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1.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 125: 112099, 2021 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33965109

RESUMEN

Smart polymeric materials and hydrogels derived from acrylate, epoxy resins, etc. mimic the healing ability of natural organisms and biological cells by showing shape memory and tissue regenerative properties wherein, the healing ability in some of the materials is triggered by external stimuli like temperature, pH and light. This article provides an overview of various conceptual strategies and chemical and mechanical interactions involved in the different types of biomimetic self-healing materials to regain the deformed structure by repairing the cracked shape which play important role in contributing to the structural properties and functional recovery. Also, different chemical bonding like π-π interaction, ligand-metal, hydrogen bonding, etc. takes place at the molecular level for replenishing the damaged structure with greater bond strength. The regeneration ability of artificial self-healing polymeric materials not only shows use in material sciences, engineering but also exhibits a wide range of applications in site-specific drug delivery, skin grafting, implantation, dentistry and bone and tissue regeneration to restore injured surfaces with better biocompatibility, healing efficiency and higher tensile strength to serve as a next-generation material for amplifying the use in biomedical field.


Asunto(s)
Materiales Biocompatibles , Polímeros , Formación de Concepto , Sistemas de Liberación de Medicamentos , Hidrogeles
2.
BMJ Open ; 11(5): e045580, 2021 05 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33986055

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study was to develop a questionnaire to measure the consequences of neck, midback and low back pain, relevant for schoolchildren aged 9-12 years. DESIGN: The development of the questionnaire was carried out in three phases: (1) generation of items, (2) pilot testing and (3) conceptualisation. SETTING: Danish primary schools. PARTICIPANTS: Children aged 9-12 years from a local school were invited for completion of questionnaires and subsequent interviews. METHODS: In phase 1 an extensive literature search identified items from existing questionnaires measuring musculoskeletal disability in children. These were added to items from a previously conducted qualitative study and constituted the basis for the new questionnaire. In phase 2 two consecutive pilot tests were performed to test for comprehension and feasibility of the questionnaire. Phase 3 consisted of a categorisation of the newly developed items according to the WHO's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). RESULTS: The combination of the previously conducted qualitative study and the literature review resulted in an item pool of 35 items. Through the process of item formulation and pilot testing, these were reduced to 28 items in the final questionnaire, which represented all categories in the ICF model. The qualitative study identified codes giving relative weight to four important domains. These were not included in any of the existing questionnaires but were added to the new questionnaire. CONCLUSIONS: We developed the first version of a questionnaire to measure the consequences of back or neck pain in children. The process showed the importance of combining research methods, each adding important contributions to the final product. Subsequent work will finalise the questionnaire, allowing various options for use of the questionnaire.


Asunto(s)
Formación de Concepto , Personas con Discapacidad , Niño , Evaluación de la Discapacidad , Humanos , Dolor de Cuello/diagnóstico , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Columna Vertebral , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2373, 2021 04 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33888703

RESUMEN

In Shark Bay, Western Australia, male bottlenose dolphins form a complex nested alliance hierarchy. At the first level, pairs or trios of unrelated males cooperate to herd individual females. Multiple first-order alliances cooperate in teams (second-order alliances) in the pursuit and defence of females, and multiple teams also work together (third-order alliances). Yet it remains unknown how dolphins classify these nested alliance relationships. We use 30 years of behavioural data combined with 40 contemporary sound playback experiments to 14 allied males, recording responses with drone-mounted video and a hydrophone array. We show that males form a first-person social concept of cooperative team membership at the second-order alliance level, independently of first-order alliance history and current relationship strength across all three alliance levels. Such associative concepts develop through experience and likely played an important role in the cooperative behaviour of early humans. These results provide evidence that cooperation-based concepts are not unique to humans, occurring in other animal societies with extensive cooperation between non-kin.


Asunto(s)
Delfín Mular/fisiología , Formación de Concepto/fisiología , Conducta Cooperativa , Estimulación Acústica , Animales , Masculino , Vocalización Animal/fisiología
4.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33917429

RESUMEN

(1) Background: Research has shown that thoughts about pain are important for the management of chronic pain in children. In order to monitor changes in thoughts about pain over time and evaluate the efficacy of treatments, we need valid and reliable measures. The aims of this study were to develop a questionnaire to assess a child's concept of pain and to evaluate its psychometric properties; (2) Methods: This is a cross-sectional, two-phase, mixed-method study. A total of 324 individuals aged 8 to 17 years old responded to the newly created questionnaire. The Conceptualization of Pain Questionnaire (COPAQ) was calibrated using the Rasch model. The chi-square test was used for the fit statistics. Underfit and overfit of the model were determined and a descriptive analysis of infit and outfit was conducted to identify who responded erratically. Internal consistency was measured using the Person Separation Index (PSI); (3) Results: Fit to the Rasch model was good. Suitable targeting indicated which items were simple to answer; Person Fit identified 9.56% children who responded erratically; PSI = 0.814; (4) Conclusions: The findings suggest that COPAQ is a measure of a child's concept of pain that is easy to administer and respond to. It has a good fit and a good internal consistency.


