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1.
BMC Psychol ; 9(1): 58, 2021 Apr 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33892781

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Happiness has multiple levels and determinants in different communities, cultures, and social groups. The current study aimed to investigate happiness and its main determinants in slums in south central Iran. METHODS: This community-based, cross-sectional study was conducted with the participation of adults at least 18 years of age living in the biggest slum area in Shiraz, south central Iran. To determine levels of happiness, participants were asked to complete the Persian version of the GHQ28 questionnaire and a checklist based on the 2017 World Happiness Report. Data was analyzed using SPSS software version 19. A p-value less than 0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: The mean age of the participants was 42.06 ± 16.34 years. Overall, 542 participants (45 %) were females, 257 (21.3 %) were illiterate, 678 (56.3 %) were married, and 495 (41.1 %) were unemployed and lived with their household. The happiness score, according to the Cantril ladder score, was 6.41 ± 2 (out of a total score of 10). Happiness was not correlated with gender (p = 0.37) or immigration (p = 0.06). Lower levels of happiness were seen in older adults (r=- 0.12, p < 0.001), illiterates (p = 0.03), the unemployed (p < 0.001), and people separated from their spouses (p < 0.001). Job satisfaction (p < 0.001, r = 0.47), total general health (p < 0.001, r=-0.36) and hope (p < 0.001, r = 0.41) were significantly correlated with happiness. Social support (< 0.001) and sufficient income and satisfaction (p < 0.001) were related with a higher score of happiness. CONCLUSIONS: Marital status, smoking, employment and job satisfaction, social support and trust, feelings of insecurity in the neighborhood, hope for the future, facing violence, and income satisfaction were the main determinants of happiness in the Sang Siah slum area.


Asunto(s)
Felicidad , Satisfacción Personal , Adulto , Anciano , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Irán , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Esposos
2.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33808388

RESUMEN

The growing number of children who are obese or overweight in certain countries or geographical areas is a fact, as evidenced by the continuous studies and reports on the subject, endorsed or carried out by the World Health Organisation and independent research. In this context, food and beverage advertising can contribute to this. The main objective of this research is to evaluate compliance with the Food and Drink Advertising Code for Children (PAOS Code) in Spain and its relationship with nutritional habits on television, specifically on channels aimed at children. The methodology is therefore mixed: on the one hand, a qualitative technique based on discourse analysis and, on the other, a quantitative technique based on the content analysis of the advertising broadcast for seven consecutive days on three specialised channels and two generalist channels on Spanish television. The results reveal a systematic noncompliance with this code, which translates into inadequate eating habits among children. The immediate conclusion is that 9 out of 10 parts of food and drink advertising do not comply with any of the rules of the PAOS Code and that self-regulation by the advertising companies is negligible and insufficient.


Asunto(s)
Publicidad , Mercadeo Social , Bebidas , Niño , Alimentos , Industria de Alimentos , Felicidad , Humanos , Mercadotecnía , España , Televisión
3.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33810429

RESUMEN

This study aimed to measure the scores of well-being, subjective happiness, sense of meaning, and coping in Romanian physicians and the potential impact on them of systematically attending Balint groups. Eighty participants (33 men, 47 women, mean age 38.90, SD 9.73) were included in the study. From them, 43 had systematically attended a Balint group in the last two years, while the others represented the controls. All participants were administered the Meaning of Life Questionnaire, the Job-related Affective Well-being Scale, the Brief COPE Scale, and the Subjective Happiness Scale. t-tests and MANOVA were used to compare the group scores and the impact of Balint training on the study variables. Results showed that Balintian participants had a lower use of denial and self-blame and were more oriented towards the seeking of emotional and instrumental support. They also reported higher scores in high pleasurable-low arousal emotions, positive emotions, and in the perception of the presence of meaning. Still, when considering other additional predictors (gender, age), the distinct impact of Balint training remained limited to the preference for certain coping mechanisms. These results could stimulate the use of Balint groups as a tool for the physician's formation programs.


