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2.
J Virol ; 92(12)2018 06 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29593043

RESUMEN

Several Old World and New World arenaviruses are responsible for severe endemic and epidemic hemorrhagic fevers, whereas other members of the Arenaviridae family are nonpathogenic. To date, no approved vaccines, antivirals, or specific treatments are available, except for Junín virus. However, protection of nonhuman primates against Lassa fever virus (LASV) is possible through the inoculation of the closely related but nonpathogenic Mopeia virus (MOPV) before challenge with LASV. We reasoned that this virus, modified by using reverse genetics, would represent the basis for the generation of a vaccine platform against LASV and other pathogenic arenaviruses. After showing evidence of exoribonuclease (ExoN) activity in NP of MOPV, we found that this activity was essential for multiplication in antigen-presenting cells. The introduction of multiple mutations in the ExoN site of MOPV NP generated a hyperattenuated strain (MOPVExoN6b) that is (i) genetically stable over passages, (ii) has increased immunogenic properties compared to those of MOPV, and (iii) still promotes a strong type I interferon (IFN) response. MOPVExoN6b was further modified to harbor the envelope glycoproteins of heterologous pathogenic arenaviruses, such as LASV or Lujo, Machupo, Guanarito, Chapare, or Sabia virus in order to broaden specific antigenicity while preserving the hyperattenuated characteristics of the parental strain. Our MOPV-based vaccine candidate for LASV, MOPEVACLASV, was used in a one-shot immunization assay in nonhuman primates and fully protected them from a lethal challenge with LASV. Thus, our hyperattenuated strain of MOPV constitutes a promising new live-attenuated vaccine platform to immunize against several, if not all, pathogenic arenaviruses.IMPORTANCE Arenaviruses are emerging pathogens transmitted to humans by rodents and responsible for endemic and epidemic hemorrhagic fevers of global concern. Nonspecific symptoms associated with the onset of infection make these viruses difficult to distinguish from other endemic pathogens. Moreover, the unavailability of rapid diagnosis in the field delays the identification of the virus and early care for treatment and favors spreading. The vaccination of exposed populations would be of great help to decrease morbidity and human-to-human transmission. Using reverse genetics, we generated a vaccine platform for pathogenic arenaviruses based on a modified and hyperattenuated strain of the nonpathogenic Mopeia virus and showed that the Lassa virus candidate fully protected nonhuman primates from a lethal challenge. These results showed that a rationally designed recombinant MOPV-based vaccine is safe, immunogenic, and efficacious in nonhuman primates.


Asunto(s)
Arenaviridae/inmunología , Fiebres Hemorrágicas Virales/inmunología , Fiebre de Lassa/inmunología , Virus Lassa/inmunología , Enfermedades de los Monos/inmunología , Enfermedades de los Monos/prevención & control , Vacunas Atenuadas/inmunología , Vacunas Virales/inmunología , Animales , Arenaviridae/genética , Línea Celular , Cricetinae , Exorribonucleasas/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Fiebres Hemorrágicas Virales/patología , Fiebres Hemorrágicas Virales/transmisión , Fiebres Hemorrágicas Virales/virología , Humanos , Interferón Tipo I/inmunología , Fiebre de Lassa/prevención & control , Fiebre de Lassa/virología , Macaca fascicularis , Enfermedades de los Monos/virología , Vacunación , Células Vero
3.
Methods Mol Biol ; 1604: 3-31, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28986822

