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1.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 12: CD010966, 2020 12 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33331662

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a common life-shortening genetic condition caused by a variant in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein. A class II CFTR variant F508del (found in up to 90% of people with CF (pwCF)) is the commonest CF-causing variant. The faulty protein is degraded before reaching the cell membrane, where it needs to be to effect transepithelial salt transport. The F508del variant lacks meaningful CFTR function and corrective therapy could benefit many pwCF. Therapies in this review include single correctors and any combination of correctors and potentiators. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of CFTR correctors (with or without potentiators) on clinically important benefits and harms in pwCF of any age with class II CFTR mutations (most commonly F508del). SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Cystic Fibrosis Trials Register, reference lists of relevant articles and online trials registries. Most recent search: 14 October 2020. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) (parallel design) comparing CFTR correctors to control in pwCF with class II mutations. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two authors independently extracted data, assessed risk of bias and evidence quality (GRADE); we contacted investigators for additional data. MAIN RESULTS: We included 19 RCTs (2959 participants), lasting between 1 day and 24 weeks; an extension of two lumacaftor-ivacaftor studies provided additional 96-week safety data (1029 participants). We assessed eight monotherapy RCTs (344 participants) (4PBA, CPX, lumacaftor, cavosonstat and FDL169), six dual-therapy RCTs (1840 participants) (lumacaftor-ivacaftor or tezacaftor-ivacaftor) and five triple-therapy RCTs (775 participants) (elexacaftor-tezacaftor-ivacaftor or VX-659-tezacaftor-ivacaftor); below we report only the data from elexacaftor-tezacaftor-ivacaftor combination which proceeded to Phase 3 trials. In 14 RCTs participants had F508del/F508del genotypes, in three RCTs F508del/minimal function (MF) genotypes and in two RCTs both genotypes. Risk of bias judgements varied across different comparisons. Results from 11 RCTs may not be applicable to all pwCF due to age limits (e.g. adults only) or non-standard design (converting from monotherapy to combination therapy). Monotherapy Investigators reported no deaths or clinically-relevant improvements in quality of life (QoL). There was insufficient evidence to determine any important effects on lung function. No placebo-controlled monotherapy RCT demonstrated differences in mild, moderate or severe adverse effects (AEs); the clinical relevance of these events is difficult to assess with their variety and small number of participants (all F508del/F508del). Dual therapy Investigators reported no deaths (moderate- to high-quality evidence). QoL scores (respiratory domain) favoured both lumacaftor-ivacaftor and tezacaftor-ivacaftor therapy compared to placebo at all time points. At six months lumacaftor 600 mg or 400 mg (both once daily) plus ivacaftor improved Cystic Fibrosis Questionnaire (CFQ) scores slightly compared with placebo (mean difference (MD) 2.62 points (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.64 to 4.59); 1061 participants; high-quality evidence). A similar effect was observed for twice-daily lumacaftor (200 mg) plus ivacaftor (250 mg), but with low-quality evidence (MD 2.50 points (95% CI 0.10 to 5.10)). The mean increase in CFQ scores with twice-daily tezacaftor (100 mg) and ivacaftor (150 mg) was approximately five points (95% CI 3.20 to 7.00; 504 participants; moderate-quality evidence). At six months, the relative change in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) % predicted improved with combination therapies compared to placebo by: 5.21% with once-daily lumacaftor-ivacaftor (95% CI 3.61% to 6.80%; 504 participants; high-quality evidence); 2.40% with twice-daily lumacaftor-ivacaftor (95% CI 0.40% to 4.40%; 204 participants; low-quality evidence); and 6.80% with tezacaftor-ivacaftor (95% CI 5.30 to 8.30%; 520 participants; moderate-quality evidence). More pwCF reported early transient breathlessness with lumacaftor-ivacaftor, odds ratio 2.05 (99% CI 1.10 to 3.83; 739 participants; high-quality evidence). Over 120 weeks (initial study period and follow-up) systolic blood pressure rose by 5.1 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure by 4.1 mmHg with twice-daily 400 mg lumacaftor-ivacaftor (80 participants; high-quality evidence). The tezacaftor-ivacaftor RCTs did not report these adverse effects. Pulmonary exacerbation rates decreased in pwCF receiving additional therapies to ivacaftor compared to placebo: lumacaftor 600 mg hazard ratio (HR) 0.70 (95% CI 0.57 to 0.87; 739 participants); lumacaftor 400 mg, HR 0.61 (95% CI 0.49 to 0.76; 740 participants); and tezacaftor, HR 0.64 (95% CI, 0.46 to 0.89; 506 participants) (moderate-quality evidence). Triple therapy Three RCTs of elexacaftor to tezacaftor-ivacaftor in pwCF (aged 12 years and older with either one or two F508del variants) reported no deaths (high-quality evidence). All other evidence was graded as moderate quality. In 403 participants with F508del/minimal function (MF) elexacaftor-tezacaftor-ivacaftor improved QoL respiratory scores (MD 20.2 points (95% CI 16.2 to 24.2)) and absolute change in FEV1 (MD 14.3% predicted (95% CI 12.7 to 15.8)) compared to placebo at 24 weeks. At four weeks in 107 F508del/F508del participants, elexacaftor-tezacaftor-ivacaftor improved QoL respiratory scores (17.4 points (95% CI 11.9 to 22.9)) and absolute change in FEV1 (MD 10.0% predicted (95% CI 7.5 to 12.5)) compared to tezacaftor-ivacaftor. There was probably little or no difference in the number or severity of AEs between elexacaftor-tezacaftor-ivacaftor and placebo or control (moderate-quality evidence). In 403 F508del/F508del participants, there was a longer time to protocol-defined pulmonary exacerbation with elexacaftor-tezacaftor-ivacaftor over 24 weeks (moderate-quality evidence). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There is insufficient evidence that corrector monotherapy has clinically important effects in pwCF with F508del/F508del. Both dual therapies (lumacaftor-ivacaftor, tezacaftor-ivacaftor) result in similar improvements in QoL and respiratory function with lower pulmonary exacerbation rates. Lumacaftor-ivacaftor was associated with an increase in early transient shortness of breath and longer-term increases in blood pressure (not observed for tezacaftor-ivacaftor). Tezacaftor-ivacaftor has a better safety profile, although data are lacking in children under 12 years. In this population, lumacaftor-ivacaftor had an important impact on respiratory function with no apparent immediate safety concerns; but this should be balanced against the blood pressure increase and shortness of breath seen in longer-term adult data when considering lumacaftor-ivacaftor. There is high-quality evidence of clinical efficacy with probably little or no difference in AEs for triple (elexacaftor-tezacaftor-ivacaftor) therapy in pwCF with one or two F508del variants aged 12 years or older. Further RCTs are required in children (under 12 years) and those with more severe respiratory function.


