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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 773: 145643, 2021 Jun 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33940744

RESUMEN

Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and microplastics in the environment are of great public concern due to their potential risk to human health. Microplastics can form distinct bacterial communities and absorb pollutants from the surrounding environment, which provide potential hosts and exert possible selection pressure of ARGs. We provide a practical evaluation of the scientific literature regarding this issue. The occurrence and transport of ARGs on microplastics in wastewater treatment plants, aquatic, terrestrial, and air environments were summarized. Selective enrichment of ARGs and antibiotic resistance bacteria on microplastics have been confirmed in different environments. Aggregates may be crucial to understand the behavior and transport of ARGs on microplastics, especially in the aquatic and terrestrial environment. Microplastics could be a carrier of ARGs between the environment and animals. Accumulation of pollutants and dense bacterial communities on microplastics provide favorable conditions for higher transfer rate and evolution of ARGs. More studies are still needed to understand the enrichment, transport, and transfer of ARGs on microplastics and provide a fundamental basis for evaluating their exposure health risk to humans.


Asunto(s)
Microplásticos , Plásticos , Animales , Antibacterianos , Farmacorresistencia Microbiana/genética , Genes Bacterianos , Humanos , Plásticos/toxicidad
2.
J Environ Manage ; 289: 112576, 2021 Jul 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33865023

RESUMEN

The increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in the soil environment poses a serious threat to crop safety and even public health. In this study, the fate of ARGs in the soil was investigated during the growth period of pakchoi and after harvesting with the application of different kinds of fertilizers. The result showed that increasing rate of soil ARGs during the growth period of pakchoi followed the order of composted manure > commercial fertilizer > mineral fertilizer. After harvesting, soil ARGs abundance treated with mineral fertilizer, commercial fertilizer or composted manure significantly increased by 0.63, 3.19 and 8.65 times (p < 0.05), respectively, compared with the non-fertilized soil. The ARGs abundance in the pakchoi treated with composted manure was significantly higher than that of treatments with mineral fertilizer and commercial organic fertilizer. These findings indicated the application of composted pig manure would significantly increase the pollution load of ARGs in farmland soil and plant, and also promote the proliferation of farmland ARGs. Principal component analysis suggested that bacterial communities might have a significant influence on ARGs changes during the growth period of pakchoi. Network analysis further indicated ARGs changes may be mainly related to their host bacteria (including Gammaproteobacteria, Flavobacteriia and Bacilli). The results provided a proper method and useful information on reducing transmission risk of ARGs and control the propagation of ARGs in agricultural activities.


Asunto(s)
Fertilizantes , Suelo , Animales , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Farmacorresistencia Microbiana/genética , Granjas , Fertilizantes/análisis , Genes Bacterianos/genética , Estiércol , Microbiología del Suelo , Porcinos
3.
Molecules ; 26(6)2021 Mar 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33803983

RESUMEN

Quorum sensing (QS), a sophisticated system of bacterial communication that depends on population density, is employed by many pathogenic bacteria to regulate virulence. In view of the current reality of antibiotic resistance, it is expected that interfering with QS can address bacterial pathogenicity without stimulating the incidence of resistance. Thus, harnessing QS inhibitors has been considered a promising approach to overriding bacterial infections and combating antibiotic resistance that has become a major threat to public healthcare around the globe. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the most frequent multidrug-resistant bacteria that utilize QS to control virulence. Many natural compounds, including furanones, have demonstrated strong inhibitory effects on several pathogens via blocking or attenuating QS. While the natural furanones show no activity against P. aeruginosa, furanone C-30, a brominated derivative of natural furanone compounds, has been reported to be a potent inhibitor of the QS system of the notorious opportunistic pathogen. In the present study, we assess the molecular targets and mode of action of furanone C-30 on P. aeruginosa QS system. Our results suggest that furanone C-30 binds to LasR at the ligand-binding site but fails to establish interactions with the residues crucial for the protein's productive conformational changes and folding, thus rendering the protein dysfunctional. We also show that furanone C-30 inhibits RhlR, independent of LasR, suggesting a complex mechanism for the agent beyond what is known to date.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/farmacología , Furanos/farmacología , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efectos de los fármacos , Percepción de Quorum/efectos de los fármacos , Proteínas Bacterianas/metabolismo , Biopelículas/efectos de los fármacos , Farmacorresistencia Microbiana/efectos de los fármacos , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/metabolismo , Virulencia/efectos de los fármacos
4.
Klin Lab Diagn ; 66(4): 223-228, 2021 Apr 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33878244