RESUMEN

As successive epidemics have swept the world, the scientific community has quickly learned from them about the emergence and transmission of communicable diseases. Epidemics usually occur when health systems are unprepared. During an unexpected epidemic, health authorities engage in damage control, fear drives action, and the desire to understand the threat is greatest. As humanity recovers, policy-makers seek scientific expertise to improve their "preparedness" to face future events.Global spread of disease is exemplified by the spread of yellow fever from Africa to the Americas, by the spread of dengue fever through transcontinental migration of mosquitos, by the relentless influenza virus pandemics, and, most recently, by the unexpected emergence of Ebola virus, spread by motorbike and long haul carriers. Other pathogens that are remarkable for their epidemic expansions include the arenavirus hemorrhagic fevers and hantavirus diseases carried by rodents over great geographic distances and the arthropod-borne viruses (West Nile, chikungunya and Zika) enabled by ecology and vector adaptations. Did we learn from the past epidemics? Are we prepared for the worst?The ultimate goal is to develop a resilient global health infrastructure. Besides acquiring treatments, vaccines, and other preventive medicine, bio-surveillance is critical to preventing disease emergence and to counteracting its spread. So far, only the western hemisphere has a large and established monitoring system; however, diseases continue to emerge sporadically, in particular in Southeast Asia and South America, illuminating the imperfections of our surveillance. Epidemics destabilize fragile governments, ravage the most vulnerable populations, and threaten the global community.Pandemic risk calculations employ new technologies like computerized maintenance of geographical and historical datasets, Geographic Information Systems (GIS), Next Generation sequencing, and Metagenomics to trace the molecular changes in pathogens during their emergence, and mathematical models to assess risk. Predictions help to pinpoint the hot spots of emergence, the populations at risk, and the pathogens under genetic evolution. Preparedness anticipates the risks, the needs of the population, the capacities of infrastructure, the sources of emergency funding, and finally, the international partnerships needed to manage a disaster before it occurs. At present, the world is in an intermediate phase of trying to reduce health disparities despite exponential population growth, political conflicts, migration, global trade, urbanization, and major environmental changes due to global warming. For the sake of humanity, we must focus on developing the necessary capacities for health surveillance, epidemic preparedness, and pandemic response.


Asunto(s)
Fiebres Hemorrágicas Virales/epidemiología , Fiebres Hemorrágicas Virales/transmisión , Secuenciación de Nucleótidos de Alto Rendimiento/métodos , Enfermedades Transmisibles/epidemiología , Enfermedades Transmisibles/genética , Enfermedades Transmisibles/transmisión , Sistemas de Información Geográfica , Salud Global , Fiebres Hemorrágicas Virales/genética , Humanos
4.
J Occup Environ Hyg ; 14(9): 674-680, 2017 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28609169

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: A United States industry-specific gap analysis survey of the death care sector-which comprises organizations and businesses affiliated with the funeral industry and the handling of human remains- was developed, the results analyzed, and training and education needs in relation to highly infectious disease mitigation and management were explored in an effort to identify where occupational health and safety can be enhanced in this worker population. METHODS: Collaborating national death care organizations distributed the 47-question electronic survey. N = 424 surveys were initiated and results recorded. The survey collected death care sector-specific information pertaining to the comfortability and willingness to handle highly infectious remains; perceptions of readiness, current policies and procedures in place to address highly infectious diseases; current highly infectious disease training levels, available resources, and personal protective equipment. RESULTS: One-third of respondents have been trained on how to manage highly infectious remains. There was a discrepancy between Supervisor/Management and Employee/Worker perceptions on employees' willingness and comfortability to manage potentially highly infectious remains. More than 40% of respondents did not know the correct routes of transmission for viral hemorrhagic fevers. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest death care workers could benefit from increasing up-to-date industry-specific training and education on highly infectious disease risk mitigation and management. Professional death care sector organizations are positioned to disseminate information, training, and best practices.


Asunto(s)
Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/métodos , Cremación/estadística & datos numéricos , Funerarias/estadística & datos numéricos , Prácticas Mortuorias/educación , Enfermedades Transmisibles/transmisión , Fiebres Hemorrágicas Virales/transmisión , Humanos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Estados Unidos
5.
Annu Rev Virol ; 4(1): 141-158, 2017 09 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28645238

