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1.
Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 38(3): 324-329, 2020 Jun 01.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32573143

RESUMEN

Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a small phospholipid that is present in all eukaryotic tissues and blood plasma. As an extracellular signaling molecule, LPA mediates many cellular functions by binding to six known G protein-coupled receptors and activating their downstream signaling pathways. These functions indicate that LPA may play important roles in many biological processes that include organismal development, wound healing, and carcinogenesis. Recently, many studies have found that LPA has various biological effects in different kinds of bone cells. These findings suggest that LPA is a potent regulator of bone development and remodeling and holds promising application potential in bone tissue engineering. Here, we review the recent progress on the biological regulatory function of LPA in bone tissue cells.


Asunto(s)
Fenómenos Biológicos , Receptores del Ácido Lisofosfatídico , Huesos , Lisofosfolípidos
2.
Environ Pollut ; 264: 114707, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32388307

RESUMEN

Exposure to long-term ambient air pollution is believed to have adverse effects on human health. However, the mechanisms underlying these impacts are poorly understood. DNA methylation, a crucial epigenetic modification, is susceptible to environmental factors and likely involved in these processes. We conducted a whole-genome bisulfite sequencing study on 120 participants from a highly polluted region (HPR) and a less polluted region (LPR) in China, where the HPR had much higher concentrations of five air pollutants (PM2.5, PM10, SO2, NO2, and CO) (fold difference 1.6 to 6.6 times; P value 1.80E-07 to 3.19E-23). Genome-wide methylation analysis revealed 371 DMRs in subjects from the two areas and these DMRs were located primarily in gene regulatory elements such as promoters and enhancers. Gene enrichment analysis showed that DMR-related genes were significantly enriched in diseases related to pulmonary disorders and cancers and in biological processes related to mitochondrial assembly and cytokine production. Further, HPR participants showed a higher mtDNA copy number. Of those identified DMRs, 15 were significantly correlated with mtDNA copy number. Finally, cytokine assay indicated that an increased plasma interleukin-5 level was associated with greater air pollution. Taken together, our findings suggest that exposure to long-term ambient air pollution can lead to alterations in DNA methylation whose functions relate to mitochondria and immune responses.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , Fenómenos Biológicos , China , Metilación de ADN , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/análisis , Humanos , Mitocondrias , Material Particulado/análisis
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 731: 138386, 2020 Aug 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32417469

RESUMEN

Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a kind of gram-negative marine pathogen, which usually adheres to stainless steel (SS), glass (GS) and other abiotic surfaces in aquaculture and food processing in the form of biofilm and causes the spread of gastrointestinal illness. However, the deeply survival adaptation mechanism of V. parahaemolyticus biofilm cells on these contact surface remained unclear. Here, proteomics was used to investigated the physiological response of the V. parahaemolyticus biofilms cells to different abiotic surfaces (SS, GS and polystyrene (PS)). In addition, the effect of contact materials on the physical-chemical properties of biofilms are also characterized. Results showed that the expression of proteins of biofilm cells established on the SS surface were mainly related to the alleviation of metal ion stress and toxicity. The up-regulated proteins in the biofilm cells formed on the GS surface were mainly involved in the biological processes of sugar uptake, protein synthesis and bacterial chemotaxis. Meanwhile, the significantly expressed proteins in the biofilm cells formed on the PS surface were mainly involved in the cellular physiological activity of aromatic compound metabolism, osmotic stress and nutrient transport. All functional proteins mentioned above were closely related to the interaction characteristics of the contact surface and biofilm. This study provided an in-depth comparison of V. parahaemolyticus biofilm formation on these three abiotic surfaces, and presented a model in first time for the adaptation behavior of biofilm cells on different surfaces as affected by metal ion stress, nutrition, osmotic stress, and sugar utilization, which could facilitate an efficient control strategy for biofilm formation in industrial field.


