdominal specimens in patients with intra-abdominal infections are analyzed. RESULTS: The current situation on the growth of resistant strains among pathogens causing intra-abdominal infections is rewied. New combined drugs for the treatment of multidrug resistant infections - ceftolozane/tazobactam and ceftazidim/avibactam plus metronidazole, has been suggested. Their potential role in empiric and targeted antibacterial treatment of complicated intraabdominal infections is defined. CONCLUSION: Taking into consideration local monitoring data and risk factors of multi resistant strains Ceftolozane/tazobactam in combination with metronidazole can be used in empiric regime of treatment. Due to the high activity on carbapenem resistant strains of Klebsiella pneumonia and the lack of alternatives, it is advisable to use Ceftazidim/avibactam for the targeted therapy.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/administración & dosificación , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana Múltiple/efectos de los fármacos , Infecciones Intraabdominales/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones Intraabdominales/microbiología , Compuestos de Azabiciclo/administración & dosificación , Ceftazidima/administración & dosificación , Cefalosporinas/administración & dosificación , Combinación de Medicamentos , Humanos , Ácido Penicilánico/administración & dosificación
7.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 36(1): 3, 2019 Dec 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31832784

RESUMEN

Available disinfection methods and therapies against Helicobacter pylori have multiple disadvantages, such as increased prevalence of antibiotic-resistant strains, which requires the search for novel effective antimicrobial agents against H. pylori. Among them, naturally-occurring antimicrobial compounds, like essential oil components (EOCs), have been reported as substances with anti-H. pylori potential. To avoid the disadvantages associated with using EOCs in their free form, including volatility, low water solubility and intense sensory properties, their immobilisation in inert supports has recently been developed. This study sought to evaluate the inhibitory properties of EOCs immobilised on silica microparticles against H. pylori and to elucidate the mechanism of action of the immobilised antimicrobials. After the preparation and characterisation of the antimicrobial supports, the susceptibility of H. pylori in the presence of the immobilised compounds was assessed by plate count, fluorescent viability staining and direct viable count-fluorescent in situ hybridisation analyses. The antimicrobial supports were found to inhibit H. pylori growth, and to induce morphological and metabolic alterations to the H. pylori membrane, with a minimum bactericidal concentration value between 25 and 50 µg/ml according to the tested EOC. These findings indicate that immobilised EOCs can be used as potential antimicrobial agents for H. pylori clearance and treatment.


Asunto(s)
Antiinfecciosos/farmacología , Helicobacter pylori/efectos de los fármacos , Aceites Volátiles/farmacología , Recuento de Colonia Microbiana , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana Múltiple , Inmovilización , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Viabilidad Microbiana/efectos de los fármacos , Dióxido de Silicio/química
9.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 53: e20180498, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31859938

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the main pathogens causing infection in intensive care units (ICUs) and usually presents antimicrobial resistance. METHODS: Data were obtained from ICUs between 2010 and 2013. RESULTS: P. aeruginosa had a prevalence of 14.5% of which 48.7% were multidrug resistant. We observed increasing resistance to carbapenems and polymyxin B and growing consumption of aminoglycosides, meropenem, ceftazidime, and polymyxin B. The regression impact between resistance and consumption was significant with respect to amikacin, imipenem, meropenem, and polymyxin B. CONCLUSIONS: Monitoring antimicrobial consumption and resistant microorganisms should be reinforced to combat antimicrobial- and multi-drug resistance.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/farmacología , Infección Hospitalaria/microbiología , Infecciones por Pseudomonas/microbiología , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efectos de los fármacos , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana Múltiple , Humanos , Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Prevalencia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/aislamiento & purificación
10.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 53: e20190044, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31859941

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Acinetobacter baumannii are opportunistic bacteria, highly capable of acquiring antimicrobial resistance through the production of carbapenemases and aminoglycoside modifying enzymes (AMEs). METHODS: Carbapenemase and AME genes were investigated in A. baumannii recovered from inpatients of a Brazilian hospital. RESULTS: The key genes found were bla OXA-51-like, the association ISAba1- bla OXA-23-like, and the AME genes aph(3´)-VI, aac(6´)-Ib, aac(3)-Ia, and aph(3´)-Ia. Different clusters spread through the institution wards. CONCLUSIONS: The dissemination of bla OXA-23-like and AME-carrying A. baumannii through the hospital highlights the need for improved preventive measures to reduce the spread of infection.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Acinetobacter/microbiología , Acinetobacter baumannii/enzimología , Aminoglicósidos/genética , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Proteínas Bacterianas/genética , beta-Lactamasas/genética , Acinetobacter baumannii/efectos de los fármacos , Acinetobacter baumannii/aislamiento & purificación , Brasil , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana Múltiple , Humanos , Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Centros de Atención Terciaria
11.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 1072, 2019 Dec 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31864284