Asunto(s)
Regulador de Conductancia de Transmembrana de Fibrosis Quística/efectos de los fármacos , Regulador de Conductancia de Transmembrana de Fibrosis Quística/genética , Fibrosis Quística/tratamiento farmacológico , Fibrosis Quística/genética , Mutación , Adulto , Aminofenoles/uso terapéutico , Aminopiridinas/uso terapéutico , Benzodioxoles/uso terapéutico , Sesgo , Niño , Combinación de Medicamentos , Humanos , Indoles/uso terapéutico , Fenilbutiratos/uso terapéutico , Pirazoles/uso terapéutico , Piridinas/uso terapéutico , Calidad de Vida , Quinolinas/uso terapéutico , Quinolonas/uso terapéutico , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto
2.
Brasília; CONITEC; nov. 2020.
No convencional en Portugués | BRISA/RedTESA | ID: biblio-1141406

RESUMEN

CONTEXTO: A fibrose cística (FC) é uma doença de herança autossômica recessiva que se manifesta principalmente na infância, sendo considerada uma das doenças genéticas letais mais comuns na população caucasiana, com prevalência de 1/3.000 nascidos vivos. No Brasil, a incidência ainda não foi estabelecida, contudo sugere-se uma incidência variável em torno de 1:7.000. A FC é causada por uma mutação no gene CFTR. O funcionamento deficiente ou ausente do CFTR ocasiona maior fluxo de sódio e água para dentro das células e consequente desidratação e aumento da viscosidade das secreções mucosas, favorecendo a obstrução das vias respiratórias, ductos intrapancreáticos, ductos seminíferos e vias biliares. O sintoma respiratório mais frequente é a tosse persistente, inicialmente seca e aos poucos produtiva, com expectoração de escarro mucoso ou francamente purulento. As exacerbações da doença pulmonar caracterizam-se pelo aumento da frequência ou intensidade da tosse, presença de taquipneia, dispneia, mal estar, anorexia, febre e perda de peso. De acordo com o Protocolo Clínico e Diretrizes Terapêuticas (PCDT) do Ministério da Saúde, os medicamentos disponíveis no SUS são as enzimas pancreáticas, a alfadornase e a tobramicina. TECNOLOGIA: Lumacaftor/Ivacaftor (Orkambi®). PERGUNTA: Lumacaftor/ivacaftor (Orkambi®) é eficaz, seguro e econômico no tratamento de pacientes de idade ≥ 6 anos com FC e homozigotos para a mutação F508del quando comparado ao tratamento vigente? EVIDÊNCIAS CIENTÍFICAS: Busca sistemática na literatura identificou seis estudos relevantes, sendo ensaios clínicos considerados como de moderada qualidade de evidência. Os desfechos avaliados foram variação na concentração de cloreto no suor; variação absoluta no índice de massa corporal (IMC); função pulmonar (ppFEV1); eventos adversos e Cystic Fibrosis Questionnaire (CFQ). Lumacaftor/ivacaftor comparado a placebo apresentou melhora significativa na concentração de cloreto de sódio no suor em relação a linha de base (-24,8 mmol/L [IC 95%: -29,1 a -20,5]; p < 0,0001)4 . Foi evidenciado aumento no IMC em relação à linha de base em ambos os grupos (lumacaftor/ivacaftor versus placebo) até a semana 24 de tratamento, porém a diferença entre os tratamentos não foi significativa: 0,1 (IC 95%: -0,1 a 0,3); p = 0,25225. Para ppFEV1, o grupo lumacaftor/ivacaftor uma vez ao dia apresentou melhora significativa (diferença em comparação com o grupo placebo: +5,6%, p = 0,013)1 . No estudo de Wainwright et al (2015) a diferença entre lumacaftor/ivacaftor versus placebo em relação à mudança relativa média para este desfecho foi considerada significativa e variou de 4,3 a 6,7% (P < 0,001). Houve uma redução de 42% na taxa anual de declínio da função pulmonar (grupo lumacaftor/ivacaftor redução de -1,33% pontos percentuais de ppVEF1 ao ano [IC 95%: -1,80 a -0,85] e grupo placebo redução de -2,29% pontos percentuais de ppVEF1 ao ano [IC 95%: -2,56 a -2,03]; p < 0.001). Lumacaftor/ivacaftor apresentou menor taxa de eventos adversos quando comparado ao placebo (17,3 a 22,8% versus 28,6%) e razão de taxa de exacerbação pulmonar que variou de 0,57 a 0,72 (p < 0,001 a p = 0,05). A qualidade da evidência dos desfechos avaliados seguiu a metodologia GRADE, sendo considerada moderada devido ao risco de viés. A adição de lumacaftor/ivacaftor foi associada a um aumento nos anos de vida. AVALIAÇÃO ECONÔMICA: Para a análise de custo-efetividade de lumacaftor/ivacaftor versus tratamento padrão utilizou-se um modelo de microssimulação. Como resultado, o demandante encontrou uma razão de custo efetividade incremental (RCEI) de R$ 2.258.270/QALY. Nas análises de sensibilidade para diferentes cenários em termos de desfechos e custos, o lumacaftor/ivacaftor tem probabilidade maior que 50% de ter uma boa relação custo-benefício em limites de disposição a pagar acima de aproximadamente R$ 2.233.000,00. AVALIAÇÃO DE IMPACTO ORÇAMENTÁRIO: O impacto orçamentário incremental (IO) acumulado em 5 anos foi de R$ 1.609.445.240. Para avaliar a variabilidade em outros cenários, foram avaliados dois outros cenários de disseminação tecnológica, tanto com a variação no valor inicial quanto com a velocidade da disseminação tecnológica tendo como resultado um IO incremental em 5 anos de R$ 2.551.884.271,00 (cenário otimista ­ velocidade de disseminação muito rápida) e R$ 917.952.683,00 (cenário pessimista ­ velocidade de disseminação lenta). Foram consideradas como limitações a incerteza de como ocorrerá a substituição terapêutica no sistema e a velocidade dessa substituição, além do fato de que a análise de sensibilidade se restringiu à velocidade de disseminação tecnológica. MONITORAMENTO DO HORIZONTE TECNOLÓGICO: Os ensaios clínicos analisados mostram que a perspectiva para o tratamento dessa população de pacientes é o advento de uma nova geração de moduladores de CFTR, moduladores "next generation", a serem combinados em esquemas triplete. Nesse tipo de esquema, três moduladores de CFTR seriam utilizados em combinação, sendo que a hipótese de que resultariam em maior eficácia no tratamento da doença tem sido testada. DISCUSSÃO: A evidência disponível sobre eficácia e segurança do lumacaftor/Ivacaftor para o tratamento de pacientes com fibrose cística homozigótica para a mutação F508del é baseada em estudos clínicos randomizados com moderada qualidade da evidência. Não há dados em relação à melhora de sobrevida ou taxa de hospitalizações. Mesmo os dados de qualidade de vida são muito escassos, e o que foi apresentado foi considerado pouco relevante. Os desfechos analisados pelos estudos são desfechos principais e intermediários. Lumacaftor/Ivacaftor tem sido associado a melhorias modestas nos níveis de cloreto no suor, na função pulmonar e na prevenção significativa de exacerbações respiratórias. A análise de custo-efetividade (ACE) realizada foi adequada e criteriosamente desenvolvida, utilizando o modelo de microssimulação, com adequadas análises de sensibilidade univariada e probabilística. A RCEI apresentada foi, entretanto, extremamente alta, de R$ 2.258.270/QALY. A tecnologia apresentaria 50% de probabilidade de ser considerada custoefetiva apenas em um cenário de limiar de disposição a pagar de R$ 2.233.000,00. O impacto orçamentário incremental acumulado em 5 anos foi de R$ 1.609.445.240,00. Para avaliar a variabilidade em outros cenários, foram avaliados dois outros cenários de disseminação tecnológica, tanto com a variação no valor inicial quanto com a velocidade da disseminação tecnológica, tendo como resultado um impacto orçamentário incremental em 5 anos de R$ 2.551.884.271,00 (cenário otimista) e R$ 917.952.683,00 (cenário pessimista). Foram consideradas como limitações a incerteza sobre como ocorrerá a substituição terapêutica no sistema e a velocidade dessa substituição, e a realização de uma análise de sensibilidade restrita apenas à velocidade de disseminação tecnológica. RECOMENDAÇÃO PRELIMINAR DA CONITEC: Os membros do plenário consideraram as seguintes questões: avaliação de resultados intermediários; pouco tempo de seguimento, gerando incertezas sobre a manutenção do efeito em longo prazo; ausência de critérios de interrupção do medicamento; custo elevado, acarretando uma razão de custo-efetividade extremamente alta; e a necessidade de um exame de genotipagem específico. Diante do exposto, no dia 09 de julho de 2020, em sua 88ª reunião de plenário, os membros da Conitec recomendaram preliminarmente, por unanimidade, a não incorporação do lumacaftor/ivacaftor para tratamento da fibrose cística em pacientes com idade ≥ 6 anos que são homozigotos para a mutação F508del no gene CFTR. CONSULTA PÚBLICA: O relatório de recomendação inicial da CONITEC, foi disponibilizado para contribuições por meio da consulta pública nº 37/2020 entre os dias 12/08/2020 e 31/08/2020. Foram recebidas 12.304 contribuições, sendo 388 contribuições de cunho técnico-científico e 11.916 contribuições de experiência pessoal ou opinião, destas 94,79% discordavam da recomendação preliminar da Conitec. RECOMENDAÇÃO FINAL: O plenário da Conitec ponderou a respeito dos resultados modestos de eficácia do lumacaftor/ivacaftor, assim como da razão de custo-efetividade incremental e do impacto orçamentário que foram considerados elevados. Sendo assim, os membros da CONITEC presentes na 92ª reunião ordinária, no dia 05/11/2020, deliberaram, por unanimidade, recomendar a não incorporação do Lumacaftor/Ivacaftor para o tratamento da fibrose cística em pacientes com idade ≥ 6 anos que são homozigotos para a mutação F508del no gene CFTR. Foi assinado o registro de deliberação nº 575/2020. DECISÃO: Não incorporar o Lumacaftor/Ivacaftor para tratamento de fibrose cística (FC) em pacientes com 6 anos de idade ou mais e que são homozigotos para a mutação F508del no gene regulador de condutância transmembrana da fibrose cística (CFTR), no âmbito do Sistema Único de Saúde - SUS, conforme Portaria nº 61, publicada no Diário Oficial da União nº 231, seção 1, página 124, em 03 de dezembro de 2020.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Recién Nacido , Lactante , Preescolar , Regulador de Conductancia de Transmembrana de Fibrosis Quística/uso terapéutico , Fibrosis Quística/tratamiento farmacológico , Evaluación de la Tecnología Biomédica , Sistema Único de Salud , Brasil , Análisis Costo-Beneficio/economía
3.
Lancet Respir Med ; 8(10): 975-986, 2020 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33007285

