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1.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1287: 201-222, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33034034

RESUMEN

Notch is a key evolutionary conserved pathway, which has fascinated and engaged the work of investigators in an uncountable number of biological fields, from development of metazoans to immunotherapy for cancer. The study of Notch has greatly contributed to the understanding of cancer biology and a substantial effort has been spent in designing Notch-targeting therapies. Due to its broad involvement in cancer, targeting Notch would allow to virtually modulate any aspect of the disease. However, this means that Notch-based therapies must be highly specific to avoid off-target effects. This review will present the newest mechanistic and therapeutic advances in the Notch field and discuss the promises and challenges of this constantly evolving field.


Asunto(s)
Inmunoterapia , Terapia Molecular Dirigida , Neoplasias/terapia , Receptores Notch/antagonistas & inhibidores , Humanos , Neoplasias/inmunología , Fenotipo , Receptores Notch/metabolismo
2.
Curr Opin Ophthalmol ; 31(6): 549-562, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009088

RESUMEN

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The neurocutaneous disorders are a genetically and phenotypically diverse group of congenital syndromes characterized by cutaneous, ocular, and central nervous system manifestations. This review provides an overview of the clinical features and retinal findings in selected neurocutaneous disorders. RECENT FINDINGS: Advances in genetics and diagnostic retinal and neuroimaging allow for the recognition of retinal features of common neurocutaneous syndromes and for improved characterization of rarer entities based on previously underdiagnosed or unrecognized retinal findings. SUMMARY: Better characterization of the neurocutaneous disorders allows for earlier recognition and the potential for expeditious vision-saving and life-saving treatment.


Asunto(s)
Síndromes Neurocutáneos/diagnóstico , Enfermedades de la Retina/diagnóstico , Humanos , Fenotipo
4.
Pediatr Crit Care Med ; 21(10): 931-932, 2020 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009319
5.
Plant Genome ; 13(1): e20008, 2020 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016632

RESUMEN

Sweet corn (Zea mays L.) is highly consumed in the United States, but does not make major contributions to the daily intake of carotenoids (provitamin A carotenoids, lutein and zeaxanthin) that would help in the prevention of health complications. A genome-wide association study of seven kernel carotenoids and twelve derivative traits was conducted in a sweet corn inbred line association panel ranging from light to dark yellow in endosperm color to elucidate the genetic basis of carotenoid levels in fresh kernels. In agreement with earlier studies of maize kernels at maturity, we detected an association of ß-carotene hydroxylase (crtRB1) with ß-carotene concentration and lycopene epsilon cyclase (lcyE) with the ratio of flux between the α- and ß-carotene branches in the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway. Additionally, we found that 5% or less of the evaluated inbred lines possessing the shrunken2 (sh2) endosperm mutation had the most favorable lycE allele or crtRB1 haplotype for elevating ß-branch carotenoids (ß-carotene and zeaxanthin) or ß-carotene, respectively. Genomic prediction models with genome-wide markers obtained moderately high predictive abilities for the carotenoid traits, especially lutein, and outperformed models with less markers that targeted candidate genes implicated in the synthesis, retention, and/or genetic control of kernel carotenoids. Taken together, our results constitute an important step toward increasing carotenoids in fresh sweet corn kernels.


Asunto(s)
Carotenoides , Zea mays , Estudio de Asociación del Genoma Completo , Fenotipo , Zea mays/genética , beta Caroteno
6.
Plant Genome ; 13(1): e20006, 2020 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016641

RESUMEN

Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is an important economic crop, contributing up to 80% of sugar and approximately 60% of biofuel globally. To meet the increased demand for sugar and biofuel supplies, it is critical to breed sugarcane cultivars with robust performance in yield traits. Therefore, dissection of causal DNA sequence variants is of great importance, as it provides genetic resources and fundamental information for crop improvement. In this study, we analyzed nine yield traits in a sugarcane diversity panel consisting of 308 accessions primarily selected from the World Collection of Sugarcane and Related Grasses. By genotyping the diversity panel via target enrichment sequencing, we identified a large number of sequence variants. Genome-wide association studies between the markers and traits were conducted, taking dosages and gene actions into consideration. In total, 217 nonredundant markers and 225 candidate genes were identified to be significantly associated with the yield traits, which can serve as a comprehensive genetic resource database for future gene identification, characterization, and selection for sugarcane improvement. We further investigated runs of homozygosity (ROH) in the sugarcane diversity panel. We characterized 282 ROHs and found that the occurrence of ROHs in the genome were nonrandom and probably under selection. The ROHs were associated with total weight and dry weight, and high ROHs resulted in a decrease in the two traits. This study suggests that genomic inbreeding has led to negative impacts on sugarcane yield.