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (SMA) is present in hospital environments and has been one of the pathogens that cause nosocomial contamination and infections. To investigate the occurrence of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (SMA) in bronchoscope lavage fluid (BALF) among 25 cases treated in the Division of Infection and to trace the contamination source and transmission route. METHODS: 25 cases of SMA positive BALF occurring from May 11 to August 10, 2018 were tested for drug sensitivity. Environmental hygiene conditions were investigated to identify the source of contamination and the route of transmission. RESULTS: BALF associated SMA was in all cases sensitive to minocycline, levofloxacin and chloramphenicol and resistant to ceftazidime and imipenem. 92.3% of samples were sensitivity to compound sulfamethoxazole. Investigation of environmental hygiene parameters revealed SMA growing on the inner wall of the fiberoptic bronchoscope as a likely source of contamination. CONCLUSION: Incomplete cleaning and sterilization of the fiberoptic bronchoscope led to SMA nosocomial contamination. Strict sterilization procedures are required to prevent and control nosocomial contamination.


Asunto(s)
Broncoscopios/microbiología , Infección Hospitalaria/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Bacterias Gramnegativas/diagnóstico , Stenotrophomonas maltophilia/aislamiento & purificación , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Ceftazidima/farmacología , Infección Hospitalaria/prevención & control , Infección Hospitalaria/transmisión , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana Múltiple , Infecciones por Bacterias Gramnegativas/prevención & control , Infecciones por Bacterias Gramnegativas/transmisión , Humanos , Imipenem/farmacología , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Stenotrophomonas maltophilia/efectos de los fármacos
12.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 200: 111622, 2019 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31678034

RESUMEN

Seaweeds are considered to be one of the richest bio-reserves, comprising of numerous bioactive compounds with versatile properties and multiple activities. The present study examined the antibacterial activity of two types of seaweeds, Ulva lactuca (green) and Stoechospermum marginatum (brown) collected from Oman Coastal region against five multidrug-resistant bacteria. The aqueous extracts of the seaweeds showed better antibacterial activity compared to methanol extracts. The results of the antibacterial assay revealed the excellent inhibitory effects of U.lactuca with the maximum activity against E.coli(8 mm) followed by K.pneumonia(4 mm) and S.typhi(2 mm). S.marginatum formed a clear zone of inhibition only against E.coli(3 mm).The major phytochemical constituents identified in both the types of seaweeds were Alkaloids, Terpenoids, Saponins, Flavonoids, and Steroids. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) results confirmed the presence of alcoholic/phenolic groups, and amide groups in the seaweed extracts. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) results evidenced the presence of bioactive compounds such as 5-Octadecenal, 1-Tricosanol, Neophytadiene, Lactaropallidin, Phytol, Fenretinide, Lucenin, Vincadifformine in U.lactuca. Additionally, U.lactuca displayed better antioxidant activity (33.05%) in the DPPH free radical scavenging activity test compared to the S.marginatum (21.51%). Thus, the green seaweed U.lactuca could be considered as a potential source of natural antioxidant and antibacterial agents for food and pharmaceutical products.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/química , Phaeophyta/química , Extractos Vegetales/química , Ulva/química , Antibacterianos/aislamiento & purificación , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Antioxidantes/química , Bioprospección , Pruebas Antimicrobianas de Difusión por Disco , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana Múltiple/efectos de los fármacos , Cromatografía de Gases y Espectrometría de Masas , Bacterias Gramnegativas/efectos de los fármacos , Bacterias Grampositivas/efectos de los fármacos , Phaeophyta/metabolismo , Ulva/metabolismo
13.
J Med Microbiol ; 68(12): 1740-1746, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31718745