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Chronic pulmonary infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the most important causes of mortality and morbidity in cystic fibrosis. If antibiotics are commenced promptly, infection can be eradicated. The aim of the trial was to compare the effectiveness and safety of intravenous ceftazidime and tobramycin versus oral ciprofloxacin in the eradication of P aeruginosa. METHODS: We did a multicentre, parallel group, open-label, randomised controlled trial in 72 cystic fibrosis centres (70 in the UK and two in Italy). Eligible participants were older than 28 days with an isolate of P aeruginosa (either the first ever isolate or a new isolate after at least 1 year free of infection). Participants were excluded if the P aeruginosa was resistant to, or they had a contraindication to, one or more of the trial antibiotics; if they were already receiving P aeruginosa suppressive therapy; if they had received any P aeruginosa eradication therapy within the previous 9 months; or if they were pregnant or breastfeeding. We used web-based randomisation to assign patients to 14 days intravenous ceftazidime and tobramycin or 12 weeks oral ciprofloxacin. Both were combined with 12 weeks inhaled colistimethate sodium. Randomisation lists were generated by a statistician, who had no involvement in the trial, using a computer-generated list. Randomisation was stratified by centre and because of the nature of the interventions, blinding was not possible. Our primary outcome was eradication of P aeruginosa at 3 months and remaining free of infection to 15 months. Primary analysis used intention to treat (powered for superiority). Safety analysis included patients who received at least one dose of study drug. TORPEDO-CF was registered on the ISRCTN register, ISRCTN02734162, and EudraCT, 2009-012575-10. FINDINGS: Between Oct 5, 2010, and Jan 27, 2017, 286 patients were randomly assigned to treatment: 137 to intravenous antibiotics and 149 to oral antibiotics. 55 (44%) of 125 participants in the intravenous group and 68 (52%) of 130 participants in the oral group achieved the primary outcome. Participants randomly assigned to the intravenous group were less likely to achieve the primary outcome, although the difference between groups was not statistically significant (relative risk 0·84, 95% CI 0·65-1·09; p=0·18). 11 serious adverse events occurred in ten (8%) of 126 participants in the intravenous antibiotics group and 17 serious adverse events in 12 (8%) of 146 participants in the oral antibiotics group. INTERPRETATION: Compared with oral therapy, intravenous antibiotics did not achieve sustained eradication of P aeruginosa in a greater proportion of patients with cystic fibrosis and was more expensive. Although there were fewer hospitalisations in the intravenous group than the oral group during follow-up, this confers no advantage over oral treatment because intravenous eradication frequently requires hospitalisation. These results do not support the use of intravenous antibiotics to eradicate P aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis. FUNDING: National Institute for Health Research Health Technology Assessment Programme.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/administración & dosificación , Ceftazidima/administración & dosificación , Fibrosis Quística/microbiología , Infecciones por Pseudomonas/tratamiento farmacológico , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Tobramicina/administración & dosificación , Administración Intravenosa , Administración Oral , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Preescolar , Fibrosis Quística/tratamiento farmacológico , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Infecciones por Pseudomonas/complicaciones , Resultado del Tratamiento , Adulto Joven
4.
Wiad Lek ; 73(8): 1790-1795, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055353

