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1.
Am J Bot ; 107(9): 1296-1308, 2020 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33001458

RESUMEN

PREMISE: Recent phylogeographic work suggests the existence of latitudinal gradients in genetic diversity in northern Mexican plants, but very few studies have examined plants of the Chihuahuan Desert. Tidestromia lanuginosa is a morphologically variable annual species whose distribution includes the Chihuahuan Desert Region. Here we undertook phylogeographic analyses of chloroplast loci in this species to test whether genetic diversity and differentiation of Mexican populations of T. lanuginosa change along a latitudinal gradient and whether diversity is higher in Coahuila, consistent with ideas of lower plant community turnover during the Pleistocene. METHODS: Haplotype network, maximum likelihood tree, and Bayesian phylogenetic haplotype were reconstructed, and genetic diversity was assessed among 26 populations. Barrier analysis was used to explore barriers to gene flow. RESULTS: Four major population groups were identified, corresponding with physiographic provinces in Mexico. Each population group displayed high levels of genetic structure, haplotype, and nucleotide diversity. Diversity was highest in southern populations across the species as a whole and among the Chihuahuan Desert populations. CONCLUSIONS: Tidestromia lanuginosa provides an important example of high phylogeographic and genetic diversity in plants of northern Mexico. Barriers to gene flow among the major population groups have most likely been due to a combination of orographic, climatic, and edaphic variables. The high genetic diversity of T. lanuginosa in southern and central Coahuila is consistent with the hypothesis of full-glacial refugia for arid-adapted plants in this area, and highlights the importance of this region as a center of diversity for the Chihuahuan Desert flora.


Asunto(s)
Variación Genética , Refugio de Fauna , Teorema de Bayes , México , Filogenia
2.
Euro Surveill ; 25(39)2020 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33006300

RESUMEN

We found that a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the nucleoprotein gene of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) from a patient interfered with detection in a widely used commercial assay. Some 0.2% of the isolates in the EpiCoV database contain this SNP. Although SARS-CoV-2 was still detected by the other probe in the assay, this underlines the necessity of targeting two independent essential regions of a pathogen for reliable detection.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus/genética , Técnicas de Laboratorio Clínico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Nucleoproteínas/genética , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Mutación Puntual , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple , ARN Viral/genética , Reacción en Cadena en Tiempo Real de la Polimerasa , Proteínas Virales/genética , Secuencia de Bases , Betacoronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Técnicas de Laboratorio Clínico/métodos , Trazado de Contacto , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Cartilla de ADN , Errores Diagnósticos , Reacciones Falso Negativas , Femenino , Genes Virales , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Nasofaringe/virología , Nucleoproteínas/análisis , Filogenia , Neumonía Viral/virología , Reacción en Cadena en Tiempo Real de la Polimerasa/métodos , Rumanía , Enfermedad Relacionada con los Viajes , Proteínas Virales/análisis
3.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 16471, 2020 10 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33020502

RESUMEN

SARS-CoV-2 has a zoonotic origin and was transmitted to humans via an undetermined intermediate host, leading to infections in humans and other mammals. To enter host cells, the viral spike protein (S-protein) binds to its receptor, ACE2, and is then processed by TMPRSS2. Whilst receptor binding contributes to the viral host range, S-protein:ACE2 complexes from other animals have not been investigated widely. To predict infection risks, we modelled S-protein:ACE2 complexes from 215 vertebrate species, calculated changes in the energy of the complex caused by mutations in each species, relative to human ACE2, and correlated these changes with COVID-19 infection data. We also analysed structural interactions to better understand the key residues contributing to affinity. We predict that mutations are more detrimental in ACE2 than TMPRSS2. Finally, we demonstrate phylogenetically that human SARS-CoV-2 strains have been isolated in animals. Our results suggest that SARS-CoV-2 can infect a broad range of mammals, but few fish, birds or reptiles. Susceptible animals could serve as reservoirs of the virus, necessitating careful ongoing animal management and surveillance.