RESUMEN

Recently, more and more scientific works have been devoted to non-tuberculous mycobacteria, both by domestic and foreign researchers. One of the main reasons for this is the increase in patients with immunosuppression of various origins, improvement of the quality of laboratory and instrumental diagnostics of mycobacteriosis. This article focuses on the representatives of the M. fortuitum group, as the main pathogens among the group of fast-growing mycobacteria. The data on the modern classification based on the use of molecular genetic studies are indicated. The M. fortuitum group includes: Mycobacterium fortuitum, M. peregrinum, M. senegalense, M. porcinum, M. houstonense, M. neworleansense, M. boenickei, M. conceptionense, M. septicum, M. alvei. According to the new data, mycobacteria were divided into 5 clades (Abscessus-Chelonae, Fortuitum-Vaccae, Terrae, Triviale, Tuberculosis-Simiae), and based on molecular genetic studies, new genera in the Mycobacteriaceae family were isolated: Mycolicibacter spp., Mycolicibacillus spp., Mycolicibacillus spp., Mycobacteroides spp., Mycolicibacterium spp. In accordance with the new classification, representatives of the Mycobacterium fortuitum group belong to the genus Mycolicibacterium. The main epidemiological features of the main sources of the spread of mycobacteria, factors and ways of their transmission are indicated. Due to their wide distribution in the environment, representatives of the M. fortuitum group are capable of causing diseases of the pulmonary and extrapulmonary localization. The distinctive features of pathogenicity factors, due to which the course of the disease is determined, are noted. The article also indicates the main difficulties and features of determining the sensitivity to antimicrobial chemotherapy drugs, provides data on the main features of antibiotic resistance of M.fortuitum group. In preparing the review, literature sources obtained from international and domestic databases were used: Scopus, Web of Science, Springer, RSCI.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Mycobacterium , Mycobacterium fortuitum , Mycobacterium , Farmacorresistencia Microbiana , Humanos , Mycobacterium/genética , Mycobacterium fortuitum/genética , Micobacterias no Tuberculosas/genética
5.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 42(5): 2413-2421, 2021 May 08.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33884812

RESUMEN

The organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) has become one of the sources and reservoirs of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). It is essential to explore the fate of ARGs during biological treatment of OFMSW. Therefore, the changes in several types of ARGs and integron genes during anaerobic digestion of the OFMSW were analyzed by quantitative PCR. Furthermore, the effects of different particle sizes of activated carbon on the behaviors of the target genes and the potential microbial mechanisms of ARGs dynamics were investigated. The results showed that the total ARGs in the initial system were reduced after anaerobic digestion with or without the presence of activated carbon. The removal rate of the absolute abundance of total ARGs was 29.95%-63.40%. In the final system of anaerobic digestion of the OFMSW, the abundance of total ARGs in powdered activated carbon (PAC) groups was significantly higher than that in the control group (P<0.05). The supplementation of PAC inhibited the reduction of ARGs, and the supplementation of granular activated carbon had no significant effect on the change in ARGs. The potential host bacteria of ARGs were mainly Clostridia, Bacteroidia, and Synergistia during anaerobic digestion. The enrichment of host bacteria caused by PAC addition was the main reason for the increase in the target genes. Moreover, Clostridia might have been the main driving factor for the growth and decline of ARGs. These results will help us to understand the dissemination of ARGs and the impacts of activated carbon addition on ARGs during anaerobic digestion of the OFMSW.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos , Residuos Sólidos , Anaerobiosis , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Carbón Orgánico , Farmacorresistencia Microbiana , Genes Bacterianos/genética
6.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 42(5): 2541-2549, 2021 May 08.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33884825

