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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(17): e19865, 2020 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32332649

RESUMEN

The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between educational attainment and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) as a predictor of metabolic syndrome in a Korean population.In this single-center, retrospective cross-sectional study, 988 healthy adults (601 men and 387 women) who underwent regular health check-up in Seoul St. Mary's Hospital were analyzed. Educational attainment was categorized into 3 groups according to their final grade of educational course: middle or high school (≤12 years of education), college or university (12-16 years of education), and postgraduate (≥16 years of education). CRF was assessed by cardiopulmonary exercise testing, biceps strength, hand grip strength, bioelectrical impedance analysis, and echocardiography. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed according to the 3rd report of the National Cholesterol Education Program.Among the subjects, 357 (36.1%) had metabolic syndrome. The postgraduate group had significantly higher peak oxygen consumption (VO2), biceps strength, hand grip strength, and peak expiratory flow than other groups (all P < .001). This group showed better left ventricular diastolic function, in terms of deceleration time of mitral inflow, maximal tricuspid valve regurgitation velocity, and left atrial volume index than other groups. Peak VO2 (%) was significantly correlated with all the parameters of metabolic syndrome, including insulin resistance (r = -0.106, P = .002), waist circumference (r = -0.387, P < .001), triglyceride (r = -0.109, P = .001), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (r = 0.219, P < .001), systolic blood pressure (r = -0.143, P < .001), and diastolic blood pressure (r = -0.177, P < .001). And Peak VO2 (%) was found to be a predictor of metabolic syndrome (adjusted ß = .988, P < .001). However, the level of education was not able to predict metabolic syndrome (postgraduate group; ß = .955, P = .801).Although the postgraduate group had better CRF than other groups, the educational attainment could not exclusively predict metabolic syndrome in this study. Further research is needed to reveal the socioeconomic mechanism of developing metabolic syndrome.


Asunto(s)
Capacidad Cardiovascular , Escolaridad , Síndrome Metabólico/epidemiología , Anciano , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Cardiovasculares , Estudios Transversales , Estatus Económico , Prueba de Esfuerzo , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólico/fisiopatología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Consumo de Oxígeno , Ápice del Flujo Espiratorio , República de Corea/epidemiología , Estudios Retrospectivos
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(14): e19672, 2020 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32243401

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Coronary heart disease (CHD) has become the primary cause of heart failure (HF). Wenyang Huoxue method can significantly improve cardiac function in patients with CHD complicated with HF, but it has not been systematically evaluated for efficacy and safety. METHODS: We will search China National Knowledge Infrastructure Database, Wanfang database, China Biomedical Literature Database, China Science Journal Database PubMed, Excerpt Medica Database, and Cochrane library. Clinical trial registrations, potential grey literature, related conference abstracts, and reference lists of identified studies will also be retrieved. The electronic database will be searched for literatures published from January 2000 to September 2019. Based on the heterogeneity test, data integration is performed using a fixed effect model or a random effects model. Changes in total effective rate in cardiac function will be assessed as primary outcome. 6-minute walk test, left ventricular ejection fraction, and plasma brain natriuretic peptide will be assessed as secondary outcomes. RevMan 5.3.5 will be used for meta-analysis. RESULTS: This study will provide a high-quality comprehensive evaluation of the efficacy and safety of Wenyang Huoxue method for treating patients with CHD complicated with HF. CONCLUSIONS: This systematic review will determine whether Wenyang Huoxue method provides evidence for effective intervention in patients with CHD complicated with HF. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials does not require ethical recognition, and the results of this paper will be published in an open access, internationally influential academic journal. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42016025957.


