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1.
Molecules ; 26(4)2021 Feb 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33668450

RESUMEN

Greek oregano and common oregano were compared in respect of the antioxidant and antibacterial activity of the corresponding essential oils and hydroethanolic extracts in relation with their chemical profile. The chemical composition of essential oils was determined by GC-MS and GC-FID, while extracts (phenolic acids and flavonoids fractions) were analyzed by HPLC-DAD. Based on given volatiles, the investigated subspecies represented two chemotypes: a carvacrol/γ-terpinene/p-cymene type in the case of Greek oregano and a sabinyl/cymyl type rich in terpinen-4-ol in common oregano. Within non-volatile phenolic compounds, rosmarinic acid appeared to dominate in both subspecies. Lithospermic acid B, chlorogenic acid and isovitexin were present only in Greek oregano extracts. However, the total content of flavonoids was higher in common oregano extracts. The essential oil and extract of Greek oregano revealed visibly stronger antibacterial activity (expressed as MIC and MBC) than common oregano, whereas the antioxidant potential (determined by DPPH, ABTS and FRAP) of these extracts was almost equal for both subspecies. In the case of Origanum plants, the potential application of essential oils and extracts as antiseptic and antioxidant agents in the food industry should be preceded by subspecies identification followed by recognition of their chemotype concerning both terpene and phenolics composition.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/farmacología , Antioxidantes/farmacología , Etanol/química , Aceites Volátiles/farmacología , Origanum/química , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Agua/química , Benzotiazoles/química , Compuestos de Bifenilo/química , Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión , Flavonoides/análisis , Depuradores de Radicales Libres/farmacología , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Fenoles/análisis , Picratos/química , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Ácidos Sulfónicos/química
2.
Molecules ; 26(4)2021 Feb 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33672083

RESUMEN

Sweet pepper is one of the most important economic fruits with nutritional attributes. In this sense, the nutraceutical value of consumed products is a major concern nowadays so the content of some bioactive compounds and antioxidants (phenols, ascorbic acid, lycopene, carotenoids, chlorophylls, and antioxidant activity) was monitored in 18 sweet pepper landraces at two maturity stages (green and red). All the traits except chlorophylls significantly increased in red fruits (between 1.5- and 2.3-fold for phenols, ascorbic acid, and 2-2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) inhibition activity, 4.8-fold for carotenoid and 27.4-fold for lycopene content), which suggests that ripening is key for obtaining desired fruit quality. Among landraces, P-44 in green fruits is highlighted for its content in carotenoids, chlorophylls, phenols, and ascorbic acid, and P-46 for its antioxidant capacity and lycopene content. Upon maturity, P-48, P-44, and P-41 presented higher levels of phenols and lycopene, and P-39 of phenols, carotenoid, and DPPH. This work reflects a wide variability in the 18 pepper landraces at bioactive compounds concentration and in relation to fruit ripeness. The importance of traditional landraces in terms of organoleptic properties is emphasized as they are the main source of agricultural biodiversity today and could be helpful for breeders to develop new functional pepper varieties.


Asunto(s)
Antioxidantes/farmacología , Capsicum/química , Ecotipo , Fitoquímicos/farmacología , Ácido Ascórbico/análisis , Clorofila/análisis , Suplementos Dietéticos/análisis , Frutas/química , Licopeno/análisis , Fenoles/análisis , Pigmentación , Análisis de Componente Principal
3.
Environ Pollut ; 276: 116690, 2021 May 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33652187