Asunto(s)
Peptidil-Dipeptidasa A/química , Filogenia , Glicoproteína de la Espiga del Coronavirus/química , Animales , Betacoronavirus/clasificación , Betacoronavirus/genética , Humanos , Mamíferos , Simulación del Acoplamiento Molecular , Mutación , Peptidil-Dipeptidasa A/clasificación , Peptidil-Dipeptidasa A/genética , Peptidil-Dipeptidasa A/metabolismo , Unión Proteica , Glicoproteína de la Espiga del Coronavirus/metabolismo
4.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5006, 2020 10 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33024095

RESUMEN

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was first identified in late 2019 in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China and spread globally in months, sparking worldwide concern. However, it is unclear whether super-spreading events occurred during the early outbreak phase, as has been observed for other emerging viruses. Here, we analyse 208 publicly available SARS-CoV-2 genome sequences collected during the early outbreak phase. We combine phylogenetic analysis with Bayesian inference under an epidemiological model to trace person-to-person transmission. The dispersion parameter of the offspring distribution in the inferred transmission chain was estimated to be 0.23 (95% CI: 0.13-0.38), indicating there are individuals who directly infected a disproportionately large number of people. Our results showed that super-spreading events played an important role in the early stage of the COVID-19 outbreak.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Brotes de Enfermedades , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Teorema de Bayes , Betacoronavirus/clasificación , Betacoronavirus/genética , China/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Humanos , Pandemias , Filogenia , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/virología
5.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(10): e2024191, 2020 10 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33026453

RESUMEN

Importance: In late December 2019, an outbreak of a novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in Wuhan, China. Data on the routes of transmission to Los Angeles, California, the US West Coast epicenter for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and subsequent community spread are limited. Objective: To determine the transmission routes of SARS-CoV-2 to Southern California and elucidate local community spread within the Los Angeles metropolitan area. Design, Setting, and Participants: This case series included 192 consecutive patients with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test results positive for SARS-CoV-2 who were evaluated at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center in Los Angeles, California, from March 22 to April 15, 2020. Data analysis was performed from April to May 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: SARS-CoV-2 viral genomes were sequenced. Los Angeles isolates were compared with genomes from global subsampling and from New York, New York; Washington state; and China to determine potential sources of viral dissemination. Demographic data and outcomes were collected. Results: The cohort included 192 patients (median [interquartile range] age, 59.5 [43-75] years; 110 [57.3%] men). The genetic characterization of SARS-CoV-2 isolates in the Los Angeles population pinpointed community transmission of 13 patients within a 3.81 km2 radius. Variation landscapes of this case series also revealed a cluster of 10 patients that contained 5 residents at a skilled nursing facility, 1 resident of a nearby skilled nursing facility, 3 health care workers, and a family member of a resident of one of the skilled nursing facilities. Person-to-person transmission was detected in a cluster of 5 patients who shared the same single-nucleotide variation in their SARS-CoV-2 genomes. High viral genomic diversity was identified: 20 Los Angeles isolates (15.0%) resembled SARS-CoV-2 genomes from Asia, while 109 Los Angeles isolates (82.0%) were similar to isolates originating from Europe. Analysis of other common respiratory viral pathogens did not reveal coinfection in the cohort. Conclusions and Relevance: These findings highlight the precision of detecting person-to-person transmission and accurate contact tracing directly through SARS-CoV-2 genome isolation and sequencing. Development and application of phylogenetic analyses from the Los Angeles population established connections between COVID-19 clusters locally and throughout the US.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus/genética , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Genoma Viral/genética , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Adulto , Anciano , Asia , California/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Europa (Continente) , Femenino , Secuenciación de Nucleótidos de Alto Rendimiento , Humanos , Los Angeles/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Ciudad de Nueva York , Pandemias , Filogenia , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/virología , Análisis de Secuencia de ARN , Proteínas no Estructurales Virales/genética , Washingtón
6.
Zootaxa ; 4770(1): zootaxa.4770.1.1, 2020 May 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055632