Asunto(s)
Saccharum , Estudio de Asociación del Genoma Completo , Genómica , Humanos , Fenotipo , Poliploidía , Saccharum/genética
7.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1931): 20201135, 2020 07 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33043863

RESUMEN

Tardigrades have a miniaturized body plan. Miniaturization in tardigrades is associated with the loss of several organ systems and an intermediate region of their anteroposterior (AP) axis. However, how miniaturization has affected tardigrade legs is unclear. In arthropods and in onychophorans, the leg gap genes are expressed in regionalized proximodistal (PD) patterns in the legs. Functional studies indicate that these genes regulate growth in their respective expression domains and establish PD identities, partly through mutually antagonistic regulatory interactions. Here, we investigated the expression patterns of tardigrade orthologs of the leg gap genes. Rather than being restricted to a proximal leg region, as in arthropods and onychophorans, we detected coexpression of orthologues of homothorax and extradenticle broadly across the legs of the first three trunk segments in the tardigrade Hypsibius exemplaris. We could not identify a dachshund orthologue in tardigrade genomes, a gene that is expressed in an intermediate region of developing legs in arthropods and onychophorans, suggesting that this gene was lost in the tardigrade lineage. We detected Distal-less expression broadly across all developing leg buds in H. exemplaris embryos, unlike in arthropods and onychophorans, in which it exhibits a distally restricted expression domain. The broad expression patterns of the remaining leg gap genes in H. exemplaris legs may reflect the loss of dachshund and the accompanying loss of an intermediate region of the legs in the tardigrade lineage. We propose that the loss of intermediate regions of both the AP and PD body axes contributed to miniaturization of Tardigrada.


Asunto(s)
Tamaño Corporal , Tardigrada/fisiología , Animales , Evolución Biológica , Miniaturización , Fenotipo
8.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1931): 20200975, 2020 07 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33043864

RESUMEN

Alternative mating strategies are widespread among animal taxa, with strategies controlled by a genetic polymorphism (Mendelian strategy) being rarer in nature than condition-dependent developmental strategies. Mendelian strategies are predicted to have equal average fitnesses and the proportion of offspring produced by a strategy should equal the equilibrium proportion of individuals representing the strategy in a population. Developmental strategies are not expected to produce offspring in equilibrium proportions; however, whether the alternative phenotypes should have equal average fitness is debated. The Wellington tree weta (Hemideina crassidens) (Orthoptera: Anostostomatidae) is a harem polygynous insect in which intense sexual competition has favoured the evolution of three alternative mating strategies that differ in weapon size and the ability to fight for control of harems. Here, we use molecular genotyping to test the hypothesis that the alternative strategies in this species are maintained by having equal relative fitness and that morphs produce offspring in equilibrium proportions. As expected, the average relative fitness of the three strategies did not significantly differ and the proportion of offspring produced by each morph is equal to the frequency of that morph in the population. Our results support the hypothesis that the alternative male morphs in H. crassidens represent Mendelian strategies.


Asunto(s)
Insectos/fisiología , Conducta Sexual Animal , Animales , Femenino , Masculino , Ortópteros , Fenotipo , Polimorfismo Genético , Selección Genética
9.
Urol Clin North Am ; 47(4): 469-474, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33008497

RESUMEN

Multiple immunologic platforms have provided minimal impact in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer, necessitating that novel approaches continue to be developed. Although checkpoint inhibitors have been largely ineffective, there remain small cohorts of patients who have durable responses but lack the conventional indicators for response to this class of drugs, that is, high mutational burden or significant genomic alterations, as seen in other solid tumors. This article presents an update on the evolution of immunotherapeutics that target a more lethal form of prostate cancer and provides the groundwork for future considerations as to how this field should proceed.