RESUMEN

Introduction. One of the most important resistant mechanisms in Gram-negative bacteria is extended spectrum ß-lactamases (ESBLs). Harbour-related genes on plasmids, increase the risk of resistance transmission among commonly reported hospital infections.Aim. This study was designed to explore the dissemination of Pseudomonas aeruginosa producing ESBLs on their plasmids recovered from the different wards of Amir-Al-Momenin burn center, Affiliated with Shiraz University of Medical Sciences.Methodology. Among 256 isolates, 88 (34.38 %) P. aeruginosa strains were isolated from burn hospitalized patients. Samples were processed for antibiotic resistance using the Kirby-Bauer method while MIC was performed for colistin. MIC was used by the microdilution broth method as recommended by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. Related studied genes were evaluated on extracted plasmids by the PCR method.Results. According to the phenotypic and molecular steps, a total of 58 (65.91 %) and 74 (84.10 %) strains detected positive ESBLs, respectively. Based on antibiogram tests, a total of 63 (71.59 %) isolates were detected as multidrug resistant. All ESBL P. aeruginosa isolates showed identical antimicrobial susceptibility profiles. The genotypic prevalence of ESBLs for bla SHV, bla TEM, bla GES, bla OXA-10 and bla PSE genes was 47.73, 78.41, 5.58, 3.41, 4.55 %, respectively.Conclusion. All P. aeruginosa strains producing ESBLs had plasmids containing related genes. The data indicated a high prevalence of ESBL among P. aeruginosa isolates in the southwest of the Iran burn center and their enzyme types were diverse.


Asunto(s)
Quemaduras/microbiología , Plásmidos , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/genética , beta-Lactamasas/genética , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana Múltiple , Humanos , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efectos de los fármacos , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/enzimología
14.
Arq Gastroenterol ; 56(4): 361-366, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31721972

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori infection in Chile remains as a public and private health-care system's challenge, with a prevalence of the infection over 70%. Nowadays, antibiotic treatment of the infection is mandatory to prevent the arising of severe associated diseases but failures in the eradication therapy mainly due to clarithromycin resistance has been observed worldwide and first line eradication therapy seems to be not effective anymore in several geographical areas. Thus, health-care systems are committed to maintain an epidemiological surveillance upon the evolution of the antibiotic resistance of this priority 2 pathogen. OBJECTIVE: This work reports a 10 years surveillance of the primary antibiotic resistance of H. pylori clinical isolates at the Biobío region-Chile, and the evolution of resistance toward amoxicillin, clarithromycin, levofloxacin, metronidazole, and tetracycline among the species. METHODS: H. pylori strains were investigated during the periods 2005-2007 (1435 patients analysed) and 2015-2017 (220 patients analysed) by inoculating a saline homogenate biopsy onto the surface of Columbia agar (Oxoid, Basingstoke, UK) - supplemented with 7% horse red blood cells plus DENT inhibitor (Oxoid, Basingstoke, UK) - following by incubation at 37ºC under 10% CO2 atmosphere for five days. Antibiotic resistance pattern of the isolates was assessed using the disk diffusion test in Müeller-Hinton agar supplemented with 7% horse red blood cells followed by incubation for further three days under 10% CO2 atmosphere. Statistical analysis was done using the SPSS v22 software and P values <0.05 were considered statistically significant. RESULTS: A total of 41% of 1435 patients were detected to be infected with H. pylori by bacteriological culture in 2005-2007 period, meanwhile 32.7% from 220 patients were also infected in 2015-2017 period. The clinical isolates of H. pylori are mostly susceptible to amoxicillin and tetracycline (both over 98% of strains), but less susceptible to levofloxacin in both periods analysed (over 79% of the strains). On the other hand, metronidazole continuous showing the highest score of resistant isolates (over 40% of resistant strains), although an 18% fewer resistant strains were observed in 2015-2017 period. Clarithromycin, the key antibiotic in eradication therapies, has an increased frequency of resistant strain isolated in the decade (22.5% in 2005-2007 and 29.2% in 2015-2017). Multidrug resistant strains (two, three and four antibiotics) were also detected in both periods with the highest scores for simultaneous resistance to clarithromycin-metronidazole (18%) and clarithromycin-metronidazole-levofloxacin (12.5%) resistant strains. According to gender, the isolates resistant to amoxicillin, clarithromycin and metronidazole were more frequent in female, with a specific increment in amoxicillin and clarithromycin resistance. CONCLUSION: The frequency of clarithromycin resistance (29.2%) detected in 2015-2017 suggests that conventional triple therapy is no longer effective in this region.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/farmacología , Helicobacter pylori/efectos de los fármacos , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Amoxicilina/farmacología , Chile , Claritromicina/farmacología , Pruebas Antimicrobianas de Difusión por Disco , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana Múltiple , Femenino , Infecciones por Helicobacter/microbiología , Humanos , Levofloxacino/farmacología , Masculino , Metronidazol/farmacología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Vigilancia de la Población , Tetraciclina/farmacología , Adulto Joven
15.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 219, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31692780