RESUMEN

Hemorrhagic fevers caused by viruses were identified in the late 1950s in South America. These viruses have existed in their hosts, the New World rodents, for millions of years. Their emergence as infectious agents in humans coincided with changes in the environment and farming practices that caused explosions in their host rodent populations. Zoonosis into humans likely occurs because the pathogenic New World arenaviruses use human transferrin receptor 1 to enter cells. The mortality rate after infection with these viruses is high, but the mechanism by which disease is induced is still not clear. Possibilities include direct effects of cellular infection or the induction of high levels of cytokines by infected sentinel cells of the immune system, leading to endothelia and thrombocyte dysfunction and neurological disease. Here we provide a review of the ecology and molecular and cellular biology of New World arenaviruses, as well as a discussion of the current animal models of infection. The development of animal models, coupled with an improved understanding of the infection pathway and host response, should lead to the discovery of new drugs for treating infections.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Arenaviridae/virología , Arenavirus del Nuevo Mundo/genética , Arenavirus del Nuevo Mundo/patogenicidad , Animales , Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Infecciones por Arenaviridae/complicaciones , Infecciones por Arenaviridae/inmunología , Infecciones por Arenaviridae/transmisión , Arenavirus del Nuevo Mundo/inmunología , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Fiebres Hemorrágicas Virales/transmisión , Fiebres Hemorrágicas Virales/virología , Interacciones Huésped-Patógeno , Humanos , Ratones , Receptores de Transferrina/metabolismo , Receptores Virales/metabolismo , Roedores/virología , Zoonosis/virología
7.
Ghana Med J ; 50(3): 136-141, 2016 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27752187

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Dengue is one of the emerging diseases that can mostly only be controlled by vector control since there is no vaccine for the disease. Although, Dengue has not been reported in Ghana, movement of people from neighbouring countries where the disease has been reported can facilitate transmission of the disease. OBJECTIVE: This study was carried on the University of Ghana campus to determine the risk of transmission of viral haemorrhagic fevers and the insecticide susceptibility status of Ae. aegypti in some sites in Accra, Ghana. DESIGN: Larval surveys were carried to inspect containers within households and estimate larval indices and adult Aedes mosquitoes were collected using human landing collection technique. WHO tube assays was used to assess the insecticide susceptibility status of Aedes mosquitoes. RESULTS: Ae. aegypti were the most prevalent species, 75.5% and followed by Ae. vittatus, 23.9 %. Ae. albopictus and Ae. granti were in smaller numbers. Household index (HI), Breteau index (BI), and container index were calculated as 8.2%, 11.2% and 10.3% respectively with man-vector contact rate of 0.67 bites/man-hour estimated for the area. The mortalities recorded for Ae. aegypti from WHO tube assays was 88%, 94%, 80% and 99% for DDT (4%), deltamethrin (0.05%), lambdacyhalothrin (0.05%) and permethrin (0.75%) respectively. CONCLUSION: The survey results indicated that the density of Aedes mosquitoes was considered to be sufficient to promote an outbreak of viral haemorrhagic fevers on Legon Campus. Aedes mosquitoes were found to be resistant to DDT, deltamethrin and lamdacyhalothrin, but susceptible to permethrin. FUNDING: This study was supported in part by Japan Initiative for Global Research Network on Infectious Diseases (J-Grid).


Asunto(s)
Aedes , Fiebres Hemorrágicas Virales/transmisión , Insecticidas , Mosquitos Vectores , Animales , DDT , Brotes de Enfermedades , Resistencia a Medicamentos , Femenino , Ghana , Humanos , Larva/efectos de los fármacos , Masculino , Nitrilos , Permetrina , Piretrinas , Medición de Riesgo
8.
Rev Med Virol ; 26(6): 446-454, 2016 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27593704