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The aim: The clinical case was studied: comorbidity of mucoviscidosis and congenital dysfunction of adrenal glands cortex. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: The clinical case of combined orphan pathology - cystic fibrosis and congenital dysfunction of adrenal glands cortex (adrenogenital syndrome) has been described. RESULTS: Clinical case: A 2-month child has been diagnosed with mucoviscidosis, of a mixed form, which was genetically confirmed. The proband and the father were found to be heterozygotes for the F508del mutation of the CFTR gene (the father suffers from mucoviscidosis). Congenital dysfunction of the adrenal glands, a viral form, was diagnosed when he was three years old. The child is currently receiving: Creon 100 000 units per day with eating, Colomycin 1 vial per day, Pulmozyme 2.5 mg/2.5 ml daily in the morning for inhalations, Ursofalk 600 mg every day constantly, Hydrocortisone 50 mg/day. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: This clinical case can be attributed to rare, as most such pathological conditions are usually diagnosed in maternity homes along with the prescription of appropriate therapy. This is an example of late diagnosis of the viral form of congenital adrenal dysfunction against the background of cystic fibrosis, indicating the need for earlier detection and timely introduction of substitution therapy to improve favourable prognosis for a disease.


Asunto(s)
Hiperplasia Suprarrenal Congénita , Fibrosis Quística , Glándulas Suprarrenales , Corteza Cerebral , Niño , Preescolar , Comorbilidad , Fibrosis Quística/complicaciones , Fibrosis Quística/tratamiento farmacológico , Regulador de Conductancia de Transmembrana de Fibrosis Quística/genética , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Embarazo
5.
Curr Opin Pulm Med ; 26(6): 696-701, 2020 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941351

RESUMEN

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current review provides an overview of key psychological issues and challenges for the cystic fibrosis (CF) transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) modulator era of care. It discusses research from diagnosis and beyond, to patient-team communication with a particular focus on medical trials, adherence and living with CFTR modulators. RECENT FINDINGS: The impact of the diagnosis on parents is immense and the complexity of treatment now and in the future, are a challenge for both parents and teams. Communicating digitally is starting to become daily practice for many in CF care, with coronavirus disease 2019 accelerating this process. Participating in trials has a psychological impact, but most of all the (delayed) access and timing of accessing CFTR modulators is an important theme. Adherence remains of significance, both to 'old' and 'new' treatments. Living with CF in the era of CFTR modulators is beginning to impact on patients' quality of life, including new possibilities, opportunities and challenges. SUMMARY: Psychological care needs to engage and keep pace with the rapid medical changes. Some care priorities remain the same, including psychological screening and assessment, as well as psychoeducation, communication training and psychotherapy. The presence of CF psychologist in the CF clinic remains as important as ever.


Asunto(s)
Comunicación , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Fibrosis Quística/tratamiento farmacológico , Fibrosis Quística/psicología , Cumplimiento de la Medicación , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Betacoronavirus , Ensayos Clínicos como Asunto/psicología , Fibrosis Quística/diagnóstico , Regulador de Conductancia de Transmembrana de Fibrosis Quística/genética , Humanos , Calidad de Vida
7.
APMIS ; 128(12): 647-653, 2020 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32794206

RESUMEN

IL-2 is a pro-inflammatory and a Th1 inducing cytokine, which is important for activation of the cell-mediated immunity. IL-2 in serum and sputum has been observed to be reduced in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. The present IL-2 treatment study of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) lung infected mice was performed in order to evaluate the effect of IL-2 supplement. One hundred-and-twenty female BALB/c mice were divided into three groups: 1) IL-2 treatment/infection (TIG), 2) non-treatment/infection (NTIG), and 3) IL-2 treatment/non-infection (TNIG). The mice were challenged intra-tracheally with PA (PAO579) embedded in seaweed alginate to resemble the biofilm mode of growth. At day 0 and 1, the treatment groups received IL-2 s.c. Mice were killed on day 1 or 2, and cytokine production, lung pathology, and quantitative lung bacteriology were estimated. IL-2 treatment of infected mice reduced the number of mice with signs of macroscopic lung pathology at day 2 (p < 0.05). The reduced macroscopic pathology was paralleled by a reduced IL-1ß and TNF-α. In contrast, an increased PMN response at day 2 was observed in the IL-2 treated mice (p < 0.01). This was preceded by a significantly higher degree of microscopic inflammation at day 1 (p < 0.02). The IL-12 levels decreased in both groups of infected mice at day 2 (p < 0.01), however, significantly more in the IL-2 treated mice (p < 0.02). In accordance, but surprisingly, IFN-γ was significantly reduced in the IL-2 treated PA infected group at day 2 (p < 0.05). The present results indicate that early IL-2 treatment prolongs the PMN response but also reduces pro-inflammatory IL-1ß and TNF-α and macroscopic signs of pathology.


