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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(16): e19716, 2020 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32311958

RESUMEN

The aim of this study is to explore and identify ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP)-related prognostic immune factors and further detect the drug-resistant pathogens to establish the theoretical guidance for clinical prevention and treatment strategies of VAP. A total of 478 patients using ventilator who were hospitalized in July 2014 to November 2016 in our hospital were enrolled in this study. About 103 patients with VAP (21.5%, 103/478) among 478 cases of patients using ventilator. Among the 103 patients with VAP, the distribution of pathogenic bacteria and drug resistance in patients with VAP were detected and analyzed. In the VAP group, 35 patients died and 43 patients had simultaneous sepsis. Compared with those of non-VAP group, the proportion of CD3 (P = .012), CD3CD4 (P = .024) and CD8CD28 ( P = .017) T cells in VAP group increased significantly, which indicated more severe immune response. Multivariate regression model analysis revealed that tracheotomy of mechanical ventilation (P = .013), mechanical ventilation time ≥7 days (P = .02) and aspiration and reflux (P = .011) were independent risk factors associated with VAP. According to the results of bacterial culture and drug sensitivity test, rational selection of antibiotics and monitoring of patients within intensive care unit can effectively control the incidence of VAP and improve the prognosis of patients.


Asunto(s)
Farmacorresistencia Microbiana , Neumonía Asociada al Ventilador/inmunología , Linfocitos T , Adulto , Anciano , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Neumonía Asociada al Ventilador/microbiología , Estudios Retrospectivos
2.
Cell Host Microbe ; 27(4): 489-490, 2020 04 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32272070

RESUMEN

Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) facilitates spead of antibiotic resistance elements. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Domenech et al. discover that compounds disrupting proton motive force block natural competence (COM) and interrupt intraspecies HGT and exchange of antibiotic resistance. Such strategies might minimize clinical spread of antibiotic resistance.


Asunto(s)
Transferencia de Gen Horizontal , Fuerza Protón-Motriz , Bacterias/genética , Farmacorresistencia Microbiana , Plásmidos
3.
Bioresour Technol ; 308: 123274, 2020 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32251865

RESUMEN

The coexistence of nitrate and antibiotics in wastewater is a common problem. The study aimed to explore the response of denitrifying community, denitrification genes and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) to oxytetracycline (OTC) stress in polycaprolactone (PCL) supported solid-phase denitrification (SPD) reactors. Complete nitrate reduction (greater than99%) was achieved in SPD system with OTC stress of 0, 0.05, 0.25 and 1 mg L-1 during three-month operation, while it significantly declined by about 5% at a further increased OTC level of 5 mg L-1. The efficient denitrification strongly related with a rich diversity of denitrifiers, while the abundances of which dramatically reduced as the OTC concentration reached ≥0.25 mg L-1, which caused significant decline of denitrification genes, especially for narH, narJ, narI nirD, nosZ, and norB. Tetracycline resistance genes were a major type of promoted ARGs by different OTC stress, mainly related with the increase of tet36, tetG, tetA, tetM and tetC.


Asunto(s)
Oxitetraciclina , Antibacterianos , Desnitrificación , Farmacorresistencia Microbiana , Poliésteres
4.
Rev Med Suisse ; 16(690): 713-718, 2020 Apr 15.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32301304

RESUMEN

Antibiotic resistance has become a major medical problem of our time. In 2015, the World Health Organisation (WHO) endorsed a global action plan in response. One of the main axes of this plan has been the sustained development of new antimicrobials. Despite its challenges, over half a dozen new substances have become clinically available in the last decade. Here, we review a selection of these novel antimicrobial and their applications and discuss their possible use in the clinical setting.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos , Desarrollo de Medicamentos , Descubrimiento de Drogas , Antibacterianos/provisión & distribución , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Farmacorresistencia Microbiana , Humanos
9.
Bioresour Technol ; 307: 123228, 2020 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32247686