Asunto(s)
Fenómenos Fisiológicos Cardiovasculares/efectos de los fármacos , Enfermedad Coronaria/tratamiento farmacológico , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos/farmacología , Insuficiencia Cardíaca/tratamiento farmacológico , Enfermedad Coronaria/complicaciones , Enfermedad Coronaria/fisiopatología , Insuficiencia Cardíaca/etiología , Insuficiencia Cardíaca/fisiopatología , Humanos , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Proyectos de Investigación , Revisiones Sistemáticas como Asunto , Resultado del Tratamiento
3.
Subcell Biochem ; 94: 437-464, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32189311

RESUMEN

Von Willebrand factor (VWF) and coagulation factor VIII (FVIII) circulate as a complex in plasma and have a major role in the hemostatic system. VWF has a dual role in hemostasis. It promotes platelet adhesion by anchoring the platelets to the subendothelial matrix of damaged vessels and it protects FVIII from proteolytic degradation. Moreover, VWF is an acute phase protein that has multiple roles in vascular inflammation and is massively secreted from Weibel-Palade bodies upon endothelial cell activation. Activated FVIII on the other hand, together with coagulation factor IX forms the tenase complex, an essential feature of the propagation phase of coagulation on the surface of activated platelets. VWF deficiency, either quantitative or qualitative, results in von Willebrand disease (VWD), the most common bleeding disorder. The deficiency of FVIII is responsible for Hemophilia A, an X-linked bleeding disorder. Here, we provide an overview on the role of the VWF-FVIII interaction in vascular physiology.


Asunto(s)
Fenómenos Fisiológicos Cardiovasculares , Factor VIII/metabolismo , Factor de von Willebrand/metabolismo , Factor VIII/química , Hemofilia A/metabolismo , Humanos , Enfermedades de von Willebrand/metabolismo , Factor de von Willebrand/química
4.
Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing Za Zhi ; 48(1): 66-71, 2020 Jan 24.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32008298

RESUMEN

Objective: To investigate the impact of change of ideal cardiovascular behavior and related factors on healthy vascular aging(HVA). Methods: This study was a multi-center cross-sectional survey. Six thousand three hundred and sixteen participants who underwent at least 2 healthy examinations from 2006 to 2015 at 11 hospitals, including Kailuan Hospital and so on, and examined brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) during 2010 and 2016, with available information about cardiovascular behavior and factors were included. The cardiovascular health score (CHS) was calculated. Basic CHS was collected from the first examination. The second CHS derived from the healthy examination in the same year of baPWV examination. Change of cardiovascular health score (ΔCHS) was calculated. Participants were defined into 5 groups according to ΔCHS, namely ΔCHS≤-2 (n=2 166), ΔCHS=-1 (n=1 284), ΔCHS=0 (n=1 187), ΔCHS=1 (n=860), and ΔCHS≥2 (n=819). Participants' characteristics, value of baPWV and proportion of HVA were compared among different groups. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the association between ΔCHS and HVA. The ΔCHS was recalculated and included in multiple logistic regression analysis model again after each component of the cardiovascular health metrics was removed separately in order to investigate effects of removal factors on HVA by observing changes in effect values. Results: The percentage of the participants with HVA in the group of ΔCHS≤-2, ΔCHS=-1, ΔCHS=0, ΔCHS=1 and ΔCHS≥2 were 23.3%(505/2 166), 27.8%(357/1 284), 28.7%(341/1 187),31.9%(274/860) and 33.9%(278/819), respectively. After adjustment for age, sex, income, education, alcohol consumption and the basic CHS, a significant positive association between ΔCHS and proportion of participants with HVA was observed (OR=1.50, 95%CI 1.44-1.56). Multiple regression analysis after removing each single cardiovascular behavior or factor showed that the OR value decreased as follow systolic blood pressure (OR=1.04, 95%CI 1.00-1.09), fasting blood glucose (OR=1.14, 95%CI 1.09-1.18), physical exercise (OR=1.16, 95%CI 1.11-1.21), salt intake (OR=1.17, 95%CI 1.12-1.22), body mass index (OR=1.18, 95%CI 1.13-1.23), smoking(OR=1.18, 95%CI 1.13-1.23) and total cholesterol (OR=1.20, 95%CI 1.16-1.24). Conclusion: The improvement of every ideal cardiovascular behavior and factor is associated with the increase of the proportion of HVA population.