RESUMEN

The widespread use of antibiotics in the aquaculture industry has caused antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) pollution. Metagenomics technology was used to detect and analyze the relative abundance of ARGs and microbial community structure in a fishery reclamation mining subsidence area. A total of 29 ARGs were detected, and bacA had the highest relative abundance in all the samples, reaching 1.96×10-5-1.19×10-4. The relative abundance of sulfonamide and tetracycline ARGs in sediments was relatively high and the relative abundance of multidrug ARGs in well water was relatively high. Proteobacteria was the most dominant bacterial phylum in all the samples, and Chloroflexi and Euryarchaeota were relatively abundant in the sediments. Thiobacillus was the most dominant bacterial genus in the sediments, and Acinetobacter and Pseudomonas were the dominant bacterial genera in the well water. The correlation analysis between the ARGs and microorganisms showed that the genera and ARGs were mainly correlated to a moderate degree, and multiple genera had significant positive correlations with ARGs. The distribution of ARGs was affected by the structure of the microbial community. The sediments and well water in the fishery reclamation mining subsidence area were both contaminated by ARGs, and corresponding control measures should be strengthened to protect the regional environment.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos , Microbiota , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Farmacorresistencia Microbiana/genética , Explotaciones Pesqueras , Genes Bacterianos/genética , Microbiota/genética
7.
J Environ Manage ; 288: 112445, 2021 Jun 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33823442

RESUMEN

Concentrations of genetic markers for antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) were measured in the effluents of three Norwegian wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and in a receiving river upstream and downstream of the discharge point of one WWTP. Calculations based on mass balances were carried out to evaluate the impact of river flow rates and treatment effectivity on the WWTP's contribution to the load of genetic markers in the river. At average river flow rates, the WWTP effluent contributes 5-15% to the genetic marker load of the respective river. However, at minimum river flow rates, the WWTP effluent contributes 22-55% to the loads of different genetic markers. Scenarios of an improved or worsened removal of genetic markers in the WWTP showed that a further 1-log removal using additional treatment would be sufficient to improve considerably the river water quality with respect to genetic markers. Then, at an average flow rate, the contribution of the WWTP effluent to the load of the river would be less than 2%. However, in the case of low treatment effectivity or malfunction of the WWTP, the marker load of the river would increase dramatically. Even at average flow rate, 75-92% of the marker load would then originate from the WWTP. The results demonstrate the importance of considering the flow rates and hydrologic characteristics of the recipient water body when deciding on priorities regarding the upgrade of WWTPs for further removal of ARGs.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Purificación del Agua , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Farmacorresistencia Microbiana , Genes Bacterianos , Ríos , Aguas Residuales/análisis , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
8.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(5): 294, 2021 Apr 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33893564

RESUMEN

Aquatic environments are hotspots for the spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and genes due to pollution caused mainly by anthropogenic activities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of wastewater effluents, informal settlements, hospital, and veterinary clinic discharges on the occurrence, antibiotic resistance profile and virulence signatures of Aeromonas spp. and Pseudomonas spp. isolated from surface water and wastewater. High counts of Aeromonas spp. (2.5 (± 0.8) - 3.3 (± 0.4) log10 CFU mL-1) and Pseudomonas spp. (0.6 (± 1.0) - 1.8 (± 1.0) log10 CFU mL-1) were obtained. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and MALDI-TOF characterization identified four species of Aeromonas and five of Pseudomonas. The isolates displayed resistance to 3 or more antibiotics (71% of Aeromonas and 94% of Pseudomonas). Aeromonas spp. showed significant association with the antibiotic meropenem (χ2 = 3.993, P < 0.05). The virulence gene aer in Aeromonas was found to be positively associated with the antibiotic resistance gene blaOXA (χ2 = 6.657, P < 0.05) and the antibiotic ceftazidime (χ2 = 7.537, P < 0.05). Aeromonas recovered from both wastewater and surface water displayed high resistance to ampicillin and had higher multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) indices close to the hospital. Pseudomonas isolates on the other hand exhibited low resistance to carbapenems but very high resistance to the third-generation cephalosporins and cefixime. The results showed that some of the Pseudomonas spp. and Aeromonas spp. isolates were extended-spectrum ß-lactamase producing bacteria. In conclusion, the strong association between virulence genes and antibiotic resistance in the isolates shows the potential health risk to communities through direct and indirect exposure to the water.