RESUMEN

Emerging organic contaminants (EOCs) include a diverse group of chemical compounds, such as pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), pesticides, hormones, surfactants, flame retardants and plasticizers. Many of these compounds are not significantly removed in conventional wastewater treatment plants and are discharged to the environment, presenting an increasing threat to both humans and natural ecosystems. Recently, antibiotics have received considerable attention due to growing microbial antibiotic-resistance in the environment. Constructed wetlands (CWs) have proven effective in removing many EOCs, including different antibiotics, before discharge of treated wastewater into the environment. Wastewater treatment systems that couple conventional treatment plants with constructed and natural wetlands offer a strategy to remove EOCs and reduce antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) far more efficiently than conventional treatment alone. This review presents as overview of the current knowledge on the efficiency of different wetland systems in reducing EOCs and antibiotic resistance.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Humedales , Antibacterianos , Bacterias , Farmacorresistencia Microbiana , Ecosistema , Eliminación de Residuos Líquidos , Aguas Residuales
10.
J Environ Manage ; 262: 110375, 2020 May 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32250829

RESUMEN

The extensive application of antibiotics, and the occurrence and spread of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) shade health risks to human and animal. The long-term effects of sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and tetracycline (TC) on denitrification process were evaluated in this study, with the focus on nitrogen removal performance, microbial community and ARGs. Results showed that low-concentration SMX and TC (<0.2 mg L-1) initially caused a deterioration in nitrogen removal performance, while higher concentrations (0.4-20 mg L-1) of both antibiotics had no further inhibitory influences. The abundances of ARGs in both systems generally increased during the whole period, and most of them had significant correlations with intI1, especially efflux-pump genes. Castellaniella, which was the dominant genus under antibiotic pressure, might be potential resistant bacteria. These findings provide an insight into the toxic effects of different antibiotics on denitrification process, and guides future efforts to control antibiotics pollution in ecosystems.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos , Microbiota , Animales , Desnitrificación , Farmacorresistencia Microbiana , Genes Bacterianos
11.
J Environ Manage ; 266: 110581, 2020 Jul 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32310121

RESUMEN

Green tea residues (GTRs) are byproducts of tea production and processing, and this type of agricultural waste retains nutritious components. This study investigated the co-composting of GTRs with swine manure, as well as the effects of GTRs on antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and the bacterial community during co-composting. The temperature and C/N ratio indicate compost was mature after processing. The addition of GTRs effectively promoted the reduction in the abundances of most targeted ARGs (tet and sul genes), mobile genetic element (MGE; intI1), and metal resistance genes (MRGs; pcoA and tcrB). Redundancy analysis (RDA) showed that GTRs can reduce the abundance of MRGs and ARGs by reducing the bioavailability of heavy metals. Network analysis shows that Firmicutes and Actinobacteria were the main hosts of ARGs and ARGs, MGEs, and MRGs shared the same potential host bacteria. Adding GTRs during composting may reduce ARGs transmission through horizontal gene transfer (HGT). GTRs affected the bacterial community, thereby influencing the variations in the ARG profiles and reducing the potential risk associated with the compost product.


Asunto(s)
Compostaje , Animales , Antibacterianos , Bacterias , Farmacorresistencia Microbiana , Genes Bacterianos , Estiércol , Porcinos ,
12.
Water Res ; 176: 115721, 2020 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32222544

RESUMEN

For comprehensive insights into the effects of multiple disinfection regimes on antibiotic resistome in drinking water, this study utilized metagenomic approaches to reveal the changing patterns of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and bacterial community as well as their associations. A total of 297 ARGs within 17 types were detected in the drinking water, and their total relative abundance ranged from 195.49 ± 24.85 to 626.31 ± 38.61 copies of ARGs per cell. The total ARG abundance was significantly increased after the antimicrobial resin and ultraviolet (AR/UV) disinfection while significantly decreased after the ozone and chlorine (O3/Cl2) disinfection and remained stable after AR/Cl2 disinfection. Overall, 18 ARGs including bacA, mexT, and blaOXA-12, mainly affiliated to bacitracin, multidrug, and beta-lactam, were persistent and discriminative during all the disinfection strategies in drinking water, and they were considered as key ARGs that represent the antibiotic resistome during drinking water disinfection. Additionally, possible hosts of 50% key ARGs were revealed based on co-occurrence network. During multiple disinfection processes, the change of Fusobacteriales and Aeromonadaceae in abundance mainly contributed to the abundance shift of bacA, and Pseudomonas mainly increased the abundance of mexT. These findings indicated that bacterial community shift may be the key factor driving the change of antibiotic resistome during disinfection. The strong association between antibiotic resistome alteration and bacterial community shift proposed in this study may enhance our understanding of the underlying mechanism of the disinfection effects on antibiotic resistance and benefit effective measures to improve safety of drinking water.