Asunto(s)
Envejecimiento , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares , Análisis de la Onda del Pulso , Índice Tobillo Braquial , Presión Sanguínea , Índice de Masa Corporal , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Cardiovasculares , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Factores de Riesgo
5.
Int J Sports Med ; 41(5): 285-291, 2020 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31975358

RESUMEN

To understand better the adaptation response of the cardiovascular system (CVS) to self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (SCUBA) diving, Galectin-3 (Gal-3) and specific CVS biomarkers were measured in plasma of 16 male recreational divers before and after (30 min, 3 and 6 h) diving (total time of 30 min at 30 m depth) undertaken a after long non-dive period. The one-time SCUBA dive caused a significant increase in Gal-3, N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), high-sensitivity troponin-I (hs-TnI), and myoglobin immediately after diving. Whereas Gal-3 and myoglobin dropped down to the basal levels during the recovery period, NT-proBNP and hs-TnI concentration continued to increase. An immediate increase of vascular endothelial growth factor, detected immediately after diving, was followed by a significant decrease and return to the basal level, 3 and 6 h after diving, respectively. After a significant initial decrease, endothelin-1 increased during the recovery period, but did not return to the basal level. The observed changes in these biomarkers reflect comprehensive, but transient adaptation of CVS and muscular system to the specific environmental conditions during the SCUBA dive. Whether the recurrent activation of these adaption mechanisms due to repetitive dives has positive or negative effects on CVS remains to be elucidated.


Asunto(s)
Adaptación Fisiológica , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Cardiovasculares , Buceo/fisiología , Galectina 3/sangre , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangre , Proteína C-Reactiva/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Mioglobina/sangre , Péptido Natriurético Encefálico/sangre , Fragmentos de Péptidos/sangre , Troponina I/sangre , Factor A de Crecimiento Endotelial Vascular/sangre
7.
Adv Gerontol ; 32(4): 536-544, 2019.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31800181

RESUMEN

For the first time, studies of the functional condition of the cardiovascular system long-livers of Pridnestrovie (Transnistria) were carried out. It was found that the main indicators of the functional state of the cardiovascular system of long-livers (except for 100-year-olds and older) are not significantly different or slightly lower than in the representatives of the previous age group and do not differ between representatives of the age groups of long-livers 90-94 and 95-99 years; the index of the adaptive potential of long-livers does not differ from this indicator in the previous age group (2,86 and 2,7 points respectively), which indicates a slow rate of involuntary and degenerative processes in the cardiovascular system in the majority of long-livers.


Asunto(s)
Fenómenos Fisiológicos Cardiovasculares , Sistema Cardiovascular , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Sistema Cardiovascular/patología , Europa Oriental , Humanos
8.
Adv Clin Exp Med ; 28(12): 1691-1695, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31851791

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: For many years standards of medical care for newborns have been created and perfected with the goal of improving care, including early detection of congenital defects. OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study was to assess the circulatory system in newborns born at basic level of perinatal care centers and the comparison of specific parameters of cardiac function and structure according to the method of birth, body mass, sex, Apgar score, pulse oximetry results, and presence of other pathologies. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was carried out in 255 newborns aged 3-14 days. The children were assessed according to Apgar score, were weighed and pulse oximetry testing was carried out, and symptoms of neonatal jaundice or infection were taken into account. Each child was subjected to a physical examination and echocardiographic examination. RESULTS: Among the group studied, 3.5% of children had defects of the circulatory system and functional disorders. CONCLUSIONS: Pulse oximetry testing, due to its low level of invasiveness, high sensitivity and specificity, low cost and repeatability, should be used as the primary screening test, allowing for early detection of critical congenital heart defects (CHDs). It should be stressed that the test should be repeated before discharge of newborns from the neonatology department so as to avoid missing CHDs which are asymptomatic or mute at birth. Morphological and functional assessment of specific structures of the heart in delivered newborns showed correlation of the size of the left ventricle (LV) with body mass. The remaining factors, such as method of delivery, sex, neonatal jaundice, and audible murmur, were irrelevant. Routine cardiological assessment of healthy newborns is therefore not necessary.