Asunto(s)
Quinasas Ciclina-Dependientes/genética , Regulación Neoplásica de la Expresión Génica , Inmunoterapia/métodos , Neoplasias de la Próstata Resistentes a la Castración/genética , Neoplasias de la Próstata Resistentes a la Castración/terapia , Anciano , Productos Biológicos/uso terapéutico , Vacunas contra el Cáncer/administración & dosificación , Quinasas Ciclina-Dependientes/efectos de los fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Invasividad Neoplásica/patología , Estadificación de Neoplasias , Fenotipo , Medicina de Precisión/métodos , Pronóstico , Neoplasias de la Próstata Resistentes a la Castración/patología , Análisis de Supervivencia , Resultado del Tratamiento , Microambiente Tumoral/efectos de los fármacos
10.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33040504

RESUMEN

Objective:To observe the microbiological characteristics and clinical correlation of chronic rhinosinusitis with different clinical phenotypes. Method:One hundred and ninety-six patients with chronic rhinosinusitis(CRS) underwent nasal endoscopic surgery, including 126 patients with Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps(CRSwNP) and 70 patients with chronic rhinosinusitis without nasal polyps(CRSsNP); 78 patients with nasal septum deviation(control group) were enrolled. The nasal discharge samples were collected before operation, and the bacteria were isolated and identified by the traditional culture method. The bacteria were compared between the two groups by Pearson chi-square test or Fisher exact test, and the bacteria were compared between groups by Kruskal-Wallis rank sum test. Out statistically significant variables(P<0.05). Result:The total bacterial detection rate was 73.0% in the three groups, 76.2% in the CRSwNP group, 68.6% in the CRSsNP group and 71.8% in the control group, respectively(P=0.579). The detection rate of the bacteria was mainly Gram-positive bacteria. The higher detection rate included: Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudodiphtheria, Staphylococcus aureus, Haemophilus influenzaemola, Haemella influenzaemola. The detection rate of Haemophilus influenzae in the CRSwNP group and the control group(13.5% vs 2.6%, P=0.009), but there were statistical differences CRSsNP.There was no statistically significant difference in the detection rate of the bacteria(8.6% vs 2.6%, P=0.15) between the CRSsNP group and the control group; The difference of staphylococcus aureus detection rate between NonECRSwNP group and ECRSwNP group was statistically significant (9.6% vs 28.1%,P=0.017).There was no significant difference in staphylococcus aureus detection rate between NonECRSsNP group and ECRSsNP group (9.4% vs 16.7%, P=0.482). Conclusion:Haemophilus influenzae may be a potential cause of CRSwNP; S. aureus may promote the eosinophilic granulocyte inflammatory response to CRSwNP.


Asunto(s)
Pólipos Nasales , Rinitis , Sinusitis , Humanos , Fenotipo , Staphylococcus aureus
11.
Hipertens. riesgo vasc ; 37(3): 115-124, jul.-sept. 2020. tab, graf, ilus
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-193520

RESUMEN

INTRODUCCIÓN Y OBJETIVO: La obesidad y el síndrome metabólico (SM) continúan siendo un problema a nivel socioeconómico, causando elevada morbilidad y mortalidad en la población adulta, por lo que se debería realizar una prevención de factores de riesgo desde temprana edad. En la actualidad no existe un consenso del momento oportuno para iniciar la intervención y tratamiento con respecto al SM. El objetivo del estudio es describir el fenotipo para predecir diagnóstico temprano de SM en escolares. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: Estudio observacional, prospectivo, transversal y analítico en escolares de seis a 15 años, aplicado en Guayaquil. Se realizó valoración antropométrica y encuesta escrita, tras firma del consentimiento informado. Se utilizó para los cálculos de asociación la plataforma de inteligencia artificial (IA) Watson de IBM y su software Modeler Flow. RESULTADOS: Se examinó una población de 1.025 estudiantes entre seis y 15 años (media de 12 años para varones y 13 años para mujeres), de los cuales 62,3% fueron hombres y 37,7% mujeres. El 23,9% de la población presentó sobrepeso y 14% obesidad. Se observó una mayor tendencia a la alteración del peso en varones que en mujeres (51,37% vs. 47,79%), y menor perímetro de cintura en varones (85 cm vs. 87 cm, respectivamente). Los varones tuvieron mayor nivel de presión arterial sistólica (PAS), encontrándose dentro del percentil 90 (PAS media de 123 mmHg) un 61,2%, en comparación con un 38,8% de las mujeres, con una p < 0,001. El sedentarismo es similar en ambos grupos, con una media de 4,79 horas frente a la pantalla y/o videojuegos. Se demostró correlación estadísticamente significativa entre la presión arterial y el índice cintura /talla (I c/t) en el percentil 90 y percentil 95 (X2 9,075, p < 0,028, y X2 23,54, p < 0,000, respectivamente), así como relación entre el P95 de la presión arterial y el sexo (X2 11,57, p < 0,001). El sistema Modeler Flow, nos demostró que, si se observa un I c/t > 0,46, peso > 56,1 kg, talla > 1,61 m, y sedentarismo puro mayor a tres horas de tiempo frente a la pantalla, hay una probabilidad de presentar SM de 82,4%. El modelado matemático del árbol de decisiones (basado en inteligencia artificial) tiene una precisión predictiva del 90% (desviación de error de 0,009). La importancia de los predictores de SM, van de un 97,57% a un 100%. CONCLUSIONES: Se observó en escolares de seis a 15 años, una prevalencia del 33,9% de SM, con puntos de corte patológicos de: I c/t ≥ 0,46, peso ≥ 56,1 kg, sedentarismo puro mayor a tres horas frente a la pantalla/videojuegos, y PAS dentro del P90 (> 123 mmHg). Con estos cuatro indicadores, podemos predecir una probabilidad de diagnóstico temprano de SM de 97% al 100%


INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Obesity and metabolic syndrome (MS) continue to be a problem at a socioeconomic level, causing high morbidity and mortality in the adult population. Prevention of risk factors should be carried out from an early age. Currently, there is no consensus on the opportune moment to start an intervention or treatment, regarding metabolic syndrome. The objective of the study is to describe the phenotype to predict early diagnosis of metabolic syndrome in schoolchildren. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Observational, prospective, cross-sectional and analytical study in schoolchildren from 6 to 15 years old, conducted in Guayaquil. Anthropometric measurements and a survey were performed, obtaining signing informed consent. The IBM Watson artificial intelligence (AI) platform with its software Modeler Flow, were used for the analysis. RESULTS: A population of 1025 students between 6 and 15 years old (mean of 12 years for men and 13 years for women) was examined, of whom 62.3% were men and 37.7% women. 23.9% of the population was overweight and 14% obese. A greater tendency to weight alteration was observed in men than in women (51.37% vs 47.79%), and a lower waist circumference in men (85 cm vs 87 cm, respectively). Males had a higher level of systolic blood pressure (SBP), being within the 90th percentile (mean SBP of 123 mmHg) 61.2%, compared to 38.8% of women, with a p < 0.001. Sedentary lifestyle is similar in both groups, with an average of 4.79 hours in front of the screen and/or video games. A statistically significant correlation was demonstrated between SBP and the waist/height ratio (WHtR) in the 90th percentile and 95th percentile (X2 9.075, p < 0.028, and X2 23,54, p < 0,000 respectively), as well as a relationship between 95th percentile and sex (X2 11.57, p < 0.001). The Modeler Flow software showed us that if WHtR, > 0.46, weight > 56.1 kg and height > 1.61 m, the probability of presenting metabolic syndrome, was of 82.4%. The statistic of this study has a predictive accuracy of 90% (error deviation of 0.009). The importance in the predictors of metabolic syndrome, range from 97.57% to 100%. CONCLUSIONS: A prevalence of 33.9% of metabolic syndrome was observed in schoolchildren from 6 to 15 years old, with pathological cut-off points of: WHtR > 0.46, weight > 56.1 kg, pure sedentary lifestyle > 3 hours in front of the screen/playing video games, and SBP within the 90th percentile (> 123 mmHg). With these four indicators, we can predict a probability of early diagnosis of metabolic syndrome of 97% to 100%


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Niño , Adolescente , Diagnóstico Precoz , Síndrome Metabólico/diagnóstico , Fenotipo , Presión Sanguínea , Estudios Prospectivos , Estudios Transversales , Antropometría , Inteligencia Artificial , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Relación Cintura-Cadera
14.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 100(34): 2675-2681, 2020 Sep 15.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32921016

