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1.
Braz Dent J ; 31(3): 257-263, 2020 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32667523

RESUMEN

The aim of this in vitro study was to determine the fluoride concentration in silver diamine fluoride (SDF) products and their bioavailability with demineralized dentine. The products evaluated (expected fluoride concentrations) were: I: Saforide 38% (45,283 ppm F); II: Advantage Arrest 38.3 to 43.2% (45,283 to 51,013 ppm F); III: Ancárie 12% (14,100 ppm F); IV: Ancárie 30% (35,400 ppm F), V: Cariestop 12% (14,100 ppm F) and VI: Cariestop 30% (35,400 ppm F). The fluoride concentration was evaluated using an ion-specific electrode (ISE) by direct technique, which was confirmed after microdiffusion. The pH of the products was determined with a pH test strip. For the bioavailability test, demineralized dentine slabs were treated with one of the products for 1 min. Loosely (CaF2-like) and firmly-bound fluoride (FAp) were determined. The fluoride concentration found in the products (mean±SD; ppm F) by the ISE direct technique was: I:53,491±554; II:57,249±1,851; III:4,814±268; IV:5,726±43; V:10,145±468; VI:11,858±575; these values were confirmed after microdiffusion (t-test; p>0.05) and disagree with the declared by the manufacturers. The pH of Ancárie 12 and 30% was 6.0 and 4.5, respectively, in disagreement with the alkaline pH expected for SDF solution and found in the other products evaluated. There was no correlation between either CaF2-like (r=0.221; p=0.337) or FAp (r=-0.144; p=0.830) formed in demineralized dentine and fluoride concentration found in the products. The problems of pH and fluoride concentration found in available professional commercial SDF products suggest that they are not under sanitary surveillance.


Asunto(s)
Cariostáticos , Fluoruros , Disponibilidad Biológica , Dentina , Fluoruros Tópicos , Concentración de Iones de Hidrógeno , Compuestos de Amonio Cuaternario , Compuestos de Plata , Fluoruro de Sodio
2.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(8): 514, 2020 Jul 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32666298

RESUMEN

Public health monitoring of Community Water Fluoridation (CWF) schemes requires estimates of exposure to fluoride in public water supplies (PWS). We aimed to use routine data to estimate population exposure to PWS-fluoride in England and to determine whether PWS-fluoride exposure from 2005 to 2015 could be used as a proxy for exposure for 1995-2004, when fluoride concentration data that could be linked to population health data were unavailable. We calculated annual mean water supply zone PWS-fluoride concentrations from monitoring data for 1995-2015, stratified by fluoridation scheme-flagging. We allocated annual 2005-2015 mean PWS-fluoride concentrations to small area boundaries to describe population exposure within five concentration categories (< 0.1 to ≥ 0.7 mg/L). We compared zone-level 1995-2004 and 2005-2015 mean PWS-fluoride concentrations using Spearman correlation. Most (72%) of the population received PWS with < 0.2 mg/L fluoride and 10% with ≥ 0.7 mg/L. Fluoride concentrations in 1995-2004 and 2005-2015 were similar (median 0.11 mg/L (lower quartile-upper quartile (LQ-UQ) 0.06-0.17) and 0.11 mg/L (LQ-UQ 0.07-0.17), respectively) and highly correlated (coefficient 0.93) if un-fluoridated but differed (1995-2004 median 0.78 mg/L (LQ-UQ 0.59-0.92); 2005-2015 0.84 mg/L (LQ-UQ 0.72-0.95)) and correlated weakly (coefficient 0.31) if fluoridated. Fluoride concentrations in 2005-2015 approximate those in 1995-2004 but with a greater risk of misclassification in fluoridation schemes.