RESUMEN

Lujo virus is a novel Old World arenavirus identified in Southern Africa in 2008 as the cause of a viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF) characterized by nosocomial transmission with a high case fatality rate of 80% (4/5 cases). Whereas this outbreak was limited, the unprecedented Ebola virus disease outbreak in West Africa, and recent Zika virus disease epidemic in the Americas, has brought into acute focus the need for preparedness to respond to rare but potentially highly pathogenic outbreaks of zoonotic or arthropod-borne viral infections. A key determinant for effective control of a VHF outbreak is the time between primary infection and diagnosis of the index case. Here, we review the Lujo VHF outbreak of 2008 and discuss how preparatory measures with respect to developing diagnostic capacity might be effectively embedded into existing national disease control networks, such as those for human immunodeficiency virus, tuberculosis, and malaria.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Arenaviridae/epidemiología , Defensa Civil , Brotes de Enfermedades , Fiebres Hemorrágicas Virales/epidemiología , Lujo virus/aislamiento & purificación , África Austral/epidemiología , Infecciones por Arenaviridae/transmisión , Infecciones por Arenaviridae/virología , Infección Hospitalaria/epidemiología , Infección Hospitalaria/transmisión , Infección Hospitalaria/virología , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa/prevención & control , Fiebres Hemorrágicas Virales/transmisión , Fiebres Hemorrágicas Virales/virología , Humanos , Control de Infecciones/métodos
9.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis ; 7(5): 970-978, 2016 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27211914

RESUMEN

Ticks play an important role in transmission of arboviruses responsible for emerging infectious diseases, and have a significant impact on human, veterinary, and wildlife health. In the Republic of Korea (ROK), little is known about information regarding the presence of tick-borne viruses and their vectors. A total of 21,158 ticks belonging to 3 genera and 6 species collected at 6 provinces and 4 metropolitan areas in the ROK from March to October 2014 were assayed for selected tick-borne pathogens. Haemaphysalis longicornis (n=17,570) was the most numerously collected, followed by Haemaphysalis flava (n=3317), Ixodes nipponensis (n=249), Amblyomma testudinarium (n=11), Haemaphysalis phasiana (n=8), and Ixodes turdus (n=3). Ticks were pooled (adults 1-5, nymphs 1-30, and larvae 1-50) and tested by one-step reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) or nested RT-PCR for the detection of severe fever with thrombocytopenia virus (SFTSV), tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), Powassan virus (POWV), Omsk hemorrhagic fever virus (OHFV), and Langat virus (LGTV). The overall maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) [estimated numbers of viral RNA positive ticks/1000 ticks] for SFTSV and TBEV was 0.95 and 0.43, respectively, while, all pools were negative for POWV, OHFV, and LGTV. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of SFTSV, TBEV, POWV, OHFV, and LGTV in ixodid ticks collected from vegetation in the ROK to aid our understanding of the epidemiology of tick-borne viral diseases. Results from this study emphasize the need for continuous tick-based arbovirus surveillance to monitor the emergence of tick-borne diseases in the ROK.


Asunto(s)
Vectores Arácnidos/virología , Virus de la Encefalitis Transmitidos por Garrapatas/genética , Virus de la Encefalitis Transmitidos por Garrapatas/aislamiento & purificación , Bosques , Ixodes/virología , Phlebovirus/genética , Phlebovirus/aislamiento & purificación , Animales , Virus de la Encefalitis Transmitidos por Garrapatas/clasificación , Encefalitis Transmitida por Garrapatas/epidemiología , Encefalitis Transmitida por Garrapatas/virología , Fiebres Hemorrágicas Virales/epidemiología , Fiebres Hemorrágicas Virales/transmisión , Fiebres Hemorrágicas Virales/virología , Larva/virología , Funciones de Verosimilitud , Ninfa/virología , Filogenia , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa/métodos , ARN Viral/genética , Análisis de Secuencia de ADN , Síndrome , Trombocitopenia/epidemiología , Trombocitopenia/virología , Enfermedades por Picaduras de Garrapatas/epidemiología , Enfermedades por Picaduras de Garrapatas/transmisión , Enfermedades por Picaduras de Garrapatas/virología
11.
Curr Opin Immunol ; 36: 38-46, 2015 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26163194