Asunto(s)
Aeromonas , Aeromonas/genética , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Farmacorresistencia Microbiana , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Pseudomonas/genética , Virulencia , Aguas Residuales , Agua
9.
Microbiome ; 9(1): 81, 2021 04 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33795006

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Research is needed to delineate the relative and combined effects of different antibiotic administration and manure management practices in either amplifying or attenuating the potential for antibiotic resistance to spread. Here, we carried out a comprehensive parallel examination of the effects of small-scale (> 55 °C × 3 days) static and turned composting of manures from dairy and beef cattle collected during standard antibiotic administration (cephapirin/pirlimycin or sulfamethazine/chlortetracycline/tylosin, respectively), versus from untreated cattle, on "resistomes" (total antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) determined via shotgun metagenomic sequencing), bacterial microbiota, and indicator ARGs enumerated via quantitative polymerase chain reaction. To gain insight into the role of the thermophilic phase, compost was also externally heated to > 55 °C × 15 days. RESULTS: Progression of composting with time and succession of the corresponding bacterial microbiota was the overarching driver of the resistome composition (ANOSIM; R = 0.424, p = 0.001, respectively) in all composts at the small-scale. Reduction in relative abundance (16S rRNA gene normalized) of total ARGs in finished compost (day 42) versus day 0 was noted across all conditions (ANOSIM; R = 0.728, p = 0.001), except when externally heated. Sul1, intI1, beta-lactam ARGs, and plasmid-associated genes increased in all finished composts as compared with the initial condition. External heating more effectively reduced certain clinically relevant ARGs (blaOXA, blaCARB), fecal coliforms, and resistome risk scores, which take into account putative pathogen annotations. When manure was collected during antibiotic administration, taxonomic composition of the compost was distinct according to nonmetric multidimensional analysis and tet(W) decayed faster in the dairy manure with antibiotic condition and slower in the beef manure with antibiotic condition. CONCLUSIONS: This comprehensive, integrated study revealed that composting had a dominant effect on corresponding resistome composition, while little difference was noted as a function of collecting manure during antibiotic administration. Reduction in total ARGs, tet(W), and resistome risk suggested that composting reduced some potential for antibiotic resistance to spread, but the increase and persistence of other indicators of antibiotic resistance were concerning. Results indicate that composting guidelines intended for pathogen reduction do not necessarily provide a comprehensive barrier to ARGs or their mobility prior to land application and additional mitigation measures should be considered. Video Abstract.


Asunto(s)
Compostaje , Estiércol , Animales , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Bovinos , Farmacorresistencia Microbiana , Genes Bacterianos/genética , ARN Ribosómico 16S/genética , Suelo
10.
J Wound Care ; 30(4): 284-296, 2021 Apr 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33856907