RESUMEN

Originally the genus Entomobrya (Collembola: Entomobryidae) comprised 25 species names in Australia including 7 subspecies of which 13 were exotic (50%) and the rest native. All native species had been either described by H. Schött or H. Womersley and had not been examined since 1942. Specific characters they used were few, mainly colour pattern and gross morphological features such as unguis, unguis teeth and mucronal form. Chaetotaxic characters have now been developed. We now here recognise 47 species of Australian Entomobrya and Hymalanura based on a large collection made over 50 years. Six species (12%) are now recognised as introduced, 37 are new and three unresolved because of lack of specimens in good condition. Detailed descriptions and figures are supplied. Several new species are short-range endemics of conservation significance, others are specialised as to habitat, but most are widespread. Entomobrya is now the most species rich genus of Australian Collembola. A phylogenetic tree based on morphological and biological characters revealed clusters of exotic and montane habitat specialists, indicating that the genus is paraphyletic and so confirms other authors' work based on molecular characters. A key is supplied to Australian genera of Entomobryomorpha. A new genus record, Himalanura, is recognised extending its range to the Southern Hemisphere and 5,000 km further southeast.


Asunto(s)
Artrópodos , Animales , Australia , Color , Filogenia
7.
Zootaxa ; 4817(1): zootaxa.4817.1.1, 2020 Jul 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055681

RESUMEN

Populations in the Rufous Antpitta (Grallaria rufula) complex occupy humid montane forests of the Andes from northern Colombia and adjacent Venezuela to central Bolivia. Their tawny to cinnamon-colored plumages are generally uniform, featuring subtle variation in hue and saturation across this range. In contrast to their conservative plumage, substantial vocal differences occur among geographically isolated or parapatric populations. Working within the framework of a comprehensive molecular phylogeny, we reexamined species limits in the G. rufula complex, basing taxonomic recommendations on diagnostic differences in vocalizations and considering identifiable differences in plumage where pertinent. We identified 16 populations for species designation, including seven populations previously described as subspecies and, remarkably, six new species described herein. Within one of these species, we identified less robust vocal differences between populations that we designate as subspecies. Geographic variation exists within another species, but its critical evaluation requires additional material. Taxonomic revisions of groups consisting of cryptic species, like the Grallaria rufula complex, are imperative for their conservation. Rather than widespread species as currently defined, these complexes can comprise many range-restricted taxa at higher risk of extinction given the continuing human pressures on their habitats.


Asunto(s)
Passeriformes , Animales , Filogenia
8.
Zootaxa ; 4816(2): zootaxa.4816.2.2, 2020 Jul 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055702

RESUMEN

An integrative taxonomic analysis of newly discovered populations of Hemiphyllodactylus from Indochina recovered a new species from Peninsular Thailand and two others from Laos. The new Thai species, Hemiphyllodactylus pardalis sp. nov. described herein, is the sister species to all other species in the newly designated Indochina clade and has a unique spotted contrasting dorsal pattern not seen in any other species of Hemiphyllodactylus. This, along with its elongate and gracile body morphology, renders it remarkably convergent on the Philippine gecko Pseudogekko smaragdinus despite the fact it is deeply nested within Hemiphyllodactylus. The description of this new species underscores the depauperate nature of Hemiphyllodactylus diversity throughout Indochina in general and Thailand in particular compared to neighboring upland areas of Myanmar and Peninsular Malaysia. This especially underscores the need for continued herpetofaunal field surveys in montane areas of western Thailand.


Asunto(s)
Ecosistema , Lagartos , Animales , Filipinas , Filogenia , Tailandia
9.
Zootaxa ; 4811(1): zootaxa.4811.1.1, 2020 Jul 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055724

RESUMEN

The planthopper genus Chionomus Fennah, 1971 (Hemiptera: Fulgoroidea: Delphacidae) currently includes three Neotropical species, removed from the polyphyletic genus Delphacodes Fieber, 1866. Morphological and molecular evidence further redefine Chionomus to include ten additional species (eight species removed from Delphacodes, two described as new, viz. Chionomus dolonus n. sp. and C. herkos n. sp.), with another four species synonymized. Phylogenetic analyses of morphological and molecular sequence data of the mitochondrial gene Cytochrome Oxidase I provide support for the monophyly of Chionomus. We use a mixed model Bayesian optimality criterion to define phylogenetic relationships among Chionomus and support paraphyly of the original definition of Chionomus (with respect to Delphacodes) and monophyly of the revised genus.