RESUMEN

Several enveloped RNA viruses of the arenavirus, bunyavirus, filovirus and flavivirus families are associated with a syndrome known as viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF). VHF is characterized by fever, vascular leakage, coagulation defects and multi organ system failure. VHF is currently viewed as a disease precipitated by viral suppression of innate immunity, which promotes systemic virus replication and excessive proinflammatory cytokine responses that trigger the manifestations of severe disease. However, the mechanisms by which immune dysregulation contributes to disease remain poorly understood. Infection of nonhuman primates closely recapitulates human VHF, notably Ebola and yellow fever, thereby providing excellent models to better define the immunological basis for this syndrome. Here we review the current state of our knowledge and suggest future directions that will better define the immunological mechanisms underlying VHF.


Asunto(s)
Fiebres Hemorrágicas Virales/inmunología , Fiebres Hemorrágicas Virales/virología , Interacciones Huésped-Patógeno/inmunología , Animales , Ebolavirus/fisiología , Fiebre Hemorrágica Ebola/inmunología , Fiebre Hemorrágica Ebola/transmisión , Fiebre Hemorrágica Ebola/virología , Fiebres Hemorrágicas Virales/transmisión , Humanos , Evasión Inmune , Membrana Mucosa/inmunología , Membrana Mucosa/metabolismo , Membrana Mucosa/patología , Membrana Mucosa/virología , Fiebre Amarilla/inmunología , Fiebre Amarilla/transmisión , Fiebre Amarilla/virología , Virus de la Fiebre Amarilla/fisiología
12.
Dtsch Med Wochenschr ; 140(11): 797-804, 2015 May.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26080718

RESUMEN

With continuing worldwide growth in travel, timely information about the epidemiology of post-travel illness is important. Various travel-related surveillance systems have been established that provide these data. Knowledge about prevalences of important diseases in travelers and migrants can help in the differential diagnosis. On the other hand it has be kept in mind that also rare, but life-threatening diseases can be imported like leptospirosis, viral hemorrhagic fever or amebic liver abcess.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Transmisibles/diagnóstico , Enfermedades Transmisibles/transmisión , Migrantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Medicina del Viajero/tendencias , Virosis/diagnóstico , Virosis/transmisión , Enfermedades Transmisibles/epidemiología , Costo de Enfermedad , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Diarrea/epidemiología , Diarrea/prevención & control , Brotes de Enfermedades/prevención & control , Predicción , Fiebres Hemorrágicas Virales/diagnóstico , Fiebres Hemorrágicas Virales/transmisión , Humanos , Internacionalidad , Leptospirosis/diagnóstico , Leptospirosis/transmisión , Absceso Hepático Amebiano/diagnóstico , Absceso Hepático Amebiano/transmisión , Malaria/diagnóstico , Malaria/transmisión , Viaje , Virosis/epidemiología
13.
Clin Med (Lond) ; 15(1): 61-6, 2015 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25650201

RESUMEN

Viral haemorrhagic fevers (VHF) are a range of viral infections with potential to cause life-threatening illness in humans. Apart from Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF), they are largely confined to Africa, distribution being dependent on the ecology of reservoir hosts. At present, the largest ever epidemic of Ebola virus disease (EVD or Ebola) is occurring in West Africa, raising the possibility that cases could be imported into non-endemic countries. Diagnosis and management is challenging due to the non-specificity of early symptoms, limited laboratory facilities in endemic areas, severity of disease, lack of effective therapy, strict infection control requirements and propensity to cause epidemics with secondary cases in healthcare workers.