Asunto(s)
Formación de Concepto , Calidad de Vida , Adolescente , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Psicometría , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
5.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33919050

RESUMEN

Jurisdictions around the world have a self-declared mandate to reduce gambling-related harm. However, historically, this concept has suffered from poor conceptualisation and operationalisation. However, recent years have seen swift advances in measuring gambling harm, based on the principle of it being a quantifiable decrement to the health and wellbeing of the gambler and those connected to them. This review takes stock of the background and recent developments in harm assessment and summarises recent research that has validated and applied the Short Gambling Harms Screen and related instruments. We recommend that future work builds upon the considerable psychometric evidence accumulated for the feasibility of direct elicitation of harmful consequences. We also advocate for grounding harms measures with respect to scalar changes to public health utility metrics. Such an approach will avoid misleading pseudo-clinical categorisations, provide accurate population-level summaries of where the burden of harm is carried, and serve to integrate gambling research with the broader field of public health.


Asunto(s)
Juego de Azar , Formación de Concepto , Reducción del Daño , Humanos , Psicometría , Salud Pública
6.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 74(1): e20200065, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33681954

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: to analyze the perioperative thirst concept for the development of a new diagnostic structure according to NANDA International. METHODS: a concept analysis study based on the framework proposed by Walker and Avant, instrumentalized through an integrative literature review based on SCOPUS, CINAHL, PUBMED, LILACS, and WOS. The elaboration of the diagnostic structure followed NANDA International guidelines. RESULTS: 41 studies were analyzed revealing that perioperative thirst is prevalent and intense, having visceral and behavioral attributes as the core of the concept. Antecedents indicate that surgical patients are vulnerable to thirst; and consequents 16 signs and symptoms were organized and model cases were developed. A diagnostic structure has been developed for perioperative thirst. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS: concept analysis allowed language standardization that describes thirsty patients, helping the identification, planning of actions and communication of perioperative nursing care.


Asunto(s)
Formación de Concepto , Diagnóstico de Enfermería , Atención Perioperativa , Sed , Humanos , Terminología Normalizada de Enfermería
7.
Learn Behav ; 49(1): 76-84, 2021 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33742425

RESUMEN

Same/different abstract-concept learning experiments were conducted with two primate species and three avian species by progressively increasing the size of the training stimulus set of distinctly different pictures from eight to 1,024 pictures. These same/different learning experiments were trained with two pictures presented simultaneously. Transfer tests of same and different learning employed interspersed trials of novel pictures to assess the level of correct performance on the very first time of subjects had seen those pictures. All of the species eventually performed these tests with high accuracy, contradicting the long-accepted notion that nonhuman animals are unable to learn the concept of same/different. Capuchin and rhesus monkeys learned the concept more readily than did pigeons. Clark's nutcrackers and black-billed magpies learned as readily as monkeys, and even showed a slight advantage with the smallest training stimulus sets. Those tests of same/different learning were followed by delay procedures, such that a delay was introduced after the subjects responded to the sample picture and before the test picture. In the sequential same/different task, accuracy was shown to diminish when the stimulus on a previous trial matched the test picture previously shown on a different trial. This effect is known as proactive interference. The pigeons' proactive interference was greater at 10-s delays than 1-s delays, revealing time-based interference. By contrast, time delays had little or no effect on rhesus monkeys' proactive interference, suggesting that rhesus monkeys have better explicit memory of where and when they saw the potential interfering picture, revealing better event-based memory.


Asunto(s)
Formación de Concepto , Aprendizaje , Animales , Columbidae , Condicionamiento Operante , Memoria
8.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 40(3): 378-383, 2021 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33646868

RESUMEN

Long-term care facilities have been devastated by COVID-19, with one exception: a group of small facilities called Green Houses.