Asunto(s)
Hemípteros , Animales , Teorema de Bayes , Genes Mitocondriales , Datos de Secuencia Molecular , Filogenia
10.
Zootaxa ; 4813(1): zootaxa.4813.1.1, 2020 Jul 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055726

RESUMEN

The genus Scolytodes Ferrari is a highly diverse group of Neotropical bark beetles. Recent collecting by hand and canopy fogging in Ecuador produced many new records. Overlap in species composition between samples from the canopy and the ground was very low, and canopy fogging revealed the highest proportion of undescribed species. Altogether we report records for 55 species of Scolytodes from Ecuador, including 40 species new to science: Scolytodes pseudoatratus Jordal and Smith, sp. nov., Scolytodes latipes Jordal and Smith, sp. nov., Scolytodes sloanae Jordal and Smith, sp. nov., Scolytodes samamae Jordal and Smith, sp. nov., Scolytodes otongae Jordal and Smith, sp. nov., Scolytodes chaplini Jordal and Smith, sp. nov., Scolytodes projectus Jordal and Smith, sp. nov., Scolytodes lubricus Jordal and Smith, sp. nov., Scolytodes inordinatus Jordal and Smith, sp. nov., Scolytodes cancellatus Jordal and Smith, sp. nov., Scolytodes jubatus Jordal and Smith, sp. nov., Scolytodes abbreviatus Jordal and Smith, sp. nov., Scolytodes stramineus Jordal and Smith, sp. nov., Scolytodes teres Jordal and Smith, sp. nov., Scolytodes animus Jordal and Smith, sp. nov., Scolytodes pseudoanimus Jordal and Smith, sp. nov., Scolytodes bombycinus Jordal and Smith, sp. nov., Scolytodes bisetosus Jordal and Smith, sp. nov., Scolytodes horridus Jordal and Smith, sp. nov., Scolytodes virgatus Jordal and Smith, sp. nov., Scolytodes criniger Jordal and Smith, sp. nov., Scolytodes pseudocrassus Jordal and Smith, sp. nov., Scolytodes semicrassus Jordal and Smith, sp. nov., Scolytodes pseudolepidus Jordal and Smith, sp. nov., Scolytodes semilepidus Jordal and Smith, sp. nov., Scolytodes fortis Jordal and Smith, sp. nov., Scolytodes peniculus Jordal and Smith, sp. nov., Scolytodes tristis Jordal and Smith, sp. nov., Scolytodes chrysifrons Jordal and Smith, sp. nov., Scolytodes amictus Jordal and Smith, sp. nov., Scolytodes cnesinoides Jordal and Smith, sp. nov., Scolytodes maestus Jordal and Smith, sp. nov., Scolytodes vietus Jordal and Smith, sp. nov., Scolytodes echinus Jordal and Smith, sp. nov., Scolytodes rufifrons Jordal and Smith, sp. nov., Scolytodes arcuatus Jordal and Smith, sp. nov., Scolytodes validus Jordal and Smith, sp. nov., Scolytodes sparsus Jordal and Smith, sp. nov., Scolytodes lapillus Jordal and Smith, sp. nov., Scolytodes coronatus Jordal and Smith, sp. nov. We also provide the first description of the female and a new country record for Scolytodes grandis (Schedl, 1962) (=Scolytodes glaberrimus Wood, 1972 syn. nov.) and a redescription and new country record for Scolytodes pilifrons (Schedl, 1962). The total number of valid species is now 287. Additional new country records were established for Scolytodes acuminatus Wood, 1969, Scolytodes comosus Jordal and Kirkendall, 2019, Scolytodes costabilis Wood, 1974, Scolytodes glabrescens Wood, 1972, Scolytodes impressus Wood, 1969, Scolytodes nitidus (Eggers, 1928), Scolytodes striatus (Eggers, 1934), Scolytodes tucumani Wood, 2007, and from another Hexacolini genus, Pycnarthrum fulgidum Wood, 1977. The first molecular phylogeny for Scolytodes is provided and used primarily to guide the inference of species validity. Molecular data from COI, 28S and EF-1α revealed substantial genetic divergence between morphologically very similar but diagnosable species.