Asunto(s)
Monitoreo del Ambiente , Fluoruros/análisis , Inglaterra , Fluoruración , Abastecimiento de Agua
3.
Oral Health Prev Dent ; 18(3): 619-624, 2020 Jun 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32700515

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: The in-situ efficacy of an experimental stannous (Sn)-containing sodium fluoride (NaF) dentifrice against erosion and erosive tooth wear was compared with a conventional NaF dentifrice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a randomised, controlled, double-blind, parallel-group clinical trial. Mandibular appliances containing four enamel specimens (2 per side [L/R] of the appliance) were worn by 60 generally healthy adult subjects. Subjects were randomised to treatment based on age and gender. Treatments included a Sn-containing NaF or conventional NaF dentifrice. Conditions of erosion (dentifrice slurry treatment) and erosion/tooth wear (dentifrice slurry plus brushing) were compared. Dentifrices were used twice per day for 30 s of lingual brushing, followed by 90 s of slurry exposure. In addition, the two specimens on the left side of the mouth were brushed for 5 s each, using a power toothbrush. All specimens were exposed to four daily erosive challenges with commercial orange juice (pH 3.6). Tooth wear was measured as enamel loss using non-contact profilometry on day 10. RESULTS: At the day 10 visit, the adjusted mean (SE) enamel loss for specimens receiving slurry (erosion) treatment was 4.7 µm (0.61) [Sn-containing NaF] and 8.73 µm (1.12) [NaF control], with results demonstrating a statistically significant benefit for the Sn-containing dentifrice (46.2% benefit; p = 0.009). For specimens exposed to erosion/tooth wear conditions, enamel loss = 6.68 µm (1.29) (Sn-containing NaF) and 10.99 µm (1.29) (NaF group), with results statistically significant (p = 0.048; 39.2% better, favouring the Sn-containing dentifrice). When data were combined, enamel loss (SE) for all specimens subjected to erosion + erosion/tooth wear was 5.61 µm (0.77) (Sn-containing NaF]) and 9.9 µm (1.3) (NaF group). The difference again was statistically significant, favouring the Sn-containing group (p = 0.022; 43.4% better). CONCLUSIONS: The Sn-containing dentifrice demonstrated significantly better protection than did NaF under erosive and erosive/tooth wear conditions.


Asunto(s)
Dentífricos , Erosión de los Dientes , Desgaste de los Dientes , Adulto , Fluoruros , Humanos , Fluoruro de Sodio , Fluoruros de Estaño
4.
Nature ; 583(7814): 66-71, 2020 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32612224

RESUMEN

Dental enamel is a principal component of teeth1, and has evolved to bear large chewing forces, resist mechanical fatigue and withstand wear over decades2. Functional impairment and loss of dental enamel, caused by developmental defects or tooth decay (caries), affect health and quality of life, with associated costs to society3. Although the past decade has seen progress in our understanding of enamel formation (amelogenesis) and the functional properties of mature enamel, attempts to repair lesions in this material or to synthesize it in vitro have had limited success4-6. This is partly due to the highly hierarchical structure of enamel and additional complexities arising from chemical gradients7-9. Here we show, using atomic-scale quantitative imaging and correlative spectroscopies, that the nanoscale crystallites of hydroxylapatite (Ca5(PO4)3(OH)), which are the fundamental building blocks of enamel, comprise two nanometric layers enriched in magnesium flanking a core rich in sodium, fluoride and carbonate ions; this sandwich core is surrounded by a shell with lower concentration of substitutional defects. A mechanical model based on density functional theory calculations and X-ray diffraction data predicts that residual stresses arise because of the chemical gradients, in agreement with preferential dissolution of the crystallite core in acidic media. Furthermore, stresses may affect the mechanical resilience of enamel. The two additional layers of hierarchy suggest a possible new model for biological control over crystal growth during amelogenesis, and hint at implications for the preservation of biomarkers during tooth development.


Asunto(s)
Amelogénesis , Esmalte Dental/química , Ácidos/química , Calcio/química , Carbonatos/química , Cristalización , Teoría Funcional de la Densidad , Esmalte Dental/ultraestructura , Durapatita/química , Fluoruros/química , Humanos , Magnesio/química , Microscopía Electrónica de Transmisión de Rastreo , Sodio/química , Tomografía , Difracción de Rayos X
5.
Oral Health Prev Dent ; 18(2): 319-323, 2020 Apr 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32618455

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: The aim of this paper was to compare three conventional hand mixing glass-ionomer cements (GICs) and a new mechanical mixing glass-ionomer cement. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Samples were measured on days 1, 2, 6, 10, 31, 90 and 180. After 32 and 181 days of monitoring, the samples were recharged by using 1 ml of 2% sodium fluoride gel. RESULTS: The fluoride release started in high concentration during the first day for all GICs, with a value for GIII of 32.6 ppm. From the 2nd day, a slow, steady decline, with the exception of GII, which showed a marked decline to a value of 3.2 ppm. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) test showed statistically significant differences between the amounts of fluoride of the four materials in the first 24 h. Student t test was used to compare the fluoride release between the first and second recharge in each one of the study groups. Statistically significant differences were found when we compared the fluoride release in groups I (t = -16.95, p = 0.000) and IV (t = -2.644, p = 0.26). CONCLUSIONS: A mechanical mixing was the material with the more constant fluoride release and after recharge showed the highest fluoride release which make it an important benefit for clinicians.