RESUMEN

The presence of phenols, such as nonylphenol (NP), bisphenol (BPA), and octylphenol (OP), in the environment have been receiving increased attention due to their potential risks to human health and environment. The use of reclaimed water for irrigation may be one of the sources of these phenols in the agricultural system. A field experiment was conducted to assess the effects of reclaimed water irrigation on phenol contamination of agricultural topsoil and products in the North China Plain between 2015 and 2016. Three irrigation treatments were applied to all crops: reclaimed water irrigation, groundwater irrigation and alternative irrigation with reclaimed water and groundwater (1:1, v/v). The results showed that the concentrations of NP, BPA, and OP in the topsoil were 0.02-0.54, 0.004-0.06, and ND-9.9 × 10-3 mg/kg, respectively; the corresponding values in agricultural products were 0.007-0.70, 0.004-0.24, and ND-1.08 mg/kg, respectively. The concentration of NP in the topsoil and agricultural products and that of BPA in the agricultural products were all less than the recommended limits. The yields of wheat, maize, vegetables were 4.35-7.08, 1.03-6.46, and 10.9-67.0 t/ha, respectively. The bioaccumulation factors (BCFs) of OP, NP, and BPA for cereals were 0.7-4.77, 0.16-4.59, and 1.3-23.9, respectively; the corresponding values in vegetables were 0.0-4.53 (except cucumber and eggplant), 0.38-12.6, and 0.57-24.3, respectively. No significant differences in phenol concentrations, BCFs, or yields of wheat and vegetables were observed among the three irrigation treatments. In conclusion, compared with groundwater irrigation, reclaimed water irrigation in this experiment did not significantly affect phenol concentrations in the topsoil and agricultural products as well as BCFs and yields of wheat and vegetables. However, because the quality of reclaimed water may vary across collected areas, additional experiments are warranted to analyze the effects of reclaimed water irrigation on the risk of phenol contamination.


Asunto(s)
Riego Agrícola , Suelo , China , Humanos , Fenoles/análisis , Aguas Residuales/análisis , Agua
4.
Food Chem ; 351: 129273, 2021 Jul 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33662907

RESUMEN

Heat processing of ready-to-drink beverages is required to ensure a microbiologically safe product, however, this can result in the loss of bioactive compounds responsible for functionality. The objective of this study was to establish the thermal stability of a novel dihydrochalcone, 3',5'-di-ß-d-glucopyranosyl-3-hydroxyphloretin (2), 3',5'-di-ß-d-glucopyranosylphloretin (3) and other Cyclopia subternata phenolic compounds, in model solutions with or without citric acid and ascorbic acid. The solutions were heated at 93, 121 and 135 °C, relevant to pasteurisation, commercial sterilisation and ultra-high temperature (UHT) pasteurisation, respectively. For most compounds, the acids decreased the second order reaction rate constants, up to 27 times. Compound 2 (46.29 ± 0.53 (g/100 g)-1 h-1), and to a lesser extent compound 3 (5.94 ± 0.01 (g/100 g)-1 h-1) were the most thermo-unstable compounds when treated at 135 °C without added acids. Even though differential effects were observed for compounds at different temperatures and formulations, overall, the phenolic compounds were most stable under UHT pasteurisation conditions.


Asunto(s)
Bebidas/análisis , Chalconas/química , Fabaceae/química , Extractos Vegetales/química , Polifenoles/química , Temperatura , Glicosilación , Pasteurización , Fenoles/análisis , Soluciones
5.
Food Chem ; 351: 129264, 2021 Jul 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33662908

RESUMEN

The valorization of the brewer's spent grain (BSG) generated in a craft beer industry was studied by subcritical water hydrolysis in a semi-continuous fixed-bed reactor. Temperature was varied from 125 to 185 °C at a constant flow rate of 4 mL/min. Biomass hydrolysis yielded a maximum of 78% of solubilized protein at 185 °C. Free amino acids presented a maximum level at 160 °C with a value of 55 mg free amino acids/gprotein-BSG. Polar amino acid presented a maximum at lower temperatures than non-polar amino acids. The maximum in total phenolic compounds was reached at 185 °C. This maximum is the same for aldehyde phenolic compounds such as vanillin, syringic and protocatechuic aldehyde; however, for hydroxycinnamic acids, such as ferulic acid and p-coumaric, the maximum was obtained at 160 °C. This allows a fractionation of the bioactive compounds. Subcritical water addresses opportunities for small breweries to be incorporated within the biorefinery concept.


Asunto(s)
Fraccionamiento Químico/métodos , Grano Comestible/química , Proteínas de Plantas/aislamiento & purificación , Residuos , Agua/química , Bebidas Alcohólicas/análisis , Biomasa , Ácidos Cumáricos/análisis , Hidrólisis , Fenoles/análisis , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Factores de Tiempo
6.
Food Chem ; 352: 129313, 2021 Aug 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33657480

RESUMEN

Quantitative analysis of complex mixtures is a great challenge for spectral analysis. Bisphenol A (BpA) is a chemical predominantly used in manufacturing and is being replaced by other analogs due to its potential toxicity. Reliability methods is hence crucial for identification and quantification of bisphenol mixtures. In this study we present an attractive strategy for composition determination of BpA incorporated in its analogue mixtures. Terahertz spectra of four bisphenol components are analyzed using machine learning method (SVR) to learn the underlying model of the frequency against the target concentration of BpA in mixtures. The learned mode predicts the concentrations of the unknown samples with decision coefficient R2 = 0.98. Absorption spectra for bisphenols mixtures were successfully reconstructed by a hold-out validation scheme. The results indicate the terahertz spectroscopy in combination with SVR is robust and accurate in mixture quantitative analysis and should play a significant role for industrial applications in the future.


