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Rev Environ Contam Toxicol ; 252: 97-129, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31346776


Human milk may sometimes contain chemical contaminants, which could have adverse effects on neonates or nursing infants. Lead (Pb) is of considerable interest due to its toxicity and occurrence. Furthermore, it has been suggested that human milk is a significant potential source of lead exposure to nursing infants. A systematic literature search in PubMed, Science Direct, and Google Scholar databases was performed to identify relevant studies, published in English until 2017, that investigated and explored common factors affecting the level of lead in human milk among lactating women around the world. Forty-nine papers were rated and explored the effect of one or several factors on the level of lead in human milk from 28 countries and carried out over a wide time frame from 1983 to 2017 and through Europe, Asia, America, and Africa, reviewing more than 5,000 subjects. Place of residence, maternal age, stage of lactation, smoking habits, maternal dietary intakes, and parity were the mostly assessed factors among the studies and considered as the main factors affecting Pb levels in BM. Other factors were not studied well enough and considered minor because few surveys evaluated their impacts. However, the literature findings are very controversial.

Contaminantes Ambientales/metabolismo , Lactancia , Plomo/metabolismo , Leche Humana/metabolismo , Femenino , Humanos , Recién Nacido , Embarazo
Acta Neurochir Suppl ; 127: 191-194, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31407084


The aim of the study was to assess the time constant of cerebral arterial bed in TBI patients with cerebral vasospasm (CVS) with and without intracranial hematomas (ICH).We examined 84 patients with severe TBI (mean 35 ± 15 years, 53 men and 31 women). The first group included 41 patients without ICH and the second group included 43 patients with epidural (7) and subdural (36) hematomas.Perfusion computed tomography (PCT) was performed in 1-12 days after TBI in the first group and in 2-8 days after craniotomy in the second group. Arteriovenous amplitude of regional cerebral blood volume oscillation was calculated as the difference of arterial and venous blood volume in the "region of interest." Mean arterial pressure was measured and the flow rate of middle cerebral artery was recorded with Transcranial Doppler after PCT. Time constant was calculated by the formula modificated by M. Kasprowicz. Results and Conclusion: The τ was shorter (p < 0.005) in both first and second group in comparison with normal values. The τ in the second group on ipsilateral side former hematoma with CVS was shorter than in the first group and in the second group on contralateral side former hematoma without CVS (р = 0.024).

Traumatismos Craneocerebrales , Vasoespasmo Intracraneal , Traumatismos Craneocerebrales/complicaciones , Femenino , Hematoma , Humanos , Masculino , Arteria Cerebral Media , Ultrasonografía Doppler Transcraneal , Vasoespasmo Intracraneal/etiología
Rev Environ Contam Toxicol ; 251: 131-184, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31129734


Maternal exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) is associated with long-term hormone-dependent effects that are sometimes not revealed until maturity, middle age, or adulthood. The aim of this study was to conduct descriptive reviews on animal experimental and human epidemiological evidence of the adverse health effects of in utero and lactational exposure to selected EDCs on the first generation and subsequent generation of the exposed offspring. PubMed, Web of Science, and Toxline databases were searched for relevant human and experimental animal studies on 29 October 29 2018. Search results were screened for relevance, and studies that met the inclusion criteria were evaluated and qualitative data extracted for analysis. The search yielded 73 relevant human and 113 animal studies. Results from studies show that in utero and lactational exposure to EDCs is associated with impairment of reproductive, immunologic, metabolic, neurobehavioral, and growth physiology of the exposed offspring up to the fourth generation without additional exposure. Little convergence is seen between animal experiments and human studies in terms of the reported adverse health effects which might be associated with methodologic challenges across the studies. Based on the available animal and human evidence, in utero and lactational exposure to EDCs is detrimental to the offspring. However, more human studies are necessary to clarify the toxicological and pathophysiological mechanisms underlying these effects.

Disruptores Endocrinos , Exposición Materna/estadística & datos numéricos , Animales , Femenino , Humanos , Embarazo
Gene ; 722: 144057, 2020 Jan 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31430519


OBJECTIVE: Fork head domain-containing transcription factor family (FOX), is comprised of >20 members. Members of FOX family have been implicated in a wide range of physiological and/or diseased conditions. Many of FOX members have been shown to be involved in tumorigenesis and progression. The potential roles in carcinogenesis of FOXN4, a member as one of the vast FOX family, remains relatively unknown. METHOD: Here, we explored the potential involvement of FOXN4 in breast cancer. RESULTS: First, observed that a higher FOXN4 was identified in the normal adjacent breast tissue as compared to that in the breast cancer samples; an increased FOXN4 level was associated with a better prognosis in patients with breast cancer. In addition, ectopically expression of FOXN4 led to the decreased cell proliferation, reduced colony formation and metastatic abilities (EMT, migration and invasion) in breast cancer cell lines. Furthermore, we showed the direct interaction between FOXN4 and TP53 and FOXN4 binding led to the increased activity of TP53. Silencing FOXN4 led to reduced TP53 and increased expression of Dll4, Notch and survivin, providing a link between FOXN4 and Notch signaling. Finally, we used patient-derived xenograft mouse model to demonstrate the tumor inhibitory effects of Notch-inhibitor, PF-3084014. We found that PF-3084014 treatment led to a significantly smaller tumor burden and higher survival ratio in patient-derived xenograft mice as compared to the vehicle. This tumor suppressive effect was accompanied by the increased expression of TP53, FOXN4 and decreased Dll4 and Notch. CONCLUSION: Collectively, our data strongly suggested the tumor suppressive roles of FOXN4 in breast tumorigenesis via the activation of TP53 while suppressing Notch signaling. Future studies are warranted to explore the clinical application of PF-3084104 (Notch inhibitor) for the treatment of breast cancer patients.