Asunto(s)
Fluoruros , Cementos de Ionómero Vitreo , Humanos , Ensayo de Materiales , Fluoruro de Sodio
6.
Chemosphere ; 257: 127186, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32516669

RESUMEN

Fluoride is an element that is widely distributed in the environment. The involvement of fluoride in pathogenesis of Chronic Kidney Disease of uncertain aetiology (CKDu) in Sri Lanka is a much-debated topic. This study aimed to investigate the fluoride concentration in drinking water in CKDu affected areas in Sri Lanka and to evaluate the possible effect of renal impairment on serum fluoride levels in CKDu patients. Drinking water (n = 60) from the common water sources from two CKDu prevalent areas and serum samples of CKDu patients (n = 311) and healthy controls (n = 276) were collected. Both environmental and biological samples were analysed for the concentration of fluoride. The fluoride concentration in over 95% of drinking water samples was below the WHO guideline of 1.5 mg/L. Serum fluoride concentrations in majority of the unaffected and early-stage CKDu patients (stages 1 and 2, eGFR >60 ml/min/1.73m2) were below the normal upper concentration of 50 µg/l and significantly higher levels were observed in patients in late stages of CKDu compared to the healthy controls. The available guidelines for drinking water are solely based on healthy populations with normal renal function. But, it is evident that once the kidney function is impaired, patients enter a vicious cycle as fluoride gradually accumulates in the body, further damaging the kidney tissue. Thus, close monitoring of serum fluoride levels in CKDu patients and establishing health-based target guidelines for fluoride in drinking water for the CKDu patients are recommended to impede the progression to end stage renal disease.


Asunto(s)
Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/estadística & datos numéricos , Fluoruros/metabolismo , Insuficiencia Renal Crónica/epidemiología , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/metabolismo , Femenino , Fluoruros/análisis , Tasa de Filtración Glomerular , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Minerales/análisis , Sri Lanka/epidemiología , Incertidumbre , Agua/análisis , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
7.
J Evid Based Dent Pract ; 20(2): 101405, 2020 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32473796

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: White spot lesion (WSL) is recognized as the first clinical sign of enamel caries; it is a very critical phase because it can be prevented from progression to frank caries by changing the surrounding destructive environment. The present study was undertaken to systematically review the effect of resin infiltration (RI) technique on surface hardness (SH) of WSL. METHODS: Five electronic databases were searched with proper key words. Related titles and abstracts, up to October 2018, were screened, selected, and subjected to quality assessments. After collecting data, meta-analyses were carried out to compare the effect of RI with untreated WSL and sound enamel by using the STATA software. RESULTS: A total of 4567 articles were included in the study after initial search. Finally, 10 studies were reliable enough in methodology to be included in the study. Metadata analyses, carried out on 7 studies that compared SH of RI group with untreated samples, showed a significant increase in SH with 3.66 mean difference (95% confidence interval = 2.56‒4.77, Q value = 36.07, I2 = 83.4%). However, meta-analysis on 4 studies that compared SH of RI with sound enamel showed a significant decrease in SH with -2.35 overall mean difference (95% confidence interval = -3.91-0.98, P = .00, Q value = 31.75, I2 = 90.6%). CONCLUSION: The RI technique can enhance SH of WSL; however, regaining the SH of RI-treated WSLs similar to sound enamel is doubtful. Application of RI is more effective than other methods, including application of fluoride, enamel pro-varnish, adhesive, and colloidal silica infiltration for enhancing SH of WSLs.