Asunto(s)
Fenómenos Biológicos , Vibrio parahaemolyticus , Biopelículas , Proteómica , Acero Inoxidable
4.
Bioresour Technol ; 311: 123568, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32467028

RESUMEN

This review presents an emerging biorefinery platform for C2-5 bioalcohol production through chemical synthesis using the organic waste materials. Bioalcohols are the most commercialized carbon-neutral transportation fuels, compatible with existing an internal combustion (IC) engine. However, current bioalcohol fermentation processes have made from sugar-rich edible crops. Also, carbon loss from the fermentation process is substantial. To minimize carbon loss, volatile fatty acids (VFAs) can be utilized as a raw material for bioalcohol production. Thus, a two-step chemical upgrading of VFAs into C2-5 alcohols is summarized in comparison with current challenges of biological fermentation processes for bioalcohol production. This review also provides the prospect of the hybrid biological/chemical process, presenting the technical advantages of the system. Finally, economic viability of hybridized process for bioalcohol production is compared with the current biological process.


Asunto(s)
Fenómenos Biológicos , Ácidos Grasos Volátiles , Reactores Biológicos , Carbohidratos , Fermentación , Aguas del Alcantarillado , Residuos
5.
Environ Pollut ; 263(Pt B): 114443, 2020 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32311622

RESUMEN

We previously found bisphenol A (BPA) alternative, bisphenol F (BPF) upregulated Notch-related gene expression in intestines of the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis, suggesting an agonistic action on Notch signaling, a crucial signaling in multiple biological processes during development. Here, we aimed to confirm the actions of BPA and BPF on Notch signaling and to reveal their effects on intestinal development. Using X. laevis, an excellent model for developmental biology, we found that 10-1000 nM BPA and BPF significantly elevated Notch-related gene expression in a concentration-dependent manner. Subsequently, exceptional cell proliferation as well as intestinal histological changes were observed in treated intestines. Importantly, Notch inhibitor markedly suppressed the effects of BPA and BPF described above. Furthermore, we employed rat intestinal epithelium cells (IEC-6), an ideal in vitro model of intestinal epithelial cell differentiation, to confirm the effects of bisphenols. As expected, BPA and BPF upregulated Notch-related gene expression and induced the translocation of the Notch intracellular domain to the nucleus, followed by exceptional cell proliferation and differentiation, whereas Notch inhibitor antagonized the effects caused by BPA and BPF. All results strongly demonstrate that both BPA and BPF activate Notch signaling and subsequently disrupt intestinal development in vertebrates. Given its fundamental roles in multiple developmental processes, we propose that Notch signaling is an important and general target signaling of bisphenols in many developing tissues of vertebrates including humans.


Asunto(s)
Compuestos de Bencidrilo , Fenómenos Biológicos , Animales , Humanos , Intestinos , Fenoles , Ratas
7.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0230944, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32267857

RESUMEN

A new species of encyrtid wasp, Metaphycus macadamiae Polaszek & Noyes sp. n., (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae: Encyrtinae) is described as a solitary endoparasitoid of the invasive macadamia felted coccid, Acanthococcus ironsidei (Hemiptera: Eriococcidae) in Hawaii. This parasitoid is native to Australia, and the species description is based on material collected from a Macadamia integrifolia Maiden & Betche (Proteaceae) plantation in New South Wales, Australia, the native region of the host tree and insect. It is described here because it is a potential biological control agent against this pest where it has recently invaded Hawaii and South Africa.