Asunto(s)
Escarabajos , Distribución Animal , Animales , Ecuador , Femenino , Filogenia , Especificidad de la Especie
11.
Zootaxa ; 4779(3): zootaxa.4779.3.2, 2020 May 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055776

RESUMEN

Elachistocleis is a Neotropical genus of microhylid frogs with 18 species, most of which occur east of the Andes in South America. Here, we present a new phylogeny of Gastrophryninae and describe and name a new species of Elachistocleis from southern Ecuador-the first to be found west of the Andes and also the first from Ecuador. Our phylogeny is based on DNA sequences of the mitochondrial genes 12S rRNA, 16S rRNA, COI, and the nuclear genes BDNF, cmyc2, H3A, 28S, SIA1, and Tyr. Elachistocleis araios sp. n., is the sister species of all other Elachistocleis. The finding of this taxon highlights the probability of the existence of more Elachistocleis species west of the Andes.


Asunto(s)
Anuros , Animales , Filogenia , ARN Ribosómico 16S
12.
Zootaxa ; 4779(3): zootaxa.4779.3.3, 2020 May 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055777

RESUMEN

We describe a new species of phytotelm-breeding rhacophorid frog from central Vietnam. Gracixalus trieng sp. nov. is distinguished from all congeners by a combination of (1) body size medium (37.2-41.4 mm in five adult males), (2) snout rounded in dorsal and lateral views, (3) dorsal surface brown or yellowish with a darker brown interorbital crossbar and inverse-Y shape on the back, (4) throat and chest yellow or yellowish brown with pinkish mottling and belly and ventral surfaces of limbs including hands and feet pinkish, (5) tympanum and supratympanic fold distinct, (6) iris pale gold with darker gold radiating out from anterior and posterior edges of pupil, (7) majority of dorsal body and limb surfaces smooth in adults, with some individuals having sparsely distributed low, irregular tubercles, (8) nuptial pads on fingers I and II in adult males, and (9) eggs deposited as a tightly spaced array of non-pendent eggs on the wall of a phytotelmon. The species occurs in syntopy with G. lumarius. At present, Gracixalus trieng sp. nov. is known only from montane bamboo and evergreen forest (>1700 m) on Mount Ngoc Linh and adjacent peaks; and it is likely to be restricted to high-elevation forest with an estimated geographical distribution of <1000 km2.


Asunto(s)
Anuros , Cruzamiento , Animales , Tamaño Corporal , Masculino , Filogenia , Vietnam
13.
Zootaxa ; 4779(3): zootaxa.4779.3.7, 2020 May 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055781

RESUMEN

Sibaria Stål is a genus of Pentatomidae occurring exclusively in the Neotropical region. Since its description, little information has been added to the knowledge of the taxon. The hypothesis of monophyly of Sibaria was recently supported by a phylogenetic analysis based on morphological and molecular data. The purpose of this study is to provide a review of Sibaria, redescribe the valid species, and describe a new species. The genus includes four species: S. andicola Breddin, S. armata (Dallas), S. englemani Rolston, and S. amazonica sp. nov.. Diagnoses, macrophotographs (habitus, external and internal genitalia), an identification key, and distribution records of the species are also provided.