RESUMEN

Objective: To explore the relationship between insomnia phenotype and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in young and middle-aged patients with obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS). Methods: Those patients admitted due to snoring and examined by polysomnography (PSG) in the Sleep Center of the Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University from January 2014 to January 2019 were screened. They were between 30 and 60 years old, and their cognitive function was assessed by the Montreal cognitive assessment (MoCA) and their sleep quality was assessed by the Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI). According to the sleep apnea hypopnea index (AHI), the patients were divided into three groups: snoring group (AHI<5 times/h), mild/moderate OSAHS group (5≤AHI≤30 times/h) and severe OSAHS group (AHI>30 times/h). According to the results of PSQI score, the patients were further divided into non-insomnia group (PSQI total score<8) and insomnia group (PSQI total score≥8). The differences of parameters in different groups were compared, and the relationship between OSAHS insomnia phenotype and MCI was analyzed by binary logistic regression model. Results: A total of 2 098 patients with the average age of (42.7±8.4) years old and the average BMI of (26.3±3.6) kg/m(2) were enrolled in the study, including 398 cases in snoring group (including 254 cases in non-insomnia group and 144 cases in insomnia group), 754 cases in mild/moderate OSAHS group (including 446 cases in non-insomnia group and 308 cases in insomnia group) and 946 cases in severe OSAHS group (including 722 cases in non-insomnia group and 224 cases in insomnia group). In the mild/moderate OSAHS group, compared with the non-insomnia group, the proportion of women in the insomnia group was higher with lighter degree of obesity, lighter severity of illness and lighter degree of hypoxia (all P<0.05). In the severe OSAHS group, the general characteristics of insomnia patients were similar to those of the mild/moderate OSAHS group, and the MoCA score of the insomnia group was lower than that of the non-insomnia group [(26.3±2.7) vs (25.5±2.9) points] (P=0.001). In the evaluation of each item of PSQI, the total score and daytime dysfunction score of insomnia patients in mild/moderate OSAHS group and severe OSAHS group was higher than those in snoring group [(11.2±1.9) points, (12.8±2.2) points vs (10.9±2.1) points and (1.5±0.4) points, (1.9±0.8) points vs (0.5±0.5) points], but the score in sleep latency was lower than that in snoring group [(1.5±0.5) points, (1.5±0.5) points vs (2.1±0.8) points] (all P<0.05). After correcting the effects of OSAHS disease severity, hypoxia, awake times, education, age, gender, hypnagogue, BMI, smoking and drinking history, the risk of MCI in insomnia group of severe OSAHS patients was significantly higher than that of non-insomnia group by 49% (OR=1.49, 95%CI: 1.05-2.11). Conclusion: Insomnia phenotype is a common clinical phenotype of OSAHS, and it is a risk factor for MCI in young and middle-aged patients with severe OSAHS.


Asunto(s)
Disfunción Cognitiva , Apnea Obstructiva del Sueño , Trastornos del Inicio y del Mantenimiento del Sueño , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Fenotipo , Polisomnografía
15.
Elife ; 92020 09 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32869742

RESUMEN

New evidence that neighboring communities of bonobos hunt different prey species, despite extensive overlaps in where they live and hunt, is difficult to explain without invoking cultural factors.


Asunto(s)
Pan paniscus , Conducta Social , Animales , Conducta Animal , Fenotipo
16.
Elife ; 92020 09 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876563

RESUMEN

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) are two highly infectious and lethal viruses causing major economic losses to pig production. Here, we report generation of double-gene-knockout (DKO) pigs harboring edited knockout alleles for known receptor proteins CD163 and pAPN and show that DKO pigs are completely resistant to genotype 2 PRRSV and TGEV. We found no differences in meat-production or reproductive-performance traits between wild-type and DKO pigs, but detected increased iron in DKO muscle. Additional infection challenge experiments showed that DKO pigs exhibited decreased susceptibility to porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV), thus offering unprecedented in vivo evidence of pAPN as one of PDCoV receptors. Beyond showing that multiple gene edits can be combined in a livestock animal to achieve simultaneous resistance to two major viruses, our study introduces a valuable model for investigating infection mechanisms of porcine pathogenic viruses that exploit pAPN or CD163 for entry.


Asunto(s)
Antígenos CD13/deficiencia , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Coronavirus/patogenicidad , Gastroenteritis Porcina Transmisible/prevención & control , Síndrome Respiratorio y de la Reproducción Porcina/prevención & control , Virus del Síndrome Respiratorio y Reproductivo Porcino/patogenicidad , Receptores de Superficie Celular/deficiencia , Virus de la Gastroenteritis Transmisible/patogenicidad , Animales , Animales Modificados Genéticamente , Antígenos CD/genética , Antígenos CD/inmunología , Antígenos de Diferenciación Mielomonocítica/genética , Antígenos de Diferenciación Mielomonocítica/inmunología , Composición Corporal , Antígenos CD13/genética , Antígenos CD13/inmunología , Coronavirus/inmunología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/genética , Infecciones por Coronavirus/inmunología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Susceptibilidad a Enfermedades , Gastroenteritis Porcina Transmisible/genética , Gastroenteritis Porcina Transmisible/inmunología , Gastroenteritis Porcina Transmisible/virología , Técnicas de Silenciamiento del Gen , Interacciones Microbiota-Huesped , Industria para Empaquetado de Carne , Fenotipo , Síndrome Respiratorio y de la Reproducción Porcina/genética , Síndrome Respiratorio y de la Reproducción Porcina/inmunología , Síndrome Respiratorio y de la Reproducción Porcina/virología , Virus del Síndrome Respiratorio y Reproductivo Porcino/inmunología , Receptores de Superficie Celular/genética , Receptores de Superficie Celular/inmunología , Sus scrofa/genética , Porcinos , Virus de la Gastroenteritis Transmisible/inmunología , Aumento de Peso
17.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 38 Suppl 125(3): 148-153, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32865175