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Traditionally, infections are treated with antimicrobials (for example, antibiotics, antiseptics, etc), but antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has become one of the most serious health threats of the 21st century (before the emergence of COVID-19). Wounds can be a source of infection by allowing unconstrained entry of microorganisms into the body, including antimicrobial-resistant bacteria. The development of new antimicrobials (particularly antibiotics) is not keeping pace with the evolution of resistant microorganisms and novel ways of addressing this problem are urgently required. One such initiative has been the development of antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) programmes, which educate healthcare workers, and control the prescribing and targeting of antimicrobials to reduce the likelihood of AMR. Of great importance has been the European Wound Management Association (EWMA) in supporting AMS by providing practical recommendations for optimising antimicrobial therapy for the treatment of wound infection. The use of wound dressings that use a physical sequestration and retention approach rather than antimicrobial agents to reduce bacterial burden offers a novel approach that supports AMS. Bacterial-binding by dressings and their physical removal, rather than active killing, minimises their damage and hence prevents the release of damaging endotoxins. AIM: Our objective is to highlight AMS for the promotion of the judicious use of antimicrobials and to investigate how dialkylcarbamoyl chloride (DACC)-coated dressings can support AMS goals. METHOD: MEDLINE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and Google Scholar were searched to identify published articles describing data relating to AMS, and the use of a variety of wound dressings in the prevention and/or treatment of wound infections. The evidence supporting alternative wound dressings that can reduce bioburden and prevent and/or treat wound infection in a manner that does not kill or damage the microorganisms (for example, by actively binding and removing intact microorganisms from wounds) were then narratively reviewed. RESULTS: The evidence reviewed here demonstrates that using bacterial-binding wound dressings that act in a physical manner (for example, DACC-coated dressings) as an alternative approach to preventing and/or treating infection in both acute and hard-to-heal wounds does not exacerbate AMR and supports AMS. CONCLUSION: Some wound dressings work via a mechanism that promotes the binding and physical uptake, sequestration and removal of intact microorganisms from the wound bed (for example, a wound dressing that uses DACC technology to successfully prevent/reduce infection). They provide a valuable tool that aligns with the requirements of AMS (for example, reducing the use of antimicrobials in wound treatment regimens) by effectively reducing wound bioburden without inducing/selecting for resistant bacteria.


Asunto(s)
Antiinfecciosos/administración & dosificación , Programas de Optimización del Uso de los Antimicrobianos/métodos , Vendajes , Cloruros/administración & dosificación , Infección de la Herida Quirúrgica/prevención & control , Heridas y Traumatismos/tratamiento farmacológico , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Farmacorresistencia Microbiana , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad
11.
Water Sci Technol ; 83(7): 1578-1590, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33843744

RESUMEN

Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), as a new type of environmental pollutant that threaten human health, have been detected in the effluent of sewage treatment systems. In this study, the removal from water of ARGs, 16S rRNA, class 1 integron (intI1), and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) were investigated using processes combining nano-iron (nFe), ultrasound (US), activated persulfate (PS) and ultrafiltration (UF). The oxidation mechanism was also studied. The results showed that both nFe and US activation could improve the oxidative effect of PS, and the effect of nFe was better than that of US. Compared with PS-UF, nFe/PS-UF and US/PS-UF significantly enhanced the removal of various ARGs and DOC. nFe/PS-UF was the most effective treatment, reducing cell-associated and cell-free ARGs by 1.74-3.14-log and 1.00-2.61-log, respectively, while removing 30% of DOC. Pre-oxidation methods using PS, nFe/PS, and US/PS significantly enhanced the efficacy of UF for removing DOC with molecular weights above 50 kDa and below 10 kDa, but the removal of DOC between 10 and 50 kDa decreased. The free radicals SO4·- and ·OH were shown to participate in the process of ARGs oxidation.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos , Ultrafiltración , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Farmacorresistencia Microbiana , Hierro , ARN Ribosómico 16S , Aguas Residuales
12.
Mymensingh Med J ; 30(2): 355-361, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33830114