Asunto(s)
Compuestos de Bencidrilo/análisis , Aprendizaje Automático , Fenoles/análisis , Espectroscopía de Terahertz , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados
7.
Food Chem ; 352: 129321, 2021 Aug 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33667922

RESUMEN

Low turbidity and low discolouration is targeted in clear red grape juice (RGJ) production. Depending on type of clarification agents, substantial discolouration may occur. Therefore, this study was undertaken to show effects of various clarification treatments (bentonite and chitosan, and combinations of "bentonite + gelatin (B + G)," "bentonite + casein (B + CA)," "bentonite + albumin (B + A)" and "bentonite + chitosan (B + CTS)" on turbidity, color (ACNs, color density-CD and polymeric color-PC), phenolics and antioxidant activity (AOA) during RGJ clarification. Casein alone (4.0 NTU and 9.1% ACN loss) and in combination with bentonite (4.4 NTU and 12.3% ACN loss), followed by B + A (5.7 NTU and 12.3% ACN loss) resulted in best clarity and was associated with least change in ACNs. These clarifications also resulted in high CD (intensive red color) and low PC (low browning). At all dosages, gelatin and albumin were associated with highest ACN losses, while casein in greatest retention. "Bentonite + casein," followed by "bentonite + albumin," achieved the best clarification of RGJ.


Asunto(s)
Antocianinas/análisis , Antioxidantes/análisis , Jugos de Frutas y Vegetales/análisis , Fenoles/análisis , Vitis/química , Color
8.
Molecules ; 26(4)2021 Feb 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33669650

RESUMEN

Apples are an important source of biologically active compounds. Consequently, we decided to model hard gelatin capsules with lyophilized apple powder by using different excipients and to evaluate the release kinetics of phenolic compounds. The apple slices of "Ligol" cultivar were immediately frozen in a freezer (at -35°C) with air circulation and were lyophilized with a sublimator at the pressure of 0.01 mbar (condenser temperature, -85°C). Lyophilized apple powder was used as an active substance filled into hard gelatin capsules. We conducted capsule disintegration and dissolution tests to evaluate the quality of apple lyophilizate-containing capsules of different encapsulating content. Individual phenolic compounds can be arranged in the following descending order according to the amount released from the capsules of different compositions: chlorogenic acid > rutin > avicularin > hyperoside > phloridzin > quercitrin > (-)-epicatechin > isoquercitrin. Chlorogenic acid was the compound that was released in the highest amounts from capsules of different encapsulating content: its released amounts ranged from 68.4 to 640.3 µg/mL. According to the obtained data, when hypromellose content ranged from 29% to 41% of the capsule mass, the capsules disintegrated within less than 30 min, and such amounts of hypromellose did not prolong the release of phenolic compounds. Based on the results of the dissolution test, the capsules can be classified as fast-dissolving preparations, as more than 85% of the active substances were released within 30 min.


Asunto(s)
Productos Biológicos/análisis , Cápsulas/química , Liofilización , Malus/química , Etanol/química , Gelatina/química , Glicósidos/química , Fenoles/análisis , Fenoles/química , Polvos
9.
Molecules ; 26(4)2021 Feb 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33669887

RESUMEN

In the last few years, a new term, "High-phenolic olive oil", has appeared in scientific literature and in the market. However, there is no available definition of that term regarding the concentration limits of the phenolic ingredients of olive oil. For this purpose, we performed a large-scale screening and statistical evaluation of 5764 olive oil samples from Greece coming from >30 varieties for an eleven-year period with precisely measured phenolic content by qNMR. Although there is a large variation among the different cultivars, the mean concentration of total phenolic content was 483 mg/kg. The maximum concentration recorded in Greece reached 4003 mg/kg. We also observed a statistically significant correlation of the phenolic content with the harvest period and we also identified varieties affording olive oils with higher phenolic content. In addition, we performed a study of phenolic content loss during usual storage and we found an average loss of 46% in 12 months. We propose that the term high-phenolic should be used for olive oils with phenolic content > 500 mg/kg that will be able to retain the health claim limit (250 mg/kg) for at least 12 months after bottling. The term exceptionally high phenolic olive oil should be used for olive oil with phenolic content > 1200 mg/kg (top 5%).