Neoplasias de la Mama/metabolismo , Factores de Transcripción Forkhead/metabolismo , Proteínas Supresoras de Tumor/metabolismo , Adulto , Animales , Neoplasias de la Mama/genética , Neoplasias de la Mama/patología , Carcinogénesis , Línea Celular Tumoral , Proliferación Celular , Femenino , Factores de Transcripción Forkhead/genética , Humanos , Péptidos y Proteínas de Señalización Intercelular/metabolismo , Neoplasias Mamarias Experimentales/tratamiento farmacológico , Neoplasias Mamarias Experimentales/genética , Neoplasias Mamarias Experimentales/metabolismo , Ratones , Metástasis de la Neoplasia , Pronóstico , Receptores Notch/antagonistas & inhibidores , Receptores Notch/metabolismo , Transducción de Señal , Tetrahidronaftalenos/uso terapéutico , Proteína p53 Supresora de Tumor/genética , Proteína p53 Supresora de Tumor/metabolismo , Proteínas Supresoras de Tumor/genética , Valina/análogos & derivados , Valina/uso terapéutico
Gene ; 722: 144076, 2020 Jan 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31454538


N6-methyladenosine (m6A) is the most prevalent internal modification in mammalian mRNAs and methyltransferase-like 3 (METTL3) is a vital methyltransferase in m6A modification. Here, this study tries to discover the regulatory role of METTL3 and its mechanism in the breast cancer tumorigenesis. Results found that METTL3 was up-regulated in the breast cancer tissue and cells. In vivo and vitro, METTL3 knockdown could decrease the methylation level, reduce the proliferation, accelerate the apoptosis and inhibited the tumor growth. Moreover, we found that Bcl-2 acted as the target of METTL3, thereby regulating the proliferation and apoptosis of breast cancer. This study could reveal the potential mechanism of m6A modification in the breast cancer tumorigenesis, providing potential drug targets in the treatment.

Neoplasias de la Mama/enzimología , Metiltransferasas/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogénicas c-bcl-2/genética , Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Adenosina/metabolismo , Apoptosis , Neoplasias de la Mama/genética , Neoplasias de la Mama/patología , Línea Celular Tumoral , Proliferación Celular , Progresión de la Enfermedad , Femenino , Humanos , Metiltransferasas/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogénicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo
Gene ; 722: 144098, 2020 Jan 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31494241


This study evaluated the possible association between SNPs in cytokines coding genes, namely IL10, IL6 and IFNG, cytokines serum levels and clinical assessment' scores in patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis(RA). SNPs genotyping was performed in 126 RA patients and 177 healthy individuals with Taqman probes specific for IL10 -1082 (T>C, rs1800896);INFG -1616 (A>G, rs2069705) and IL6 -174 (G>C, rs1800795) variants,positioned in regulatory regions. Cytokine Bead Array (CBA) was used to measure cytokine levels. We found association between INFG -1616 G allele(p = 0.0210; OR = 1.605) and INFG -1616 GG genotype (p = 0.0268; OR =2.609) and RA susceptibility. We also observed association between IL10 -1082 TT genotype and high clinical disease activity index (CDAI) values (p = 0.026; OR = 1.906; 95% CI = 1.082 - 3.359), IL10 -1082 CC genotype and low CDAI values (p = 0.016; OR = 0.256) and INFG -1616 AA and high CDAI values (p = 0.025; OR = 2.919). IL10 -1082 CC also exhibited the lowest IL-10 levels than IL10 -1082 TT (p = 0.020) and IL10 -1082 TC (p = 0.032). Finally, we verified higher IL-6 value in the RA patients than healthy control group (p = 0.007) and an association between high IL-6 levels and increased CDAI (r = 0.4648, p = 0.0015); DAS 28 (r = 0.3933, p= 0.0091), presence of bone erosions (r = 0.3170, p = 0.0361), ESR levels(r = 0.3041, p = 0.0448) and IFN-γ levels (r = 0.3049, p = 0.0468).Altogether, we suggest that IL10 -1082 (T>C, rs1800896) and INFG -1616(A>G, rs2069705) polymorphisms as well as IL-6 levels alterations may play a role for prognostic and disease follow-up.

Artritis Reumatoide/genética , Interferón gamma/genética , Interleucina-10/genética , Interleucina-6/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple , Adulto , Artritis Reumatoide/sangre , Artritis Reumatoide/diagnóstico , Femenino , Frecuencia de los Genes , Genotipo , Humanos , Interferón gamma/sangre , Interleucina-10/sangre , Interleucina-6/sangre , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad
Gene ; 723: 144133, 2020 Jan 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31589956


BACKGROUND AND AIM: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is one of the neurodevelopmental and cognitive conditions that involves 1 in 160 children around the world. Several studies showed that there is a relationship between vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms with the neurodevelopmental behavioral disorders. In the current study, we aimed to highlight the association of VDR gene polymorphisms (FokI and TaqI) with the risk of autism in Birjand population. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this case-control study eighty-one patients recognized with ASD and one hundred-eight healthy controls were recruited to the study from 2017 to 2018. Genotyping was carried out by polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique for all subjects. RESULTS: Calculated odds ratio and P-value for the alleles of VDR gene FokI and TaqI variants between autistic patients and controls did not show a significant difference (P > 0.05). However, calculated homozygous recessive (tt) for TaqI polymorphism was statistically significant (P = 0.015) in control group and there was also statistically meaningful difference in both case and control groups in ft haplotype (P = 0.04). CONCLUSION: These results provide preliminary evidence that genetic variants of the VDR gene (FokI and TaqI) might have a possible reduced risk of ASD occurrence in children. The additional examination is needed to acquire more decisive and precise results in this area.

Trastorno del Espectro Autista/genética , Polimorfismo de Longitud del Fragmento de Restricción , Receptores de Calcitriol/genética , Adolescente , Trastorno del Espectro Autista/sangre , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Niño , Preescolar , Colecalciferol/sangre , Femenino , Estudios de Asociación Genética , Pruebas Genéticas , Humanos , Irán , Masculino
Gene ; 723: 144142, 2020 Jan 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31589957


DNA methylation is an epigenetic alteration that may lead to carcinogenesis by silencing key tumor suppressor genes. Hypermethylation of the paired box gene 1 (PAX1) promoter is important in cervical cancer development. Here, PAX1 methylation levels were compared between Uyghur and Han patients with cervical lesions. Data on PAX1 methylation in different cervical lesions were obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database, whereas data on survival and PAX1 mRNA expression in invasive cervical cancer (ICC) were retrieved from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. MassARRAY spectrometry was used to detect methylation of 19 CpG sites in the promoter region of PAX1, whereas gene mass spectrograms were drawn by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry. Human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 infection was detected by polymerase chain reaction. PAX1 methylation in high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) and ICC was significantly higher than in normal tissues. PAX1 hypermethylation was associated with poor prognosis and reduced transcription. ICC-specific PAX1 promoter methylation involved distinct CpG sites in Uyghur and Han patients HPV16 infection in HSIL and ICC patient was significantly higher than in normal women (p < 0.05). Our study revealed a strong association between PAX1 methylation and the development of cervical cancer. Moreover, hypermethylation of distinct CpG sites may induce HSIL transformation into ICC in both Uyghur and Han patients. Our results suggest the existence of ethnic differences in the genetic susceptibility to cervical cancer. Finally, PAX1 methylation and HPV infection exhibited synergistic effects on cervical carcinogenesis.

Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/virología , Metilación de ADN , Papillomavirus Humano 16/patogenicidad , Factores de Transcripción Paired Box/genética , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico , Lesiones Intraepiteliales Escamosas de Cuello Uterino/virología , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/virología , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/genética , China/etnología , ADN Viral/genética , Bases de Datos Factuales , Regulación hacia Abajo , Epigénesis Genética , Femenino , Regulación Neoplásica de la Expresión Génica , Papillomavirus Humano 16/genética , Humanos , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/genética , Pronóstico , Regiones Promotoras Genéticas , Lesiones Intraepiteliales Escamosas de Cuello Uterino/genética , Análisis de Supervivencia , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/genética
Gene ; 723: 144120, 2020 Jan 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31589964


PURPOSE: Matrix Gla protein (MGP) is a vitamin K-dependent, γ-carboxylated protein that was initially found to be a physiological inhibitor of ectopic calcifications affecting mainly cartilage and the vascular system. Mutations in the MGP gene were found to be responsible for a human pathology, the Keutel syndrome, characterized by abnormal calcifications in cartilage, lungs, brain and vascular system. MGP was recently implicated in tumorigenic processes such as angiogenesis and shown to be abnormally regulated in several tumors, including cervical, ovarian, urogenital and breast. This fact has triggered our interest in analyzing the expression of MGP and of its regulator, the transcription factor runt related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), in colorectal cancer (CRC). METHODS: MGP and RUNX2 expression were analyzed in cancer and non-tumor biopsies samples from 33 CRC patients and 9 healthy controls by RT-qPCR. Consequently, statistical analyses were performed to evaluate the clinical-pathological significance of MGP and RUNX2 in CRC. MGP protein was also detected by immunohistochemical analysis. RESULTS: Showed an overall overexpression of MGP in the tumor mucosa of patients at mRNA level when compared to adjacent normal mucosa and healthy control tissues. In addition, analysis of the expression of RUNX2 mRNA demonstrated an overexpression in CRC tissue samples and a positive correlation with MGP expression (Pearson correlation coefficient 0.636; p ≤ 0.01) in tumor mucosa. However correlations between MGP gene expression and clinical-pathological characteristics, such as gender, age and pathology classification did not provide relevant information that may shed light towards the differences of MGP expression observed between normal and malignant tissue. CONCLUSIONS: We were able to associate the high levels of MGP mRNA expression with a worse prognosis and survival rate lower than five years. These results contributed to improve our understanding of the molecular mechanism underlying MGP deregulation in cancer.

Proteínas de Unión al Calcio/genética , Proteínas de Unión al Calcio/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorrectales/patología , Subunidad alfa 1 del Factor de Unión al Sitio Principal/genética , Proteínas de la Matriz Extracelular/genética , Proteínas de la Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Regulación hacia Arriba , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Neoplasias Colorrectales/genética , Neoplasias Colorrectales/metabolismo , Femenino , Regulación Neoplásica de la Expresión Génica , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estadificación de Neoplasias , Pronóstico , Análisis de Supervivencia
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 18: eGS4913, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31531556


OBJECTIVE: To evaluate indications, results and strategy of retinal exams requested at Primary Care Units. METHODS: A retrospective study that analyzed the indications and results of retinal exams, in the modalities clinical dilated fundus exams and color fundus photographs. In the following situations, patients were considered eligible for color fundus photographs if visual acuity was normal and ocular symptoms were absent: diabetes mellitus and/or hypertension, in use of drugs with potential retinal toxicity, diagnosis or suspicion of glaucoma, stable and asymptomatic retinopathies, except myopia greater than -3.00 diopters. RESULTS: A total of 1,729 patients were evaluated (66% female, age 63.5±15.5 years), and 1,190 underwent clinical dilated fundus exam and 539 underwent color fundus photographs. Diabetes was present in 32.2%. The main indications were diabetes (23.7%) and glaucoma evaluation (23.5%). In 3.4% of patients there was no apparent indication. The main results were a large cup/disc ratio (30.7%) and diabetic retinopathy (13.2%). Exam was normal in 9.6%, detected peripheral changes in 7% and could not be performed in 1%. Considering patients eligible for fundus photographs (22.4%), more than half underwent clinical dilated fundus exams. CONCLUSION: Regarding exam modality, there were no important differences in the distribution of indications or diagnosis. Color fundus photograph is compatible with telemedicine and more cost-effective, and could be considered the strategy of choice in some scenarios. Since there are no clear guidelines for retinal exams indications or the modality of choice, this study may contribute to such standardization, in order to optimize public health resources.

Técnicas de Diagnóstico Oftalmológico , Atención Primaria de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Retina , Enfermedades de la Retina/diagnóstico , Anciano , Retinopatía Diabética/diagnóstico , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Oftalmológico/economía , Femenino , Fondo de Ojo , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Fotograbar , Examen Físico , Estudios Retrospectivos , Telemedicina , Agudeza Visual
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 18: eRC4582, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31531557


The correct identification of erythrocyte antibodies is fundamental for the searching for compatible blood and haemolytic transfusion reactions prevention. Antibodies against antigens of high prevalence are difficult to identify because of the rarity of their occurrence and unavailability of negative red cells for confirmation. We report a case of 46-years-old woman, diagnosed with hemoglobinopathy, and who had symptomatic fall in hemoglobin levels (5.3g/dL) after blood transfusion suggestive of transfusion reaction. The patient's blood type was O RhD-positive. Irregular antibody screening was positive and demonstrated a panreaction against all erythrocytes tested, but this result was not reactive with dithiothreitol. Using negative red cells for antigens of high prevalence of our inventory we could identify in the serum of the same erythrocytes an anti-Holley antibody associated with anti-E. Molecular analysis confirmed that the patient was negative for E and Holley antigens. The crossmath with compatible units confirmed the results. Holley is a high prevalence antigen of the Dombrock blood system whose negative phenotype is extremely rare in all populations and is associated with hemolytic transfusion reactions. This is an antibody that is difficult to identify because laboratories need to have experience in solving complex cases, and have available a large stock of rare sera and erythrocytes, as well other tools such as enzymes, thiol reagents and molecular tests. The correct identification of a rare antibody is initial and mandatory for searching of compatible donors, and to guarantee a satisfactory transfusional support.