Asunto(s)
Puntaje de Apgar , Cardiopatías Congénitas/diagnóstico por imagen , Oximetría/métodos , Atención Perinatal , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Cardiovasculares , Sistema Cardiovascular , Ecocardiografía , Femenino , Humanos , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Tamizaje Neonatal
9.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 3202838, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31871936

RESUMEN

Objective: To evaluate the effects of cardiac rehabilitation on exercise tolerance and cardiac function in heart failure patients undergoing cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). Methods: Randomized controlled trials were initially identified from systematic reviews of the literature about cardiac rehabilitation and heart failure patients with CRT. We undertook updated literature searches of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), PubMed, EMBASE, CBM, CNKI, and Wanfang databases until July 1, 2017. STATA12.0 software was used. Results: Four randomized controlled studies were included. The total sample size was 157 patients, including 77 in the control group. Cardiac rehabilitation treatment affected the peak VO2 in heart failure patients with CRT (P heterogeneity=0.491, I 2 = 0%). The results lacked heterogeneity, and the data were merged in a fixed-effects model (WMD = 2.17 ml/kg/min, 95% CI (1.42, 2.92), P < 0.001). The peak VO2 was significantly higher in the cardiac rehabilitation group than in the control group. The sensitivity analysis showed that the results of the meta-analysis were robust. Cardiac rehabilitation treatment affected LVEF in heart failure patients with CRT (P heterogeneity=0.064, I 2 = 63.6%); the heterogeneity among the various research results meant that the data were merged in a random-effects model (WMD = 4.75%, 95% CI (1.53, 7.97), P=0.004). The LVEF was significantly higher in the cardiac rehabilitation group than in the control group. The sources of heterogeneity were analyzed, and it was found that one of the studies was the source of significant heterogeneity. After the elimination of that study, the data were reanalyzed, and the heterogeneity was significantly reduced. There were still significant differences in the WMD and 95% CI. Conclusion: Cardiac rehabilitation can improve exercise tolerance and cardiac function in heart failure patients with CRT. Future studies are needed to evaluate whether these beneficial effects of cardiac rehabilitation may translate into an improvement in long-term clinical outcomes among these patients.


Asunto(s)
Rehabilitación Cardiaca/métodos , Terapia de Resincronización Cardíaca/métodos , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Cardiovasculares , Tolerancia al Ejercicio , Insuficiencia Cardíaca/fisiopatología , Bases de Datos Factuales , Terapia por Ejercicio/métodos , Humanos , Calidad de Vida , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto
10.
Top Spinal Cord Inj Rehabil ; 25(4): 355-369, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31844387

RESUMEN

Objective: To assess the current evidence with regard to the effects of body weight-supported treadmill training (BWSTT) on cardiovascular and pulmonary function in people with spinal cord injury (SCI) with a focus on outcomes of heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), and respiratory parameters. Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted through MEDLINE/PubMed, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and Physiotherapy Evidence Database. Clinical trials involving adults with SCI and focusing on the effects of BWSTT on HR, BP, and respiratory measurements were included. The quality of included studies was assessed using the Downs and Black scale. The level of evidence of each study was identified using the Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Evidence system. Results: Nine studies that met inclusion criteria were evaluated and included in this review. Overall, the quality index of all included studies was low. All studies scored less than 21 out of 28 on the Downs and Black scale. The level of evidence varied from level 2 to level 4. Level 4 evidence supports the use of BWSTT to decrease resting and exercise HR and improve heart rate variability. The use of BWSTT to improve respiratory parameters after SCI is supported by one study with level 2 evidence. The evidence that supports the use of BWSTT to improve resting BP is inconclusive. Conclusion: There has been low to moderate evidence to support the use of BWSTT in individuals with SCI to improve cardiovascular and pulmonary health. Future randomized controlled trials are needed to investigate the effect of BWSTT on cardiovascular and pulmonary function in people with SCI and compare BWSTT to other physical rehabilitation interventions.