Asunto(s)
Caries Dental , Esmalte Dental , Fluoruros , Dureza , Humanos
8.
Braz Dent J ; 31(2): 157-163, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32556015

RESUMEN

This study assessed the effectiveness of models for developing subsurface caries lesions in vitro and verified mineral changes by transverse microradiography (TMR). Enamel blocks from permanent (n=5) and deciduous teeth (n=5) were submitted to lesion induction by immersion in demineralizing solutions during 96 h, followed by pH cycles of demineralization (de) and remineralization (re) for 10 days. Two de-/re solutions were tested. Demineralizing solution "A" was composed by 2.2 mM CaCl2, 2.2 mM KH2PO4, 0.05 M acetic acid, with pH 4.4 adjusted by 1 M KOH. Demineralizing solution "B" was composed by 2.2 mM CaCl2, 2.2 mM NaH2PO4, 0.05 M acetic acid and 0.25 ppmF, with pH 4.5 adjusted by 1M KOH. Solution "A" produced cavitated lesions in permanent teeth, whereas solution "B" led to subsurface lesions in deciduous teeth. Solution "B" was then tested in enamel blocks from permanent teeth (n=5) and subsurface lesions were obtained, so that solution "B" was employed for both substrates, and the blocks were treated with slurries of a fluoride dentifrice (1450 ppm F, as NaF, n=5) or a fluoride-free dentifrice (n=5). Solution "B" produced subsurface lesions in permanent and primary teeth of an average (±SD) depth of 88.4µm (±14.3) and 89.3µm (±15.8), respectively. TMR analysis demonstrated that lesions treated with fluoride-free dentifrice had significantly greater mineral loss. This study concluded that solution "B" developed subsurface lesions after pH cycling, and that mineral changes were successfully assessed by TMR.


Asunto(s)
Caries Dental , Dentífricos , Desmineralización Dental , Cariostáticos , Esmalte Dental , Fluoruros , Humanos , Concentración de Iones de Hidrógeno , Remineralización Dental
9.
Braz Dent J ; 31(2): 164-170, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32556016

RESUMEN

The aim of this study was to compare the effects of a single application of a new calcium mesoporous silica nanoparticle (Ca2+-MSN) versus other calcium and/or fluoride products against dental erosion. Enamel blocks were half-covered and assigned to six groups (n = 10): Ca2+-MSNs; casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate mousse (CPP-ACP); CPP-ACP/F- (900 ppm F-); titanium tetrafluoride (TiF4 1%); sodium fluoride (NaF 1.36%); and Milli-Q® water (negative control). A single application for each product was completed on the exposed areas of the blocks and were submitted to an erosive challenge. Differences in volumetric roughness (Sa), and tooth structure loss (TSL) by use of three-dimensional noncontact optical profilometry were evaluate. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was performed. Analysis of variance and Tukey's test for Sa and the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests (p< 0.05) for TSL, respectively. Results: When evaluating Sa, all products presented differences in roughness when compared with the control group (p< 0.05) but not with each other (p > 0.05). However, when analyzing the TSL, it was observed that Ca2+-MSNs, TiF4, and NaF were more effective in preventing dental erosion versus CPP-ACP, CPP-ACP/F-, and Milli-Q® water (p< 0.05). In the SEM images, the negative control presented the worst loss of dental structure, with more porous enamel. Ca2+-MSNs were as effective as TiF4 and NaF to reduce the tooth structure loss.


Asunto(s)
Fluoruros , Erosión de los Dientes , Calcio , Caseínas , Esmalte Dental , Humanos , Dióxido de Silicio , Fluoruro de Sodio , Remineralización Dental
10.
Eur J Paediatr Dent ; 21(2): 148-152, 2020 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32567947

RESUMEN

AIM: The aim of the present report was to highlight historical and bibliometric aspects of fluoride in dentistry. METHODS: Study design: In the first part of the manuscript, history of fluoride has been reported. In the second part, some bibliometric considerations have been explained. The historical research evaluated the first documents about fluoride in dentistry. The bibliometric research considered Scopus-indexed documents from 1945 to 2019. RESULTS: Historical search showed the consistent presence of documents since 1803, even if modern research started in the 1930s. STATISTICS: Descriptive statistics of documents about fluoride showed a constantly increasing interest on the topic, starting from 1965 to nowadays. CONCLUSIONS: The topic of fluoride has a long history in dental practice, and future interesting research is needed in order to combine this well-known inorganic, monatomic anion with new emerging technologies.