RESUMEN

Different Proteus species are encountered in human infections and may vary with the type of infections they cause. So, the present study was conducted to detect species of Proteus by PCR and RFLP along with their antibiotic resistance pattern. This cross-sectional study was conducted in the Department of Microbiology of Dhaka Medical College, Dhaka, Bangladesh, from July 2018 to June 2019. A total of 500 wound swab and pus, urine and blood samples were tested for bacterial pathogens. Proteus spp. were identified and differentiated by biochemical test, PCR and RFLP. Antibiotic susceptibility was performed by disc-diffusion technique. Fourty Proteus spp. was isolated from 300 culture positive samples, giving 13.33% prevalence of Proteus infections. Proteus mirabilis and Proteus vulgaris were identified by culture, biochemical test, PCR and RFLP. The results were similar by both methods (biochemical tests and PCR). RFLP of 16S rRNA fragments digested with HaeIII revealed that P. mirabilis consisted of two bands at approximately 110 and 190 bp and P. vulgaris consisted of three bands at approximately 100, 180 and 220 bp. The proportion (80%) of P. mirabilis was more than P. vulgaris. Highest proportion (77.5%) of Proteus spp. was isolated from wound swab and pus followed by urine samples. A significant proportion of Proteus spp. was multidrug resistant (90%) and extensively drug resistant (37.5%). Fosfomycin was found the most sensitive drug followed by imipenem. This study provided an insight into antibiotic resistance pattern of Proteus spp. and showed high level resistance towards commonly used antimicrobial agents. PCR and RFLP may be suitable method to identify and differentiate species of Proteus and to treat them accordingly.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos , Proteus , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Bangladesh , Estudios Transversales , Farmacorresistencia Microbiana , Humanos , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa , Polimorfismo de Longitud del Fragmento de Restricción , Proteus/genética , ARN Ribosómico 16S
13.
Urologiia ; (1): 5-12, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33818928

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the incidence and resistance of microorganisms to antibacterial drugs isolated in urine cultures of patients with urinary tract infections from 2012 to 2019. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the Pirogov City Clinical Hospital No1 and in the Bauman City Clinical Hospital No 29 analyzed the results of 15083 urine cultures in 12554 patients from 2012 to 2019. RESULTS: Enterococcus faecalis (41%), Escherichia coli (36.4%), Klebsiella pneumonia (23.4%) and Proteus mirabilis (7.6%) predominate in the occurrence of complicated UTIs. the number of strains resistant to certain groups of antibacterial drugs increased: mesitillin-resistant staphylococci (+ 4%), producers of -lactamases (+ 19.8% (for E. coli) and + 34.7% (for Klebsiella pneumoniae)), vancomycin-resistant enterococci (+ 1.89%), carbapenemase producers (+ 32.9%). A high level of resistance among Enterococcus faecalis strains to ciprofloxacin (23.1%) and gentamicin (38.4%) was revealed. Among strains of Escherichia coli, an increase in resistance to ampicillin (85.7%), ceftazidime (66.7%), ciprofloxacin (54.1%) and nitrofurantoin (42.9%) was noted. The appearance of carbapenem-resistant strains is noted. Among the strains of Klebsiella pneumonia, there is a significant increase in resistance to all antibacterial drugs used. Separately, one can note a sharp (27.1%) increase in resistance to carbapenems. A high level of resistance was found in Proteus mirabilis to ciprofloxacin (66.7%), ampicillin (75%). There is an increase in resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to ciprofloxacin (66.7%), meropenem (50%). There is a high level of resistance for Acinetobacter baumannii to amikacin (94.9%), imipenem (92.3%), ceftazadime (100%), ciprofloxacin (100%), tigecycline (53.6%). Relatively high sensitivity remains to polymyxin E (88.9%). CONCLUSIONS: The results of our analysis demonstrate a rapid increase in resistance to most antibacterial drugs among community-acquired and hospital-acquired strains.