Asunto(s)
Fenómenos Fisiológicos Cardiovasculares , Terapia por Ejercicio/métodos , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Respiratorios , Traumatismos de la Médula Espinal/rehabilitación , Peso Corporal , Pruebas de Función Cardíaca , Humanos , Esfuerzo Físico , Pruebas de Función Respiratoria , Caminata , Soporte de Peso
11.
PLoS Genet ; 15(11): e1008420, 2019 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31697676

RESUMEN

Evolutionary adaptation to extreme environments often requires coordinated changes in multiple intersecting physiological pathways, but how such multi-trait adaptation occurs remains unresolved. Transcription factors, which regulate the expression of many genes and can simultaneously alter multiple phenotypes, may be common targets of selection if the benefits of induced changes outweigh the costs of negative pleiotropic effects. We combined complimentary population genetic analyses and physiological experiments in North American deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) to examine links between genetic variation in transcription factors that coordinate physiological responses to hypoxia (hypoxia-inducible factors, HIFs) and multiple physiological traits that potentially contribute to high-altitude adaptation. First, we sequenced the exomes of 100 mice sampled from different elevations and discovered that several SNPs in the gene Epas1, which encodes the oxygen sensitive subunit of HIF-2α, exhibited extreme allele frequency differences between highland and lowland populations. Broader geographic sampling confirmed that Epas1 genotype varied predictably with altitude throughout the western US. We then discovered that Epas1 genotype influences heart rate in hypoxia, and the transcriptomic responses to hypoxia (including HIF targets and genes involved in catecholamine signaling) in the heart and adrenal gland. Finally, we used a demographically-informed selection scan to show that Epas1 variants have experienced a history of spatially varying selection, suggesting that differences in cardiovascular function and gene regulation contribute to high-altitude adaptation. Our results suggest a mechanism by which Epas1 may aid long-term survival of high-altitude deer mice and provide general insights into the role that highly pleiotropic transcription factors may play in the process of environmental adaptation.


Asunto(s)
Factores de Transcripción con Motivo Hélice-Asa-Hélice Básico/genética , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Cardiovasculares/genética , Peromyscus/genética , Selección Genética/genética , Adaptación Fisiológica/genética , Altitud , Mal de Altura/genética , Animales , Genética de Población , Genómica , Frecuencia Cardíaca , Humanos , Ratones , Peromyscus/fisiología , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple
12.
Minerva Med ; 110(6): 530-545, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31726814

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Thyroid hormones have multiple effects on lipid metabolism as well as on the cardiovascular system function. These negative cardiovascular effects have long been recognized in overt hypothyroidism but can be reversed by treatment with levothyroxine. EVIDENCES ACQUISITION: We performed on PubMed a literature search for the articles published until March 2019 by using the search terms "subclinical hypothyroidism," "cardiovascular disease," "cholesterol," "LDL," "HDL," "triglycerides," "coronary heart disease," "heart failure," "atherosclerosis," "all-cause mortality," "levothyroxine." EVIDENCES SYNTHESIS: Subclinical hypothyroidism, defined as an elevated thyrotropin (TSH) with a normal free thyroxine (FT4), is frequent in the general population and increase with age. Subclinical hypothyroidism has been linked to cardiovascular risk factors, dyslipidemia and increased atherosclerosis. Although some studies have demonstrated that lipids are elevated in subclinical hypothyroidism, other studies did not confirm these data. Clinical trials have also demonstrated there is no clear evidence that levothyroxine therapy in subjects with milder form (TSH<10 mU/L) of subclinical hypothyroidism could improve lipid status and the other cardiovascular risk factors. Nevertheless, TSH level seems the best predictor of cardiovascular disease, in particular when its levels are above 10 mU/L. CONCLUSIONS: Prospective studies are necessary to clarify the cardiovascular risk in patients with mild subclinical hypothyroidism and to assess the importance of treating elderly people in order to improve or counteract the correlated risks. However, until clinical recommendations will be updated, the decision to treat or not treat patients with subclinical hypothyroidism will still base on clinical judgment, clinical practice guidelines, and expert opinion.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/epidemiología , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/etiología , Hipotiroidismo/complicaciones , Enfermedades Asintomáticas , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Cardiovasculares , Enfermedad Coronaria/etiología , Humanos , Factores de Riesgo , Hormonas Tiroideas/fisiología
13.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 26(3): 425-428, 2019 Sep 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31559798