Asunto(s)
Caries Dental , Fluoruros , Bibliometría , Cariostáticos , Odontología , Humanos
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 735: 139584, 2020 Sep 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32485458

RESUMEN

Safe drinking water supply systems in naturally contaminated hydrogeological environments require precise geoinformation on contamination hotspots. Spatial statistical methods and GIS were used to study fluoride occurrence in groundwater and identify significant spatial patterns using fluoride concentrations. The global and local Morans I indices were used. While the significant positive global Morans I index indicated spatial structure in fluoride occurrence, the significant spatial clusters were identified using local Morans I index and mapped at p-value of 0.05. The spatial clusters demonstrated patterns of drinking water sources with fluoride concentrations below or above WHO guideline and Tanzania standard for drinking water and were considered as 'regional fluoride cool spots' and 'regional fluoride contamination hotspots', respectively. Two regional fluoride contamination hotspots were identified and mapped around the Stratovolcano Mountains in the north-east and south-west of the study area; and along the Neogene Quaternary volcanic formations and Palaeo-Neoproterozoic East African Orogen (Mozambique Belt). The two largest regional fluoride cool spots dominated the major and minor rift escarpments in the west and east of the study area respectively while the small ones emerged around the volcanic mountains in the north and south. Furthermore, significant spatial outliers emerged at the boundary of regional fluoride hotspots and cool spots as an indication of the spatial processes controlling the mobilization of fluoride in groundwater. While all water sources in the cool spots had fluoride concentrations below 1.5 mg/L, some had extremely low concentrations below 0.5 mg/L which is not safe for human consumption. For hotspots, 96% of water sources had fluoride concentrations above 1.5 mg/L. The probability of having safe source of drinking water varied from one geological unit to another with sources in the Neogene Quaternary volcanic formations having least probabilities.


Asunto(s)
Agua Potable , Agua Subterránea , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Fluoruros/análisis , Sistemas de Información Geográfica , Humanos , Tanzanía , Abastecimiento de Agua
12.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 94: 52-63, 2020 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32563487

RESUMEN

Local fluoride contamination and bacterial infections in potable water have dangerous effects on the human body and are today a global concern. In this study, we have synthesized a pH-responsive bifunctional biopolymer nanocomposite (HAZ) of humic acid with incorporating aluminum zirconium bimetallic oxide by deep freeze-drying method. Fast nucleation and interconnection of nanoparticles form a highly porous network because of sublimation of frozen HAZ. This duo nanocomposite has efficiently worked for fluoride removal and showed potent antibacterial activity against the Escherichia coli Gram-negative and Staphylococcus aureus Gram-positive bacteria. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis demonstrates that the hydroxyl groups act as a pivot in the ion exchange process of adsorption, each element of bimetallic oxide primarily takes part in the adsorption mechanism. The maximum adsorption capacity of the adsorbent was 180.62 mg/g at pH seven. Thermodynamic parameters like Gibbs free energy change (ΔG0), entropy (ΔS0), and enthalpy (ΔH0) indicate that the process was endothermic, feasible, and taken place by a chemisorption mechanism. This is the first novel freeze-dried bifunctional biopolymer nanocomposite composed of humic acid natural polymer incorporated with Al-Zr metal oxide, and it exhibited three times higher adsorption efficacy with excellent antibacterial action at a concentration of 5 µg/mL of the nanocomposite.


Asunto(s)
Fluoruros , Nanocompuestos , Adsorción , Antibacterianos , Biopolímeros , Humanos , Concentración de Iones de Hidrógeno , Cinética , Termodinámica
13.
Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue ; 29(1): 46-50, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32524120