Anticuerpos/inmunología , Antígenos de Grupos Sanguíneos/inmunología , Incompatibilidad de Grupos Sanguíneos/inmunología , Reacción a la Transfusión/inmunología , Anticuerpos/sangre , Eritrocitos/inmunología , Femenino , Pruebas Hematológicas/métodos , Humanos , Inmunoglobulinas/sangre , Isoanticuerpos/inmunología , Persona de Mediana Edad
Water Res ; 168: 115099, 2020 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31604174


Cow manure (CM) was added to a dynamic membrane bioreactor (DMBR) operated under anaerobic condition for enhancing food waste (FW) digestion for over 300 days with stepwise increase of organic loading rates (OLRs) from 1.07 to 11.9 g COD/L/day. At a FW/CM ratio of 3.5:1 (based on volatile solids), the mixed liquor pH was always above 8.0 and no apparent volatile fatty acids (VFAs) accumulation occurred even at the highest OLR of 11.9 g COD/L/day (hydraulic retention time as 10 days and solid retention time as 15.5 days, correspondingly), indicating a very stable operation condition which resulted in an average CH4 yield as high as 250 mL/g COD and CH4 production as high as 2.71 L CH4/L/day. The hardly biodegradable organic components, such as cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, were effectively degraded by 78.3%, 58.8%, and 47.5%, respectively. Significantly high anaerobic digestion reaction ratios, especially the hydrolysis ratio which is usually the limiting factor, were calculated based on experimental results. Furthermore, the high lignocellulase contents and coenzyme F420 levels, along with the decrease of cellulose crystallinity from 72.6% to 16.4% in the feedstock, provided strong evidence of an enhanced biological activity by CM addition. By high-throughput sequencing analysis, more abundant and diverse bacterial, archaeal, and fungal genera were identified from the DMBR sludge. With CM addition, the biodegradation of lignocellulose might have produced sufficient H2 and CO2 for the hydrogenotrophic methanogens such as Methanoculleus, Methanomassiliicoccus, and Methanobacterium, which were highly tolerant to ammonium inhibition, and then the elevated ammonium level would have provided high buffering capacity in the DMBR thus ensuring a stable condition for high rate FW digestion and CH4 production.

Microbiota , Eliminación de Residuos , Anaerobiosis , Animales , Biocombustibles , Reactores Biológicos , Bovinos , Femenino , Alimentos , Estiércol , Metano
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 18: eAO4739, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553355


OBJECTIVE: To use magnetic resonance imaging to assess the prevalence of foot and ankle ligament injuries and fractures associated with ankle sprain and not diagnosed by x-ray. METHODS: We included 180 consecutive patients with a history of ankle sprain, assessed at a primary care service in a 12-month period. Magnetic resonance imaging findings were recorded and described. RESULTS: Approximately 92% of patients had some type of injury shown on the magnetic resonance imaging. We found 379 ligament injuries, 9 osteochondral injuries, 19 tendinous injuries and 51 fractures. Only 14 magnetic resonance imaging tests (7.8%) did not show any sort of injury. We observed a positive relation between injuries of the lateral complex, syndesmosis and medial ligaments. However, there was a negative correlation between ankle ligament injuries and midfoot injuries. CONCLUSION: There was a high rate of injuries secondary to ankle sprains. We found correlation between lateral ligament injuries and syndesmosis and deltoid injuries. We did not observe a relation between deltoid and syndesmosis injuries or between lateral ligamentous and subtalar injuries. Similarly, no relation was found between ankle and midfoot injuries.

Traumatismos del Tobillo/epidemiología , Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Traumatismos del Tobillo/diagnóstico por imagen , Brasil/epidemiología , Cartílago Articular/lesiones , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Ligamentos Laterales del Tobillo/lesiones , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Adulto Joven
Belo Horizonte; s.n; 20192803. 59 p. ilus, tab.
Tesis en Portugués | Coleciona SUS | ID: biblio-1016793


Introdução: As avaliações usando tecnologia estão presentes nas escolas em vários países, e seu uso se popularizou nas últimas duas décadas, sendo utilizadas no exame para licença médica nos Estados Unidos desde 1999. O potencial que as avaliações aprimoradas por tecnologia trazem para o mundo acadêmico foi o que motivou a realização deste estudo, e o conhecimento advindo de uma conferência específica sobre essas tecnologias trouxe o incentivo para persistir nessa linha de pesquisa. Método: Este estudo tem por objetivo comparar o estresse, a satisfação e o desempenho dos acadêmicos durante o primeiro semestre de 2018, ao realizarem provas escritas convencionais e provas no computador na disciplina de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia do curso de Medicina da Universidade José do Rosário Vellano, campus Alfenas. Foram avaliadas as turmas do décimo segundo período e sétimo período, totalizando uma amostra de 135 alunos. Tratou-se de um estudo experimental randomizado em que os alunos foram divididos em dois grupos para as avaliações e foram-lhes aplicados questionários pré-definidos e presenciais. Antes da prova, foram entregues aos alunos perguntas específicas para avaliar o estresse envolvido em sua realização. Ao término da prova, foram aplicadas as questões que avaliaram a satisfação com o tipo de prova realizada. Foram ainda registradas as notas obtidas nos dois tipos de avaliação. Cada aluno fez uma avaliação escrita convencional e uma avaliação via computador. Resultados: Os acadêmicos avaliados demonstraram maior estresse e menor satisfação com a prova no computador, comparando-a com a prova escrita convencional. O tipo de prova não esteve associado ao desempenho acadêmico. Conclusão: A falta de familiaridade e treinamento com a metodologia, antes da aplicação das avaliações, causou aumento no estresse nos acadêmicos envolvidos no presente estudo, o que interferiu na satisfação, ao fazer a prova usando tecnologia, embora não tenha havido diferença nos escores de desempenho. As informações coletadas serão utilizadas para reestruturação do formato dos testes oferecidos no departamento de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia da UNIFENAS, campus Alfenas, com o intuito de aprimorar a avaliação teórica que se realiza na Universidade.