Asunto(s)
Hemípteros/efectos de los fármacos , Macadamia/química , Animales , Australia , Fenómenos Biológicos/efectos de los fármacos , Hawaii , Himenópteros/efectos de los fármacos , Nueva Gales del Sur , Control Biológico de Vectores/métodos , Sudáfrica , Avispas/efectos de los fármacos
8.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1493, 2020 03 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32198352

RESUMEN

Quantifying the extent to which points are clustered in single-molecule localization microscopy data is vital to understanding the spatial relationships between molecules in the underlying sample. Many existing computational approaches are limited in their ability to process large-scale data sets, to deal effectively with sample heterogeneity, or require subjective user-defined analysis parameters. Here, we develop a supervised machine-learning approach to cluster analysis which is fast and accurate. Trained on a variety of simulated clustered data, the neural network can classify millions of points from a typical single-molecule localization microscopy data set, with the potential to include additional classifiers to describe different subtypes of clusters. The output can be further refined for the measurement of cluster area, shape, and point-density. We demonstrate this approach on simulated data and experimental data of the kinase Csk and the adaptor PAG in primary human T cell immunological synapses.


Asunto(s)
Fenómenos Biológicos , Análisis por Conglomerados , Aprendizaje Automático , Microscopía/métodos , Humanos , Redes Neurales de la Computación , Imagen Óptica/métodos , Imagen Individual de Molécula , Programas Informáticos , Flujo de Trabajo
9.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0230218, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32191739

RESUMEN

Water is essential for living organisms. Terrestrial organisms are incessantly exposed to the stress of losing water, desiccation stress. Avoiding the mortality caused by desiccation stress, many organisms acquired molecular mechanisms to tolerate desiccation. Larvae of the African midge, Polypedilum vanderplanki, and its embryonic cell line Pv11 tolerate desiccation stress by entering an ametabolic state, anhydrobiosis, and return to active life after rehydration. The genes related to desiccation tolerance have been comprehensively analyzed, but transcriptional regulatory mechanisms to induce these genes after desiccation or rehydration remain unclear. Here, we comprehensively analyzed the gene regulatory network in Pv11 cells and compared it with that of Drosophila melanogaster, a desiccation sensitive species. We demonstrated that nuclear transcription factor Y subunit gamma-like, which is important for drought stress tolerance in plants, and its transcriptional regulation of downstream positive feedback loops have a pivotal role in regulating various anhydrobiosis-related genes. This study provides an initial insight into the systemic mechanism of desiccation tolerance.


Asunto(s)
Proteínas de Insectos/genética , Factores de Transcripción/genética , Animales , Fenómenos Biológicos/genética , Línea Celular , Chironomidae/genética , Deshidratación/genética , Desecación/métodos , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Regulación de la Expresión Génica/genética , Larva/genética , Estrés Fisiológico/genética
10.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 16(2): e1007652, 2020 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32069277

RESUMEN

English Wikipedia, containing more than five millions articles, has approximately eleven thousands web pages devoted to proteins or genes most of which were generated by the Gene Wiki project. These pages contain information about interactions between proteins and their functional relationships. At the same time, they are interconnected with other Wikipedia pages describing biological functions, diseases, drugs and other topics curated by independent, not coordinated collective efforts. Therefore, Wikipedia contains a directed network of protein functional relations or physical interactions embedded into the global network of the encyclopedia terms, which defines hidden (indirect) functional proximity between proteins. We applied the recently developed reduced Google Matrix (REGOMAX) algorithm in order to extract the network of hidden functional connections between proteins in Wikipedia. In this network we discovered tight communities which reflect areas of interest in molecular biology or medicine and can be considered as definitions of biological functions shaped by collective intelligence. Moreover, by comparing two snapshots of Wikipedia graph (from years 2013 and 2017), we studied the evolution of the network of direct and hidden protein connections. We concluded that the hidden connections are more dynamic compared to the direct ones and that the size of the hidden interaction communities grows with time. We recapitulate the results of Wikipedia protein community analysis and annotation in the form of an interactive online map, which can serve as a portal to the Gene Wiki project.