Asunto(s)
Heterópteros , Animales , Filogenia
14.
Zootaxa ; 4804(1): zootaxa.4804.1.1, 2020 Jun 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055999

RESUMEN

The Cambrian (Marjuman-Steptoean; Guzhangian-Paibian) kingstoniid trilobite Blountia Walcott, 1916 is distributed widely in shelf strata of Laurentian North America. Species known from Marjuman formations were lost at the mass extinction at the end of that stage. New species entered the succession during and after the extinction interval, only to disappear within the Aphelaspis Zone of the lower part of the Steptoean Stage. Steptoean species and several uppermost Marjuman (Crepicephalus Zone) species are treated in this monograph. New collections and revision of type and other archival material increase the number of species in Steptoean strata from two to six. Phylogenetic analysis supports monophyly of Blountia and Maryvillia Walcott, 1916; Blountina Lochman, in Lochman Duncan, 1944 is retained as a monotypic taxon. Steptoean species do not form a single subclade within the cladogram, so there is no evidence for a simple monophyletic radiation following the end-Marjuman extinction. New species are Blountia angelae, B. morgancreekensis, B. nevadensis, B. newfoundlandensis, and B. tennesseensis.


Asunto(s)
Extinción Biológica , Fósiles , Animales , Humanos , Invertebrados , América del Norte , Filogenia , Sobrevivientes
15.
Zootaxa ; 4834(1): zootaxa.4834.1.1, 2020 Aug 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056129

RESUMEN

Three digeneans belonging to the Opecoelidae are reported and described from triggerfishes (Tetraodontiformes: Balistidae) collected in the northern Red Sea off Egypt. Both Macvicaria longicirrata (Manter, 1963) Aken-Ova, Cribb Bray, 2008 and Neopycnadena tendu (Bray Justine, 2007) n. comb. were recovered from the intestine of the titan triggerfish, Balistoides viridescens (Bloch Schneider)-each represents a new host record-and Gaevskajatrema balistes n. sp. was found parasitizing the lower intestine of the Picasso triggerfish, Rhinecanthus assasi (Forsskål). We continue to support synonymy of Gaevskajatrema ponticum (Koval, 1966) Machkevsky, 1990 with Gaevskajatrema perezi (Mathias, 1926) Gibson Bray, 1982, not as a differentiated species. We adopt the restricted posterior extension of the ceca and vitellarium to the testicular zone, without extension of either into the post-testicular space, as diagnostic in distinguishing Gaevskajatrema. Gaevskajatrema balistes n. sp. differs from G. perezi based on its substantially smaller body size with fewer eggs, a longer cirrus-pouch reaching ovarian level and it parasitizes a distinct host group from a structurally and ecologically different ecosystem. Neopycnadena n. gen. is erected for Pseudopycnadena tendu Bray Justine 2007 based on its possessing a large broadly oval cirrus-pouch with a massive field of prostatic cells occupying the entire volume of the cirrus-pouch, a wide, cup-shaped and thick-walled ejaculatory duct, distinct dorsal position of the excretory pore, the bifurcal dextral position of the genital pore, its report from a distinct host group and distant locality and its phylogenetic uniqueness compared with Pseudopycnadena fischthali Saad-Fares Maillard 1986. Neopycnadena n. gen. is ecologically similar to opistholebetines in their life-cycles and morphology; however, phylogenetically separate from opistholebetines as well as from the Polypipapiliotrematinae Martin, Cutmore Cribb in Martin, Sasal, Cutmore, Ward, Aeby Cribb, 2018 and members of Clade [C] of Martin and colleagues, thus we conclude that Neopycnadena n. gen. is unique. Neopycnadeninae n. subfam. is proposed to accommodate Neopycnadena n. gen. We consider that the probable characterization of tetraodontiform specialist taxa (as indicated by the presence of a muscular post-oral ring) and the specificity of the Opistholebetinae Fukui, 1929 sensu stricto with a tetraodontiform host are no longer reliable characters differentiating Gaevskajatrema and Macvicaria Gibson Bray, 1982. The nature of the post-oral structure is discussed and it is adopted to be a diagnostic feature at the generic level among taxa of the Opistholebetinae sensu latu. It is concluded that the expanded concept of the Opistholebetinae is more supported than the restricted one, Birendralebes Srivastava Ghosh, 1972 remains incertae sedis within the Opecoelidae Ozaki, 1925 rather than in the Opistholebetinae, and we provide a generic key to the Opistholebetinae.