Asunto(s)
Felicidad , Médicos , Adaptación Psicológica , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
4.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33808852

RESUMEN

This study aimed to longitudinally analyze the role played by two emotional regulation strategies (cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression), through the mediating effect of engagement in pleasant activities during lockdown, in changes in affective and cognitive happiness in comparison with pre-pandemic levels. Eighty-eight participants from a community sample were evaluated at two timepoints. At timepoint 1 (before the COVID-19 pandemic), participants were evaluated on emotional regulation and cognitive and affective happiness. At timepoint 2 (during the COVID-19 lockdown), participants were evaluated on cognitive and affective happiness and the frequency with which they engaged in pleasant activities. We found an optimal fit of the proposed model in which cognitive reappraisal was significantly related to engagement in more pleasant activities during the lockdown. In turn, these pleasant activities were related to more affective happiness during the lockdown (compared with pre-pandemic levels), and this affective happiness was associated with greater cognitive happiness. In conclusion, cognitive reappraisal was a protective factor for affective and cognitive happiness through the mediating role of engagement in pleasant activities during lockdown. Limitations and future lines of investigation are discussed.


Asunto(s)
Regulación Emocional , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Felicidad , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Pandemias
5.
Transl Behav Med ; 11(3): 793-801, 2021 04 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33755146

RESUMEN

Fear of COVID-19 is associated with public health compliance but also with negative well-being; however, no articles have reported associations of such fear with perceived benefits and harms. We assessed the level of fear of COVID-19 in Hong Kong adults and its associations with sociodemographic factors and perceived benefits and harms of COVID-19. In a 6-day population-based cross-sectional online survey in May 2020, 4,890 adults provided data on fear and perceived benefits and harms, personal happiness and family well-being, and sociodemographic characteristics. Linear regression was used to analyze associations. The level of fear was moderate (mean score 6.3/10). Fewer respondents reported perceived benefits (10.6%-21.7%) than harms (13.4%-43.5%). Females, younger age groups, and respondents with lower education or more cohabitants had greater fear. Fear was associated with perceived personal (increased knowledge of personal epidemic prevention) and family benefits (improved family hygiene), both with a very small effect size (Cohen's d = 0.03). Fear was also associated with lower personal happiness and perceived personal (increased negative emotions, feeling depressed and anxious, decreased income, and decreased work efficiency) and family harms (increased conflicts and negative emotions among family members), with small effect sizes (0.08-0.37). We have first shown sociodemographic differences in the fear of COVID-19 and such fear was associated with both perceived personal and family benefits and harms of COVID-19. Our findings may guide the management of fear to reduce sociodemographic differences, and maximize benefits and minimize harms.


Asunto(s)
Familia/psicología , Miedo/psicología , Felicidad , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Satisfacción Personal , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Hong Kong , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
6.
J Nerv Ment Dis ; 209(4): 240-241, 2021 04 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33764951

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT: In the aftermath of COVID-19, it sounds equally important, on the part of mental health providers to undertake the onerous duty of promoting resilience, to empower individuals, foster their own natural strengths, and help them incorporate new coping strategies into their everyday lives at this exceptional moment of hardship.


Asunto(s)
Adaptación Psicológica , Resiliencia Psicológica , /epidemiología , Felicidad , Humanos , Pandemias
7.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33535549

RESUMEN

Quality of life constitutes an indicator of well-being, satisfaction or happiness resulting from one's existence. It is often referred to as a standard of living. In general, it is contentment with the fulfilment of one's needs. The main objective of the article is to describe the selected components of the living standards and quality of life within the Polish community of the Greater Toronto Area which includes four regions: Halton, Peel, York and Durham. The model of mutually affecting objective factors (standard of living) and subjective factors (quality of life) will be presented. The specific factors (demographic, social, cultural, economic, legal, educational, geographical and health-related) included in field studies among the respondents and based on assigned indices influencing the quality of life in the Polish community of the Greater Toronto Area, will be demonstrated. The major goal of the paper is to present an assessment of aspects related to health factors, both in terms of objective factors (standard of living) and subjective ones (quality of life) by Polonia living in the Greater Toronto Area. Results will be shown on the basis of the survey questionnaire completed by 583 respondents. The questions focused on, among other issues, access to the healthcare system, competence of medical staff and access to sports facilities. Respondents also evaluated their satisfaction with their general health, both physical and mental, as well as the possibility of practicing sports associated with healthy lifestyle.