Introduction: Evaluations using technology are present in schools in several countries and have become popular in the last two decades and have been used in the United States medical license examination since 1999. The potential that improved technology assessments bring to the academic world motivated the carrying out of this study, and the knowledge from a specific conference on these technologies brought the incentive to persist in this research line. Method: This study aims to compare the stress, satisfaction and performance of academics during the first semester of 2018, when conducting conventional written tests and computer tests in the course of Gynecology and Obstetrics of the medical program of the University of José do Rosário Vellano, Alfenas campus, a total sample of 135 students. It was a randomized experimental study in which the students were divided for the evaluations and pre-defined and class-based questionnaires were applied. Prior to the test, specific questions were given to students to assess the stress involved in their achievement. At the end of the test, the questions were answered to evaluate the satisfaction with the type of the test they took. Each student did a conventional written assessment and a computer assessment. Results: The evaluated students showed greater stress and less satisfaction with the computer-based test compared to the conventional written test, although there was no statistical difference in performance when comparing both. Conclusion: Lack of familiarity and training with the methodology prior to test application resulted an increase in students' stress in the present study, which interfered in the satisfaction with the test using technology, even though there was no difference in the performance scores. The collected information will be used to restructure the format of the tests offered in the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics of UNIFENAS, Campus Alfenas, in order to improve the theoretical evaluation performed at the University.

Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto , Adulto Joven , Educación Médica , Estudiantes de Medicina , Computadores , Evaluación Educacional , Rendimiento Académico
Acta colomb. psicol ; 22(2): 13-27, July-Dec. 2019. tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019274


Abstract The current approach to the health-illness process requires, in addition to disease control, the preservation of the person's quality of life. This study has the purpose of identifying the relationship between gaudiebility and the perception of health status in a Mexican sample, as well as comparing these variables by gender. A cross-sectional and correlational study was conducted for such purposes. Gaudiebility was measured with the Gaudiebility Scale and the perception of health status with the MOS 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36). The sample consisted of 285 people between the ages of 14 and 78 (M = 32.13, SD = 13.38), who were recruited with the snowball sampling method, forming a non-probability sample. Results indicate a statistically significant positive and moderate relationship between gaudiebility and the General Health of people (p = .433, p < .001). Thus, people with high gaudiebility perceive less risks to their General Health compared with people who have low and moderate gaudiebility (RM = 4.527, 2.434 - 8.419). Furthermore, a statistically significant difference was identified by gender regarding Physical Functioning (z = -2.293, p = .022) and Mental Health (z = -2.243, p = .025) on the SF-36, where men reported a higher level in both cases. It was concluded that gaudiebility has a relevant influence on the perception of health status.

Resumo Na atualidade, para a abordagem do processo saúde-doença requer-se, além de controlar a doença, preservar, na medida do possível, a qualidade de vida da pessoa. Nesse sentido, o objetivo do presente trabalho foi identificar a relação entre a gaudibilidade e a percepção do estado de saúde em uma amostra de mexicanos e comparar tais variáveis de acordo com o gênero dos participantes. Para isso, utilizou-se um desenho transversal e correlacional com a aplicação da Escala de Gaudibilidade e a versão curta do Questionário de Saúde (SF-36). No total, participaram 285 pessoas com idades entre 14 e 78 anos (M = 32.13, DP = 13.38) recrutados por meio da técnica de bola de neve, com quem se formou uma amostra não probabilística. Os resultados indicaram uma relação estatisticamente significativa, positiva e moderada entre a gaudibilidade e a saúde geral dos participantes (p = .407, p < .001), devido ao fato de que as pessoas com alta gaudibilidade perceberam menos riscos em saúde geral em comparação com as pessoas com gaudibilidade baixa e moderada (RM = 4.527, 2.434 - 8.419). Igualmente, identificou-se uma diferença estatisticamente significativa com respeito ao gênero nos fatores funcionamento físico (z = -2.293, p = .022) e saúde mental (z = -2.243, p = .025) do SF-36, já que os homens indicaram um maior nível em ambos os casos. Conclui-se que a gaudibilidade tem uma influência relevante sobre a percepção do estado de saúde.

Resumen En la actualidad, para el abordaje del proceso salud-enfermedad se requiere, además de controlar la enfermedad, preservar en lo posible la calidad de vida de la persona. En este sentido, el objetivo del presente trabajo fue identificar la relación entre la gaudibilidad y la percepción del estado de salud en una muestra de mexicanos, y comparar dichas variables según el género de los participantes. Para esto, se utilizó un diseño transversal y correlacional con la aplicación de la Escala de Gaudibilidad y la versión corta del Cuestionario de Salud (SF-36). En total, participaron 285 personas de entre 14 y 78 años (M = 32.13, DE = 13.38), reclutados por medio de la técnica de bola de nieve, con quienes se formó una muestra no probabilística. Los resultados indicaron una relación estadísticamente significativa, positiva y moderada entre la gaudibilidad y la salud general de los participantes (p = .407, p < .001), debido a que las personas con alta gaudibilidad percibieron menos riesgos en salud general en comparación con las personas con baja y moderada gaudibilidad (RM = 4.527, 2.434 - 8.419). Asimismo, se identificó una diferencia estadísticamente significativa en cuanto al género en los factores funcionamiento físico (z = -2.293, p = .022) y salud mental (z = -2.243, p = .025) del SF-36, ya que los hombres refirieron un nivel mayor en ambos casos. Se concluye que la gaudibilidad tiene una influencia relevante sobre la percepción del estado de salud.

Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Psicología Social , Calidad de Vida , Estado de Salud
Acta colomb. psicol ; 22(2): 28-52, July-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019275


Abstract Neurological Soft Signs (NSS) are indicative of generalized disruptions in neurological networks of cortico-subcortical areas. Their presence leads to problems in children's cognitive development with future academic repercussions. The presence of NSS was assessed and compared in 144 children aged 6 to 11 years of low-medium socioeconomic status from Mexico City and the metropolitan area through the Infant Neuropsychological Maturity Questionnaire (CUMANIN, for its Spanish acronym) and the School Neuropsychological Maturity Questionnaire (CUMANES, for its Spanish acronym). Results indicate significant differences by sex. Girls showed better performance in word articulation. In groups by age, significant differences were found in leximetric-comprehension, visual perception and executive function-errors. Participants showed the presence of developmental NSS which include: language (articulation disorders, oral and written language disturbances, difficulty finding words), psychomotricity, visual perception and other cognitive functions. There are several factors related to those impairments such as age, socioeconomic context and critical stages in child's development. Identification and early diagnosis can reduce the risk of school failure.