Asunto(s)
Ecosistema , Trematodos , Animales , Océano Índico , Filogenia
16.
Zootaxa ; 4834(1): zootaxa.4834.1.2, 2020 Aug 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056130

RESUMEN

Leptopeltus trogloxenus López-Prada Chani-Posse, a new species of the subtribe Philonthina (tribe Staphylinini) from the Andes of Colombia, is described and illustrated. A dataset of 49 morphological characters scored for 10 taxa, including all currently known species of Leptopeltus Bernhauer and its putative sister group, Leptopeltoides Chani-Posse Asenjo, was prepared and analysed by maximum parsimony. Our analysis unambiguously placed L. trogloxenus within Leptopeltus in a sister-group relationship with a clade of four species. A revised key to species and an updated phylogeny of Leptopeltus are also provided.


Asunto(s)
Escarabajos , Distribución Animal , Animales , Filogenia
17.
Zootaxa ; 4834(1): zootaxa.4834.1.4, 2020 Aug 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056132

RESUMEN

A new species of freshwater sponges is described from Australia. The new species Radiospongilla fungosa is characterized by the following traits 'megascleres microspiny stout oxeas with scattered, small, simple spines except tips', and by having 'gemmuloscleres long, slim, spiny strongyles with scattered simple spines and hooked spines clustered at tips', 'gemmular theca with 2 layers of gemmuloscleres radially and tangentially arranged', 'pneumatic layer irregularly filamentous network (near inner layer) and thin laminae irregularly arranged (towards outer layer)'. We discuss the relationships of the new species to other members of the genus both from Australia, particularly North-Western Australia, and from other biogeographic regions on the basis of diagnostic morphotraits. An overview on the taxonomy, biogeographic pattern and phylogeny of the genus is supplied and updated to present, together with an updated identification key for Australia species. The diagnosis of the genus Radiospongilla is emended.


Asunto(s)
Poríferos , Animales , Australia , Agua Dulce , Filogenia
18.
Zootaxa ; 4834(1): zootaxa.4834.1.5, 2020 Aug 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056133

RESUMEN

A new species of toby fish, Canthigaster aziz, is described based on a single specimen collected from the northern Red Sea off Saudi Arabia. The holotype was trawled from a depth of 315 m, the second deepest record for the genus. The new species is distinguished from other species of the genus by the following combination of characters: 8 dorsal-fin rays; 8 anal-fin rays; 15 pectoral-fin rays; dorsal-fin origin opposite to anal-fin origin; five diffuse, saddle-like, black blotches along dark yellowish dorsal edge of body between nape and dorsal-fin origin; dorsal half of body light brown with concentrated dark pigments just behind eye and with a longitudinal, irregular, pale golden stripe running from area just behind eye to dorsal side of caudal peduncle; ventral half of posterior part of body pinkish with tiny subcutaneous black spots; head and ventral half of body before anus white; and all fins uniformly pale grey. A phylogenetic analysis of the mitochondrial COI barcoding region resulted in a new and unique evolutionary lineage for the new species that is sister to a clade composed of C. leoparda, C. pygmaea and C. valentini. It also shows C. aziz to be evolutionary deeply divergent from its closest congeners. In addition to the description of the new species, comparisons with congeners and a revised key to the Indo-Pacific species are provided.