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of dental varnish containing fluoride either with casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate(CPP-ACP) or bioglass on root caries. METHODS: The active roots collected in Peking University People's Hospital from April 2017 to October 2018 were randomly divided into group A, group B, group C, and group D, each with 18 teeth. All groups received toothbrushing containing fluoride, in addition, group B received another 5% sodium fluoride, group C added 5% sodium fluoride + CPP-ACP, and group D added 5% sodium fluoride + bioglass. The severity, surface roughness and mineral concentration of root caries before and after brushing were observed. SPSS 23.0 software package was used to determine the correlation between root severity and surface roughness. RESULTS: After 50 days of brushing, the hardness of group B, C and D was significantly improved (P<0.05), and was significantly better than that of group A (P<0.05). The hardness was the highest in group D after 50 days of brushing, followed by group C and B, with significant difference(P<0.05). The surface roughness scores of group B and C were significantly higher than those of group A and D after 7 days of brushing(P<0.05). The surface roughness scores of group B were significantly higher than those of group A, C and D after 14 days of brushing(P<0.05). The surface roughness scores of group D were significantly higher than those of group B and C after 50 days of brushing(P<0.05). The severity score of root caries in group A was negatively correlated with surface roughness (P<0.05). The mineral concentration of each group was increased 50 days after brushing (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Application of dental varnish containing fluoride either with CPP-ACP or bioglass can effectively prevent root caries. Compared with CPP-ACP, bioglass is more stable, and can effectively improve the mineral concentration on tooth surface.


Asunto(s)
Caries Dental , Caries Radicular , Cariostáticos , Caseínas , Cerámica , Fluoruros , Humanos , Minerales , Pintura , Remineralización Dental
14.
Oral Health Prev Dent ; 18(3): 441-446, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32515414

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Fluoride toothpastes are effective in caries prevention. In legislation, regular fluoride toothpaste is a cosmetic product; adolescents use it for aesthetic purposes. In dentistry, fluoride toothpaste is considered a caries preventive drug recommended to patients for that reason. Knowledge is lacking concerning what motivates adolescents to use fluoride toothpaste. Dental professionals need to understand how to motivate a risk-group for caries development to use fluoride toothpaste frequently in order to effectively motivate patients to prevent tooth decay. The purpose of this study was to investigate what motivates adolescents to use fluoride toothpaste. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted at a high school in southern Sweden. The final sample consisted of 16 adolescents age 16 to 19. This study employed a qualitative design using semi-structured interviews. The data were analysed using manifest content analysis with an occasional inductive approach. RESULTS: Reasons for why adolescents use fluoride toothpaste were found in four different categories: oral health, economy, upbringing and habit, social influences. CONCLUSION: There are reasons to believe that dental professionals might have missed important arguments for why adolescents use fluoride toothpaste. The participants mentioned oral health and aesthetics as important reasons for using fluoride toothpaste, as well as other more surprising factors such as financial reasons and social environment. There are thus more arguments for using fluoride toothpaste that adolescents value than the ones we believe dental professionals use.


Asunto(s)
Caries Dental , Pastas de Dientes , Adolescente , Cariostáticos , Fluoruros , Humanos , Salud Bucal
15.
Oral Health Prev Dent ; 18(3): 521-528, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32515423

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate one high-viscosity glass-ionomer cement (EQUIA/GC), two resin-modified glass ionomers (Fuji II LC/GC, Photac Fil Quick Aplicap/3M Oral Care), two traditional glass ionomers (Ketac Molar Easymix/3M, Fuji II/GC), and two compomers (Freedom/SDI, Dyract XP/Dentsply Sirona) through a comparison of fluoride release and antimicrobial effects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 210 samples were prepared, as 10 for each of the 7 materials for fluoride release and 20 for each material for the antimicrobial effect tests. To measure fluoride release, 5 ml distilled water and 5 ml TISAB II were added to the samples, which were then incubated at 37˚C. The fluoride levels of the material were measured using the selective ion electrode on days 1, 3, 7, 14 and 28. To compare the antimicrobial effects, 20 samples were divided in two groups and implanted in culture media containing Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophylus. Measurements were taken on days 2, 4 and 6. The diameter of the inhibition zone was recorded in millimetre (mm). RESULTS: All the materials released fluoride and the difference between them was determined to be statistically significant (p < 0.01). The antimicrobial effect values of the materials against S. mutans and L. acidophylus were evaluated and statistically significant difference was determined between the materials on all the measurement days. CONCLUSIONS: All the materials were observed to release fluoride. With the exception of the compomers, all the other materials showed an antimicrobial effect against S. mutans and L. acidophylus. Key words: fluoride, glass ionomer, antimicrobial, S. mutans, L. acidophylus.