Asunto(s)
Espectroscopía de Resonancia Magnética , Aceite de Oliva/química , Fenoles/análisis , Estadística como Asunto , Aldehídos/análisis , Monoterpenos Ciclopentánicos/análisis , Grecia , Fenoles/química , Preservación Biológica
10.
Molecules ; 26(4)2021 Feb 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33670565

RESUMEN

Optimization of the extraction conditions of polyphenolic compounds for different parts of the Damas species, Conocarpus lancifolius and Conocarpus erectus, grown under UAE conditions was studied. The combination of ethanol concentration (50, 75, and 100%), temperature (45, 55, and 65 °C) and time (1, 2, and 3 h) was used by applying the Response Surface Methodology. The data showed that the extracts (n = 90) contained phenolic compounds, flavonoids, and tannins, and were free of alkaloids. Changing the extraction conditions had a significant effect on the detection of phytosterols, saponins, and glycosides and on the solubility of vanillic acid, p-coumaric acid, sinapic acid, t-ferulic acid, rutin hydrate, protocatechuic acid, quercetin, and flavone. The data reveal that the roots and leaves of C. erectus and the leaves and fruits of C.lancifolius are the most important plant parts from which to extract these compounds. This study draws attention to the unordinary use of Conocarpus spp. as a source of natural food additive.


Asunto(s)
Antioxidantes/análisis , Combretaceae/química , Fenoles/análisis , Fitoquímicos/análisis , Frutas/química , Extractos Vegetales/química , Hojas de la Planta/química , Raíces de Plantas/química , Polifenoles/aislamiento & purificación
11.
Molecules ; 26(4)2021 Feb 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33670795

RESUMEN

Adenia viridiflora Craib. is an indigenous edible plant that became an endangered species due to limited consumption of the local population with unknown reproduction and growth conditions. The plant is used as a traditional herb; however, its health applications lack scientific-based evidence. A. viridiflora Craib. plant parts (old leaves and young shoots) from four areas as Kamphaeng Phet (KP), Muang Nakhon Ratchasima (MN), Pakchong Nakhon Ratchasima (PN), and Uthai Thani (UT) origins were investigated for phenolic compositions and in vitro health properties through the inhibition of key enzymes relevant to obesity (lipase), diabetes (α-glucosidase and dipeptidyl peptidase-IV), Alzheimer's disease (cholinesterases and ß-secretase), and hypertension (angiotensin-converting enzyme). Phenolics including p-coumaric acid, sinapic acid, naringenin, and apigenin were detected in old leaves and young shoots in all plant origins. Old leaves exhibited higher total phenolic contents (TPCs) and total flavonoid contents (TFCs), leading to higher enzyme inhibitory activities than young shoots. Besides, PN and MN with higher TPCs and TFCs tended to exhibit greater enzyme inhibitory activities than others. These results will be useful to promote this plant as a healthy food with valuable medicinal capacities to support its consumption and agricultural stimulation, leading to sustainable conservation of this endangered species.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad , Passifloraceae/química , Fitoterapia , Extractos Vegetales/química , Agua/química , Animales , Antioxidantes/análisis , Candida/enzimología , Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión , Inhibidores Enzimáticos/farmacología , Inhibidores Enzimáticos/uso terapéutico , Flavonoides/análisis , Caballos , Humanos , Hipertensión/tratamiento farmacológico , Fenoles/análisis , Hojas de la Planta/química , Brotes de la Planta/química , Conejos , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/enzimología , Solventes
12.
Molecules ; 26(4)2021 Feb 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33671156

RESUMEN

The objective of this paper is to compare conventional, ultrasound, microwave, and French press methods for the extraction of antioxidant compounds from Decatropis bicolor in an aqueous medium. This plant is widely used in Mexican traditional medicine for breast cancer treatment. Despite that, there are few studies on D. bicolor. Two response surface designs were applied to establish the best conditions of the liberation of antioxidants from D. bicolor, which were determined by DPPH• and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) techniques. The total phenolic content was evaluated by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. The results showed that D. bicolor is a source of antioxidants (669-2128 mg ET/100 g and 553-1920 mg EFe2+/100 g, respectively) and phenolic compounds (2232-9929 mg EGA/100 g). Among the physical factors that were analyzed, the temperature was the determinant factor to liberate the compounds of interest by using low concentrations of the sample and short times of extraction. The French press was the most efficient method, obtaining values of antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds even higher than those reported by using extraction methods with solvents such as methanol.