RESUMEN

Introduction: "suya" and smoked fish are cherished food delicacies in Nigeria, but can be a source of dissemination of Multi-drug Resistant (MDR) bacteria. Moreover, there are limited studies on these MDR bacteria from Dutsin-Ma. Therefore, this study examined the bacteriological qualities and antibiogram profiles of bacteria in these foods from this area in Nigeria. Methods: Twenty samples of each of "suya" and smoked fish were collected from the study areas and microbiologically analyzed. Total viable count, coliform count, characterization and identification of bacteria were carried out by standard microbiological techniques. Results: Findings revealed that "suya" samples possessed the highest total viable bacteria count (3.4×105 to 7.7×105 cfu/g) and coliform count (2.1×105 to 6.2×105 cfu/g). A total of 85 and 78 bacteria were isolated from "suya" and smoked fish samples respectively. E. coli (24.7% and 24.4%) was the most frequently isolated from each sample respectively. Highest (66.7%) resistance to each of cefuroxime, gentamicin, amoxillin/clavulanate and ciprofloxacin were observed among E. coli from "suya". MDR phenotypes commonly isolated was resistance to ceftazidime, cefuroxime, ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, augmentin and nitrofurantoin. Conclusion: These studies showed the presence of MDR bacteria in samples, hence, raise the need for improved production hygiene and public health awareness.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/farmacología , Bacterias/aislamiento & purificación , Peces/microbiología , Animales , Bacterias/efectos de los fármacos , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana Múltiple , Humanos , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Nigeria , Alimentos Marinos/microbiología
16.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 851, 2019 Oct 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31615439

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR), tuberculosis (TB) prevalence was estimated at 540/100,000 in 2011. Nevertheless, little is known about the genetic characteristics and anti-TB drug resistance of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis population. The main objective of this work was to study the genetic characteristics and drug resistance of M. tuberculosis population collected during the first National TB Prevalence Survey (TBPS) of Lao PDR (2010-2011). METHODS: Two hundred and twenty two isolates collected during TBPS (2010-2011) were analyzed with the GenoType MTBDRplus test for M. tuberculosis identification and drug resistance detection. Then, 206 of the 222 isolates were characterized by spoligotyping and MIRU-VNTR typing. RESULTS: Among the 222 M. tuberculosis isolates, 11 were mono-resistant to isoniazid and 2 were resistant to isoniazid and rifampicin (MDR-TB), using the GenoType MTBDRplus test. Among the 202 genetically characterized isolates, the East African-Indian (EAI) family was predominant (76.7%) followed by the Beijing (14.4%) and T (5.5%) families. EAI isolates came from all the country provinces, whereas Beijing isolates were found mainly in the northern and central provinces. A higher proportion of Beijing isolates was observed in people younger than 35 years compared to EAI. Moreover, the percentage of drug resistance was higher among Beijing (17.2%) than EAI (5.2%) isolates, and the two MDR-TB isolates belonged to the Beijing family. Combined analysis of the MIRU-VNTR and spoligotyping results (n = 202 isolates) revealed an estimated clustering rate of 11% and the occurrence of mini-outbreaks of drug-resistant TB caused by Beijing genotypes. CONCLUSIONS: The EAI family, the ancient and endemic family in Asia, is predominant in Lao PDR whereas the prevalence of Beijing, the most harmful M. tuberculosis family for humans, is still low, differently from neighboring countries. However, its association with drug resistance, its presence in young patients and its potential association with recent transmission suggest that the Beijing family could change TB epidemiological pattern in Lao PDR. Therefore, efficient TB control and surveillance systems must be maintained and reinforced to prevent the emergence of highly transmissible and drug-resistant strains in Lao PDR, as observed in neighboring countries.