Resumo Os Sinais Neurológico Sutis (SNS) são indicadores de interrupções generalizadas nas redes de trabalho neural de áreas córtico-subcorticais, cuja presença leva a problemas no desenvolvimento neurocognitivo da criança que representam repercussões acadêmicas negativas. Na presente pesquisa, foi avaliada e comparada a presença de SNS com os processos cognitivos de 144 participantes mexicanos de estrato socioeconómico médio-baixo com idades entre 6 e 11 anos, sem antecedentes neurológicos ou psiquiátricos, por meio dos Cuestionarios de Madurez Neuropsicológica (CUMANIN) e Madurez Neuropsicológica Escolar (CUMANES). Os resultados indicaram diferenças significativas por gênero, já que as meninas apresentaram melhor desempenho na articulação de palavras. Nos grupos por idade, as diferenças significativas foram encontradas na velocidade de leitura e compreensão, visuopercepção e função executiva e erros. Em geral, os participantes mostraram presença de SNS de desenvolvimento, que incluem interferências na linguagem (problemas articulatórios, alterações da linguagem oral e escrita, dificuldade para encontrar palavras), psicomotricidade, visuopercepção e outras funções cognitivas. Ao final, conclui-se que a identificação e o diagnóstico precoce dos SNS permite diminuir o risco de fracasso escolar.

Resumen Los Signos Neurológicos Blandos (SNB) son indicativos de interrupciones generalizadas en las redes de trabajo neuronal de áreas cortico-subcorticales, cuya presencia conlleva a problemas en el desarrollo neurocognitivo del niño que representan repercusiones académicas negativas. En la presente investigación se evaluó y comparó la presencia de SNB con los procesos cognitivos de 144 participantes mexicanos de estrato socioeconómico medio-bajo con edades entre los 6 y 11 años sin antecedentes neurológicos o psiquiátricos por medio de los Cuestionarios de Madurez Neuropsicológica (CUMANIN) y Madurez Neuropsicológica Escolar (CUMANES). Los resultados indicaron diferencias significativas por sexo, ya que las niñas presentaron mejor desempeño en la articulación de palabras. En los grupos por edad, las diferencias significativas se encontraron en leximetría-comprensión, visopercepción y función ejecutiva-errores; y, en general, los participantes mostraron presencia de SNB de desarrollo, que incluyen afectaciones en: lenguaje (problemas articulatorios, alteraciones del lenguaje oral y escrito, dificultad para encontrar palabras), psicomotricidad, visopercepción y otras funciones cognitivas. Al final, se concluye que la identificación y diagnóstico temprano de los SNB permite disminuir el riesgo de fracaso escolar.

Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Niño , Escolaridad , Manifestaciones Neurológicas , Pruebas Neuropsicológicas
Acta colomb. psicol ; 22(2): 53-69, July-Dec. 2019. tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019276


Abstract Different studies with university students show the presence of a negative image about the elderly and an absence of positive stereotypes regarding this age group. With the increase of the older population, these stereotypes must disappear in order to work with aged people without a negative view of them. The aim of this paper was to identify the existence of negative stereotypes towards old age in students who are pursuing health-related and not related university degree courses. A total of 262 students were assessed with the CENVE questionnaire. In order to find out whether there were differences between students with respect to negative stereotypes, an ANOVA and a post-hoc comparison test were carried out. Results were significant at the 5% level. These show evidence of the existence of negative stereotypes about old age in students pursuing university degrees related and not related to the field of health. ANOVAs showed differences in total CENVE (F3 259 = 3.574; p = 0.015; r2 = 0.040), Social Motivation dimension (F3259 = 3.697; p = 0.012; rf = 0.042), and Personality dimension (F3259 = 5.157; p = 0.002; r2 = 0.057). The post-hoc tests show the existence of differences in stereotypes depending on the course that is being studied, where the health related courses show the lower level of negative stereotypes.

Resumo Diversos estudos sobre estereótipos com estudantes universitários mostram que as pessoas idosas são percebidas mais frequentemente a partir de uma imagem negativa do que com estereótipos positivos. Levando em consideração o crescente aumento da população idosa na atualidade e como o fim de trabalhar com pessoas mais velhas a partir de uma visão positiva de si mesmos, é preciso que esses estereótipos desapareçam. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar se existem estereótipos negativos com respeito à velhice em estudantes de cursos universitários relacionados e não relacionados com o campo da saúde. No total, 262 estudantes foram avaliados com o questionário CENVE e, para saber se existiam diferenças de estereótipos negativos entre os estudantes de acordo com sua habilitação, foi realizada uma análise ANOVA, além de comparações post hoc. Os resultados foram significativos com um nível de 5% e evidenciaram a existência de estereótipos negativos com respeito à velhice em estudantes de habilitações universitárias relacionadas e não relacionadas com o campo da saúde. Os ANOVA mostraram diferenças para o CENVE total (F3259 = 3.574; p = .015; n2 = .040), para a dimensão de motivação social (F3259 = 3.697; p = .012; n2 = .042) e para a dimensão de personalidade (F3259 = 5.157; p = .002; n2 = .057). As provas post hoc mostraram a existência de diferenças no grau de estereótipos negativos de acordo com as habilitações em curso, sendo que as habilitações de saúde mostraram menor grau em comparação com as demais.

Resumen Diversos estudios sobre estereotipos con estudiantes universitarios muestran que las personas mayores son percibidas más desde una imagen negativa que con estereotipos positivos. Teniendo en cuenta el creciente aumento de la población mayor en la actualidad, y con el fin de trabajar con personas mayores desde una visión positiva de sí mismos, es necesario que estos estereotipos desaparezcan. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar si existen estereotipos negativos hacia la vejez en estudiantes de carreras universitarias relacionadas y no relacionadas con el campo de la salud. En total, se evaluó a 262 estudiantes con el cuestionario CENVE, y, para saber si existían diferencias de estereotipos negativos entre los estudiantes según su titulación, se realizó un análisis ANOVA, además de comparaciones post hoc. Los resultados fueron significativos al nivel del 5 % y evidenciaron la existencia de estereotipos negativos hacia la vejez en estudiantes de títulos universitarios relacionados y no relacionados con el campo de la salud. Los ANOVA mostraron diferencias para el CENVE total (F3259 = 3.574; p = .015; η 2 = .040), para la dimensión de motivación social (F3259 = 3.697; p = .012; η2 = .042) y para la dimensión de personalidad (F3259 = 5.157; p = .002; η 2 = .057). Las pruebas post hoc mostraron la existencia de diferencias en el grado de estereotipos negativos según las titulaciones en curso, donde las titulaciones sanitarias mostraron menor grado en comparación con las demás.

Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Ageísmo
Acta colomb. psicol ; 22(2): 70-98, July-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019277


Abstract Resources are distributed unequally depending on the social status (SS) of people. Researchers have often used experiments to explain the role of SS in economic decisions. However, the diverse ways of inducing SS has produced contradictory results. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of SS on the distribution of monetary resources in students aged 18 to 25 years from Córdoba (Argentina). Three experiments using mixed factorial designs were conducted. Different ways of inducing SS and the effect on decisions in different games were examined. In Experiment 1, the effect of two SS induction techniques on the decisions of the Ultimatum Game (UG) and Dictator Game (DG) was compared. In Experiment 2, the effect of SS on the same games, including Social Value Orientation (SVO) and Subjective Social Status (SSS) as covariates was analyzed. In Experiment 3, the role of SS, SVO and SSS in the DG and the Dictator Game Taking (DGT) was examined. In the three experiments, it was not found that SS had any effect on the decisions of the games. However, more rejection and negative valence was observed (Exp. 1: p < .001, n 2 p =.72; Exp. 2: p < .001, n 2 p = .65) for unfair offers than for fair ones (Exp. 2: p < .001). Also, pro-social individuals made fairer offers in the DG (Exp. 2: p < .05) and participants offered more money in the DGT than in the DG (Exp. 3: p = .01). Those findings showed that the effect of SS on behavioral responses is not robust, which highlights the need to obtain new experimental evidence to investigate its role in those decisions.

Resumo Os recursos são normalmente distribuídos de maneira desigual em função do status social (SS) das pessoas, razão pela qual diversos pesquisadores utilizam experimentos para explicar o papel do SS nas decisões econômicas. No entanto, as diversas formas de induzir o SS geraram resultados contraditórios. No presente trabalho, investigou-se o efeito do SS na distribuição dos recursos monetários em estudantes de 18 a 25 anos da cidade de Córdoba, na Argentina, por meio de três experimentos com desenhos experimentais mistos. Especificamente, foram avaliadas diferentes técnicas para manipular o SS e seu efeito nas decisões econômicas: no Experimento 1 comparou-se o efeito de duas técnicas de manipulação do SS nas decisões do Jogo do Ultimato (JU) e do Ditador (JD); no Experimento 2 analisou-se o efeito do SS nos mesmos jogos, incluindo a orientação de valores sociais (SVO) e o status social subjetivo (SES) como covariáveis e, no Experimento 3, indagou-se o papel do SS, da SVO e do SES no JD e no Ditador de Tomar (do inglês, Dictator Taking Game). Nos três experimentos observou-se que o SS não teve efeito nas decisões dos jogos. Não obstante, evidenciou-se maior rejeição (Exp. 1: p < .001, n 2 p = .72; Exp. 2: p < .001, n 2 p = .65) e valência negativa para as ofertas injustas do que para as justas (Exp. 2: p < .001). Além disso, descobriu-se que quanto maior a pró-socialidade, maior a quantidade ofertada no JD (Exp. 2: p < .05) e que no JDT se oferece mais dinheiro do que no JD (Exp. 3: p = .01). Os resultados observados evidenciam que o efeito do SS nas respostas comportamentais não é robusto, por isso se destaca a importância de continuar investigando seu papel em tais decisões.

Resumen Los recursos son usualmente distribuidos de manera inequitativa en función del estatus social (ES) de las personas, razón por la cual diversos investigadores utilizan experimentos para explicar el rol del ES en las decisiones económicas; sin embargo, las diversas formas de inducir el ES han generado resultados contradictorios. En el presente trabajo se investigó el efecto del ES en la distribución de los recursos monetarios en estudiantes de 18 a 25 años de la ciudad de Córdoba, Argentina, por medio de tres experimentos con diseños experimentales mixtos. Específicamente, se evaluaron distintas técnicas para manipular el ES y su efecto en las decisiones económicas: en el Experimento 1 se comparó el efecto de dos técnicas de manipulación del ES en las decisiones del Juego del Ultimátum (JU) y del Dictador (JD); en el Experimento 2 se analizó el efecto del ES en los mismos juegos, incluyendo la orientación de valores sociales (SVO) y el estatus social subjetivo (SES) como covariables; y en el Experimento 3 se indagó el rol del ES, de la SVO y del ESS en el JD y en el Dictador de Tomar (JDT). En los tres experimentos se observó que el ES no tuvo efecto en las decisiones de los juegos. No obstante, se evidenció mayor rechazo (Exp. 1: p < .001, n 2 p = .72; Exp. 2: p < .001, n 2 p = .65) y valencia negativa para las ofertas injustas que para las justas (Exp. 2: p < .001). Además, se encontró que a mayor prosocialidad, mayor cantidad ofertada en el JD (Exp. 2: p < .05), y que en el JDT se ofrece más dinero que en el JD (Exp. 3: p = .01). Los resultados observados evidencian que el efecto del ES en las respuestas comportamentales no es robusto, por lo que se destaca la importancia de continuar investigando su rol en dichas decisiones.

Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto Joven , Constitución y Estatutos , Juegos Recreacionales , Jerarquia Social
Acta colomb. psicol ; 22(2): 99-124, July-Dec. 2019. tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019278


Abstract The objective of this study was to establish the relationship between dysfunctional parenting styles and empathy in Nursing, Human Medicine and Psychology students. The study's sample consisted of 599 students, from both genders, and from different cycles of their university studies. Their ages ranged between 21 and 25 years. To assess them, the Dysfunctional Parenting Styles Scale by Parker, et al. (1979) was used, previously adapted to Peruvian population. The participants were also evaluated with the Personal and Professional Empathy Scale designed by Yaraskavitch (2009), and completed a socio-demographic data sheet created ad hoc. General results showed no significant relationships between the dysfunctional parenting styles and empathy total scores. In contrast, considering the father figure, an inverse relationship between the authoritarian-controlling dysfunctional parenting style and the personal and professional cognitive empathy was found, while the indifference - negligence dysfunctional parenting style was inversely associated with the emotive personal empathy. As to the mother figure, there is a significant and direct relationship between authoritarian-controlling dysfunctional parenting style and personal and professional emotive empathy. It was also found that regarding gender, women have higher levels of empathy. With respect to professional degree courses, Nursing students have a higher level of empathy than Medicine and Psychology students, while Medicine students have more dysfunctional parenting styles than the Nursing and Psychology groups. Finally, students that had taken personal development courses showed a higher level of empathy.

