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3.
Gerais (Univ. Fed. Juiz Fora) ; 13(1): 1-20, jan.-abr. 2020.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090462

RESUMEN

O objetivo do presente artigo é analisar o conteúdo das meditações, presentes no Discurso sobre o Método (1637) e Meditações sobre a Filosofia Primeira (1641), de Renée Descartes, a partir das noções estabelecidas pelo Psicanalista Jean Laplanche sobre Revoluções Copernicanas e recaídas Ptolomaicas. Estendendo o designativo Revolução Copernicana, que Laplanche concede à Psicanálise, em específico, à descoberta de um inconsciente no qual residem disposições profundamente sexuais e de origem alteritária, pretende-se a utilização dessa noção para além do texto freudiano, no qual a teorização de Laplanche está prioritariamente concentrada. Uma vez requalificada, propõe-se a partir dessa perspectiva expor as proximidades do percurso de Descartes em suas meditações e a situação analítica. Esse exercício inclui-se na experiência extramuros, na qual a unidade teórica psicanalítica é colocada em movimento, diante de um objeto que lhe é exterior, renovando a sua vocação revolucionária copernicana fundamental.


The purpose of this article is to analyze the content of meditations present in Discourse on Method (1637) and Meditations on First Philosophy (1641), both of René Descartes' authorship, based on the notions established by psychoanalyst Jean Laplanche about Copernican Revolutions and Ptolemaic relapses. Extending the Copernican Revolutions designation - which Laplanche grants specifically to Psychoanalysis - to the discovery of an unconscious where there are deeply sexual dispositions with alteritarian origins, the intention is to use this notion beyond the Freudian text, in which Laplanche's theories are mainly focused. Once this new meaning has been assigned, we proposed to expose the similarities between Descartes' meditations and the analytical situation. This exercise includes an experience "beyond the walls", where the psychoanalytic practice is put in motion before an external object, renewing its fundamental Copernican revolutionary vocation.


Asunto(s)
Filosofía , Psicoanálisis
4.
Dtsch Med Wochenschr ; 144(25): 1803-1809, 2019 12.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31847017

RESUMEN

Pain or misery strike us - but it is up to us how to deal with them. Suffering is a verb; this underlines the active nature of suffering. The present paper develops a constructive concept of suffering by taking up approaches from existential philosophy and psychology. It suggests that suffering, if allowed and accepted, has the potential to facilitate transformation and, subsequently, to release from pain. The text ends with reflections on how a transformative understanding of suffering can be opened up in the accompaniment of suffering or dying.


Asunto(s)
Filosofía/historia , Estrés Psicológico/psicología , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos , Cuidado Terminal/psicología
5.
Rev Med Chil ; 147(8): 1053-1058, 2019 Aug.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31859971

RESUMEN

This essay analyzes the presence of the modern concept of melancholy in the Intercenales (1424-1439) by the humanist Leon Battista Alberti. The Intercenales is a collection of satirical, allegorical and moralizing writings composed with the purpose of entertaining an audience of close friends. In spite of the fact that the term "melancholia" does not appear in the text, this paper argues that Alberti's character of "the philosopher" is melancholic, since he is "ill in the soul" (suffering from morbus animi), and his illness is evidenced by a series of physical and psychological symptoms associated with melancholy in the classical and medieval medical traditions. These symptoms are stomach pain, pallor, insomnia, a rich memory, a propensity to study at night, and an ability to have premonitory dreams. With this characterization Alberti promotes a connection between melancholy and being a genius, which is distinctive to the Renaissance and the basis for the modern concept of melancholy. The essay concludes that the ultimate purpose of the Intercenales is to cure, from a literary and philosophical point of view, the illness of the melancholic philosopher.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno Depresivo/historia , Medicina en la Literatura/historia , Filosofía/historia , Trastorno Depresivo/patología , Historia del Siglo XV , Humanos
6.
Psychiatr Hung ; 34(4): 403-410, 2019.
Artículo en Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31767800