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: Physical effort plays a positive role in reducing the risk of cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to assess the cardiovascular status in postmenopausal women after several years of regular amateur training. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 55 generally healthy females aged 50-70 years, of whom 38 were members of a senior exercise group and 17 comprised a control group, were enrolled in the study. Parameters of blood flow, vascular resistance, myocardial contractility and thoracic fluid content were measured in a 10-minute supine resting test by impedance cardiography. Thereafter, central blood pressure, augmentation index and pulse wave velocity were measured by applanation tonometry. RESULTS: Exercising women have a better outcome than the control group, when evaluated both with impedance cardiography and with applanation tonometry. They have a lower heart rate - HR (65.1 vs 71.5; p = 0.033), higher blood flow (stroke index - SI, 58.6 vs 50.3; p = 0.040), better myocardial contractility (acceleration index - ACI, 108.8 vs 88.1; p = 0.027), higher preload (thoracic fluid content index - TFCI, 20.5 vs 18.1; p = 0.002), lower afterload (systemic vascular resistance index - SVRI, 1972.9 vs 2110.5; p = 0.026), lower central systolic blood pressure - cBPsys (119.0 vs 129.5; p = 0.037), lower augmentation pressure - AP (10.3 vs 15.0; p = 0.044) and lower pulse wave velocity - PWV (7.4 vs 8.4; p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Regular moderate continuous aerobic exercise training has a beneficial impact on the cardiovascular system in postmenopausal women.


Asunto(s)
Fenómenos Fisiológicos Cardiovasculares , Ejercicio Físico , Posmenopausia/fisiología , Anciano , Presión Sanguínea , Cardiografía de Impedancia , Femenino , Hemodinámica , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad
14.
Med Sci (Paris) ; 35(8-9): 643-650, 2019.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31532376

RESUMEN

Arterial sympathetic innervation (ASI) is a complex biological process requiring a fine axonal guidance by arteries. Its physiological impact has remained unknown for decades but recently started to be better understood and recognized. ASI is a key element of the adaptive response of the cardiovascular system to challenging situations (exposure to cold, exercise…) as ASI controls the diameter of resistance arteries, thus blood supply to organs and systemic arterial blood pressure via arterial tone modulation. Defaults in ASI can lead to diseases, acting as a main cause or as an aggravating factor. Its impact is actively studied in cardiovascular diseases representing major public health issues, like hypertension, but ASI could also play a role in aging and many more pathological processes including cancer.


Asunto(s)
Arterias/inervación , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/fisiopatología , Desarrollo Embrionario/fisiología , Sistema Nervioso Simpático/fisiología , Envejecimiento/patología , Envejecimiento/fisiología , Animales , Arterias/embriología , Arterias/crecimiento & desarrollo , Arterias/patología , Axones/fisiología , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/etiología , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/patología , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Cardiovasculares , Sistema Cardiovascular/inervación , Sistema Cardiovascular/fisiopatología , Humanos , Sistema Nervioso Simpático/embriología , Sistema Nervioso Simpático/crecimiento & desarrollo , Sistema Nervioso Simpático/patología , Sinapsis/fisiología
15.
Vet J ; 251: 105345, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492389

RESUMEN

A constant rate infusion (CRI) of medetomidine is used to balance equine inhalation anesthesia, but its cardiovascular side effects are a concern. This experimental crossover study aimed to evaluate the effects of vatinoxan (a peripheral α2-adrenoceptor antagonist) on cardiorespiratory and gastrointestinal function in anesthetized healthy horses. Six horses received medetomidine hydrochloride 7µg/kg IV alone (MED) or with vatinoxan hydrochloride 140µg/kg IV (MED+V). Anesthesia was induced with midazolam and ketamine and maintained with isoflurane and medetomidine CRI for 60min. Heart rate, carotid and pulmonary arterial pressures, central venous pressure, cardiac output and arterial and mixed venous blood gases were measured. Selected cardiopulmonary parameters were calculated. Plasma drug concentrations were determined. Fecal output was measured over 24h. For statistical comparisons, repeated measures analysis of covariance and paired t-tests were applied. Heart rate decreased slightly from baseline in the MED group. Arterial blood pressures decreased with both treatments, but significantly more dobutamine was needed to maintain normotension with MED+V (P=0.018). Cardiac index (CI) and oxygen delivery index (DO2I) decreased significantly more with MED, with the largest difference observed at 20min: CI was 39±2 and 73±18 (P=0.009) and DO2I 7.4±1.2 and 15.3±4.8 (P=0.014)mL/min/kg with MED and MED+V, respectively. Fecal output or plasma concentrations of dexmedetomidine did not differ between the treatments. In conclusion, premedication with vatinoxan induced hypotension, thus its use in anesthetized horses warrants further studies. Even though heart rate and arterial blood pressures remained clinically acceptable with MED, cardiac performance and oxygen delivery were lower than with MED+V.