Asunto(s)
Fluoruros , Cementos de Ionómero Vitreo , Resinas Acrílicas , Antibacterianos , Resinas Compuestas , Ensayo de Materiales , Resinas Sintéticas , Dióxido de Silicio
16.
Oral Health Prev Dent ; 18(3): 543-548, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32515426

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To assess the effects of experimental titanium tetrafluoride (TiF4) varnish and commercial sodium fluoride (NaF) varnish with CO2 laser on enamel hardness. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ninety human enamel samples were randomly assigned to one of the following groups: 1. control (no treatment) (CO); 2. NaF varnish (2.26%) (NF); 3. TiF4 varnish (2.45%) (TF); 4. CO2 laser (La); 5. NaF varnish (2.26%) with CO2 laser (NFL); 6. TiF4 varnish (2.45%) with CO2 laser (TFL). Enamel surface changes were determined by Vickers microhardness (VH) test with a load of 1000 g and a dwell time of 12 s. Each sample was indented three times. Data were analysed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey's test. RESULTS: The mean surface microhardness was 245.5 VH in the CO group, 280.3 VH in group NF, 338.7 VH group TF, 277.0 VH in group La, 345.3 VH in group NFL, and 368.0 VH in group TFL. Statistical analysis showed that groups TF, NFL, and TFL had statistically significantly higher surface hardness than the control group (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The microhardness of enamel treated with TiF4 varnish with or without laser irradiation was statistically significantly greater than that of the control group. Thus, using TiF4 to increase enamel surface microhardness can be recommended.


Asunto(s)
Láseres de Gas , Fluoruro de Sodio , Cariostáticos , Esmalte Dental , Fluoruros , Fluoruros Tópicos , Dureza , Humanos , Pintura , Titanio
17.
J Contemp Dent Pract ; 21(3): 267-270, 2020 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32434972

RESUMEN

AIM: To compare the efficacy of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate-fluoride (CPP-ACP-F) paste and 0.2% sodium fluoride mouthwash in the prevention of dental erosion using profilometer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The buccal surfaces of 36 premolar sound teeth were ground and polished to achieve a flat surface with silicone disks. Samples were allocated in three groups randomly. Group I was pretreated for 5 days four times a day with CPP-ACP-F paste. Group II was pretreated for 5 days with 0.2% sodium fluoride mouthwash four times a day. Group III remained as the control group without any pretreatment. In the next step, all the samples were exposed four times a day for 3 days to carbonated beverages. The samples were rinsed with saline after each erosive cycle and stored in artificial saliva. The profilometer was used to determine the surface loss. The data collected were evaluated using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) along with post hoc test. RESULTS: The erosion of group I (CPP-ACP-F paste) and group II (0.2% sodium fluoride mouthwash) was significantly less than that of group III (control group). The erosion in group II was significantly lower than in group I. CONCLUSION: Both sodium fluoride mouthwash and CPP-ACP-F paste are effective in the prevention of dental erosion. Sodium fluoride mouthwash shows higher reduction in dental erosion when compared with CPP-ACP-F paste. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: This study contributes to the understanding of the efficacy of CPP-ACP-F paste and 0.2% sodium fluoride mouthwash in the prevention of dental erosion.


Asunto(s)
Caseínas , Fluoruros , Fosfatos de Calcio , Esmalte Dental , Antisépticos Bucales , Fosfopéptidos , Fluoruro de Sodio , Remineralización Dental
18.
Chemosphere ; 256: 127105, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32450357

RESUMEN

Previous studies have shown that waterborne fluoride exposure has adverse effects on the reproductive system of zebrafish. However, the underlying toxic mechanisms were still not clear. In the present study, female zebrafish were exposed to different concentrations of 0.787 (Control), 18.599, 36.832 mg/L of fluoride for 30 d and 60 d, and the effects of different doses of fluoride on ovary development, reproductive hormones, oogenesis, ROS content, antioxidant levels, and the expression of apoptosis-related genes and proteins in the ovaries of female zebrafish were analyzed. The results showed that ovarian weight and GSI were significantly decreased, FSH, LH and VTG levels were significantly reduced, the transcriptional profiles of oogenesis-related genes (tgfß1, bmp15, gdf9, mprα, mprß, ptg2ß) were remarkably altered, ROS levels was notably increased, the SOD, CAT, GPx activities and GSH content as well as their mRNA expressions were significantly decreased, MDA content was remarkably increased, the expressions of apoptosis-related genes and proteins (caspase3, caspase8, caspase9, Fas-L, Cytochrome C, Bax and Bcl-2) were significantly changed, the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 protein levels were notably increased. Taken together, this study demonstrated that fluoride exposure significantly affected ovarian development, decreased the reproductive hormones, affected oogenesis, induced oxidative stress, caused apoptosis through both extrinsic and intrinsic pathways in ovary of zebrafish. Indicating that oogenesis, oxidative stress, and apoptosis were responsible for the impairment of ovarian development.