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the prevalence of skin ulcers (SUs) and their association with clinical phenotype in a monocentric cohort of patients affected with systemic sclerosis (SSc). METHODS: Patients affected with SSc (ACR/EULAR 2013 criteria) in regular follow-up at the Rheumatology Unit of Padova University Hospital, Italy, were considered and retrospectively evaluated. Demographic, clinical and laboratory data, organ involvement and therapy were recorded. We analysed the occurrence, timing (single episode, recurrent/chronic) and site of SUs. The association between SUs and demographic and clinical variables was assessed by logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: We evaluated 211 SSc patients, aged 60.8±12.4 years, 187 (89%) females, 147 (70%) affected with limited cutaneous SSc. During a median follow-up of 120 months (50-216), 105 (50%) patients experienced at least one episode of SU; among them, 66% had recurrent or persistent SUs. Patients with a history of SUs compared with those never affected were younger at SSc diagnosis (p=0.009), had more frequently a diffuse cutaneous form (p=0.001), chronic anaemia (p<0.001), systemic inflammation (p=0.001), lung (p=0.002) and cardiac (p=0.004) involvement, and calcinosis (p=0.001). At multivariate analysis a younger age at SSc diagnosis (p=0.031), articular involvement (p=0.005) and telangiectasia (p=0.003) were independently associated with SUs. Telangiectasia, articular involvement, chronic anaemia and inflammatory state were found to be associated with the recurrence/chronicisation of SUs. CONCLUSIONS: SUs represent a common complication in our cohort of patients with a long-term follow-up. The association of SUs with some clinical manifestations of SSc suggests a combined role of microcirculatory damage and inflammation in their origin.


Asunto(s)
Esclerodermia Sistémica , Úlcera Cutánea , Anciano , Femenino , Humanos , Italia , Microcirculación , Persona de Mediana Edad , Fenotipo , Estudios Retrospectivos
20.
Am J Bot ; 107(9): 1214-1224, 2020 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32901939

RESUMEN

PREMISE: While root-order approaches to fine-root classification have shown wide utility among wild plants, they have seen limited use for perennial crop plants. Moreover, inadequate characterization of fine roots across species of domesticated perennial crops has led to a knowledge gap in the understanding of evolutionary and functional patterns associated with different fine-root orders. METHODS: We examined fine-root traits of common horticultural fruit and nut crops: Malus ×domestica, Prunus persica, Vitus vinifera, Prunus dulcis, and Citrus ×clementina. Additional roots were sampled from 33 common perennial horticultural crops, native to tropical, subtropical, and temperate regions, to examine variation in 1st- and 2nd-order absorptive roots. RESULTS: First-order roots of grape and 1st- and 2nd-order roots of apple and peach were consistently thin, nonwoody, mycorrhizal, and had high N:C ratios. In contrast, 4th- and 5th-order roots of grape and 5th-order roots of apple and peach were woody, nonmycorrhizal, had low N:C ratios, and were thicker than lower-order roots. Among the 33 horticultural species, diameter of 1st- and 2nd-order roots varied about 15-fold, ranging from 0.04 to 0.60 mm and 0.05 to 0.89 mm respectively. This variation generally was phylogenetically conserved across plant lineages. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, our research shows that root-order characterization has considerably more utility than an arbitrary diameter cutoff for identifying roots of different functions in perennial horticultural crops. In addition, much of the variation in root diameter among species can be predicted by evolutionary relationships.


Asunto(s)
Micorrizas , Raíces de Plantas , Evolución Biológica , Productos Agrícolas/genética , Fenotipo
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