Asunto(s)
Fenómenos Biológicos , Biología Computacional/métodos , Mapeo de Interacción de Proteínas , Proteínas/química , Motor de Búsqueda , Algoritmos , Análisis por Conglomerados , Bases de Datos Genéticas , Internet , Cadenas de Markov , Probabilidad
11.
Bioresour Technol ; 297: 122416, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31786035

RESUMEN

Wastes containing critical metals are generated in various fields, such as energy and computer manufacturing. Metal-bearing wastes are considered as secondary sources of critical metals. The conventional physicochemical methods of metals recovery are energy-intensive and cause further pollution. Low-cost and eco-friendly technologies including biosorbents, bioelectrochemical systems (BESs), bioleaching, and biomineralization, have become alternatives in the recovery of critical metals. However, a relatively low recovery rate and selectivity severely hinder their large-scale applications. Researchers have expanded their focus to exploit novel strain resources and strategies to improve the biorecovery efficiency. The mechanisms and potential applicability of modified biological techniques for improving the recovery of critical metals need more attention. Hence, this review summarize and compare the strategies that have been developed for critical metals recovery, and provides useful insights for energy-efficient recovery of critical metals in future industrial applications.


Asunto(s)
Fenómenos Biológicos , Metales
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 704: 135271, 2020 Feb 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31791783

RESUMEN

Warming and eutrophication can have varying effects on exotic species performance and their interactions. These effects can vary with trophic level, but are rarely investigated simultaneously on exotic species from multiple trophic levels. To address this, we manipulated temperature, nutrients, and plant origin (native vs. exotic) in snail invaded wetland communities. Warming increased exotic apple snail (Pomacea maculata) reproduction (4-fold increase in egg mass) and also number of egg clutches produced while warming slowed exotic snail growth, suggesting a trade-off between reproduction and growth in exotic snails influenced by warming and nutrients. However, exotic snail size varied with warming and nutrients. Additionally, warming reduced native plant mass with no effect on exotic plants while nutrients had greater positive effects on exotic plants biomass. In combination warming and nutrient enrichment will likely increase exotic snail growth, while nutrient enrichment alone will contribute to exotic plant dominance. In conclusion, the individual and interactive effects of warming and eutrophication vary with the trophic level of exotic species with trade-offs in exotic herbivores depending on environmental conditions, making it difficult to predict effects of multiple anthropogenic factors on co-occurring exotic plants and their effects on native communities.


Asunto(s)
Especies Introducidas , Caracoles , Humedales , Animales , Fenómenos Biológicos , Biomasa , Eutrofización , Alimentos , Herbivoria , Plantas , Reproducción
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 702: 134993, 2020 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31726336

RESUMEN

Since the establishment of the whole-contact sediment toxicity test using Heterocypris incongruens in 2012, this user-friendly method has been widely used for the assessment of many kinds of solid samples, such as sediment, soil, compost, and sewage sludge. There are two endpoints for this method: mortality and growth inhibition. Currently, there is no standard toxicity threshold established for the endpoint of growth inhibition. However, there is evidence showing that the calcite saturation state of the overlying water, which might be different among various samples, influences the growth and survival of H. incongruens. Thus, it is necessary to characterize the influence of the calcite saturation state to ensure that the test results are reliable and comparable among different samples. In the present study, we created artificial sediments comprised of quartz sand and 0-20% calcite particulates to manipulate the calcite saturation state in the overlying water and performed the test using H. incongruens for 6 d. The results show that a low calcite saturation state inhibited the growth of H. incongruens but had no effect on survival rate. The growth of ostracods was linearly related to the calcite saturation index of the overlying water. Additionally, a formula for artificial sediment consisting of 10% calcite and 90% quartz sand for the H. incongruens toxicity test was proposed. This study helps to distinguish H. incongruens growth inhibition caused by calcite saturation from that caused by toxicity.