Asunto(s)
Agua Potable , Purificación del Agua , Antibacterianos , Desinfección , Farmacorresistencia Microbiana , Genes Bacterianos
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 719: 137497, 2020 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32114220

RESUMEN

The exhaustive use of antibiotics in humans, animal farming and other agricultural practices has resulted in the frequent appearance of antibiotic resistant bacteria in human-impacted habitats. However, antibiotic resistance in natural (less-impacted) habitats is less understood. Using shotgun metagenomics we analysed soils from relatively low anthropogenic impact sites across the Namib Desert. We report the presence of a clinically significant extended spectrum ß-lactamase (TEM-116), on a ColE1-like plasmid also carrying a metal resistance gene (arsC). The co-occurrence of resistance to antimicrobial drugs and metals encoded on a single mobile genetic element increases the probability of dissemination of these resistance determinants and the potential selection of multiple resistance mechanisms. In addition, the presence of a P7 entero-bacteriophage on the same plasmid, may represent a new vehicle for the propagation of TEM-116 in these soil communities. These findings highlight the role of the environment in the One Health initiative.


Asunto(s)
Suelo , Antibacterianos , Farmacorresistencia Microbiana , Plásmidos , beta-Lactamasas
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 720: 137478, 2020 Jun 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32145616

RESUMEN

Antibiotics are employed worldwide to treat diseases of humans and other animals, but most antibiotics and their secondary metabolites are discharged into the aquatic environment, and these pollutants are emerging as a severe threat to human health. However, the systematic effects of dietary antibiotics on intestinal health in crustaceans and the associated risk to human health have not been thoroughly investigated, especially the effects on growth, immune responses, intestinal health, and the abundance of antibiotic residues and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). In the present work, two typical antibiotics (sulfamethoxazole and oxytetracycline) were administered orally to juvenile oriental river prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense) for eight weeks to mimic long-term use of antibiotics at legal aquaculture doses. The results indicate that dietary exposure to antibiotics significantly inhibited the growth performance of prawns, suppressed immunological parameters, and caused higher mortality in prawns challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila. Furthermore, prawns fed a diet containing antibiotics displayed a decrease in the number of intestinal goblet cells and lower digestive enzyme activity, as well as impaired intestine antioxidant ability and immune responses. Additionally, redundancy analysis revealed that different dominant bacterial phyla were responsible for increased ARG abundance in the prawn intestinal tract between control and antibiotic diet groups. The health risks posed by antibiotic residues in prawn muscle were also evaluated. Our findings demonstrate the risk posed by long-term use of dietary antibiotics in prawns, and suggest that antibiotics should be administered more carefully during aquaculture.


Asunto(s)
Palaemonidae , Envejecimiento , Animales , Antibacterianos , Dieta , Farmacorresistencia Microbiana , Humanos , Intestinos
15.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 48(6): 2841-2852, 2020 04 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32112097

RESUMEN

Base editing (BE) is a powerful tool for engineering single nucleotide variants (SNVs) and has been used to create targeted mutations in cell lines, organoids and animal models. Recent development of new BE enzymes has provided an extensive toolkit for genome modification; however, identifying and isolating edited cells for analysis has proven challenging. Here we report a 'Gene On' (GO) reporter system that indicates precise cytosine or adenine base editing in situ with high sensitivity and specificity. We test GO using an activatable GFP and use it to measure the kinetics, efficiency and PAM specificity of a range of new BE variants. Further, GO is flexible and can be easily adapted to induce expression of numerous genetically encoded markers, antibiotic resistance genes or enzymes, such as Cre recombinase. With these tools, GO can be exploited to functionally link BE events at endogenous genomic loci to cellular enzymatic activities in human and mouse cell lines and organoids. Thus, GO provides a powerful approach to increase the practicality and feasibility of implementing CRISPR BE in biomedical research.