Asunto(s)
Antioxidantes/aislamiento & purificación , Bioquímica/métodos , Rutaceae/química , Agua/química , Antioxidantes/análisis , Compuestos de Bifenilo/química , Hierro/química , Microondas , Fenoles/análisis , Picratos/química , Ultrasonido
13.
Molecules ; 26(4)2021 Feb 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33671275

RESUMEN

Oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) have long been known for their organoleptic properties. Both plants are widely used in cuisine worldwide in fresh and dried form and as a pharmaceutical raw material. The study aimed to assess if the type of cultivation influenced chosen chemical parameters (total polyphenols by Folin-Ciocalteu method; carotenoids and chlorophyll content by Lichtenthaler method), antimicrobial activity (with chosen reference microbial strains) and shaped cytotoxicity (with L929 mouse fibroblasts cell line) in water macerates of dry oregano and thyme. Polyphenols content and antimicrobial activity were higher in water macerates obtained from conventional cultivation (independently from herb species), unlike the pigments in a higher amount in macerates from organic herbs cultivation. Among all tested macerates stronger antimicrobial properties (effective in inhibiting the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus cereus and Salmonella enteritidis) and higher cytotoxicity (abilities to diminish the growth of L929 fibroblasts cytotoxicity) characterized the conventionally cultivated thyme macerate.


Asunto(s)
Agricultura , Carotenoides/análisis , Clorofila/análisis , Fenoles/análisis , Agua/química , Animales , Antiinfecciosos/farmacología , Bacterias/efectos de los fármacos , Muerte Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Línea Celular , Ratones , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Origanum/química , Extractos Vegetales , Polifenoles/análisis , Thymus (Planta)/química
14.
Molecules ; 26(4)2021 Feb 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33672875

RESUMEN

Treatment of kidney stones is based on symptomatic medications which are associated with side effects such as gastrointestinal symptoms (e.g., nausea, vomiting) and hepatotoxicity. The search for effective plant extracts without the above side effects has demonstrated the involvement of antioxidants in the treatment of kidney stones. A local survey in Morocco has previously revealed the frequent use of Rubia tinctorum L. (RT) for the treatment of kidney stones. In this study, we first explored whether RT ethanolic (E-RT) and ethyl acetate (EA-RT) extracts of Rubia tinctorum L. could prevent the occurrence of urolithiasis in an experimental 0.75% ethylene glycol (EG) and 2% ammonium chloride (AC)-induced rat model. Secondly, we determined the potential antioxidant potency as well as the polyphenol composition of these extracts. An EG/AC regimen for 10 days induced the formation of bipyramid-shaped calcium oxalate crystals in the urine. Concomitantly, serum and urinary creatinine, urea, uric acid, phosphorus, calcium, sodium, potassium, and chloride were altered. The co-administration of both RT extracts prevented alterations in all these parameters. In the EG/AC-induced rat model, the antioxidants- and polyphenols-rich E-RT and EA-RT extracts significantly reduced the presence of calcium oxalate in the urine, and prevented serum and urinary biochemical alterations together with kidney tissue damage associated with urolithiasis. Moreover, we demonstrated that the beneficial preventive effects of E-RT co-administration were more pronounced than those obtained with EA-RT. The superiority of E-RT was associated with its more potent antioxidant effect, due to its high content in polyphenols.