Asunto(s)
/prevención & control , Formación de Concepto , Desinstitucionalización , Planificación Ambiental , Casas de Salud/organización & administración , /mortalidad , Humanos
9.
BMC Oral Health ; 21(1): 165, 2021 03 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33771160

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Oral diseases place a significant burden on individual and population health. These diseases are largely preventable; health promotion initiatives have been shown to decrease the disease rates. However, there is limited implementation of health promotion in dentistry, this could be due to a number of factors; the ethos and philosophy of dentistry is focused on a curative, individualised approach to oral diseases, confusion around health promotion as a concept. Oral health academics are well placed to implement health promotion, training of these professionals needs to include prevention, as training influences dental practice. However, there is a little understanding about how oral health academics (dental professionals who educate dental and oral health students) view health promotion. The aim of this exploratory study is to understand how oral health academics conceptualise health promotion and perceive the barriers and possible opportunities for health promotion implementation in dental practice. METHODS: Nominal group technique (NGT), a highly structured face-to-face meeting, was conducted with 24 oral health academics to explore how they conceptualize health promotion and the barriers and opportunities for health promotion in practice. An additional 4 questions were emailed to oral health educators after the NGT meeting to gather additional data, 6 oral health academics were involved. The data was analyzed using thematic analysis. RESULTS: Three board themes were identified: "Knowledge, ideas and concepts of health promotion", "Challenges to health promotion", "Opportunities for health promotion practice". The oral health academics in this study discussed health promotion in a holistic way, however, health education and behaviour change were mentioned more than other aspects of health promotion. The structure of dental practice specifically the curative approach that underpins dentistry and the lack of funding, and value placed on health promotion could act as a challenge to health promotion being implemented in practice. There has been a shift towards prevention in dentistry, however the participants acknowledge there needs to be a change in the curative culture of the profession. Collaboration with other health professionals and using a common risk factor approach were the identified opportunities for health promotion practice. CONCLUSIONS: Oral health academics have a holistic understanding of health promotion, but still focus more on behavioural approaches which is common within dentistry. For a change to occur in health promotion practice a change in the structure, curative approach and funding model of dentistry is required. Collaboration with other health professionals is an opportunity to be capitalised on. Training of future dental professionals is the perfect place to start to implement the changes and opportunities for health promotion presented in this paper.


Asunto(s)
Formación de Concepto , Salud Bucal , Promoción de la Salud , Humanos , Investigación Cualitativa , Estudiantes
10.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 74Suppl 3(Suppl 3): e20200376, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33759970

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: to analyze the concept of domestic violence based on its use in health sciences, humanities, and exact sciences according to Rodgers' evolutionary model. METHODS: this is a concept analysis based on Rodgers' evolutionary conceptual model. Ninety-six articles were included in Portuguese, English, Spanish, and French, which had a definition of domestic violence, having identified the antecedents, attributes and consequences and produced a model case. RESULTS: twenty-two attributes, ten antecedents and eight consequences were identified. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS: from antecedents, attributes and consequences, it was possible to identify the connection between domestic violence and gender issues, especially patriarchal, being seen in a normalized way by society and causing consequences to the victims' physical and psychological health.


Asunto(s)
Violencia Doméstica , Violencia de Género , Terminología Normalizada de Enfermería , Formación de Concepto , Humanos , Violencia
11.
BMC Med Educ ; 21(1): 164, 2021 Mar 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33731100

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Social conditions have a significant impact on the health of individuals and populations. While the dental curriculum is focused on teaching students about the diseases that affect the dentition and oral structures from a biomedical perspective, education about the social determinants of health is frequently regarded as less important. Thus, it occupies a smaller and disconnected part of the dental curriculum. The aim of this study was to explore the ways dental students conceptualised the social determinants of health after one year in dental school. METHODS: Reflective statements written by first year dental students at the end of the first year of study were collected. This qualitative study has an interpretivist basis and a thematic analysis of the reflections was conducted by two researchers. Metzl's structural competencies were used as a further analytic device. RESULTS: Four inter-related themes were identified: First, professional attitudes taken up by students influence their conceptions. Second, structural barriers to students understanding social determinants of health generate partial understandings. Thirdly, the social gulf that exists between the student body and people of different circumstances provides context to understanding the student's perspectives. Finally, we described how students were learning about the social determinants of health over the academic year. CONCLUSIONS: Dental students face several challenges when learning about the social determinants of health, and translating these learnings into actions is perhaps even more challenging. Metzl's structural competencies provide a framework for advancing students' understandings. One of the most important findings of this research study is that coming to an understanding of the social determinants of health requires sustained attention to social theories, practical experiences as well as institutionalised attitudes that could be achieved through an intentional curriculum design.


