Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 12.998
Filtrar
1.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 43(2): 54, 2021 Apr 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33835286

RESUMEN

This paper uses structural analogies to competing political philosophies of human society as a heuristic tool to differentiate between ecological theories and to bring out new aspects of apparently well-known classics of ecological scholarship. These two different areas of knowledge have in common that their objects are 'societies', i.e. units composed of individuals, and that contradictory and competing theories about these supra-individual units exist. The benefit of discussing ecological theories in terms of their analogies to political philosophies, in this case liberalism, democratism and conservatism, consists in the fact that political philosophies show clear differences and particularities as regards their approach to the concepts of individuality and intentional action. The method therefore helps to expose peculiarities of ecological theories that are usually considered canonical (e.g. Clements, Gleason), as well as hybrid forms (E. P. Odum), and to differentiate between two different types of theories about functional wholes. The basis of this method is the constitutional-theoretical premise that modern paradigms of socialization structure the ecological discourse.


Asunto(s)
Ecología , Filosofía , Política , Modelos Teóricos
2.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 43(2): 55, 2021 Apr 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33835285

RESUMEN

In this paper, I discuss the neo-Aristotelian approaches, which usually reinterpret Aristotle's ideas on form and/or borrow the notion of formal cause without engaging with the broader implications of Aristotle's metaphysics. In opposition to these approaches, I claim that biosemiotics can propose an alternative view on life's form. Specifically, I examine the proposals to replace the formal cause with gene-centrism, functionalism, and structuralism. After critically addressing these approaches, I discuss the problems of reconciling Aristotelianism with the modern view of life's organization. I claim that the notion of the final cause proposes a cosmological hierarchy and that this is the main problem with applying the formal cause to biology. An alternative categorization of conceptualizing life's form involves (1) the processual identity, (2) relational property clusters, and (3) context-dependent transmission of representational units. The third category points to a semiotic basis of the form of life. In this context, I offer to readjust the focus of the problem of matter-form duality by pointing out that form is primarily an issue of the subject-object relation. Biosemiotics helps to understand the constructive role of symbolic representation in living systems, which is crucial to extend the analysis of the form from cognitive representations to external phenomena. Emergence of subjectivity and perspectivity of interactions are key elements to bridge the form and actual processes within a non-hylomorphic account. To demonstrate transitions from the physical influence of shapes to the organic recognition of forms, I address the biological studies on the synchronization of coincidental inputs and enzyme specificity.


Asunto(s)
Biología/métodos , Vida , Filosofía , Terminología como Asunto , Selección Genética
3.
Wiad Lek ; 74(3 cz 2): 731-735, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33843644

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The aim: Is to study the levels of influence of the Christian spiritual tradition on the attitude of medical students to abortion, which necessitated a comparative analysis of Christian ethics and the main approaches of secular bioethics regarding artificial termination of pregnancy; analysis of the results of sociological research taking into account the peculiarities of religious self-identification of medical students. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: The complex nature of the studied issue necessitated the application of interdisciplinary approaches, philosophical, general scientific and special sociological methods of collecting, processing and analyzing information. Certain differences between Christian moral guidelines and attitudes towards artificial termination of pregnancy were found in a questionnaire study conducted by a sociological group of the Bogomolets National Medical University (hereinafter - NMU) in 2020. The object of the study were first and sixth year students and postgraduate students of NMU (N = 375). RESULTS: Results: Based on a comparative analysis of the evaluative judgments of three groups of respondents (1 group - those who identified themselves as Christians; 2 group - those who are uncertain with their attitude towards religion; 3 group - those who consider themselves non-believers) regarding artificial termination of pregnancy, it was found that the attitude of medical students-believers towards this problem differs from the more liberal approaches of the respondents of the second and third groups, and, at the same time, has significant differences with Christian moral guidelines on this issue. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: A comparative analysis of the main approaches of secular bioethics and Christian ethics to the issue of artificial termination of pregnancy allows us to conclude that the Christian position is distinguished by the recognition of sacredness, inviolability of human life, inalienable dignity and value of human being from conception to the natural end of life. This determines the special importance of the Christian spiritual tradition in overcoming the manifestations of abortive mentality in contemporary Ukrainian society.