RESUMEN

The fruitless fights and battles among biological psychiatry, social psychiatry and antipsychiatry represented obstacles on the road towards development in psychiatry. Psychiatry came into existence as part of medicine, although its best practices often looked over the fence of natural sciences and embraced various approaches and viewpoints from both human sciences and existentialist philosophy. In our review paper, we analyse the philosophy of sciences background of psychiatry and the latest trends such as critical psychiatry and postpsychiatry. Then, under a critical psychiatry angle, we touch on some callenges psychiatry is compelled to face today, namely:(1) limits of the validity of diagnostics and of the research of evidence-based practices; (2) the various drawbacks of the state of being a psychiatric patient; (3) the intertwining of psychiatry and marketing interests; (4) the professional challenges linked to the therapeutic effectiveness of certain illegal drugs. Finally, we will display the benefits of the postmodern approach and postpsychiatry which stem from the various viewpoints and approaches and provide positive and practical answers to challenges in psychiatry. All this together offers us, professionals, new vistas for development and changes. Similarly, postpsychiatry offers a solid theoretical basis to a number of existing good practices.


Asunto(s)
Psiquiatría , Humanos , Filosofía , Psiquiatría/tendencias
7.
Stud Hist Philos Sci ; 77: 101-111, 2019 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31701873

RESUMEN

Although the interdisciplinary nature of contemporary biological sciences has been addressed by philosophers, historians, and sociologists of science, the different ways in which engineering concepts and methods have been applied in biology have been somewhat neglected. We examine - using the mechanistic philosophy of science as an analytic springboard - the transfer of network methods from engineering to biology through the cases of two biology laboratories operating at the California Institute of Technology. The two laboratories study gene regulatory networks, but in remarkably different ways. The research strategy of the Davidson lab fits squarely into the traditional mechanist philosophy in its aim to decompose and reconstruct, in detail, gene regulatory networks of a chosen model organism. In contrast, the Elowitz lab constructs minimal models that do not attempt to represent any particular naturally evolved genetic circuits. Instead, it studies the principles of gene regulation through a template-based approach that is applicable to any kinds of networks, whether biological or not. We call for the mechanists to consider whether the latter approach can be accommodated by the mechanistic approach, and what kinds of modifications it would imply for the mechanistic paradigm of explanation, if it were to address modelling more generally.


Asunto(s)
Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Técnicas Genéticas , Modelos Genéticos , Proyectos de Investigación , California , Filosofía
8.
J Am Dent Assoc ; 150(12): 1062-1063, 2019 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31761021
10.
Pediatrics ; 144(4)2019 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570654

RESUMEN

The following is an address given by the author in receipt of the Joseph W. St. Geme, Jr Leadership Award, presented by the Federation of Pediatric Organizations at the Pediatric Academic Societies Meeting in Baltimore, Maryland, on April 27, 2019.


Asunto(s)
Relaciones Interpersonales , Distinciones y Premios , Agotamiento Profesional , Humanos , Liderazgo , Tutoría , Filosofía
11.
Psychiatr Hung ; 34(3): 325-326, 2019.
Artículo en Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570664

RESUMEN

No abstract available.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos Mentales , Filosofía , Humanos
12.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 41(4): 49, 2019 Oct 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31655927

RESUMEN

In this paper, I investigate the variety and richness of the taxonomical practices between the end of the nineteenth and the early twentieth centuries. During these decades, zoologists and paleontologists came up with different quantitative practices in order to classify their data in line with the new biological principles introduced by Charles Darwin. Specifically, I will investigate Florentino Ameghino's mathematization of mammalian dentition and the quantitative practices and visualizations of several German-speaking paleontologists at the beginning of the twentieth century. In so doing, this paper will call attention to the visual and quantitative language of early twentieth-century systematics. My analysis will therefore contribute to a prehistory of the statistical frame of mind in biology, a study which has yet to be written in full. Second, my work highlights the productive intertwinement between biological practices and philosophical frameworks at the turn of the nineteenth century. Deeply rooted in Kantian bio-philosophy, several biologists sought to find rules in order to apply ordering principles to chaotic taxonomic information. This implies the necessity to investigate the neglected role of Kantian and Romantic bio-philosophy in the unfolding of twentieth-century biology.