Asunto(s)
Satisfacción Personal , Calidad de Vida , Felicidad , Humanos , Polonia , Factores Socioeconómicos
8.
BMC Geriatr ; 21(1): 100, 2021 02 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33541268

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In Korea, along with the rapid aging of the population, older adults' living arrangements have changed in various ways. In particularly, the happiness of older adults living alone warrants attention because they are more vulnerable to unhappiness than those living with families are. This study reports on the level of happiness among older adults in Korean and examines the potential mediating roles of depressive symptoms, present health status, socio-physical environment, social support networks, and social activities, and happiness in three different living arrangements, older adults living alone, with their spouse, or with their family. METHOD: Data for this study were extracted from the secondary data from the 2017 Korean Community Health Survey, a non-experimental, cross-sectional survey conducted among Korean individuals that were aged 65 and above (n = 14,687). The chi-square test, one-way ANOVA, and Logistic regression were used to explore the related factors of happiness among the three groups. RESULTS: Findings revealed a significant difference in the happiness index among older adults living alone (6.22 ± 2.11), older adults living with their spouse (6.76 ± 1.99), and older adults living with their family (6.46 ± 1.94) (F = 88.69, p < .001). As the result of logistic regression, older adults living alone (odds ratio (OR) = 0.75, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.57-0.99) and those living with their family (OR = 0.80, 95% CI = 0.65-0.99) demonstrated greater happiness as the frequency of contact with their family increased. Older adults living with their spouse indicated an increase in happiness when their contact with friends was higher (OR = 0.69, 95% CI = 0.56-0.84). CONCLUSION: It was recognized that factors influencing happiness differed according to older adults' living arrangements, thus suggesting that older adults' happiness could be facilitated through interventions that consider their circumstances, including living arrangements.


Asunto(s)
Depresión , Felicidad , Anciano , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , República de Corea/epidemiología , Características de la Residencia
9.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33567744

RESUMEN

On the basis of the self-centeredness and selflessness model, a new instrument assessing two distinct dimensions of happiness, fluctuating and authentic-durable, was developed. The current research aimed at examining the factor structure of the Italian version of the instrument, its psychometric properties and construct validity. To this end, two studies were carried out. Study 1 (N = 544) examined different measurement models, from unidimensional to multidimensional, from a fully symmetrical bifactor solution to a bifactor (S-1) solution. Findings indicated better and adequate fit indices for the last model. Using various samples (n = 1274) Study 2 confirmed the bifactor (S-1) structure and analysed psychometric properties, convergent and divergent validity and temporal stability of the instrument. Findings generally gave evidence of the multidimensional conceptualization of the construct, good levels of reliability values and adequate convergent validity of both scales. Discriminant validity showed mixed results from no association of age with authentic-durable happiness to weak and negative association with fluctuating happiness. Test-retest reliability displayed an adequate value of correlation coefficient for the two set scores of the authentic dimension and a value below the recommended cut-off criteria for the fluctuating dimension, where significant differences in the mean scores emerged. Future studies should aim to replicate the results of this research and attempt to overcome its limitations.


Asunto(s)
Felicidad , Italia , Psicometría , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
10.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 92, 2021 02 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33573637

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder has been associated with specific attentional biases in processing emotional facial expressions: heightened attention for negative and decreased attention for positive faces. However, using visual search paradigms, previous reaction-time-based research failed, in general, to find evidence for increased spatial attention toward negative facial expressions and reduced spatial attention toward positive facial expressions in depressed individuals. Eye-tracking analyses allow for a more detailed examination of visual search processes over time during the perception of multiple stimuli and can provide more specific insights into the attentional processing of multiple emotional stimuli. METHODS: Gaze behavior of 38 clinically depressed individuals and 38 gender matched healthy controls was compared in a face-in-the-crowd task. Pictures of happy, angry, and neutral facial expressions were utilized as target and distractor stimuli. Four distinct measures of eye gaze served as dependent variables: (a) latency to the target face, (b) number of distractor faces fixated prior to fixating the target, (c) mean fixation time per distractor face before fixating the target and (d) mean fixation time on the target. RESULTS: Depressed and healthy individuals did not differ in their manual response times. Our eye-tracking data revealed no differences between study groups in attention guidance to emotional target faces as well as in the duration of attention allocation to emotional distractor and target faces. However, depressed individuals fixated fewer distractor faces before fixating the target than controls, regardless of valence of expressions. CONCLUSIONS: Depressed individuals seem to process angry and happy expressions in crowds of faces mainly in the same way as healthy individuals. Our data indicate no biased attention guidance to emotional targets and no biased processing of angry and happy distractors and targets in depression during visual search. Under conditions of clear task demand depressed individuals seem to be able to allocate and guide their attention in crowds of angry and happy faces as efficiently as healthy individuals.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno Depresivo Mayor , Ira , Depresión , Emociones , Expresión Facial , Felicidad , Humanos , Tiempo de Reacción
11.
BMC Geriatr ; 21(1): 124, 2021 02 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33593298