Asunto(s)
Antioxidantes/uso terapéutico , Etanol/química , Extractos Vegetales/química , Polifenoles/uso terapéutico , Rubia/química , Urolitiasis/tratamiento farmacológico , Urolitiasis/prevención & control , Acetatos/química , Cloruro de Amonio , Animales , Antioxidantes/farmacología , Peso Corporal/efectos de los fármacos , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Glicol de Etileno , Concentración 50 Inhibidora , Fenoles/análisis , Polifenoles/farmacología , Ratas Wistar , Urolitiasis/inducido químicamente , Urolitiasis/fisiopatología
15.
Food Chem ; 352: 129346, 2021 Aug 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33711729

RESUMEN

This study evaluates the use of deep eutectic solvents (DES) prepared with choline chloride ([Ch]Cl) and carboxylic acids for phenolic compound extraction from olive leaves. These extracts were then compared to those obtained using ethanol. The effects of temperature and water addition during DES- and ethanol-based extractions were analyzed using response surface methodology. Due to the lack of solid-liquid equilibrium (SLE) data for [Ch]Cl + acetic acid, SLE, and DES density and viscosity with and without water addition were measured and analyzed. [Ch]Cl:acetic acid (54.1 °C, 50.0% water addition) extracted 15% more phenolic compounds than ethanol (54.1 °C, 0.5% water addition), according to UHPLC-MS based analyses. SLE analyses showed that [Ch]Cl + acetic acid presented a eutectic region at close to a 1:2 molar ratio. DES precursors and water addition influenced solvent physical properties and phenolic compound yield. DES was confirmed to be an innovative, strong solvent for phenolic compound extraction from olive leaves.


Asunto(s)
Fraccionamiento Químico/métodos , Colina/química , Olea/química , Fenoles/aislamiento & purificación , Hojas de la Planta/química , Solventes/química , Fenoles/análisis , Agua/química
16.
Food Chem ; 351: 129308, 2021 Jul 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33652297

RESUMEN

This study investigated the effects of foliar application of fulvic acid antitranspirant (FA-AT) on Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) and Riesling grapes and wines in a warm viticulture region of China. FA-AT controlled the contents of total soluble solids, fructose and glucose in mature grapes and alcohol in wines. FA-AT improved total phenols and flavonoids in Riesling grapes, and total tannin and individual flavanols in CS grapes and wine, while reducing total individual phenolic acids and flavonols in CS wine. Increased volatiles in CS grapes (hexyl acetate, linalool) and wine (isoamyl alcohol, 1-hexanol, 2-phenylethanol) detected by SPME-GC-MS can contribute to the fruity and floral aroma. FA-AT reduced the accumulation of anthocyanins in CS grapes and wine without an eventual reduction in the tonality of wine by sensory analysis, and improved the taste and balance of Riesling wine. Overall, FA-AT can improve the quality of grapes and wines produced in warm viticulture regions.


Asunto(s)
Agricultura/métodos , Benzopiranos/química , Frutas/química , Azúcares/análisis , Vitis/química , Vino/análisis , Antocianinas/análisis , China , Flavonoides/análisis , Flavonoles/análisis , Cromatografía de Gases y Espectrometría de Masas , Odorantes/análisis , Fenoles/análisis , Taninos/análisis , Compuestos Orgánicos Volátiles/análisis
17.
Food Chem ; 352: 129404, 2021 Aug 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33676122

RESUMEN

This study was designed to identify and quantify the major phenolic constituents in peeled kernel and pellicle of the walnut Juglans regia L. Data were compared across six different cultivars: 'Fernor', 'Fernette', 'Franquette', 'Sava', 'Krka' and 'Rubina'. High-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry was used to identify and quantify these compounds. Nineteen ellagitanins, 12 ellagic acid derivatives, 4 anthocyanins and 5 other phenols were identified in the pellicle of these walnuts, and 15 dicarboxylic acid derivatives and 1 phenol in the peeled walnut kernels. Thirteen previously unreported compounds were identified in the peeled walnut kernels, and 14 in the walnut pellicle. Hydrolysable tannins were the main phenolic compounds identified in the walnut kernels, and accounted for 31.0% to 35.1% of the total phenolics analysed. The highest intake of total phenolics content per walnut kernel can be obtained by consumption of 'Franquette' and 'Rubina', with the lowest for 'Krka'.