Asunto(s)
Clasificación/métodos , Paleontología/historia , Filosofía/historia , Zoología/historia , Argentina , Alemania , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX
13.
Stud Hist Philos Biol Biomed Sci ; 78: 101224, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31615737

RESUMEN

A nonmathematical exposition of the current status of the formal darwinism project is presented, linking it to the fundamental theorem of natural selection, which is regarded as Fisher's own 'formal darwinism project'. The purpose is to found organism-level thinking about design and adaptation, in short Darwinism, on what is known about the mechanics of genetic inheritance, in short Mendelism, and the project is to do so in as general a biological setting as possible. This view also makes sense of the name 'fundamental theorem of natural selection'.


Asunto(s)
Adaptación Biológica , Evolución Biológica , Herencia , Modelos Biológicos , Selección Genética , Modelos Genéticos , Filosofía
14.
Nutrients ; 11(9)2019 Aug 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31480245

RESUMEN

Snack foods can be substantial contributors to daily energy intake, with different types of snacks exerting potentially different effects on satiety per calorie consumed. The present research compared the effect of consuming almonds as a mid-morning snack compared to an energy and weight-matched comparator snack (savoury crackers) or the equivalent weight of water (zero energy control). In a crossover design, 42 female participants (age: 26.0 ± 7.9, BMI: 22.0 ± 2.0) consumed a fixed breakfast then a mid-morning snack. Appetite, 24-h energy intake, food hedonics, and consumer perceptions of the snack foods were assessed under laboratory conditions. AUC analyses revealed a lower overall hunger drive after consuming almonds compared to crackers or water. There was no difference in 24-h energy intake in the almond compared to the cracker or the zero-energy control condition, however participants consumed more energy in the cracker condition compared to the zero-energy control condition. In addition, almonds suppressed hedonic preference (implicit wanting) for consuming high-fat foods and demonstrated a higher satiety quotient (SQ) than crackers. Almonds were perceived to have a more favourable consumer profile aligned with successful weight management. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate that in the context of a 24-h period of objectively measured energy intake, raw almonds are effective for controlling appetite compared to an energy matched alternative snack. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov [NCT02480582].


Asunto(s)
Apetito , Filosofía , Prunus dulcis , Saciedad , Bocadillos/psicología , Adulto , Área Bajo la Curva , Índice de Masa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Desayuno , Estudios Cruzados , Ingestión de Energía , Femenino , Humanos , Hambre , Percepción , Alimentos Crudos , Adulto Joven
15.
Licere (Online) ; 22(3): 492-516, set.2019. ilus
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS | ID: biblio-1046736

RESUMEN

Nos últimos anos, na era pós-Medina, o surfe brasileiro alcançou um lugar de maior visibilidade no cenário nacional e internacional. Nesse contexto, este artigo teve como objetivo principal analisar o discurso de Ricardo dos Santos, surfista assassinado na Guarda do Embaú em 20 de janeiro de 2015, a partir de alguns conceitos foucaultianos como: discurso; acontecimento e heterotopias. O corpus empírico da pesquisa constituiu-se do Blogue Salt Water Crazy Dreams, criado e mantido pelo próprio surfista. A pesquisa concluiu que apesar de Ricardinho pertencer à geração de surfistas brasileiros que aderiram ao surfe competitivo, seu discurso engajado ressaltava o cuidado com o meio ambiente e uma valoração da dimensão lúdico-brincante do surfe, instituindo assim a possibilidade do surfe constituir-se em uma heterotopia.