Asunto(s)
Bioética , Teología , Femenino , Humanos , Filosofía , Embarazo , Secularismo , Ucrania
4.
Prim Dent J ; 10(1): 50-55, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33722123

RESUMEN

This article reviews some of the main tenets of different occlusal philosophies involved in 'full mouth rehabilitation' and evolved since the late 19th century. This review is not intended as a comprehensive historical review of all the people who wrote, researched, or taught on the topic, and it is certainly not intended to disparage their well-meaning contributions. It is intended to highlight some of the changes that occurred in relation to full mouth rehabilitation occlusal concepts along with the dates when they were articulated.


Asunto(s)
Rehabilitación Bucal , Filosofía , Humanos
5.
Prim Dent J ; 10(1): 101-107, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33722128

RESUMEN

This article reviews various full mouth rehabilitation occlusal concepts along with their main beliefs and controversies. Many of those occlusal teachings were well-meant at the time they were introduced. However, closer examination reveals that many of them involved serious destruction of sound tooth tissue - without delivering many of their purported benefits.The biologic and structural disadvantages of 'subtractive' dental procedures, which were, and still are, undertaken to provide traditional full mouth rehabilitation are discussed. Those approaches are contrasted with the proven advantages of minimally destructive additive techniques, which can solve frequently encountered clinical problems previously deemed to require traditional 'full mouth rehabilitations'. Pragmatic clinical cases are used to illustrate how to solve common clinical problems by using minimally destructive means, without causing structural damage to residual sound tooth tissue.


Asunto(s)
Rehabilitación Bucal , Filosofía , Humanos
6.
Hist Psychol ; 24(1): 22-33, 2021 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33661679

RESUMEN

Following three turning points in the historical development of psychology this study examines how the relation between mental health and the state of illness is linked to the concept of "passions." The first was the birth of modern psychiatry in 18th century France. The second was the development of the field of inquiry in antiquity about the psuche and its mental activities, and the third was the turn of early Christian thought about mind and soul. A comparison between early modern and ancient concepts of "the passions" reveals the moral and ethical aspects of the concept "mental health," and shows that more than for any other kind of illness, the history of mental illness and mental health is embedded within a moralistic philosophical perspective. Pathology as a field of study of "the passions," whatever their definition was, enabled thinkers to refer to mental illness and health in moral terms. Although "passions" meant different things to different authors in different times, it was used by all as means to link between inner mental activities and the way the body react to the outside world. We can see it as an obligatory element to conceptualize illness, disorder, and health in regards to mental activities. Pagan ancient authors as well as early Christian authors used it to construct new theories and praxes about mental health, while early modern psychiatrists used it to develop corporeal methods of cure. In all currents of thought the concept of "passions" and the definition of the ways in which they affected the mind were used to distinguish mental illness and mental health from any other type of illness and health. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Salud Mental/historia , Principios Morales , Psiquiatría/historia , Psicopatología/historia , Historia del Siglo XV , Historia del Siglo XVI , Historia del Siglo XVII , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Historia Antigua , Historia Medieval , Humanos , Trastornos Mentales/historia , Trastornos Mentales/psicología , Filosofía/historia
7.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 43(1): 32, 2021 Mar 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33660133

RESUMEN

It was commonly accepted in Goethe's time that plants were equipped both to propagate themselves and to play a certain role in the natural economy as a result of God's beneficent and providential design. Goethe's identification of sexual propagation as the "summit of nature" in The Metamorphosis of Plants (1790) might suggest that he, too, drew strongly from this theological-metaphysical tradition that had given rise to Christian Wolff's science of teleology. Goethe, however, portrayed nature as inherently active and propagative, itself improvising into the future by multiple means, with no extrinsically pre-ordained goal or fixed end-point. Rooted in the nature philosophy of his friend and mentor Herder, Goethe's plants exhibit their own historically and environmentally conditioned drives and directionality in The Metamorphosis of Plants. In this paper I argue that conceiving of nature as active productivity-not merely a passive product-freed Goethe of the need to tie plants' forms and functions to a divine system of ends, and allowed him to consider possibilities for plants, and for nature, beyond the walls of teleology.