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: There is still a lack of systematic investigation of comprehensive contextual factors of subjective well-being (SWB) among Chinese oldest-old. This study aimed to explore sociodemographic, health-related, and social predictors of SWB among Chinese oldest-old using a large and representative sample. METHODS: The study included 49,069 individuals aged 80 and older from the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey, a prospective, nationwide, community-based study conducted from 1998 to 2014. SWB was measured by eight items covering life satisfaction, positive affect (optimism, happiness, personal control, and conscientiousness), and negative affect (anxiety, loneliness, and uselessness). Generalized estimating equation models were used to explore the predictors of SWB. RESULTS: We found that age, gender, ethnic group, education, primary occupation before retirement, current marital status, and place of residence were sociodemographic predictors of SWB among the Chinese oldest-old. The health-related predictors included self-rated health, visual function, hearing function, diet quality, smoking status, drinking status, and exercise status. SWB was influenced by some social factors, such as the number of biological siblings, the number of children, leisure activities, financial independence, and access to adequate medical service. In particular, self-rated health, access to adequate medical services, exercise status, and place of residence exert a stronger effect than other factors. CONCLUSIONS: SWB in the oldest-old is influenced by a large number of complex sociodemographic, health-related, and social factors. Special attention should be paid to the mental health of centenarians, women, rural residents, widowed, physically disabled, and childless oldest-old people. Relevant agencies can improve physical activities, leisure activities, financial support, and medical services to promote the well-being of the oldest-old.


Asunto(s)
Felicidad , Estado de Salud , Anciano de 80 o más Años , China/epidemiología , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Humanos , Satisfacción Personal , Estudios Prospectivos
12.
J Affect Disord ; 282: 876-884, 2021 03 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33601731

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Bipolar disorder (BD) is associated with emotion interpretation biases that can exacerbate depressed mood. Interpretation bias training (IBT) may help; according to the "virtuous cycle" hypothesis, interpreting others' emotions as positive can lead to interactions that improve mood. Our goals were to determine whether IBT can shift emotion interpretation biases and demonstrate clinical benefits (lower depressed mood, improved social function) in people with BD. METHOD: Young adults with BD were recruited for three sessions of computer-based IBT. Active IBT targets negative emotion bias by training judgments of ambiguous face emotions towards happy judgments. Participants were randomized to active or sham IBT. Participants reported on mood and functioning at baseline, intervention end (week two), and week 10. RESULTS: Fifty participants (average age 22, 72% female) enrolled, 38 completed the week 10 follow-up. IBT shifted emotion interpretations (Hedges g = 1.63). There was a group-by-time effect (B = -13.88, p < .0001) on self-reported depression; the IBT group had a larger decrease in depressed mood. The IBT group also had a larger increase in perceived familial support (B = 3.88, p < .0001). Baseline learning rate (i.e., how quickly emotion judgments were updated) was associated with reduced clinician- (B = -54.70, p < 0.001) and self-reported depression (B = -58.20, p = 0.009). CONCLUSION: Our results converge with prior work demonstrating that IBT may reduce depressed mood. Additionally, our results provide support for role of operant conditioning in the treatment of depression. People with BD spend more time depressed than manic; IBT, an easily disseminated intervention, could augment traditional forms of treatment without significant expense or side effects.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno Bipolar , Adulto , Afecto , Sesgo , Trastorno Bipolar/terapia , Emociones , Femenino , Felicidad , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Joven
13.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 215: 103267, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33640593

RESUMEN

Previously we found perspective taking (PT) influenced affect ratings of negative pictures more than neutral pictures. The current follow-up experiments extend that research to explore effects of perspective taking with positive valence pictures. We used stimuli consisting of neutral, happy and sad pictures. Stimuli were presented either mixed within blocks (Experiment 1) or separated by emotion (neutrals + happy/sad) into two separate blocks (Experiment 2). Participants rated (from 1- to 7 based on emotional strength) stimuli from different perspectives (sensitive/tough/their own, i.e., "me"). Emotional strength rating was a dependent variable. A significant interaction between valence and PT was found in both experiments. The difference between adopting sensitive and tough perspectives toward sadness was larger than toward the neutral condition, replicating our results from the previous study. The same difference (sensitive-tough) was larger toward the happiness condition than toward the neutral one (this was a trend in Experiment 1 and was significant in Experiment 2) and toward the sadness condition than toward the happy one. These results suggest that PT effects on emotional ratings are modulated by valence of stimuli.