Asunto(s)
Interleucina-2/administración & dosificación , Infecciones por Pseudomonas/tratamiento farmacológico , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/fisiología , Animales , Fibrosis Quística/tratamiento farmacológico , Fibrosis Quística/inmunología , Fibrosis Quística/microbiología , Fibrosis Quística/patología , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/inmunología , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Femenino , Humanos , Pulmón/inmunología , Pulmón/microbiología , Pulmón/patología , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos BALB C , Infecciones por Pseudomonas/inmunología , Infecciones por Pseudomonas/microbiología , Infecciones por Pseudomonas/patología , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/genética
8.
Genes Immun ; 21(4): 260-262, 2020 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32606316

RESUMEN

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is one of the most common autosomal recessive life-limiting conditions affecting Caucasians. The resulting defect in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator protein (CFTR) results in defective chloride and bicarbonate secretion, as well as dysregulation of epithelial sodium channels (ENaC). These changes bring about defective mucociliary clearance, reduced airway surface liquid and an exaggerated proinflammatory response driven, in part, by infection. In this short article we explore the overlap in the pathophysiology of CF and COVID-19 infection and discuss how understanding the interaction between both diseases may shed light on future treatments.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Fibrosis Quística/metabolismo , Neumonía Viral/metabolismo , Animales , Infecciones por Coronavirus/complicaciones , Infecciones por Coronavirus/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Fibrosis Quística/complicaciones , Fibrosis Quística/tratamiento farmacológico , Regulador de Conductancia de Transmembrana de Fibrosis Quística/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Pandemias , Peptidil-Dipeptidasa A/metabolismo , Neumonía Viral/complicaciones , Neumonía Viral/tratamiento farmacológico , Neumonía Viral/virología
9.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235638, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32687499

RESUMEN

IMPORTANCE: Sinonasal symptoms in patients suffering from cystic fibrosis can negatively influence the quality of life and sinuses can be a niche for pathogens causing infection and inflammation leading to a decrease of lung function. Ivacaftor, a potentiator of the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator protein, has shown improvement in pulmonary function in cystic fibrosis patients with different forms of class III gating mutations. However, the effects of ivacaftor on sinonasal pathology have hardly been studied. OBJECTIVE: To determine the impact of ivacaftor therapy on sinonasal pathology in patients with cystic fibrosis with an S1251N mutation. DESIGN: Prospective observational mono-center cohort study, between June 2015 and December 2016. SETTING: A tertiary referral center in Utrecht, The Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS: Eight patients with cystic fibrosis with an S1251N mutation, treated with the potentiator ivacaftor were investigated. EXPOSURES: Ivacaftor (Kalydeco, VX-770) therapy. Computed tomography imaging of paranasal sinuses. Nasal nitric oxide concentration measurements and nasal endoscopy. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Primary outcome is opacification of paranasal sinuses examined with computed tomography scan analysis and scaled by the modified Lund-Mackay score before and one year after treatment. Secondary outcomes are nasal nitric oxide concentration levels, sinonasal symptoms and nasal endoscopic findings before and approximately two months and in some cases one year after treatment. RESULTS: Computed tomography scan analysis showed a significant decrease in opacification of the majority of paranasal sinuses comparing the opacification score per paranasal sinus before and after one year of treatment with ivacaftor. Median nasal nitric oxide levels significantly improved from 220.00 (IQR:136.00-341.18) to 462.84 (IQR:233.17-636.25) (p = 0.017) parts per billion. Likewise, the majority of sinonasal symptoms and nasal endoscopic pathology decreased or resolved at two months after the use of ivacaftor. CONCLUSION AND RELEVANCE: Ivacaftor appears to improve sinonasal outcome parameters and thereby sinonasal health in patients with cystic fibrosis with an S1251N mutation.


Asunto(s)
Aminofenoles/uso terapéutico , Agonistas de los Canales de Cloruro/uso terapéutico , Regulador de Conductancia de Transmembrana de Fibrosis Quística/genética , Fibrosis Quística/tratamiento farmacológico , Senos Paranasales/patología , Quinolonas/uso terapéutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudios de Cohortes , Fibrosis Quística/genética , Fibrosis Quística/patología , Femenino , Genotipo , Humanos , Masculino , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Senos Paranasales/diagnóstico por imagen , Senos Paranasales/metabolismo , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple , Estudios Prospectivos , Centros de Atención Terciaria , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X , Adulto Joven
11.
Rev Med Liege ; 75(5-6): 410-414, 2020 05.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32496689

RESUMEN

Cystic fibrosis is a genetic disorder responsible for the production of a defective transmembrane protein. In recent years, new protein modulators have been developed. They aim to treat the underlying cause of the disease. The results on the biomarkers of the function of the CFTR protein and on the clinical outcomes are very encouraging. However, there is an individual heterogeneity in the response to modulators within a same genotype. Furthermore, clinical trials focus on the most common mutations in the CFTR gene, in particular DF508. Intestinal organoids, a new model of ex vivo study, could offer a quick approach to increase access to effective treatment for all patients with cystic fibrosis regardless of their CFTR genotype. Organoids could enable personalized treatment of cystic fibrosis.


Asunto(s)
Fibrosis Quística , Medicina de Precisión , Fibrosis Quística/tratamiento farmacológico , Regulador de Conductancia de Transmembrana de Fibrosis Quística , Genotipo , Humanos , Mutación , Organoides
12.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 202(9): 1271-1282, 2020 11 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32584141

RESUMEN

Rationale: Animal models have been highly informative for understanding the characteristics, onset, and progression of cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease. In particular, the CFTR-/- rat has revealed insights into the airway mucus defect characteristic of CF but does not replicate a human-relevant CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator) variant.Objectives: We hypothesized that a rat expressing a humanized version of CFTR and harboring the ivacaftor-sensitive variant G551D could be used to test the impact of CFTR modulators on pathophysiologic development and correction.Methods: In this study, we describe a humanized-CFTR rat expressing the G551D variant obtained by zinc finger nuclease editing of a human complementary DNA superexon, spanning exon 2-27, with a 5' insertion site into the rat gene just beyond intron 1. This targeted insertion takes advantage of the endogenous rat promoter, resulting in appropriate expression compared with wild-type animals.Measurements and Main Results: The bioelectric phenotype of the epithelia recapitulates the expected absence of CFTR activity, which was restored with ivacaftor. Large airway defects, including depleted airway surface liquid and periciliary layers, delayed mucus transport rates, and increased mucus viscosity, were normalized after the administration of ivacaftor.Conclusions: This model is useful to understand the mechanisms of disease and the extent of pathology reversal with CFTR modulators.