Asunto(s)
Fiebres Hemorrágicas Virales , Animales , Quirópteros , Reservorios de Enfermedades , Vectores de Enfermedades , Fiebres Hemorrágicas Virales/diagnóstico , Fiebres Hemorrágicas Virales/epidemiología , Fiebres Hemorrágicas Virales/transmisión , Fiebres Hemorrágicas Virales/virología , Humanos , Rumiantes , Garrapatas
15.
Sci Rep ; 4: 5824, 2014 Jul 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25059478

RESUMEN

Containment level 4 (CL4) laboratories studying biosafety level 4 viruses are under strict regulations to conduct nonhuman primate (NHP) studies in compliance of both animal welfare and biosafety requirements. NHPs housed in open-barred cages raise concerns about cross-contamination between animals, and accidental exposure of personnel to infectious materials. To address these concerns, two NHP experiments were performed. One examined the simultaneous infection of 6 groups of NHPs with 6 different viruses (Machupo, Junin, Rift Valley Fever, Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever, Nipah and Hendra viruses). Washing personnel between handling each NHP group, floor to ceiling biobubble with HEPA filter, and plexiglass between cages were employed for partial primary containment. The second experiment employed no primary containment around open barred cages with Ebola virus infected NHPs 0.3 meters from naïve NHPs. Viral antigen-specific ELISAs, qRT-PCR and TCID50 infectious assays were utilized to determine antibody levels and viral loads. No transmission of virus to neighbouring NHPs was observed suggesting limited containment protocols are sufficient for multi-viral CL4 experiments within one room. The results support the concept that Ebola virus infection is self-contained in NHPs infected intramuscularly, at least in the present experimental conditions, and is not transmitted to naïve NHPs via an airborne route.


Asunto(s)
Contención de Riesgos Biológicos/normas , Fiebres Hemorrágicas Virales/transmisión , Laboratorios/normas , Filtros de Aire/virología , Animales , Antígenos Virales/análisis , Arenavirus/fisiología , Bunyaviridae/fisiología , Ebolavirus/fisiología , Ensayo de Inmunoadsorción Enzimática , Contaminación de Equipos , Fiebres Hemorrágicas Virales/virología , Henipavirus/fisiología , Microburbujas/virología , ARN Viral/análisis , Reacción en Cadena en Tiempo Real de la Polimerasa , Riesgo , Carga Viral , Replicación Viral
16.
Med Anthropol Q ; 28(2): 280-303, 2014 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24752909

RESUMEN

This article outlines a research program for an anthropology of viral hemorrhagic fevers (collectively known as VHFs). It begins by reviewing the social science literature on Ebola, Marburg, and Lassa fevers and charting areas for future ethnographic attention. We theoretically elaborate the hotspot as a way of integrating analysis of the two routes of VHF infection: from animal reservoirs to humans and between humans. Drawing together recent anthropological investigations of human-animal entanglements with an ethnographic interest in the social production of space, we seek to enrich conceptualizations of viral movement by elaborating the circumstances through which viruses, humans, objects, and animals come into contact. We suggest that attention to the material proximities-between animals, humans, and objects-that constitute the hotspot opens a frontier site for critical and methodological development in medical anthropology and for future collaborations in VHF management and control.


Asunto(s)
Antropología Médica , Fiebres Hemorrágicas Virales/etnología , Fiebres Hemorrágicas Virales/transmisión , Salud Pública , Animales , Investigación Biomédica , Trazado de Contacto , Humanos , Macaca
18.
Sci China Life Sci ; 56(8): 697-700, 2013 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23917841

RESUMEN

Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging hemorrhagic fever in rural areas of China and is caused by a new bunyavirus, SFTSV, named after the disease. The transmission vectors and animal hosts of SFTSV are unclear. Ticks are the most likely transmission vectors and domestic animals, including goats, dogs, and cattle, are potential amplifying hosts of SFTSV. The clinical symptoms of SFTS are nonspecific, but major symptoms include fever, gastrointestinal symptoms, myalgia, dizziness, joint pain, chills, and regional lymphadenopathy. The most common abnormalities in laboratory test results are thrombocytopenia (95%), leukocytopenia (86%), and elevated levels of serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, creatine kinase, and lactate dehydrogenase. The fatality rate for SFTS is 12% on average, and the annual incidence of the disease is approximately five per 100000 of the rural population.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Bunyaviridae/virología , Enfermedades Transmisibles Emergentes/virología , Fiebres Hemorrágicas Virales/virología , Phlebovirus/patogenicidad , Animales , Vectores Arácnidos/virología , Infecciones por Bunyaviridae/epidemiología , Infecciones por Bunyaviridae/transmisión , Bovinos/virología , China/epidemiología , Enfermedades Transmisibles Emergentes/epidemiología , Enfermedades Transmisibles Emergentes/transmisión , Reservorios de Enfermedades/virología , Perros/virología , Cabras/virología , Fiebres Hemorrágicas Virales/epidemiología , Fiebres Hemorrágicas Virales/transmisión , Humanos , Phlebovirus/genética , Garrapatas/virología
19.
Biosecur Bioterror ; 11 Suppl 1: S247-57, 2013 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23971813