Asunto(s)
Motilidad Gastrointestinal/efectos de los fármacos , Isoflurano/farmacología , Medetomidina/farmacología , Quinolizinas/farmacología , Antagonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos alfa 2 , Anestesia por Inhalación/veterinaria , Anestésicos por Inhalación/administración & dosificación , Anestésicos por Inhalación/farmacología , Animales , Presión Sanguínea/efectos de los fármacos , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Cardiovasculares/efectos de los fármacos , Estudios Cruzados , Femenino , Frecuencia Cardíaca/efectos de los fármacos , Caballos , Hipnóticos y Sedantes/administración & dosificación , Hipnóticos y Sedantes/farmacología , Isoflurano/administración & dosificación , Masculino , Medetomidina/administración & dosificación , Quinolizinas/sangre , Quinolizinas/farmacocinética
16.
Nutrients ; 11(8)2019 Aug 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31405195

RESUMEN

Hypohydration, defined as a state of low body water, increases thirst sensations, arginine vasopressin release, and elicits renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system activation to replenish intra- and extra-cellular fluid stores. Hypohydration impairs mental and physical performance, but new evidence suggests hypohydration may also have deleterious effects on cardiovascular health. This is alarming because cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the United States. Observational studies have linked habitual low water intake with increased future risk for adverse cardiovascular events. While it is currently unclear how chronic reductions in water intake may predispose individuals to greater future risk for adverse cardiovascular events, there is evidence that acute hypohydration impairs vascular function and blood pressure (BP) regulation. Specifically, acute hypohydration may reduce endothelial function, increase sympathetic nervous system activity, and worsen orthostatic tolerance. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to present the currently available evidence linking acute hypohydration with altered vascular function and BP regulation.


Asunto(s)
Agua Corporal/fisiología , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/etiología , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Cardiovasculares , Deshidratación/complicaciones , Equilibrio Hidroelectrolítico/fisiología , Humanos
17.
J Clin Neurosci ; 69: 7-14, 2019 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31447370

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Cervical spinal cord injury (cSCI) is a major public health concern in the young population as per the estimation of the annual global report, which concluded that the amount of incidence in this area ranged between 11.5 and 53.4 cases per million population. Moreover, Despite the many evaluations conducted to unveil the physiological and thermo logical complications caused to the human body after a cervical spinal cord injury, the fundamental pathophysiology about this type of injury is still inconclusive. OBJECTIVE: This review attempts to provide a better understanding to the various changes caused to the body after a cSCI. It focuses on the alterations in blood circulation, energy expenditure (EE), sweating, shivering responses and consequently disruption in body temperature regulation. METHODS: Various research engines such as Scopus, PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, EBSCO, and Cochrane Library databases were searched by two independent investigators. 17 studies out of 102 were included based on eligibility criteria: patients with complete and/or incomplete cSCI; minimum of 5 patients as participants; and control group of able Bodied People (AB). RESULTS: Following cSCI, EE decreases by 10% (p < 0.05) due to reduction in lean body mass; cardiac output decrements by 27% (p < 0.05) following the change in arterial blood vessel structure, and finally; thermoregulatory responses were disturbed because of the absence or decrease in vasodilation, vasoconstriction, sudomotor (autonomic activation of sweat glands) and shivering responses. CONCLUSIONS: The body undergoes significant thermoregulatory changes following spinal cord injury. Understanding the pathophysiology of spinal cord injury and its effect on the human body can provide us an insight to develop adequate treatment modalities that tackle the problem of thermal dysregulation in people with cSCI.