Asunto(s)
Carbonato de Calcio/química , Crustáceos/fisiología , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/toxicidad , Animales , Fenómenos Biológicos , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Aguas del Alcantarillado , Suelo , Pruebas de Toxicidad , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/normas
16.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0224431, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31841519

RESUMEN

Dieback disease caused by Erwinia mallotivora is a major threat to papaya plantation in Malaysia. The current study was conducted to evaluate the potential of endophytic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from papaya seeds for disease suppression of papaya dieback. Two hundred and thirty isolates were screened against E. mallotivora BT-MARDI, and the inhibitory activity of the isolates against the pathogen was ranging from 11.7-23.7 mm inhibition zones. The synergistic experiments revealed that combination of W. cibaria PPKSD19 and Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis PPSSD39 increased antibacterial activity against the pathogen. The antibacterial activity was partially due to the production of bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances (BLIS). The nursery experiment confirmed that the application of bacterial consortium W. cibaria PPKSD19 and L. lactis subsp. lactis PPSSD39 significantly reduced disease severity to 19% and increased biocontrol efficacy to 69% of infected papaya plants after 18 days of treatment. This study showed that W. cibaria PPKSD19 and L. lactis subsp. lactis PPSSD39 are potential candidate as biocontrol agents against papaya dieback disease.


Asunto(s)
Bacteriocinas/farmacología , Carica/efectos de los fármacos , Erwinia/efectos de los fármacos , Antibacterianos , Antibiosis/efectos de los fármacos , Bacterias/efectos de los fármacos , Fenómenos Biológicos , Carica/metabolismo , Erwinia/patogenicidad , Microbiología de Alimentos , Lactobacillales/efectos de los fármacos , Malasia , Semillas/efectos de los fármacos
17.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0226845, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31887183

RESUMEN

Large urban trees have many benefits. However, falling branches pose a serious hazard to both people and infrastructure. In several tree species, aerial roots grow down from branches to the ground. These roots are capable of thickening to support the branches, lessening the risk of tree failure. Unfortunately, in urban environments most aerial roots die before reaching the ground. Here, we report a new method for encouraging aerial roots to reach the ground, developed by the second-year botany class at UNSW Sydney. Our class tested three experimental treatments on aerial roots of Ficus rubiginosa Desf. ex Vent. (Port Jackson Fig)-PVC pipes filled with sphagnum moss, PVC pipes filled with potting mix, and PVC pipes filled with sphagnum moss and topped with funnels to catch extra rainwater. All three treatments significantly improved aerial root growth, with 26 of the 30 (87%) treatment roots reaching the ground after one year compared to 0 of the 10 control roots. Our method was successful for roots up to 3 m above the ground, suggesting the potential growth rate of aerial roots is substantial when conditions are favourable. Our novel approach is an attractive and cost-effective alternative to slings and other artificial supports. This project is an example of using undergraduate practical classes to teach science while simultaneously addressing important real-world problems.


Asunto(s)
Ficus/anatomía & histología , Horticultura/métodos , Componentes Aéreos de las Plantas/crecimiento & desarrollo , Raíces de Plantas/crecimiento & desarrollo , Australia , Fenómenos Biológicos , Cloruro de Polivinilo , Sphagnopsida , Árboles
18.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 15(10): e1007428, 2019 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31671091

RESUMEN

Filamentous fungi are ubiquitous in nature and serve as important biological models in various scientific fields including genetics, cell biology, ecology, evolution, and chemistry. A significant obstacle in studying filamentous fungi is the lack of tools for characterizing their growth and morphology in an efficient and quantitative manner. Consequently, assessments of the growth of filamentous fungi are often subjective and imprecise. In order to remedy this problem, we developed Fungal Feature Tracker (FFT), a user-friendly software comprised of different image analysis tools to automatically quantify different fungal characteristics, such as spore number, spore morphology, and measurements of total length, number of hyphal tips and the area covered by the mycelium. In addition, FFT can recognize and quantify specialized structures such as the traps generated by nematode-trapping fungi, which could be tuned to quantify other distinctive fungal structures in different fungi. We present a detailed characterization and comparison of a few fungal species as a case study to demonstrate the capabilities and potential of our software. Using FFT, we were able to quantify various features at strain and species level, such as mycelial growth over time and the length and width of spores, which would be difficult to track using classical approaches. In summary, FFT is a powerful tool that enables quantitative measurements of fungal features and growth, allowing objective and precise characterization of fungal phenotypes.