Asunto(s)
Aminofenoles/uso terapéutico , Agonistas de los Canales de Cloruro/uso terapéutico , Regulador de Conductancia de Transmembrana de Fibrosis Quística/efectos de los fármacos , Regulador de Conductancia de Transmembrana de Fibrosis Quística/genética , Fibrosis Quística/tratamiento farmacológico , Fibrosis Quística/genética , Moco/efectos de los fármacos , Quinolonas/uso terapéutico , Animales , Humanos , Modelos Animales , Ratas
13.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 202(8): 1133-1145, 2020 10 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32569477

RESUMEN

Rationale: In cystic fibrosis the major cause of morbidity and mortality is lung disease characterized by inflammation and infection. The influence of sphingolipid metabolism is poorly understood with a lack of studies using human airway model systems.Objectives: To investigate sphingolipid metabolism in cystic fibrosis and the effects of treatment with recombinant human acid ceramidase on inflammation and infection.Methods: Sphingolipids were measured using mass spectrometry in fully differentiated cultures of primary human airway epithelial cells and cocultures with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In situ activity assays, Western blotting, and quantitative PCR were used to investigate function and expression of ceramidase and sphingomyelinase. Effects of treatment with recombinant human acid ceramidase on sphingolipid profile and inflammatory mediator production were assessed in cell cultures and murine models.Measurements and Main Results: Ceramide is increased in cystic fibrosis airway epithelium owing to differential function of enzymes regulating sphingolipid metabolism. Sphingosine, a metabolite of ceramide with antimicrobial properties, is not upregulated in response to P. aeruginosa by cystic fibrosis airway epithelia. Tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 is increased in cystic fibrosis epithelia and activates NF-κB signaling, generating inflammation. Treatment with recombinant human acid ceramidase, to decrease ceramide, reduced both inflammatory mediator production and susceptibility to infection.Conclusions: Sphingolipid metabolism is altered in airway epithelial cells cultured from people with cystic fibrosis. Treatment with recombinant acid ceramidase ameliorates the two pivotal features of cystic fibrosis lung disease, inflammation and infection, and thus represents a therapeutic approach worthy of further exploration.


Asunto(s)
Ceramidasa Ácida/metabolismo , Ceramidasa Ácida/farmacología , Fibrosis Quística/tratamiento farmacológico , Neumonía/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Pseudomonas/diagnóstico , Esfingolípidos/metabolismo , Adolescente , Células Epiteliales Alveolares/efectos de los fármacos , Animales , Western Blotting/métodos , Células Cultivadas , Niño , Fibrosis Quística/diagnóstico , Humanos , Inflamación/diagnóstico , Inflamación/tratamiento farmacológico , Espectrometría de Masas/métodos , Ratones , Neumonía/tratamiento farmacológico , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa/métodos , Infecciones por Pseudomonas/tratamiento farmacológico , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Adulto Joven
14.
Ars pharm ; 61(2): 81-96, abr.-jun. 2020. ilus, tab, graf
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-191328

RESUMEN

INTRODUCCIÓN: Actualmente, los tratamientos existentes para tratar la fibrosis quística (FQ) están diseñados para controlar sus síntomas, consistentes principalmente en retención de moco e infección crónica. Se propone la vía pulmonar como alternativa para la administración de los fármacos, principalmente antimicrobianos. Sin embargo, su rápido aclaramiento, que conduce a niveles bajos de fármaco e incremento de los regímenes posológicos, así como la aparición de efectos adversos, hacen de la nanotecnología una estrategia interesante para esta enfermedad. OBJETIVO: estudiar y analizar los diferentes sistemas nanoparticulares existentes para su uso por vía pulmonar, concretando en el uso de sistemas lipídicos para el tratamiento de la FQ. MÉTODO: se realizó una búsqueda no sistemática de artículos en diferentes bases de datos, en los últimos 10 años principalmente, siguiendo pautas establecidas de palabras clave. RESULTADOS: Los progresos que se han conseguido en los últimos años hacen que la FQ pase a ser una enfermedad de adultos. Los tratamientos que se están usando en la actualidad están siendo cada vez más desplazados por otras alternativas, como los sistemas nanoparticulares, siendo idóneos para la administración pulmonar debido a su pequeño tamaño, su liberación sostenida y su elevada biocompatibilidad. Entre éstos, destacan los liposomas por su similitud estructural con el surfactante pulmonar, así como por su capacidad de destruir las biopelículas bacterianas. La mayoría de las formulaciones encontradas contenían un solo fármaco. CONCLUSIÓN: Existen evidencias científicas que indican que la investigación debe dirigirse hacia el desarrollo de formulaciones que sean capaces de destruir la biopelícula


INTRODUCTION: Currently, the management of treatments in cystic fibrosis (CF) is mainly focused to control symptoms, which consist of mucus retention and chronic infection. The pulmonary route is proposed as an interesting alternative for administering drugs, especially antimicrobials. However, the rapid clearance of these, which leads to low drug levels and increased dosage regimens, as well as the appearance of adverse effects, make nanotechnology an interesting strategy for this disease. OBJECTIVE: to study and analyze the different nanoparticulate systems available for use via the lung, specifying the use of lipid systems for the treatment of CF. Method: a non-systematic search of articles in different databases was carried out, mainly in the last 10 years, following established guidelines for selecting keywords. RESULTS: the progress in recent years makes CF become an adult disease. Current treatments are increasingly being displaced by other alternatives, such as nanoparticular systems, being suitable for pulmonary administration due to their small size, sustained release and high biocompatibility. Among these, liposomes stand out for their structural similarity to lung surfactant, as well as for their ability to destroy bacterial biofilms. Most of the formulations contained a single drug. CONCLUSIONS: Scientific literature evidenced that research studies should be directed towards the development of formulations that are intended to destroy the biofilm


Asunto(s)
Fibrosis Quística/tratamiento farmacológico , Nanotecnología/métodos
15.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 55(8): 2025-2032, 2020 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32421928