Asunto(s)
Felicidad , Tristeza , Emociones , Humanos
14.
Value Health ; 24(2): 244-249, 2021 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33518031

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) embeds an assumption at odds with most economic analysis-that of constant returns to health in the creation of happiness (utility). We aim to reconcile it with the bulk of economic theory. METHODS: We generalize the traditional CEA approach, allow diminishing returns to health, and align CEA with the rest of the health economics literature. RESULTS: This simple change has far-reaching implications for the practice of CEA. First, optimal cost-effectiveness thresholds should systematically rise for more severe diseases and fall for milder ones. We provide formulae for estimating how these thresholds vary with health-related quality of life (QoL) in the sick state. Practitioners can also use our approach to account for treatment outcome uncertainty. Holding average benefits fixed, risk-averse consumers value interventions more when they reduce outcome uncertainty ('insurance value') and/or when they provide a chance at positively skewed outcomes ('value of hope'). Finally, we provide a coherent way to combine improvements in QoL and life expectancy (LE) when people have diminishing returns to QoL. CONCLUSION: This new approach obviates the need for increasingly prevalent and ad hoc exceptions to CEA for end-of-life care, rare disease, and very severe disease (eg, cancer). Our methods also show that the value of improving QoL for disabled people is greater than for comparable non-disabled people, thus resolving an ongoing and mathematically legitimate objection to CEA raised by advocates for disabled people. Our Generalized Risk-Adjusted Cost-Effectiveness (GRACE) approach helps align HTA practice with realistic preferences for health and risk.


Asunto(s)
Análisis Costo-Beneficio/métodos , Personas con Discapacidad , Calidad de Vida , Evaluación de la Tecnología Biomédica/métodos , Felicidad , Humanos , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Incertidumbre
15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33572726

RESUMEN

Gender differences in sexuality-related dimensions have long been investigated in close relationship research. An important assumption when comparing values across gender in dyadic research is that both partners conceptualize the construct under investigation in the same way. Thus, issues of measurement invariance should be considered when working with dyadic data. The aim of the present study was to test the dyadic invariance of the Positive Sexuality Scale (PSS) to assess an individual's sense of happiness and fulfillment with his/her sexual expression. The PSS was completed by 166 Chilean heterosexual couples, and measurement invariance was tested using confirmatory factor analysis within a dyadic framework. Configural, metric, scalar, and partial strict measurement invariance were supported for the PSS original one-factor model. No between-partner difference was found in the PSS latent factor mean. The functioning of the PSS and the meaning attributed to positive sexuality were the same for both partners. Hence, variations in the PSS levels between both partners in heterosexual couples can be interpreted as true mean differences rather than measurement artifacts.


Asunto(s)
Heterosexualidad , Satisfacción Personal , Chile , Análisis Factorial , Femenino , Felicidad , Masculino
16.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0245546, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33481848

RESUMEN

Amidst the rapid global spread of Covid-19, many governments enforced country-wide lockdowns, with likely severe well-being consequences. In this regard, South Africa is an extreme case suffering from low levels of well-being, but at the same time enforcing very strict lockdown regulations. In this study, we analyse the causal effect of a lockdown and consequently, the determinants of happiness during the aforementioned. A difference-in-difference approach is used to make causal inferences on the lockdown effect on happiness, and an OLS estimation investigates the determinants of happiness after lockdown. The results show that the lockdown had a significant and negative impact on happiness. In analysing the determinants of happiness after lockdown, we found that stay-at-home orders have positively impacted happiness during this period. On the other hand, other lockdown regulations such as a ban on alcohol sales, a fear of becoming unemployed and a greater reliance on social media have negative effects, culminating in a net loss in happiness. Interestingly, Covid-19, proxied by new deaths per day, had an inverted U-shape relationship with happiness. Seemingly people were, at the onset of Covid-19 positive and optimistic about the low fatality rates and the high recovery rates. However, as the pandemic progressed, they became more concerned, and this relationship changed and became negative, with peoples' happiness decreasing as the number of new deaths increased.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/métodos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/prevención & control , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/organización & administración , Femenino , Felicidad , Humanos , Masculino , Sudáfrica/epidemiología
17.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0244569, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33439863

RESUMEN

Economic growth is often assumed to improve happiness for people in low income countries, although the association between monetary income and subjective well-being has been a subject of debate. We test this assumption by comparing three different measures of subjective well-being in very low-income communities with different levels of monetization. Contrary to expectations, all three measures of subjective well-being were very high in the least-monetized sites and comparable to those found among citizens of wealthy nations. The reported drivers of happiness shifted with increasing monetization: from enjoying experiential activities in contact with nature at the less monetized sites, to social and economic factors at the more monetized sites. Our results suggest that high levels of subjective well-being can be achieved with minimal monetization, challenging the perception that economic growth will raise life satisfaction among low income populations.