Asunto(s)
Perciformes , Tetraodontiformes , Distribución Animal , Animales , Océano Índico , Filogenia
19.
Zootaxa ; 4831(1): zootaxa.4831.1.1, 2020 Aug 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056139

RESUMEN

The Australian Scirtidae genus Pseudomicrocara Armstrong, previously shown to be polyphyletic, is revised using both morphology and sequence data from the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 and two nuclear genes, elongation factor 1-alpha and topoisomerase. Twenty-three genera, 16 of which are new, are recognised based on morphology, primarily of the mandibles and maxillary palpi, and male and female genitalia. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses were used to examine relationships among species from 21 of the 23 recognised genera. Fifteen of the genera were recovered as distinct lineages. A further six, Accolabass Watts, Anocyphon gen. nov., Copiacyphon gen. nov., Nasutuscyphon gen. nov., Pseudomicrocara and Saprocyphon gen. nov. were considered to be genera based on both morphology and phylogenetic analysis but their species composition is uncertain and will require more work to confirm. The 17 new genera are fully described, keys are provided to all the genera in the Pseudomicrocara group, and to all the species in the genera Copiacyphon gen. nov., Spilotocyphon gen. nov., Accolabass Watts, Saltuscyphon gen. nov. and Vadumcyphon gen. nov. The male aedeagi of all new genera and species are illustrated, as are the female prehensors of some species.                The following genera are described as new: Alpestriscyphon gen. nov., Anthocara gen. nov., Anocyphon gen. nov., Copiacyphon gen. nov., Furcacyphon gen. nov., Latuscara gen. nov., Pictacara gen. nov., Nasutuscyphon gen. nov., Nektriscyphon gen. nov., Pumiliocara gen. nov., Ruborcara gen. nov., Saltuscyphon gen. nov., Saprocyphon gen. nov., Sisyracyphon gen. nov., Spilotocyphon gen. nov., Tenebriocyphon gen. nov. and Vadumcyphon gen. nov. A total of 45 new combinations are proposed. The following species are described as new: Accolabass monteithi sp. nov.; Alpestriscyphon bartlefrere sp. nov., Al. spurgeon sp. nov.; Anocyphon lepus sp. nov.; Copiacyphon brindaleensis sp. nov., C. cardinalis sp. nov., C. dytikos sp. nov.; Pumiliocara peneparva sp. nov.; Ruborcara saintae sp. nov.; Saltuscyphon montanus sp. nov., Sal. teraniaensis sp. nov.; Saprocyphon bithongensis sp. nov.; Sisyracyphon brisbanensis sp. nov., S. bulburinensis sp. nov.; Spilotocyphon occidentalis sp. nov., Sp. orientalis sp. nov., Sp. zwicki sp. nov.; Vadumcyphon centralis sp. nov., V. rugosus sp. nov. A checklist of all Australian taxa in the redefined Pseudomicrocara group is included.                Sequence data of the Argentinian species Pseudomicrocara antarctica (Fairmaire) is included. Phylogenetic analyses place this species as a distinct lineage within the Pseudomicrocara group.


Asunto(s)
Escarabajos , Animales , Australia , Teorema de Bayes , Femenino , Masculino , Filogenia
20.
Zootaxa ; 4821(3): zootaxa.4821.3.5, 2020 Aug 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056313

RESUMEN

A new species of the gekkonid genus Hemiphyllodactylus is described from limestone karst forest of Tuyen Quang Province, northern Vietnam based on morphological differences and molecular divergence. Hemiphyllodactylus nahangensis sp. nov. is distinguished from the remaining congeners by having the unique combination of the following characters: a bisexual taxon; SVL of adults 41.4-43.6 mm; dorsal scale rows 18-23; ventral scale rows 9-13; chin scales bordering mental and first infralabial distinctly enlarged; 22-24 pore-bearing femoral and precloacal scales, in a continuous row, absent in females; digital lamella formula 3-4-5-4 (forefoot) and 4-5-5-5 (hindfoot); cloacal spur single, present in both sexes; dark lateral head stripe indistinct; postsacral mark cream and bearing anteriorly projecting arms. In phylogenetic analyses, the new species is placed in a clade that includes H. dushanensis, H. hongkongensis, H. huishuiensis, H. ngocsonensis and H. zugi. In terms of pairwise genetic distance, the new species is at least 5.9%-6.6% divergent from other congeners based on a fragment of the mitochondrial gene ND2.


Asunto(s)
Lagartos , Distribución Animal , Estructuras Animales , Animales , Femenino , Masculino , Filogenia , Vietnam
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