Asunto(s)
Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Tuberculosis Resistente a Múltiples Medicamentos/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Antituberculosos/farmacología , Antituberculosos/uso terapéutico , Análisis por Conglomerados , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana Múltiple/efectos de los fármacos , Femenino , Genotipo , Humanos , Isoniazida/farmacología , Isoniazida/uso terapéutico , Laos/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/clasificación , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/aislamiento & purificación , Filogenia , Prevalencia , Rifampin/farmacología , Rifampin/uso terapéutico , Tuberculosis Resistente a Múltiples Medicamentos/tratamiento farmacológico , Tuberculosis Resistente a Múltiples Medicamentos/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
17.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4792, 2019 10 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31636263

RESUMEN

The treatment of bacterial infections is hindered by the presence of biofilms and metabolically inactive persisters. Here, we report the synthesis of an enantiomeric block co-beta-peptide, poly(amido-D-glucose)-block-poly(beta-L-lysine), with high yield and purity by one-shot one-pot anionic-ring opening (co)polymerization. The co-beta-peptide is bactericidal against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), including replicating, biofilm and persister bacterial cells, and also disperses biofilm biomass. It is active towards community-acquired and hospital-associated MRSA strains which are resistant to multiple drugs including vancomycin and daptomycin. Its antibacterial activity is superior to that of vancomycin in MRSA mouse and human ex vivo skin infection models, with no acute in vivo toxicity in repeated dosing in mice at above therapeutic levels. The copolymer displays bacteria-activated surfactant-like properties, resulting from contact with the bacterial envelope. Our results indicate that this class of non-toxic molecule, effective against different bacterial sub-populations, has promising potential for the treatment of S. aureus infections.


Asunto(s)
Biopelículas/efectos de los fármacos , Glucosa/síntesis química , Lisina/análogos & derivados , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente a Meticilina/efectos de los fármacos , Infecciones Cutáneas Estafilocócicas/tratamiento farmacológico , beta-Lactamas/síntesis química , Células 3T3 , Animales , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana Múltiple , Glucosa/farmacología , Glucosa/uso terapéutico , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Lisina/síntesis química , Lisina/farmacología , Lisina/uso terapéutico , Ratones , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Polimerizacion , beta-Lactamas/farmacología , beta-Lactamas/uso terapéutico
18.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 880, 2019 Oct 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640588

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Antibiotic resistance is a leading cause of treatment failure in Helicobacter pylori infection. In Africa, there are very little data concerning the susceptibility of Helicobacter pylori isolates to antibiotics. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the resistance prevalence of Helicobacter pylori strains circulating in Cameroon, and to assess overexpression of efflux pump as a possible multi-drug resistance mechanisms. METHODS: A total of 140 H. pylori isolates were recovered from gastric biopsies of dyspeptic patients in two reference hospitals in Cameroon and analyzed for their antimicrobial susceptibility to amoxicillin, co-amoxiclav, ampicillin, penicillin, imipenem, metronidazole, rifabutin, erythromycin, clarithromycin, azithromycin, levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, tetracycline, doxycycline and minocycline. Antibiotic sensitivity was tested by disk diffusion method. Phe-Arg-naphthylamide (PAßN) was used as efflux pump inhibitor. INT broth microdilution method in supplemented Brain Heart Infusion broth was used to determine the MIC of ampicillin, amoxicillin, metronidazole, erythromycin, clarithromycin and doxycycline in the absence and the presence of PAßN against 32 selected MDR isolates. RESULTS: Overall H. pylori resistance rate was 100% to ampicillin, penicillin and co-amoxiclav; 97.14% to amoxicillin, 97.85% to metronidazole, 47.85% to erythromycin, 13.57% to clarithromycin; 5, 2.86 and 0.71% to doxycycline, tetracycline and minocycline respectively. No resistance to azithromycin, rifabutin, imipenem, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin and levofloxacin was detected among H. pylori isolates. Seventy percent (70%) of the tested isolates elicited a multiple drugs resistance pattern; 42.57% double, 15.71% triple and 5.71% quadruple drugs resistance. Metronidazole and amoxicillin were more concerned with double resistance pattern (86.76%). The spectrum of activity recorded with metronidazole, doxycycline, clarithromycin and erythromycin ranged from 0 to 100% in the absence to the presence of PAßN against the tested MDR isolates. An 8 to 128-fold increase in potency was also noticed with these antibiotics in the presence of PAßN. CONCLUSION: With regard to the high resistance rate to both amoxicillin and metronidazole, these drugs should be avoided as components of triple therapy in our milieu. In contrast, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, levofloxacin and tetracyclines could be used to achieve a better eradication rate and to reduce the risk of selection of H. pylori resistant strains.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/farmacología , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana Múltiple/efectos de los fármacos , Dispepsia/microbiología , Infecciones por Helicobacter/microbiología , Helicobacter pylori/efectos de los fármacos , Adulto , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Biopsia , Camerún , Estudios Transversales , Dipéptidos/farmacología , Femenino , Infecciones por Helicobacter/tratamiento farmacológico , Helicobacter pylori/aislamiento & purificación , Humanos , Masculino , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana
19.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 19(1): 279, 2019 Oct 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640666