Asunto(s)
Edición Génica , Genes Reporteros , Animales , Secuencia de Bases , Línea Celular Tumoral , Farmacorresistencia Microbiana , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Integrasas/metabolismo , Ratones , Células 3T3 NIH , Recombinación Genética/genética
16.
Microbiol Res ; 236: 126451, 2020 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32146294

RESUMEN

Burkholderia species have different lifestyles establishing mutualist or pathogenic associations with plants and animals. Changes in the ecological behavior of these bacteria may depend on genetic variations in response to niche adaptation. Here, we studied 15 Burkholderia strains isolated from different environments with respect to genetic and phenotypic traits. By Multilocus Sequence Analysis (MLSA) these isolates fell into 6 distinct groups. MLSA clusters did not correlate with strain antibiotic sensitivity, but with the bacterial ability to produce antimicrobial compounds and control orchid necrosis. Further, the B. seminalis strain TC3.4.2R3, a mutualistic bacterium, was inoculated into orchid plants and the interaction with the host was evaluated by analyzing the plant response and the bacterial oxidative stress response in planta. TC3.4.2R3 responded to plant colonization by increasing its own growth rate and by differential gene regulation upon oxidative stress caused by the plant, while reducing the plant's membrane lipid peroxidation. The bacterial responses to oxidative stress were recapitulated by bacterial exposure to the herbicide paraquat. We suggest that the ability of Burkholderia species to successfully establish in the rhizosphere correlates with genetic variation, whereas traits associated with antibiotic resistance are more likely to be categorized as strain specific.


Asunto(s)
Adaptación Biológica/genética , Infecciones por Burkholderia , Burkholderia , Interacciones Microbiota-Huesped , Orchidaceae/microbiología , Aclimatación/genética , Antiinfecciosos/farmacología , Agentes de Control Biológico/farmacología , Burkholderia/genética , Burkholderia/crecimiento & desarrollo , Burkholderia/aislamiento & purificación , Burkholderia/metabolismo , Farmacorresistencia Microbiana/genética , Endófitos/genética , Endófitos/crecimiento & desarrollo , Endófitos/aislamiento & purificación , Endófitos/metabolismo , Genes Bacterianos , Islas Genómicas , Genotipo , Peroxidación de Lípido , Tipificación de Secuencias Multilocus , Orchidaceae/fisiología , Estrés Oxidativo/genética , Fenotipo , Filogenia , Enfermedades de las Plantas/microbiología , Enfermedades de las Plantas/terapia , ARN Ribosómico 16S/genética , Simbiosis , Transcriptoma
17.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 54(3): 323-326, 2020 Mar 06.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32187940

RESUMEN

To conduct outbreak identification and transmission factor analysis of typhoid epidemic occurred in Xinqiao town, Jiangyin city from June to September 2016. A total of 14 strains of Salmonella typhi isolated from confirmed cases were collected, and 65 external environment samples and 13 food samples related to the outbreak were taken. Real-time PCR was used to detect specific gene of Salmonella typhi in the samples. Conventional method was used to isolate strains. The strains isolated from both the samples and patients in the epidemic were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing and PFGE molecular characteristics. Salmonella typhi strain was isolated from one external sample (well water of a deli processing plant). The results of drug susceptibility showed that 15 strains were resistant to nalidixic acid. A total of 15 strains of Salmonella typhi were divided into 2 molecular patterns by pulsed field gel electrophoresis. The fingerprints of PFGE from the 13 patients and the environmental isolate were completely consistent, and there was one band difference from the other patient isolate. Combined with the epidemiological investigation and laboratory test results, it was determined that the outbreak was caused by genetic clone of the same Salmonella typhi. Food processing plant should be one of the key links.