Asunto(s)
Fluoruros/toxicidad , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/toxicidad , Animales , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Apoptosis/efectos de los fármacos , Femenino , Oogénesis/efectos de los fármacos , Ovario/efectos de los fármacos , Estrés Oxidativo/efectos de los fármacos , Diferenciación Sexual , Pez Cebra/metabolismo
19.
Wiad Lek ; 73(5): 846-849, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32386356

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The aim: To determine the degree of severity of the inflammatory process in periodontal tissues of children living in different ecological conditions. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: With the purpose of estimation of the condition of periodontal tissues the epidemiology examination of 642 children that live on territory with the high level of pollution and natural deficit of iodine and fluorine was conducted. RESULTS: Results: The study found that the increase of age of examined children causes the decrease of percentage of easy degree of severity of chronic catarrhal gingivitis, giving way to the advanced forms of the disease, and this process was more pronounced in children living in ecologically polluted region. In children-inhabitants of ecologically clean region easy degree of severity of chronic catarrhal gingivitis met more often than their peers living in environmentally polluted region. At the same time, average and heavy degree of severity of chronic catarrhal gingivitis in children living in ecologically contaminated region met more often than their peers, inhabitants of ecologically clean region. CONCLUSION: Conclusions. It was found that with increasing age of the examined children decreases the percentage of chronic catarrhal gingivitis of moderate severity.


Asunto(s)
Gingivitis , Niño , Enfermedad Crónica , Contaminación Ambiental , Fluoruros , Humanos , Periodoncio
20.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(24): 30067-30080, 2020 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32447730

RESUMEN

This study explores the possibility of developing an eco-friendly adsorbent for effective remediation of groundwater fluoride, a well-known health hazard affecting more than 25 nations on the various continents. A facile and milder approach has been adopted to synthesize chitosan-modified ZnO/ZnFe2O4 nanocomposites. The synthesized materials have been characterized by different spectroscopic, microscopic, and diffractometric techniques. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction studies have confirmed the formation of pure and highly crystalline ZnO/ZnFe2O4 nanocomposites. The presence of surface-adsorbed chitosan in the modified ZnO/ZnFe2O4 has been confirmed by FT-IR and thermogravimetric analysis. The results from microscopic and BET surface area analysis of ZnO/ZnFe2O4 nanocomposites indicated that chitosan plays a crucial role in modulating the surface morphology and surface properties of the nanocomposites. The nanocomposites exhibit excellent adsorption performance in the remediation of groundwater fluoride. Experimental conditions have been systematically designed to evaluate the optimum adsorption condition for fluoride, and the results have been analyzed with various non-linear models to describe the kinetics and isotherms of adsorption. The adsorption primarily follows Lagergren pseudo-first-order kinetics, and the Langmuir adsorption capacity is varied from 10.54 to 13.03 mg g-1 over the temperature range 293-323 K. The thermodynamics study reveals that the adsorption process is endothermic and spontaneous. The mechanism of adsorption has been proposed based on the spectroscopic analysis of the fluoride-loaded adsorbent. The adsorption is non-specific in nature as co-existing anion can reduce its fluoride removal capacity. The effect of the co-existing anions on adsorption of fluoride follows the trend PO43- > CO32- > SO42- > Cl-. The adsorbent can be reused successfully for the 5th consecutive cycles of adsorption-desorption study. This study offers a very promising material for remediation of groundwater fluoride of affected areas.


Asunto(s)
Quitosano , Agua Subterránea , Nanocompuestos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Óxido de Zinc , Adsorción , Fluoruros , Concentración de Iones de Hidrógeno , Cinética , Espectroscopía Infrarroja por Transformada de Fourier
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