Resumo O presente estudo teve como objetivo estabelecer a relação entre os estilos parentais disfuncionais e a empatia em estudantes universitários de Lima, além de comparações de acordo com a carreira profissional (Enfermagem, Medicina Humana e Psicologia). A amostra foi composta por 599 estudantes de ambos os sexos, com idades entre 21 e 25 anos, a quem foi aplicada a Escala de Estilos Parentais Disfuncionais -de Parker et a. (1979)-, a Escala de Empatia Pessoal e Profissional -desenhada por Yaraskavitch et al. (2009)-, ambas adaptadas para os fins do estudo, e uma ficha sociodemográfica elaborada pelos autores. Os resultados mostram uma relação não significativa entre as pontuações totais de estilos parentais disfuncionais e de empatia, mas obteve-se uma relação inversa entre a subescala de estilo disfuncional paterno "autoritário-controlador" com as dimensões "empatia pessoal cognitiva" e "empatia profissional cognitiva", e uma relação direta entre a subescala de estilo disfuncional materno com as dimensões "empatia pessoal emotiva" e "empatia profissional emotiva". Além disso, com respeito ao gênero, as mulheres apresentaram maior nível de empatia e, de acordo com o curso, os estudantes de Enfermaria apresentaram maiores níveis de empatia, enquanto os de Medicina mostraram mais estilos parentais disfuncionais. Finalmente, os estudantes que fizeram cursos de desenvolvimento pessoal em sua formação profissional apresentaram maior nível de empatia.

Resumen El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo establecer la relación entre los estilos parentales disfuncionales y la empatía en estudiantes universitarios de Lima, además de comparaciones según su carrera profesional (Enfermería, Medicina Humana y Psicología). La muestra estuvo compuesta por 599 estudiantes de ambos sexos, con edades entre los 21 y 25 años, a quienes se les aplicó la Escala de Estilos Parentales Disfuncionales -de Parker et al. (1979)-, la Escala de Empatía Personal y Profesional -diseñada por Yaraskavitch et al. (2009)-, ambas adaptadas para los fines del estudio, y una ficha sociodemográfica elaborada por los autores. Los resultados muestran una relación no significativa entre los puntajes totales de estilos parentales disfuncionales y de empatía, aunque se obtuvo una relación inversa entre la subescala de estilo disfuncional paterno "autoritario-controlador" con las dimensiones "empatía personal cognitiva" y "empatía profesional cognitiva", y una relación directa entre la subescala de estilo disfuncional materno con las dimensiones "empatía personal emotiva" y "empatía profesional emotiva"; además de que, respecto al género, las mujeres presentaron mayor nivel de empatía, y, según carrera, los estudiantes de Enfermería presentaron mayores niveles de empatía, mientras que los de Medicina mostraron más estilos parentales disfuncionales. Finalmente, los estudiantes que llevaron a cabo cursos de desarrollo personal en su formación profesional presentaron un mayor nivel de empatía.

Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto Joven , Empatía , Ciencias de la Salud , Relaciones Familiares
Acta colomb. psicol ; 22(2): 125-147, July-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019279


Abstract The objective of the present study was to analyze whether there are differences between men and women in terms of the influence of personality dimensions on academic procrastination. Participants were 986 students aged between 16 and 40 years (69.8 % women, Mage = 20.81 years), students of different professional careers from two universities located in Lima. The Academic Procrastination Scale (APS) and the Big Five Inventory-15P (BFI-15P) were the instruments administered. An invariance analysis of a structural regression model that indicates the influence of personality on academic procrastination was implemented. The results show that personality explains a significant percentage of the variability of the dimensions of academic procrastination. However, the influence of two dimensions, consciousness and neuroticism, is greater in women. The theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed, as well as the need to strengthen curricular plans aimed at enhancing resources and reducing those aspects that could negatively affect the academic behavior of the student.

Resumo O objetivo do presente estudo foi determinar a existência de diferenças entre homens e mulheres com respeito à influência das dimensões de personalidade sobre a procrastinação acadêmica em 986 alunos de 16 a 40 anos (69,8 % mulheres; Midade = 20,81 anos) de diferentes carreiras profissionais de duas universidades localizadas em Lima. Para isso, administrou-se a Escala de Procrastinação Acadêmica (EPA) e o Big Five Inventory-15P (BFI-15P) e implementou-se uma análise de invariância de um modelo de regressão estrutural. Os resultados mostraram que a personalidade explica uma porcentagem significativa da variabilidade das dimensões da procrastinação acadêmica e que a influência das dimensões responsabilidade e neuroticismo foi maior nas mulheres. São discutidas as implicâncias teóricas e práticas das descobertas, bem como a necessidade de fortalecer planos curriculares orientados para potencializar recursos e reduzir os aspectos que poderiam afetar negativamente a conduta acadêmica do estudante.

Resumen El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar la existencia de diferencias entre hombres y mujeres en cuanto a la influencia de las dimensiones de personalidad sobre la procrastinación académica en 986 alumnos de entre 16 y 40 años (69.8 % mujeres; Medad = 20.81 años) de distintas carreras profesionales de dos universidades ubicadas en Lima. Para esto, se administró la Escala de Procrastinación Académica (EPA) y el Big Five Inventory-15P (BFI-15P), y se implementó un análisis de invarianza de un modelo regresión estructural. Los resultados mostraron que la personalidad explica un porcentaje significativo de la variabilidad de las dimensiones de la procrastinación académica, y que la influencia de las dimensiones responsabilidad y neuroticismo fue mayor en las mujeres. Se discuten las implicancias teóricas y prácticas de los hallazgos, así como la necesidad de fortalecer planes curriculares orientados a potenciar recursos y reducir los aspectos que podrían afectar negativamente la conducta académica del estudiante.

Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto Joven , Personalidad , Procrastinación