Asunto(s)
Felicidad , Satisfacción Personal , Adulto , Desarrollo Económico , Femenino , Humanos , Renta , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Factores Socioeconómicos
18.
J Affect Disord ; 281: 505-509, 2021 02 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33387816

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to improve the accuracy of bipolar disorder diagnoses by identifying symptoms that help to distinguish mania/hypomania in bipolar disorders from general 'happiness' in those with unipolar depression. METHODS: An international sample of 165 bipolar and 29 unipolar depression patients (as diagnosed by their clinician) were recruited. All participants were required to rate a set of 96 symptoms with regards to whether they typified their experiences of manic/hypomanic states (for bipolar patients) or when they were 'happy' (unipolar patients). A machine learning paradigm (prediction rule ensembles; PREs) was used to derive rule ensembles that identified which of the 94 non-psychotic symptoms and their combinations best predicted clinically-allocated diagnoses. RESULTS: The PREs were highly accurate at predicting clinician bipolar and unipolar diagnoses (92% and 91% respectively). A total of 20 items were identified from the analyses, which were all highly discriminating across the two conditions. When compared to a classificatory approach insensitive to the weightings of the items, the ensembles were of comparable accuracy in their discriminatory capacity despite the unbalanced sample. This illustrates the potential for PREs to supersede traditional classificatory approaches. LIMITATIONS: There were considerably less unipolar than bipolar patients in the sample, which limited the overall accuracy of the PREs. CONCLUSIONS: The consideration of symptoms outlined in this study should assist clinicians in distinguishing between bipolar and unipolar disorders. Future research will seek to further refine and validate these symptoms in a larger and more balanced sample.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno Bipolar , Trastorno Depresivo , Trastorno Bipolar/diagnóstico , Trastorno Depresivo/diagnóstico , Felicidad , Humanos , Aprendizaje Automático
19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33494471

RESUMEN

Mindfulness is connected to positive outcomes related to mental health and well-being. However, the psychological mechanisms that account for these relationships are largely unknown. A multiple-step multiple mediator structural equation modeling (SEM) model was tested with mindfulness as the independent variable; purpose in life and behavioral activation as serial mediators; and happiness, anxiety, and depression as outcome measures. Data were obtained from 1267 women. Higher mindfulness was associated with higher levels of happiness and lower anxiety and depression symptoms. The association of mindfulness with the outcome variables could be partially accounted for by purpose in life and behavioral activation. The SEM model explained large proportions of variance in happiness (50%), anxiety (34%), and depression (44%) symptoms. Mindfulness is associated with both a sense of purpose in life and engagement in activities, which are also connected with positive outcomes. Moreover, having purposes in life is linked to higher levels of behavioral activation.


Asunto(s)
Atención Plena , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Trastornos de Ansiedad , Depresión/epidemiología , Femenino , Felicidad , Humanos
20.
Anim Cogn ; 24(2): 299-309, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33459909

RESUMEN

This research focuses on sex differences in the behavioral patterns of dogs when they are exposed to human chemosignals (sweat) produced in happy and fear contexts. No age, breed or apparatus-directed behavior differences were found. However, when exposed to fear chemosignals, dogs' behavior towards their owners, and their stress signals lasted longer when compared to being exposed to happiness as well as control chemosignals. In the happy odor condition, females, in contrast to males, displayed a significantly higher interest to the stranger compared to their owner. In the fear condition, dogs spent more time with their owner compared to the stranger. Behaviors directed towards the door, indicative of exit interest, had a longer duration in the fear condition than the other two conditions. Female dogs revealed a significantly longer door-directed behavior in the fear condition compared to the control condition. Overall the data shows that the effect of exposure to human emotional chemosignals is not sex dependent for behaviors related to the apparatus, the owner or the stress behaviors; however, in the happiness condition, females showed a stronger tendency to interact with the stranger.


Asunto(s)
Felicidad , Feromonas Humanas , Animales , Conducta Animal , Perros , Emociones , Miedo , Femenino , Masculino , Caracteres Sexuales
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