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Rapid emergence of multidrug resistant (MDR) organisms in hospital and community settings often result into treatment failure, thus leading the clinicians with fewer treatment options. Cyathea gigantea, an ethnomedicinally important fern used in cuts and wound infections. So, if this medicinal plant is used in treating the MDR infections then it might bring certain relief in future treatment options. METHODS: Antibacterial activity of C. gigantea against MDR bacteria was assed using well diffusion and broth microdilution methods to determine the diameters of growth inhibition zones, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). Synergistic activity was also determined with the conventional antibiotics by disc diffusion method followed by FIC index of each of the tested antibiotic was calculated. The active extract was then subjected to fractionation by column chromatography and antibacterial activity was done with each of the collected fractions. RESULTS: Crude extract of C. gigantea was found to be active against all the tested organisms. The MIC was 200 µg/ml against Gram-positive i.e., Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and 400 µg/ml against Gram-negative i.e., Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1, while the MBC was 400 µg/ml in case of Gram-positive and 800 µg/ml for Gram-negative. The synergistic activity revealed that the plant extract increased the antibacterial property of the studied antibiotics and the FIC index showed that significant synergistic activity was shown by ciprofloxacin followed by tetracycline, ampicillin and oxacillin. Antibacterial activity with the fractionated extract showed that the FR II, FR III and FR IV were active against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, whereas FR I, FR V and FR VI did not show antibacterial property against any of the tested bacteria. CONCLUSIONS: Extracts of C. gigantea was found active against both selected Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms and thus offers the scientific basis for the traditional use of the fern. The present study also provides the basis for future study to validate the possible use against multidrug resistant organisms.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/farmacología , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana Múltiple , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Tracheophyta/química , Antibacterianos/química , Infecciones Bacterianas/microbiología , Bacterias Gramnegativas/efectos de los fármacos , Bacterias Grampositivas/efectos de los fármacos , Humanos , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Extractos Vegetales/química , Hojas de la Planta/química , Plantas Medicinales/química
20.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 897, 2019 Oct 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31660887

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The impact of animals sources of food as a possible reservoir for extended-spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL) - Producing E. coli, and the dissemination of such strains into the food production chain need to be assessed. This study was aimed to assess the presence and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of ESBLs - producing E. coli isolates from minced meat and environmental swab samples at meat retailer shops of Jimma town, Southwest Ethiopia. METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted from March to June, 2016. A total of 168 minced meat and swab samples were first enriched by buffered peptone water (BPW) for overnight and streaked onto MacConkey agar. Double disk synergy (DDS) method was used for detection of ESBL-producing strains. A disk of amoxicillin + clavulanic acid (20/10 µg) was placed in the center of Mueller-Hinton agar plate, and cefotaxime (30 µg) and ceftazidime (30 µg) were placed at a distance of 20 mm from the central disk. Checklist was used to assess hygienic status of butcher shops and practices meat handlers. RESULTS: A total of 35 (20.80%) biochemically confirmed E. coli were obtained from 168 samples. Of these, 21 (23.9%) of them were detected from 88 minced meat and the other 14 (17.5%) from 80 swab samples taken from butcher's hand, knives, chopping board and protective clothing. From 35 E. coli isolates, 7(20%) of them were confirmed as ESBL- producers. Among ESBL- producing strains, 85.7% were resistant for cefotaxime and ceftriaxone and 71.4% for ceftazidime. Among non-ESBLs-producing strains only seven isolates were resistant to third generation cephalosporin. All E. coli isolates were resistant to ampicillin, penicillin and erythromycin, and susceptible to amikacin. Poor hygienic status of butcher shops and unhygienic practice of meat handlers were observed. CONCLUSION: The detections of ESBLs- producing strains could be contributed for the increment of multi drug resistant isolates. This study also concluded that, unhygienic meat handling and processing practice can contribute for contaminations of meat. Thus, strategies should be planned and implemented to improve the knowledge and practice of butchers about handling and processing of meat.


Asunto(s)
Escherichia coli/enzimología , Microbiología de Alimentos/métodos , Carne/microbiología , Salud Laboral , beta-Lactamasas/análisis , Animales , Bovinos , Vestuario , Estudios Transversales , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana Múltiple , Escherichia coli/clasificación , Escherichia coli/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Escherichia coli/prevención & control , Etiopía , Mano/microbiología , Higiene de las Manos , Humanos , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana
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