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The antipseudomonal cephalosporin/ß-lactamase inhibitor combination ceftolozane/tazobactam could be a potential treatment option for cystic fibrosis (CF) pulmonary exacerbations. The pharmacokinetics (PK) of ceftolozane/tazobactam in children with CF merits further evaluation. METHODS: This is a retrospective subgroup analysis of a phase 1, noncomparative trial that characterized PK, safety, and tolerability of single intravenous doses of ceftolozane/tazobactam in pediatric patients. This analysis compares ceftolozane and tazobactam plasma PK parameters, estimated from a population PK model, between patients with and without CF enrolled in that trial. Individual attainment of PK/pharmacodynamic (PD) targets of ceftolozane and tazobactam (free ceftolozane concentration >4 µg/mL for >30% and free tazobactam concentration >1 µg/mL for 20% of the dosing interval) in patients with and without CF were evaluated. RESULTS: The study enrolled 18 patients aged greater than or equal to 2 to less than 18 years old, which included 9 with CF. Weight-normalized ceftolozane PK parameters were similar between patients with CF (clearance: 0.16 L/h/kg, half-life: 1.54 hours, volume of distribution: 0.26 L/kg) and without CF (clearance: 0.15 L/h/kg, half-life: 1.62 hours, volume of distribution: 0.26 L/kg), as were most weight-normalized tazobactam PK parameters. Weight-normalized tazobactam clearance was higher in patients with CF (0.73 L/h/kg) than patients without CF (0.42 L/h/kg). All patients achieved the prespecified PK/PD targets for ceftolozane and tazobactam. CONCLUSIONS: This retrospective analysis demonstrated generally similar weight-normalized plasma PK parameters for ceftolozane and tazobactam among children with and without CF; thus, projected doses for treatment of pediatric hospital-acquired/ventilator-associated pneumonia, which are higher than the pediatric complicated urinary tract infection/intra-abdominal infection doses, may be appropriate for treatment of CF pulmonary exacerbation.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/farmacocinética , Cefalosporinas/farmacocinética , Fibrosis Quística/sangre , Infecciones por Bacterias Gramnegativas/sangre , Tazobactam/farmacocinética , Administración Intravenosa , Adolescente , Antibacterianos/sangre , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Cefalosporinas/sangre , Cefalosporinas/uso terapéutico , Niño , Preescolar , Fibrosis Quística/tratamiento farmacológico , Femenino , Infecciones por Bacterias Gramnegativas/tratamiento farmacológico , Humanos , Masculino , Tazobactam/sangre , Tazobactam/uso terapéutico
17.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 5: CD008649, 2020 05 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32358807

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Several agents are used to clear secretions from the airways of people with cystic fibrosis. Mannitol increases mucociliary clearance, but its exact mechanism of action is unknown. The dry powder formulation of mannitol may be more convenient and easier to use compared with established agents which require delivery via a nebuliser. Phase III trials of inhaled dry powder mannitol for the treatment of cystic fibrosis have been completed and it is now available in Australia and some countries in Europe. This is an update of a previous review. OBJECTIVES: To assess whether inhaled dry powder mannitol is well tolerated, whether it improves the quality of life and respiratory function in people with cystic fibrosis and which adverse events are associated with the treatment. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Trials Register which comprises references identified from comprehensive electronic databases, handsearching relevant journals and abstracts from conferences. Date of last search: 12 December 2019. SELECTION CRITERIA: All randomised controlled studies comparing mannitol with placebo, active inhaled comparators (for example, hypertonic saline or dornase alfa) or with no treatment. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Authors independently assessed studies for inclusion, carried out data extraction and assessed the risk of bias in included studies. The quality of the evidence was assessed using GRADE. MAIN RESULTS: Six studies (reported in 36 unique publications) were included with a total of 784 participants. Duration of treatment in the included studies ranged from 12 days to six months, with open-label treatment for an additional six months in two of the studies. Five studies compared mannitol with control (a very low dose of mannitol or non-respirable mannitol) and the final study compared mannitol to dornase alfa alone and to mannitol plus dornase alfa. Two large studies had a similar parallel design and provided data for 600 participants, which could be pooled where data for a particular outcome and time point were available. The remaining studies had much smaller sample sizes (ranging from 22 to 95) and data could not be pooled due to differences in design, interventions and population. Pooled evidence from the two large parallel studies was judged to be of low to moderate quality and from the smaller studies was judged to be of low to very low quality. In all studies, there was an initial test to see if participants tolerated mannitol, with only those who could tolerate the drug being randomised; therefore, the study results are not applicable to the cystic fibrosis population as a whole. While the published papers did not provide all the data required for our analysis, additional unpublished data were provided by the drug's manufacturer and the author of one of the studies. Pooling the large parallel studies comparing mannitol to control, up to and including six months, lung function (forced expiratory volume at one second) measured in both mL and % predicted was significantly improved in the mannitol group compared to the control group (moderate-quality evidence). Beneficial results were observed in these studies in adults and in both concomitant dornase alfa users and non-users in these studies. In the smaller studies, statistically significant improvements in lung function were also observed in the mannitol groups compared to the non-respirable mannitol groups; however, we judged this evidence to be of low to very low quality. For the comparisons of mannitol and control, we found no consistent differences in health-related quality of life in any of the domains except for burden of treatment, which was less for mannitol up to four months in the two pooled studies of a similar design; this difference was not maintained at six months. It should be noted that the tool used to measure health-related quality of life was not designed to assess mucolytics and pooling of the age-appropriate tools (as done in some of the included studies) may not be valid so results were judged to be low to very low quality and should be interpreted with caution. Cough, haemoptysis, bronchospasm, pharyngolaryngeal pain and post-tussive vomiting were the most commonly reported side effects in both treatment groups. Where rates of adverse events could be compared, statistically no significant differences were found between mannitol and control groups; although some of these events may have clinical relevance for people with CF. For the comparisons of mannitol to dornase alfa alone and to mannitol plus dornase alfa, very low-quality evidence from a 12-week cross-over study of 28 participants showed no statistically significant differences in the recorded domains of health-related quality of life or measures of lung function. Cough was the most common side effect in the mannitol alone arm but there was no occurrence of cough in the dornase alfa alone arm and the most commonly reported reason of withdrawal from the mannitol plus dornase alfa arm was pulmonary exacerbations. In terms of secondary outcomes of the review (pulmonary exacerbations, hospitalisations, symptoms, sputum microbiology), evidence provided by the included studies was more limited. For all comparisons, no consistent statistically significant and clinically meaningful differences were observed between mannitol and control treatments (including dornase alfa). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There is moderate-quality evidence to show that treatment with mannitol over a six-month period is associated with an improvement in some measures of lung function in people with cystic fibrosis compared to control. There is low to very low-quality evidence suggesting no difference in quality of life for participants taking mannitol compared to control. This review provides very low-quality evidence suggesting no difference in lung function or quality of life comparing mannitol to dornase alfa alone and to mannitol plus dornase alfa. The clinical implications from this review suggest that mannitol could be considered as a treatment in cystic fibrosis; but further research is required in order to establish who may benefit most and whether this benefit is sustained in the longer term. Furthermore, studies comparing its efficacy against other (established) mucolytic therapies need to be undertaken before it can be considered for mainstream practice.