Asunto(s)
ADN Bacteriano/genética , Brotes de Enfermedades , Epidemias , Salmonella enterica/genética , Salmonella typhi/genética , Fiebre Tifoidea/epidemiología , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , China/epidemiología , Farmacorresistencia Microbiana , Electroforesis en Gel de Campo Pulsado , Humanos , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Reacción en Cadena en Tiempo Real de la Polimerasa , Salmonella enterica/efectos de los fármacos , Salmonella enterica/aislamiento & purificación , Salmonella typhi/clasificación , Salmonella typhi/efectos de los fármacos , Salmonella typhi/aislamiento & purificación , Fiebre Tifoidea/diagnóstico , Fiebre Tifoidea/tratamiento farmacológico , Fiebre Tifoidea/microbiología
18.
Acta méd. costarric ; 62(1): 7-12, ene.-mar. 2020. tab, graf
Artículo en Español | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088531

RESUMEN

Resumen Objetivo: Sistematizar los principales mecanismos de acción de los desinfectantes y describir mecanismos de resistencia comunes entre biocidas y antibióticos. Métodos: Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica de artículos científicos entre 2000 y julio de 2019, sobre la relación entre la resistencia a biocidas y a los antibióticos, utilizando como palabras clave "antibiotic", "biocide", "resistance" y "bacteria", en las bases de datos PubMed y Google Scholar. Conclusiones: Existe numerosa evidencia científica que indica la relación entre bacterias resistentes a los desinfectantes y la adquisición de resistencia a los antibióticos, lo que implica un replanteamiento del uso de esas sustancias en diferentes contextos clínicos, con el fin de minimizar el impacto que puedan tener en la selección de microorganismos multirresistentes a los antibióticos.


Abstract Aim: To summarize the main mechanisms of action of disinfectants and to describe some common resistance mechanisms shared between biocides and antibiotics. Methods: A bibliographic review of scientific articles was carried out between 2000 and July 2019 on the relationship between resistance to biocides and antibiotics, using as keywords "antibiotic", "biocide", "resistance" and "bacteria" in the data bases of PubMed and Google Scholar. Conclusions: Numerous scientific studies indicate a relationship between disinfectant-resistant bacteria and the acquisition of antibiotic resistance. It is necessary to analyze the use of these substances in the clinical context in order to minimize the impact that they may have on the selection of antibiotic-resistant microorganisms.


Asunto(s)
Bacterias , Resistencia a Medicamentos , Farmacorresistencia Microbiana , Desinfectantes , Antibacterianos
19.
Orv Hetil ; 161(9): 330-339, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32088975

RESUMEN

Introduction: Without antibiotics, today's modern medicine would be unimaginable, but the emergence of antimicrobial resistance threatens their effectiveness. Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the knowledge and attitudes of general practitioners towards antibiotic use and resistance, prevention and their opinion on their personal liability related to these areas. Method: An exploratory, quantitative study was carried out among physicians (n = 105) working in the southeastern region of Hungary. Results: Among the respondents, the ones who do not comprehend the severity of the issue of antibiotic resistance and their role in the prudent use of these drugs, are much fewer. The majority of the answerers attribute an important role to prevention in the fight against infectious disease. Negative practical attitude was found to be significantly correlated to gappy knowledge and improper theoretical attitude. Conclusions: A heterogeneous dispersion in the general practitioners' attitudes was found. Continuous professional development (CPD) of general practitioners in the topic of antibiotic resistance could be of great importance. Orv Hetil. 2020; 161(9): 330-339.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Farmacorresistencia Microbiana , Médicos Generales/psicología , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Humanos , Hungría
20.
Bioresour Technol ; 304: 122984, 2020 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32097778

RESUMEN

Norfloxacin (NFLX) is a synthetic antibiotic widely used in the treatment of infectious diseases. In this work, the performance of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) toward NFLX degradation, electricity production and the antibiotics resistances genes (ARGs) generation was investigated. NFLX degradation efficiency and COD removal reached 65.5% and 94.5% respectively. The increase in NFLX concentration (128 mg/L) had no significant influence on NFLX degradation efficiency, COD removal and MFCs voltage output while the electricity was successfully generated. The quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) indicated low absolute abundances of ARGs (mdtk, mdtm, and pmra) compared with the traditional wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Anodic bacteria can survive in the presence of high NFLX concentration and sustain its degradation and electricity production. In terms of NFLX degradation, COD removal, diminished ARGs generation and simultaneous energy production, MFC seems to be a promising technology for antibiotics wastewater treatment with a potential to overcome the ARGs challenge.


Asunto(s)
Fuentes de Energía Bioeléctrica , Antibacterianos , Farmacorresistencia Microbiana , Electricidad , Electrodos , Norfloxacino , Aguas Residuales
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