Asunto(s)
Libros/historia , Botánica/historia , Filosofía , Desarrollo de la Planta , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Historia del Siglo XIX , Poesía como Asunto/historia , Reproducción
8.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 43(1): 33, 2021 Mar 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33666741

RESUMEN

The twentieth-century German philosopher Martin Heidegger distinguished "meditative" (besinnlich) and "calculative" (rechnende) modes of thinking as a way of highlighting the problematique of modern technology and the limits of modern science. In doing so he also was prescient to recognize, in 1955, that the most significant danger to the future of humanity are developments in molecular biology and biotechnology, in contrast to the post-World War global threat of thermonuclear weapons. These insights are engaged here in view of recent discussion of the need for international regulation of heritable human genome editing and the announcement in 2018 of the birth of the world's first gene-edited babies in China. Heidegger's call for meditative thinking requires modern medicine and the life sciences to appropriate the phenomenological conception of the human "way to be" (Seinsweise) such that it is not restricted to the "present-at-hand" (vorhanden) physiology and pathology of the human body (Körper).


Asunto(s)
Biotecnología , Predicción , Biología Molecular , Armas Nucleares , Filosofía/historia , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos
9.
RECIIS (Online) ; 15(1): 268-279, jan.-mar. 2021.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS | ID: biblio-1177456

RESUMEN

O artigo apresenta e explora o texto de Heinrich von Kleist intitulado "Sobre a fabricação gradativa dos pensamentos enquanto se fala" (1805-1806). A tese central do ensaio articula oralidade, corpo e produção de pensamento: apartando-se da tradição metafísica, Kleist investiga a imbricação entre a fala, os estados atmosféricos do corpo e o ato de pensar, salientando as dimensões temporais necessárias à fabricação de ideias, não na mente, mas na prática viva dos falantes, em seus intercâmbios presenciais. O ensaio fornece pistas para que se vislumbrem possíveis efeitos sobre o pensamento no contexto de comunicações tecnologicamente mediadas por conta da pandemia da Covid-19, dissociando o falar da presença direta dos corpos. A metodologia adotada concerne à análise detalhada desse texto (pouco conhecido entre nós), remetendo a alguns conceitos de Deleuze e Guattari e visando a levantar possíveis problemas que o pensamento enfrenta na atual situação de distância entre os corpos.


The article presents and explores Heinrich von Kleist's essay "On the gradual construction of thoughts during speech" (1805-1806). Its main thesis articulates orality, body, and the gradual production of thought: against the metaphysical tradition, Kleist analyses the intertwining of speech, atmospherical states of the body and the act of thinking. He highlights the temporal dimensions necessary to the fabrication of ideas not inside the mind, but during the vivacious practice of speech. This text offers relevant clues to the discussion of possible effects on thinking caused by the social isolation due to the Covid-19 pandemic, which segregates speech from the presence of the bodies. The methodology employed concerns a close reading of Kleist's essay, relating the thesis presented to some concepts and perspectives developed by Deleuze and Guattari, as well as to the present context of social isolation and expansion of mediated communications.


El artículo explora el texto de Heinrich von Kleist titulado "Sobre la fabricación gradual de los pensamientos mientras se habla" (1805-1806). La tesis central del ensayo articula oralidad, cuerpo y producción de pensamiento: apartándose de la tradición metafísica, Kleist investiga la imbricación entre el habla, los estados atmosféricos del cuerpo y el acto de pensar, subrayando las dimensiones temporales necesarias a la fabricación de ideas, no en la mente, sino en la práctica viva de los hablantes, en sus intercambios presenciales. En ese sentido, provee pistas para comenzar a vislumbrar posibles efectos sobre el pensamiento en el contexto de expansión de comunicaciones tecnológicamente mediadas debido a la pandemia de la Covid-19. La metodología utilizada concierne al análisis detallado del texto (poco conocido entre nosotros), remitiendo a algunos conceptos de Deleuze e Guattari y apuntando a evaluar posibles problemas que el pensamiento enfrenta en la actual situación de distancia entre los cuerpos.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Aislamiento Social , Pensamiento , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Comunicación/historia , Barreras de Comunicación , Filosofía/historia , Reseñas de Libros como Asunto , Medios de Comunicación Sociales
10.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 43(2): 42, 2021 Mar 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33759005

RESUMEN

RNA is central to the COVID-19 pandemic-it shapes how the SARS Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) behaves, and how researchers investigate and fight it. However, RNA has received relatively little attention in the history and philosophy of the life sciences. By analysing RNA biology in more detail, philosophers and historians of science could gain new and powerful tools to assess the current pandemic, and the biological sciences more generally.