Asunto(s)
Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión , Juglans/química , Fenoles/análisis , Espectrometría de Masas en Tándem , Análisis de los Alimentos , Nueces/química , Fenoles/química
18.
Food Chem ; 352: 129456, 2021 Aug 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33711727

RESUMEN

Release of bioelements and phenolic compounds from edible mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus, Cantharellus cibarius, and Lentinula edodes) enriched with zinc, selenium, l-phenylalanine, alone and as a mixture was examined using a simulated human gastrointestinal digestion method. Due to the extensive amount of data obtained, in order to interpret them more precisely in the work, the methods of chemometric analysis (Cluster Analysis-CA and Principal Compenent Analysis-PCA) were additionally applied. The results showed mycelium of L. edodes has the best health-promoting properties and addition of mixture to the media increased significantly the synthesis of p-hydroxybenzoic and protocatechuic acid (267 and 16.3 mg/100 g d.w.). After extraction into artificial digestive juices, 97.4 mg/100 g d.w. p-hydroxybenzoic acid and 15.6 mg/100 g d.w. of protocatechuic acid were released. The greatest amounts of Se and Zn were extracted from enriched A. bisporus mycelium (32.3 and 342 mg/100 g d.w., respectively). This study confirmed that mycelium might prevent nutritional deficiencies in the diet through use of functional foods.


Asunto(s)
Agaricus/química , Basidiomycota/química , Micelio/química , Fenoles/análisis , Hongos Shiitake/química , Disponibilidad Biológica , Digestión , Humanos , Fenoles/metabolismo
19.
Braz J Biol ; 81(4): 1106-1114, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33605365

RESUMEN

Medicinal plants have a significant role in preventing and curing several diseases, and Tanacetum L. is one of these plants. The aim of the present study is to determine the fatty acid, lipid-soluble vitamin, sterol, phenolic content, and antioxidant capacity of Tanacetum densum subsp. laxum and Tanacetum densum subsp. amani, to compare the effect of altitude on the biochemical content and to compare systematically by using fatty acids and phenolics. This study showed that palmitic acid (C16:0) and stearic acid (C18:0) are major sources of saturated fatty acid and oleic acid (C18:1 n9), and linoleic acid (18:2 n6c) and a-linolenic acid (C18:3 n3) are the principal unsaturated fatty acids in the two endemic Tanacetum densum taxa. Also, this study found that the unsaturated fatty acid content (60.11±1.61%) of Tanacetum densum subsp. laxum was higher than the unsaturated fatty acid content (44.13±1.28%) of Tanacetum densum subsp. amani. And also, the ω6/ω3 ratio of Tanacetum densum subsp. laxum (1.74) and Tanacetum densum subsp. amani (1.60) was found to be similar. However, this study determined that the lipid soluble vitamin and sterol content of two endemic Tanacetum taxa are low except for stigmasterol. Present study showed that catechin is principal phenolic in the Tanacetum densum taxa. This study also found that Tanacetum densum subsp. laxum and Tanacetum densum subsp. amani had the highest levels of catechin, vanillic acid, and caffeic acid content though the phenolic amounts, particularly catechin and quercetin, were dissimilar in the T. densum taxa. This study suggested that ecological conditions such as altitude may affect the biochemical content of two endemic Tanacetum densum taxa. Furthermore, the current study determined that two endemic Tanacetum L. taxa had potent radical scavenging capacities and found a correlation between total phenolics and antioxidant activity.


Asunto(s)
Tanacetum , Antioxidantes , Ácidos Grasos , Fenoles/análisis , Turquia
20.
Food Chem ; 350: 129138, 2021 Jul 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33592364

RESUMEN

The effects of four household cooking methods including germination (Ger), baking, normal pressure steaming (NPS) and high pressure steaming (HPS) treatments, on tissue structure, tocopherol, antioxidant capacity and active component (ferulic acid and tocopherol) bioaccessibility of different colored quinoa were investigated. The results showed that Ger increased the phenolic contents and antioxidant capacity, but decreased the contents of tocopherol. The steaming processes destroyed the tissue structure of quinoa to a large extent, causing a significant loss of phenolic/flavonoid components and the resultant decreased antioxidant capacity. The baking process had minimum impact on tissue structure and active components due to the protection of hypocotyl-radicle axis. Besides, through in vitro simulated digestion, Ger improved the bioaccessibility of ferulic acid, and steaming processes increased that of tocopherol. Conclusively, to develop the expected nutritional value of quinoa, several alternative cooking methods are provided according to the respective effects.


Asunto(s)
Antioxidantes/análisis , Chenopodium quinoa/química , Culinaria/métodos , Fenoles/análisis , Vapor , Flavonoides/análisis , Valor Nutritivo , Tocoferoles/análisis
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