Asunto(s)
Regulación de la Temperatura Corporal/fisiología , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Cardiovasculares , Médula Cervical/fisiopatología , Traumatismos de la Médula Espinal/fisiopatología , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad
18.
Nutrients ; 11(9)2019 Aug 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438565

RESUMEN

The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of diets, food, and food components that affect postprandial inflammation, endothelial function, and oxidative stress, which are related to cardiometabolic risk. A high-energy meal, rich in saturated fat and sugars, induces the transient appearance of a series of metabolic, signaling and physiological dysregulations or dysfunctions, including oxidative stress, low-grade inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction, which are directly related to the amplitude of postprandial plasma triglycerides and glucose. Low-grade inflammation and endothelial dysfunction are also known to cluster together with insulin resistance, a third risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and type-II diabetes, thus making a considerable contribution to cardiometabolic risk. Because of the marked relevance of the postprandial model to nutritional pathophysiology, many studies have investigated whether adding various nutrients and other substances to such a challenge meal might mitigate the onset of these adverse effects. Some foods (e.g., nuts, berries, and citrus), nutrients (e.g., l-arginine), and other substances (various polyphenols) have been widely studied. Reports of favorable effects in the postprandial state have concerned plasma markers for systemic or vascular pro-inflammatory conditions, the activation of inflammatory pathways in plasma monocytes, vascular endothelial function (mostly assessed using physiological criteria), and postprandial oxidative stress. Although the literature is fragmented, this topic warrants further study using multiple endpoints and markers to investigate whether the interesting candidates identified might prevent or limit the postprandial appearance of critical features of cardiometabolic risk.


Asunto(s)
Fenómenos Fisiológicos Cardiovasculares/efectos de los fármacos , Carbohidratos de la Dieta , Proteínas en la Dieta , Periodo Posprandial , Humanos , Factores de Riesgo
19.
Environ Pollut ; 254(Pt B): 112861, 2019 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31454568

RESUMEN

As a new type of pollutant, fluoroquinolones (FQs) antibiotics are ubiquitous in environment and have some threat to human health and ecological environment. Their ecological toxicity to the environment urgently need to be assessed. Therefore, we firstly explored the toxic effects and possible mechanism of cardiovascular toxicity induced by gatifloxacin (GTFX) and ciprofloxacin (CPFX) using zebrafish model. After 24 h exposure, the zebrafish treated with GTFX showed pericardial edema which was further investigated by histopathological examination, while CPFX exposure did not induce morphological abnormalities. However, both of them induced cardiac dysfunction, such as decreased heart rate and cardiac output which was showed a positive correlation with the concentration. To better understand the possible molecular mechanisms underlying cardiovascular toxicity in zebrafish, we investigated the transcriptional level of genes related to calcium signaling pathway and cardiac muscle contraction. The results indicated that the expression of ATPase (atp2a1l) and cardiac troponin C (tnnc1a) genes were significantly inhibited, the expression of calcium channel (cacna1ab) gene showed slight promoted trend after CPFX exposure. For zebrafish treated with GTFX, the expression of atp2a1l genes was also significantly inhibited, while the expression of tnnc1a genes was slightly inhibited and cacna1ab genes expression had no obvious effect. The present study firstly revealed that GTFX exposure can induce morphological and functional abnormalities on the cardiovascular system of zebrafish. Though CPFX exposure did not induce morphological abnormalities, the function of cardiovascular system was still damaged. Mechanistically, this toxicity might result from the pressure of down-regulation of genes associated with calcium signaling pathway and cardiac muscle contraction. The results of this study can provide a valuable theoretical basis for the establishment of FQs environmental quality standards in water environment, environmental drug regulation and risk management.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/toxicidad , Sistema Cardiovascular/efectos de los fármacos , Ciprofloxacino/toxicidad , Gatifloxacina/toxicidad , Animales , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Cardiovasculares/efectos de los fármacos , Sistema Cardiovascular/crecimiento & desarrollo , Regulación hacia Abajo , Frecuencia Cardíaca/efectos de los fármacos , Humanos , Modelos Animales , Contracción Miocárdica/efectos de los fármacos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/toxicidad , Pez Cebra/crecimiento & desarrollo
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