Over the last few years, in Post-Medina era, Brazilian surfing has reached a place of greater visibility in international and national scene. In this context, this article has the main objective to analyze the speech of Ricardo dos Santos, a surfer who was murdered at Guarda do Embaú on January 20th in 2015, based on Focauldian concepts such as: speech, events and heterotopia. The empirical corpus of the research consisted of Salt Water Crazy Dreams blog which was created and mainted by the own surfer. The research concluded that despite Ricardinho belong to Brazilian surfers generation who joined competitive surfing, thus his commited speech enphasized the care for the environment and appraisal of the surfing playful dimension establishing thereby the possibility of surfing to become a heterotopia.


Asunto(s)
Filosofía , Política Pública , Ambiente , Deportes Acuáticos
16.
Psychon Bull Rev ; 26(5): 1588-1595, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31368024

RESUMEN

Until well in the 19th century, the Aristotelian concept of the scala naturae (ladder of nature) was the most common biological theory among Western scientists. It dictated that only humans possessed a rational soul that provided the ability to reason and reflect. Michel Eyquem de Montaigne (1533-1592) was the first philosopher influential enough to lastingly posit that animals are cognitive creatures. His view stirred a fierce controversy, with René Descartes (1596-1650) leading among his many adversaries. Only after it became accepted that animals and humans alike have cognitive abilities, did the research on the influence of conscious awareness and intention on the behavior of an animal become possible in the 20th century. We found the anatomist Andreas Vesalius (1515-1564) to have already rejected the Aristotelian view on the lack of the rational soul in animals in his 1543 opus magnum De Humani Corporis Fabrica Libri Septem. His observation "that there is a difference in size according to the amount of reason that they seem to possess: man's brain is the largest, followed by the ape's, the dog's, and so on, corresponding to the amount of rational force that we deduce each animal to have" resonated some 330 years later when Darwin concluded that "the difference in mind between man and the higher animals, great as it is, certainly is one of degree and not of kind." We conclude that Vesalius was instrumental in breaking with two millenniums of dominance of the concept of lack of animal cognition.


Asunto(s)
Anatomía Comparada/historia , Cognición , Filosofía/historia , Animales , Historia del Siglo XV , Historia del Siglo XVI , Historia del Siglo XVII , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Historia Antigua , Historia Medieval , Humanos
17.
Orig Life Evol Biosph ; 49(3): 111-145, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399826

RESUMEN

In this review, we describe some of the central philosophical issues facing origins-of-life research and provide a targeted history of the developments that have led to the multidisciplinary field of origins-of-life studies. We outline these issues and developments to guide researchers and students from all fields. With respect to philosophy, we provide brief summaries of debates with respect to (1) definitions (or theories) of life, what life is and how research should be conducted in the absence of an accepted theory of life, (2) the distinctions between synthetic, historical, and universal projects in origins-of-life studies, issues with strategies for inferring the origins of life, such as (3) the nature of the first living entities (the "bottom up" approach) and (4) how to infer the nature of the last universal common ancestor (the "top down" approach), and (5) the status of origins of life as a science. Each of these debates influences the others. Although there are clusters of researchers that agree on some answers to these issues, each of these debates is still open. With respect to history, we outline several independent paths that have led to some of the approaches now prevalent in origins-of-life studies. These include one path from early views of life through the scientific revolutions brought about by Linnaeus (von Linn.), Wöhler, Miller, and others. In this approach, new theories, tools, and evidence guide new thoughts about the nature of life and its origin. We also describe another family of paths motivated by a" circularity" approach to life, which is guided by such thinkers as Maturana & Varela, Gánti, Rosen, and others. These views echo ideas developed by Kant and Aristotle, though they do so using modern science in ways that produce exciting avenues of investigation. By exploring the history of these ideas, we can see how many of the issues that currently interest us have been guided by the contexts in which the ideas were developed. The disciplinary backgrounds of each of these scholars has influenced the questions they sought to answer, the experiments they envisioned, and the kinds of data they collected. We conclude by encouraging scientists and scholars in the humanities and social sciences to explore ways in which they can interact to provide a deeper understanding of the conceptual assumptions, structure, and history of origins-of-life research. This may be useful to help frame future research agendas and bring awareness to the multifaceted issues facing this challenging scientific question.