Asunto(s)
Escherichia coli , Infecciones Urinarias , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Farmacorresistencia Microbiana , Humanos , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Infecciones Urinarias/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones Urinarias/epidemiología
14.
Urologiia ; (1): 140-145, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33818950

RESUMEN

Lower urinary tract infections in women represent an urgent medical and social problem due to their high prevalence, frequent recurrences, and the need for an interdisciplinary approach to diagnosis and treatment. Timely and adequate diagnosis of the causes of urinary disorders in women with the determination of risk factors, concomitant diseases and isolation of pathogens allows to choose a rational therapy that may alleviate patients symptoms, improve the quality of life, and prevent the transformation of the disease to a chronic form. It is extermely important that treatment should not contribute to the growth of antibiotic resistance of pathogens, not disrupt the normal microbiome, and not aggravate the disturbances of the normal vaginal and intestinal microflora in women.


Asunto(s)
Calidad de Vida , Infecciones Urinarias , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Farmacorresistencia Microbiana , Femenino , Humanos , Infecciones Urinarias/diagnóstico , Infecciones Urinarias/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones Urinarias/epidemiología
15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(14): e24880, 2021 Apr 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33832068

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT: Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacterales constitute a serious public health threat; however, information on the oxacilinasa (OXA-48)-type is limited. The objective of the study was to evaluate the risk factors associated with 14-day mortality for patients with bacteremia due to OXA-48 carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae.We conducted a retrospective, single-center observational study of adult patients with K. pneumoniae bacteremia, classifying the strains as carbapenem-susceptible K. pneumoniae (CSKp) and carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae (CRKp). All of the CRKp strains were the OXA-48-type.The study included 202 cases of bacteremia: 114 due to CSKp and 88 due to CRKp. The clinical cure rate was higher for the patients with CSKp (85% vs 69% for CSKp and CRKp, respectively; P = .010), while the 14-day mortality rate was lower (13% vs 30%, P = .005). An INCREMENT-CPE score ≥7 (HR 3.05, 95% CI 1.50-6.25, P = .002) was the only independent factor associated with 14-day mortality for the patients with Klebsiella spp. bacteremia. Other factors related to 14-day mortality were a rapidly fatal prognosis (McCabe) (HR 7.1, 95% CI 2.75-18.37, P < .001), dementia (HR 5.9, 95% CI 2.0-7.43, P = .001), and a high-risk source of infection (HR 2.7, 95% CI 1.06-6.82, P = .038).The most important factors associated with 14-day mortality for the patients with K. pneumoniae bacteremia was an INCREMENT-CPE score ≥7, dementia, a McCabe score indicating a rapidly fatal prognosis and a high-risk source of infection. We found no relationship between a poorer outcome and CRKp isolation or inadequate antibiotic therapy.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Klebsiella/mortalidad , beta-Lactamasas/metabolismo , Adulto , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Enterobacteriaceae Resistentes a los Carbapenémicos/efectos de los fármacos , Carbapenémicos/uso terapéutico , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Farmacorresistencia Microbiana , Femenino , Humanos , Infecciones por Klebsiella/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por Klebsiella/microbiología , Klebsiella pneumoniae/aislamiento & purificación , Masculino , Estudios Retrospectivos
17.
Elife ; 102021 04 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33820602

RESUMEN

Bacteria carry antibiotic resistant genes on movable sections of DNA that allow them to select the relevant genes on demand.


Asunto(s)
Bacterias , Integrones , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Bacterias/efectos de los fármacos , Bacterias/genética , Farmacorresistencia Microbiana/efectos de los fármacos
18.
Chimia (Aarau) ; 75(4): 267-271, 2021 Apr 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33902793

RESUMEN

The emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance is a major societal challenge and new antibiotics are needed to successfully fight bacterial infections. Because the release of antibiotics into wastewater and downstream environments is expected to contribute to the problem of antibiotic resistance, it would be beneficial to consider the environmental fate of antibiotics in the development of novel antibiotics. In this article, we discuss the possibility of designing peptide-based antibiotics that are stable during treatment (e.g. in human blood), but rapidly inactivated through hydrolysis by peptidases after their secretion into wastewater. In the first part, we review studies on the biotransformation of peptide-based antibiotics during biological wastewater treatment and on the specificity of dissolved extracellular peptidases derived from wastewater. In the second part, we present first results of our endeavour to identify peptide bonds that are stable in human blood plasma and susceptible to hydrolysis by the industrially produced peptidase Subtilisin A.