Asunto(s)
Disciplinas de las Ciencias Biológicas , ARN , /genética , Humanos , Filosofía , /genética
11.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 43(2): 47, 2021 Mar 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33770267

RESUMEN

COVID-19 epidemic models raise important questions for science and philosophy of science. Here I provide a brief preliminary exploration of three: what kinds of predictions do epidemic models make, are they causal models, and how do different kinds of epidemic models differ in terms of what they represent?


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Epidemias , Modelos Teóricos , Filosofía , Humanos
12.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33560618

RESUMEN

The development of spine neurosurgery raises some questions concerning the methodology, practical significance, treatment and diagnosis of spinal diseases. In this regard, we inevitably turn to the methods of philosophical knowledge as a basis for analysis and synthesis of scientific information. This approach allows you to avoid mistakes in practice, which can have negative ethical and socio-economic consequences for society. Some controversial issues of spine surgery are discussed in the manuscript. Advisability of syndromic approach in the treatment of spine diseases, determining the length of spine fusion for injury, prediction of postoperative segmental instability due to osteoporosis and extrapolation of the principles of spine fusion surgery to arthroplasty are considered through the prism of philosophical categories.


Asunto(s)
Neurocirugia , Enfermedades de la Columna Vertebral , Humanos , Procedimientos Neuroquirúrgicos/efectos adversos , Filosofía , Enfermedades de la Columna Vertebral/cirugía , Columna Vertebral
13.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 43(1): 23, 2021 Feb 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33587187

RESUMEN

This paper critically supports the modern evolutionary explanation of religion popularised by David Sloan Wilson, by comparing it with those of his predecessors, namely Emile Durkheim and Thomas Hobbes, and to some biological examples which seem analogous to religions as kinds of superorganisms in their own right. The aim of the paper is to draw out a theoretical pedigree in philosophy and sociology that is reflected down the lines of various other evolutionarily minded contributors on the subject of religion. The general theme is of evolved large-scale cooperative structures. A scholarly concern is as follows: Wilson (Darwin's Cathedral: Evolution, Religion, And The Nature Of Society, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 2002) draws on Durkheim, (The elementary forms of religious life. Free Press, New york, 1912) using Calvinism as an example without mentioning Hobbes (Leviathan, Edited by E. Curley, Cambridge, Hackett, 1651), but it was Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) who used Calvinism as an example of a leviathanesque religious structure-which is not acknowledged by either Wilson or Durkheim. If there are even any similarities between these authors, there appears to be an omission somewhere which should rightly be accounted for by giving credit to Hobbes where it is due. I issue on conclusion, what it is that makes Wilson's approach radically different to that it skates on. I also issue it with a cautionary word.


Asunto(s)
Filosofía/historia , Religión/historia , Sociología/historia , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI
14.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 43(1): 26, 2021 Feb 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33619605

RESUMEN

During his celebrated 1922 debate with Bergson, Einstein famously proclaimed: "the time of the philosopher does not exist, there remains only a psychological time that differs from the physicist's." Einstein's dictum, I maintain, has been metabolized by the natural sciences, which typically presuppose, more or less explicitly, the existence of a single, univocal, temporal substratum, ultimately determined by physics. This reductionistic assumption pervades much biological and biomedical practice. The chronological age allotted to individuals is conceived as an objective quantity, allowing one to straightforwardly assign and compare the biological age of organisms. This essay argues that the standard practice of assessing the age and aging of organisms against the backdrop of a physical conception of time is problematic. This becomes especially evident in light of recent discoveries of various levels of senescence underlying the development of individual organisms-a phenomenon known as 'age mosaicism.' The bottom line is that the study of age and aging requires a biological conception of time, as opposed to a physical one. Einstein clearly wasn't wrong about his operationalization of time in relativity theory. Still time may be less monolithic than he surmised.


Asunto(s)
Envejecimiento/fisiología , Filosofía , Tiempo , Animales , Humanos , Fenómenos Fisiológicos de las Plantas , Plantas
15.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 43(1): 27, 2021 Feb 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33620596