Asunto(s)
Biología/historia , Química/historia , Historiografía , Informática/historia , Origen de la Vida , Paleontología/historia , Filosofía/historia , Historia del Siglo XVI , Historia del Siglo XVII , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Biología Molecular/historia
18.
Stud Hist Philos Sci ; 75: 1-11, 2019 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426942

RESUMEN

Throughout much of the 20th century, philosophers of science maintained a position known as the value-free ideal, which holds that non-epistemic (e.g., moral, social, political, or economic) values should not influence the evaluation and acceptance of scientific results. In the last few decades, many philosophers of science have rejected this position by arguing that non-epistemic values can and should play an important role in scientific judgment and decision-making in a variety of contexts, including the evaluation and acceptance of scientific results. Rejecting the value-free ideal creates some new and vexing problems, however. One of these is that relinquishing this philosophical doctrine may undermine the integrity of scientific research if practicing scientists decide to allow non-epistemic values to impact their judgment and decision-making. A number of prominent philosophers of science have sought to show how one can reject the value-free ideal without compromising the integrity of scientific research. In this paper, we examine and critique their views and offer our own proposal for protecting and promoting scientific integrity. We argue that the literature on research ethics and its focus on adherence to norms, rules, policies, and procedures that together promote the aims of science can provide a promising foundation for building an account of scientific integrity. These norms, rules, policies, and procedures provide a level of specificity that is lacking in most philosophical discussions of science and values, and they suggest an important set of tasks for those working in science and values-namely, assessing, justifying, and prioritizing them. Thus, we argue that bringing together the literature on research ethics with the literature on science and values will enrich both areas and generate a more sophisticated and detailed account of scientific integrity.


Asunto(s)
Ética en Investigación , Filosofía , Proyectos de Investigación , Valores Sociales , Conocimiento
19.
Med Hypotheses ; 131: 109316, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31443759

RESUMEN

This paper examines some methodological and epistemological issues underlying the ongoing "artificial" divide between pragmatic-systems biology and systems-theoretical biology. The pragmatic systems view of biology has encountered problems and constraints on its explanatory power because pragmatic systems biologists still tend to view systems as mere collections of parts, not as "emergent realities" produced by adaptive interactions between the constituting components. As such, they are incapable of characterizing the higher-level biological phenomena adequately. The attempts of systems-theoretical biologists to explain these "emergent realities" using mathematics also fail to produce satisfactory results. Given the increasing strategic importance of systems biology, both from theoretical and research perspectives, we suggest that additional epistemological and methodological insights into the possibility of further integration between traditional experimental studies and complex modeling are required. This integration will help to improve the currently underdeveloped pragmatic-systems biology and system-theoretical biology. The "epistemology of complexity," I contend, acts as a glue that connects and integrates different and sometimes opposing viewpoints, perspectives, streams, and practices, thus maintaining intellectual and research coherence of systems research of life. It allows scientists to shift the focus from traditional experimental research to integrated, modeling-based holistic practices capable of providing a comprehensive knowledge of organizing principles of living systems. It also opens the possibility of the development of new practical and theoretical foundations of systems biology to build a better understanding of complex organismic functions.


Asunto(s)
Conocimiento , Análisis de Sistemas , Biología de Sistemas/clasificación , Simulación por Computador , Cibernética , Predicción , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Filosofía , Biología de Sistemas/métodos
20.
Rev. med. Rosario ; 85(2): 93-94, mayo-ago. 2019.
Artículo en Español | LILACS | ID: biblio-1053317

Asunto(s)
Humanos , Cultura , Filosofía , Dieta
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