RESUMEN

Many pathogens that can cause major public health, economic, and social damage are relatively easily accessible and could be used as biological weapons. Wildlife is a natural reservoir for many potential bioterrorism agents, and, as history has shown, eliminating a pathogen that has dispersed among wild fauna can be extremely challenging. Since a number of wild rodent species live close to humans, rodents constitute a vector for pathogens to circulate among wildlife, domestic animals, and humans. This article reviews the possible consequences of a deliberate spread of rodentborne pathogens. It is relatively easy to infect wild rodents with certain pathogens or to release infected rodents, and the action would be difficult to trace. Rodents can also function as reservoirs for diseases that have been spread during a bioterrorism attack and cause recurring disease outbreaks. As rats and mice are common in both urban and rural settlements, deliberately released rodentborne infections have the capacity to spread very rapidly. The majority of pathogens that are listed as potential agents of bioterrorism by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases exploit rodents as vectors or reservoirs. In addition to zoonotic diseases, deliberately released rodentborne epizootics can have serious economic consequences for society, for example, in the area of international trade restrictions. The ability to rapidly detect introduced diseases and effectively communicate with the public in crisis situations enables a quick response and is essential for successful and cost-effective disease control.


Asunto(s)
Bioterrorismo , Vectores de Enfermedades , Fiebres Hemorrágicas Virales/transmisión , Animales , Armas Biológicas , Brucelosis/prevención & control , Brucelosis/transmisión , Comunicación , Fiebres Hemorrágicas Virales/prevención & control , Humanos , Ratones , Control de Plagas , Peste/prevención & control , Peste/transmisión , Fiebre Q/prevención & control , Fiebre Q/transmisión , Ratas , Tularemia/prevención & control , Tularemia/transmisión
20.
Crit Care Clin ; 29(3): 717-56, 2013 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23830660

RESUMEN

Bioterrorism is not only a reality of the times in which we live but bioweapons have been used for centuries. Critical care physicians play a major role in the recognition of and response to a bioterrorism attack. Critical care clinicians must be familiar with the diagnosis and management of the most likely bioterrorism agents, and also be adequately prepared to manage a mass casualty situation. This article reviews the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of the most likely agents of biowarfare and bioterrorism.


Asunto(s)
Armas Biológicas , Bioterrorismo , Cuidados Críticos , Incidentes con Víctimas en Masa , Animales , Carbunco/diagnóstico , Carbunco/terapia , Carbunco/transmisión , Coccidioidomicosis/diagnóstico , Coccidioidomicosis/terapia , Coccidioidomicosis/transmisión , Brotes de Enfermedades , Fiebres Hemorrágicas Virales/diagnóstico , Fiebres Hemorrágicas Virales/terapia , Fiebres Hemorrágicas Virales/transmisión , Humanos , Insectos/patogenicidad , Noxas/análisis , Noxas/envenenamiento , Peste/diagnóstico , Peste/terapia , Peste/transmisión , Fiebre Q/diagnóstico , Fiebre Q/terapia , Fiebre Q/transmisión , Viruela/diagnóstico , Viruela/terapia , Viruela/transmisión , Toxinas Biológicas/análisis , Toxinas Biológicas/envenenamiento , Tularemia/diagnóstico , Tularemia/terapia , Tularemia/transmisión
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