RESUMEN

Patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) are currently promoted as new translational models in precision oncology. PDXs are immunodeficient mice with human tumors that are used as surrogate models to represent specific types of cancer. By accounting for the genetic heterogeneity of cancer tumors, PDXs are hoped to provide more clinically relevant results in preclinical research. Further, in the function of so-called "mouse avatars", PDXs are hoped to allow for patient-specific drug testing in real-time (in parallel to treatment of the corresponding cancer patient). This paper examines the circulation of knowledge and bodily material across the species boundary of human and personalized mouse model, historically as well as in contemporary practices. PDXs raise interesting questions about the relation between animal model and human patient, and about the capacity of hybrid or interspecies models to close existing translational gaps. We highlight that the translational potential of PDXs not only depends on representational matching of model and target, but also on temporal alignment between model development and practical uses. Aside from the importance of ensuring temporal stability of human tumors in a murine body, the mouse avatar concept rests on the possibility of aligning the temporal horizons of the clinic and the lab. We examine strategies to address temporal challenges, including cryopreservation and biobanking, as well as attempts to speed up translation through modification and use of faster developing organisms. We discuss how featured model virtues change with precision oncology, and contend that temporality is a model feature that deserves more philosophical attention.


Asunto(s)
Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Xenoinjertos/estadística & datos numéricos , Oncología Médica/métodos , Medicina de Precisión/métodos , Investigación en Medicina Traslacional/métodos , Trasplante Heterólogo/estadística & datos numéricos , Animales , Bancos de Muestras Biológicas , Criopreservación , Humanos , Ratones , Filosofía
17.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 43(1): 2, 2021 Jan 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33411065

RESUMEN

In this brief essay, we combine biological, historical, philosophical and anthropological perspectives to ask anew the question about the nature of the virus. How should we understand Sars-CoV-2 and why does it matter? The argument we present is that the virus undermines any neat distinction between the natural and the human-made, the biological and the social. Rather, to understand the virus and the pandemic we need to understand both as intimately connected to our own social and historical condition. What started as a reflection on the nature of the virus thus turns into a reflection on the human condition as refracted in this pandemic or an anthropology of the virus.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Pandemias , Filosofía
18.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 43(1): 3, 2021 Jan 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33417016

RESUMEN

Many governments have seen digital health technologies as promising tools to tackle the current COVID-19 pandemic. A much-talked example in this context involves the recent deluge of digital contact tracing apps (DCT) aimed at detecting Covid-19 exposure. In this short contribution we look at the bio-political justification of this phenomenon and reflect on whether DCT apps constitute, as it is often argued, a serious potential breach of our right to privacy. Despite praising efforts attempting to develop legal and ethical frameworks for DCT apps' usage; we argue that such endeavours are not sufficient to tackle the more fundamental problem of mass surveillance, which will remain largely unaddressed unless we deal with the biopolitical arguments presented and resort to a technical and structural defence.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Trazado de Contacto/ética , Libertad , Pandemias/prevención & control , Filosofía , Privacidad , /prevención & control , Humanos
19.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 43(1): 4, 2021 Jan 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33420572

RESUMEN

In the ongoing pandemic, death statistics influence people's feelings and government policy. But when does COVID-19 qualify as the cause of death? As philosophers of medicine interested in conceptual clarification, we address the question by analyzing the World Health Organization's rules for the certification of death. We show that for COVID-19, WHO rules take into account both facts (causal chains) and values (the importance of prevention).


Asunto(s)
/mortalidad , Causas de Muerte , Pandemias/estadística & datos numéricos , Filosofía , Organización Mundial de la Salud , Humanos
20.
Microbiome ; 9(1): 5, 2021 01 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33436093

RESUMEN

Within the last 6 years, a research field has emerged that focuses on the characterization of microbial communities in the prenatal intrauterine environment of humans and their putative role in human health. However, there is considerable controversy around the existence of such microbial populations. The often contentious debate is primarily focused on technical aspects of the research, such as difficulties to assure aseptic sampling and to differentiate legitimate signals in the data from contamination. Although such discussions are clearly important, we feel that the problems with the prenatal microbiome field go deeper. In this commentary, we apply a philosophical framework to evaluate the foundations, experimental approaches, and interpretations used by scientists on both sides of the debate. We argue that the evidence for a "sterile womb" is based on a scientific approach that aligns well with important principles of the philosophy of science as genuine tests of the hypothesis and multiple angles of explanatory considerations were applied. In contrast, research in support of the "in utero colonization hypothesis" is solely based on descriptive verifications that do not provide explanatory insight, which weakens the evidence for a prenatal intrauterine microbiome. We propose that a reflection on philosophical principles can inform not only the debate on the prenatal intrauterine microbiome but also other disciplines that attempt to study low-biomass microbial communities.


Asunto(s)
Feto/microbiología , Microbiota , Filosofía , Útero/microbiología , Femenino , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Embarazo , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA
...