Asunto(s)
Fibrosis Quística/tratamiento farmacológico , Desoxirribonucleasa I/administración & dosificación , Manitol/administración & dosificación , Administración por Inhalación , Adulto , Niño , Fibrosis Quística/fisiopatología , Volumen Espiratorio Forzado , Humanos , Manitol/efectos adversos , Depuración Mucociliar , Polvos , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Proteínas Recombinantes/administración & dosificación , Pruebas de Función Respiratoria , Capacidad Vital
18.
Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol ; 63(3): 362-373, 2020 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32374624

RESUMEN

Defective airway mucus clearance is a defining characteristic of cystic fibrosis lung disease, and improvements to current mucolytic strategies are needed. Novel approaches targeting a range of contributing mechanisms are in various stages of preclinical and clinical development. ARINA-1 is a new nebulized product comprised of ascorbic acid, glutathione, and bicarbonate. Using microoptical coherence tomography, we tested the effect of ARINA-1 on central features of mucociliary clearance in F508del/F508del primary human bronchial epithelial cells to assess its potential as a mucoactive therapy in cystic fibrosis. We found that ARINA-1 significantly augmented mucociliary transport rates, both alone and with CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator) modulator therapy, whereas airway hydration and ciliary beating were largely unchanged compared with PBS vehicle control. Analysis of mucus reflectivity and particle-tracking microrheology indicated that ARINA-1 restores mucus clearance by principally reducing mucus layer viscosity. The combination of bicarbonate and glutathione elicited increases in mucociliary transport rate comparable to those seen with ARINA-1, indicating the importance of this interaction to the impact of ARINA-1 on mucus transport; this effect was not recapitulated with bicarbonate alone or bicarbonate combined with ascorbic acid. Assessment of CFTR chloride transport revealed an increase in CFTR-mediated chloride secretion in response to ARINA-1 in CFBE41o- cells expressing wild-type CFTR, driven by CFTR activity stimulation by ascorbate. This response was absent in CFBE41o- F508del cells treated with VX-809 and primary human bronchial epithelial cells, implicating CFTR-independent mechanisms for the effect of ARINA-1 on cystic fibrosis mucus. Together, these studies indicate that ARINA-1 is a novel potential therapy for the treatment of impaired mucus clearance in cystic fibrosis.


Asunto(s)
Ácido Ascórbico/farmacología , Bicarbonatos/farmacología , Fibrosis Quística/tratamiento farmacológico , Glutatión/farmacología , Transporte Iónico/efectos de los fármacos , Depuración Mucociliar/efectos de los fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Células Epiteliales/efectos de los fármacos , Humanos
19.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233439, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32469934

RESUMEN

In epithelial cells, the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), a cAMP-regulated Cl- channel, plays a key role in water and electrolytes secretion. A dysfunctional CFTR leads to the dehydration of the external environment of the cells and to the production of viscous mucus in the airways of cystic fibrosis patients. Here, we applied the quadriwave lateral shearing interferometry (QWLSI), a quantitative phase imaging technique based on the measurement of the light wave shift when passing through a living sample, to study water transport regulation in human airway epithelial CFBE and CHO cells expressing wild-type, G551D- and F508del-CFTR. We were able to detect phase variations during osmotic challenges and confirmed that cellular volume changes reflecting water fluxes can be detected with QWLSI. Forskolin stimulation activated a phase increase in all CFBE and CHO cell types. This phase variation was due to cellular volume decrease and intracellular refractive index increase and was completely blocked by mercury, suggesting an activation of a cAMP-dependent water efflux mediated by an endogenous aquaporin (AQP). AQP3 mRNAs, not AQP1, AQP4 and AQP5 mRNAs, were detected by RT-PCR in CFBE cells. Readdressing the F508del-CFTR protein to the cell surface with VX-809 increased the detected water efflux in CHO but not in CFBE cells. However, VX-770, a potentiator of CFTR function, failed to further increase the water flux in either G551D-CFTR or VX-809-corrected F508del-CFTR expressing cells. Our results show that QWLSI could be a suitable technique to study water transport in living cells. We identified a CFTR and cAMP-dependent, mercury-sensitive water transport in airway epithelial and CHO cells that might be due to AQP3. This water transport appears to be affected when CFTR is mutated and independent of the chloride channel function of CFTR.


Asunto(s)
Acuaporina 3/metabolismo , Regulador de Conductancia de Transmembrana de Fibrosis Quística/metabolismo , Mucosa Respiratoria/metabolismo , Agua/metabolismo , Aminofenoles/farmacología , Animales , Acuaporina 3/genética , Transporte Biológico Activo/efectos de los fármacos , Fenómenos Biofísicos , Bronquios/citología , Bronquios/metabolismo , Células CHO , Línea Celular , Agonistas de los Canales de Cloruro/farmacología , Colforsina/farmacología , Cricetulus , Fibrosis Quística/tratamiento farmacológico , Fibrosis Quística/genética , Fibrosis Quística/metabolismo , Regulador de Conductancia de Transmembrana de Fibrosis Quística/genética , Células Epiteliales/metabolismo , Humanos , Microscopía de Interferencia , Proteínas Mutantes/genética , Proteínas Mutantes/metabolismo , Ósmosis , Quinolonas/farmacología , ARN Mensajero/genética , ARN Mensajero/metabolismo , Mucosa Respiratoria/citología
20.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 77(21): 4255-4267, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32394023

RESUMEN

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common autosomal-recessive disease in Caucasians caused by mutations in the CF transmembrane regulator (CFTR) gene. Patients are usually diagnosed in infancy and are burdened with extensive medical treatments throughout their lives. One of the first documented biochemical defects in CF, which predates the cloning of CFTR gene for almost three decades, is an imbalance in the levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). The principal hallmarks of this imbalance are increased levels of arachidonic acid and decreased levels of docosahexaenoic acids (DHA) in CF. This pro-inflammatory profile of PUFAs is an important component of sterile inflammation in CF, which is known to be detrimental, rather than protective for the patients. Despite decades of intensive research, the mechanistic basis of this phenomenon remains unclear. In this review we summarized the current knowledge on the biochemistry of PUFAs, with a focus on the metabolism of AA and DHA in CF. Finally, a synthetic retinoid called fenretinide (N-(4-hydroxy-phenyl) retinamide) was shown to be able to correct the pro-inflammatory imbalance of PUFAs in CF. Therefore, its pharmacological actions and clinical potential are briefly discussed as well.


Asunto(s)
Antiinflamatorios/uso terapéutico , Fibrosis Quística/tratamiento farmacológico , Ácidos Grasos Insaturados/metabolismo , Fenretinida/uso terapéutico , Animales , Antiinflamatorios/farmacología , Fibrosis Quística/metabolismo , Ácidos Grasos Esenciales/metabolismo , Fenretinida/farmacología , Humanos , Inflamación/tratamiento farmacológico , Inflamación/metabolismo
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