Asunto(s)
Hongos/crecimiento & desarrollo , Procesamiento de Imagen Asistido por Computador/métodos , Fenómenos Biológicos , Modelos Biológicos , Micelio/crecimiento & desarrollo , Programas Informáticos
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 697: 133989, 2019 Dec 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484092

RESUMEN

The effects of climate change on forest growth are not homogeneous across tree species distribution ranges because of inter-population variability and spatial heterogeneity. Although latitudinal and thermal gradients in growth patterns have been widely investigated, changes in these patterns along longitudinal gradients due to the different timing and severity of regional droughts are less studied. Here, we investigated these responses in Mediterranean Black pine (Pinus nigra Arn.). We built a tree-ring width dataset comprising 77 forests (1202 trees) across the Mediterranean Basin. The biogeographical patterns in growth patterns and the relationships between growth and mean temperature, precipitation, drought and atmospheric circulations patterns (NAO -North Atlantic Oscillation-, SOI -Southern Oscillation Index- and MOI -Mediterranean Oscillation index-) were analyzed. Then, we evaluated the spatial and temporal growth synchrony between and within east and west populations. We found different growth and climate patterns in west vs. east Black pine populations, although in both regions growth was driven by similar temperature and precipitation variables. MOI significantly influenced tree growth, whilst NAO and SOI showed weaker effects. Growth of east and west Black pine populations desynchronized after the 1970s when several and uncoupled regional droughts occurred across the Mediterranean Basin. We detected a climate shift from the 1970s to the 1980s affecting growth patterns, changing growth-climate relationships, and reducing forest growth from west to east Black pine forests. Afterwards, climate and growth of east and west populations became increasingly more divergent. Our findings imply that integral bioclimatic and biogeographical analyses across the species distribution area must be considered to adequately assess the impact of climate change on tree growth under warming and more arid conditions.


Asunto(s)
Cambio Climático , Sequías , Pinus/fisiología , Fenómenos Biológicos , Bosques , Región Mediterránea
20.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(38): 18943-18950, 2019 09 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484776

RESUMEN

Rapid advances in genomic technologies have led to a wealth of diverse data, from which novel discoveries can be gleaned through the application of robust statistical and computational methods. Here, we describe GeneFishing, a semisupervised computational approach to reconstruct context-specific portraits of biological processes by leveraging gene-gene coexpression information. GeneFishing incorporates multiple high-dimensional statistical ideas, including dimensionality reduction, clustering, subsampling, and results aggregation, to produce robust results. To illustrate the power of our method, we applied it using 21 genes involved in cholesterol metabolism as "bait" to "fish out" (or identify) genes not previously identified as being connected to cholesterol metabolism. Using simulation and real datasets, we found that the results obtained through GeneFishing were more interesting for our study than those provided by related gene prioritization methods. In particular, application of GeneFishing to the GTEx liver RNA sequencing (RNAseq) data not only reidentified many known cholesterol-related genes, but also pointed to glyoxalase I (GLO1) as a gene implicated in cholesterol metabolism. In a follow-up experiment, we found that GLO1 knockdown in human hepatoma cell lines increased levels of cellular cholesterol ester, validating a role for GLO1 in cholesterol metabolism. In addition, we performed pantissue analysis by applying GeneFishing on various tissues and identified many potential tissue-specific cholesterol metabolism-related genes. GeneFishing appears to be a powerful tool for identifying related components of complex biological systems and may be used across a wide range of applications.


Asunto(s)
Fenómenos Biológicos/genética , Biología Computacional/métodos , Perfilación de la Expresión Génica , Genómica/métodos , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Línea Celular Tumoral , Colesterol/metabolismo , Bases de Datos Genéticas , Humanos , Lactoilglutatión Liasa/genética , Metabolismo de los Lípidos/genética , Especificidad de Órganos/genética , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Flujo de Trabajo
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