Asunto(s)
Aguas Residuales , Purificación del Agua , Antibacterianos , Farmacorresistencia Microbiana , Humanos , Péptidos
19.
Environ Int ; 152: 106453, 2021 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33798824

RESUMEN

Conjunctive transfer of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) among bacteria driven by plasmids facilitated the evolution and spread of antibiotic resistance. Heavy metal exposure accelerated the plasmid-mediated conjunctive transfer of ARGs. Nanomaterials are well-known adsorbents for heavy metals removal, with the capability of combatting resistant bacteria/facilitating conjunctive transfer of ARGs. However, co-effect of heavy metals and nanomaterials on plasmid-mediated conjunctive transfer of ARGs was still unknown. In this study, we investigated the effect of the simultaneous exposure of Cd2+ and nano Fe2O3 on conjugative transfer of plasmid RP4 from Pseudomonas putida KT2442 to water microbial community. The permeability of bacterial cell membranes, antioxidant enzyme activities and conjugation gene expression were also investigated. The results suggested that the combination of Cd2+ and high concentration nano Fe2O3 (10 mg/L and 100 mg/L) significantly increased conjugative transfer frequencies of RP4 plasmid (p < 0.05). The most transconjugants were detected in the treatment of co-exposure to Cd2+ and nano Fe2O3, the majority of which were identified to be human pathogens. The mechanisms of the exacerbated conjugative transfer of ARGs were involved in the enhancement of cell membrane permeability, antioxidant enzyme activities, and mRNA expression levels of the conjugation genes by the co-effect of Cd2+ and nano Fe2O3. This study confirmed that the simultaneous exposure to Cd2+and nano Fe2O3 exerted a synergetic co-effect on plasmid-mediated conjunctive transfer of ARGs, emphasizing that the co-effect of nanomaterials and heavy metals should be prudently evaluated when combating antibiotic resistance.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos , Cadmio , Farmacorresistencia Microbiana/genética , Genes Bacterianos , Plásmidos/genética , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Cadmio/toxicidad , Conjugación Genética
20.
Water Res ; 197: 117075, 2021 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33819660

RESUMEN

Although photo-driven advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) have been developed to treat wastewater, few studies have investigated the feasibility of AOPs to simultaneously remove antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB), antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and micropollutants (MPs). This study employed a modified photo-Fenton process using ethylenediamine-N,N'-disuccinic acid (EDDS) to chelate iron(III), thus maintaining the reaction pH in a neutral range. Simultaneous removal of ARB and associated extracellular (e-ARGs) and intracellular ARGs (i-ARGs), was assessed by bacterial cell culture, qPCR and atomic force microscopy. The removal of five MPs was also evaluated by liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. A low dose comprising 0.1 mM Fe(III), 0.2 mM EDDS, and 0.3 mM hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was found to be effective for decreasing ARB by 6-log within 30 min, and e-ARGs by 6-log within 10 min. No ARB regrowth occurred after 48-h, suggesting that the proposed process is an effective disinfectant against ARB. Moreover, five recalcitrant MPs (carbamazepine, diclofenac, sulfamethoxazole, mecoprop and benzotriazole at an initial concentration of 10 µg/L each) were >99% removed after 30 min treatment in ultrapure water. The modified photo-Fenton process was also validated using synthetic wastewater and real secondary wastewater effluent as matrices, and results suggest the dosage should be doubled to ensure equivalent removal performance. Collectively, this study demonstrated that the modified process is an optimistic 'one-stop' solution to simultaneously mitigate both chemical and biological hazards.


Asunto(s)
Peróxido de Hidrógeno , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina , Inhibidores de la Enzima Convertidora de Angiotensina , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Bacterias , Farmacorresistencia Microbiana/genética , Compuestos Férricos , Oxidación-Reducción , Aguas Residuales , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
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