Asunto(s)
Formación de Concepto , Estudiantes de Odontología , Curriculum , Educación en Odontología , Humanos , Determinantes Sociales de la Salud
12.
Dev Psychopathol ; 33(2): 483-492, 2021 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33551017

RESUMEN

The United States is entering a pivotal period in history, led by extraordinary shifts in the demographic makeup of children who are in need of medical, educational, and developmental services. For the first time in this country's history, the majority of children are being born to non-white populations. Simultaneously, racism (personal, institutional, and systemic) is now being recognized as a powerful social determinant of children's mental and physical health by the time they enter kindergarten. It is crucial to evaluate how early childhood development (ECD) settings are prepared to authentically engage racially diverse children. In this paper, we critically analyze the narratives of the architect of Head Start, Dr. Edward Zigler, and investigate his evolving contributions to early childhood programming. We propose that Zigler's conceptualization of culture and its impact on children's development, although advanced for his time, had historical limitations that have perpetuated the personal, institutional, and systemic racism that children of color experience in early childhood settings. This paper concludes with suggestions to include topics covering implicit bias, white privilege, and the impact of slavery, colonization, and oppression as core principles in professional training. Only then will we be able to eliminate racism across early childhood settings in the United States.


Asunto(s)
Formación de Concepto , Racismo , Niño , Desarrollo Infantil , Preescolar , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Recursos Humanos
14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33557351

RESUMEN

AIMS: Wellbeing literacy is the intentional use of wellbeing relevant vocabulary, knowledge and language skills to maintain or improve the wellbeing of oneself, others and the world. In this study, we operationalize the human aspects of the concept of wellbeing literacy and empirically test its relationship with wellbeing and illbeing. We also assess its incremental variance in wellbeing and illbeing, after controlling for existing and well-established predictors of these constructs within education settings. METHODS: We developed and empirically tested the Wellbeing literacy 6-item (Well-Lit 6) scale to assess the concept of wellbeing literacy in the education context. The scale was developed based on a working definition of wellbeing literacy, in combination with the Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority (ACARA)'s definition of literacy. The Well-Lit 6 was administered via a cross-sectional survey to three Australian samples that comprise different elements of Australian education systems: students (N = 1392), parents (N = 584) and school staff (N = 317). RESULTS: Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) suggested the six items of the Well-Lit 6 form an independent construct, empirically distinguishable from other wellbeing-related constructs (e.g., general wellbeing, resilience, and emotion regulation). Convergent analyses showed wellbeing literacy was positively related to wellbeing and negatively related to illbeing. Incremental validity analyses showed wellbeing literacy predicted variance in wellbeing and illbeing after controlling for participant demographics, resilience, and emotion regulation, showing initial evidence of incremental validity. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide preliminary evidence that wellbeing literacy is a distinct construct from wellbeing and illbeing, and it also demonstrates significant unique variance in these constructs over and above resilience and emotion regulation. The Well-Lit 6 is a useful provisional measure of wellbeing literacy, although we suggest a fruitful avenue for future research is to develop a more comprehensive scale of wellbeing literacy that denotes specific facets of communication, allowing a fuller exploration wellbeing literacy, its components, and their antecedents and consequences. We offer further recommendations for future research and discuss limitations with our approach.


Asunto(s)
Formación de Concepto , Alfabetización en Salud , Australia , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Instituciones Académicas , Estudiantes , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
15.
Behav Processes ; 185: 104343, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33549809

RESUMEN

In the current research, we aimed at extending Silveira et al. (2016) results by verifying whether the long-term maintenance of the equivalence classes is influenced by stimulus valence and MTS training procedures. The delayed and simultaneous MTS were used to train two groups of participants in series of conditional relation trials involving pictures of humans' faces expressing familiar emotions (A) and abstract forms (B, C, and D). The participants that demonstrated the emergence of novel BD and DB relations and class-consistent derived transfer of functions returned to the laboratory thirty days later. Follow-up assessments were given in which the probability of class-consistent responses was higher for the happy class only for participants exposed to DMTS training. This result shows that the maintenance of equivalence classes cannot be accounted for only in terms of the affective valence of the familiar stimulus. The affective valence of the happy faces may have yoked with the properties of DMTS, favoring the maintenance of the happy class. Thereby, we discussed the role of mediating verbal behavior evoked selectively by the pictures of happy faces appearing as samples that may have persisted during the delay interval as a possible mechanism underlying performances of participants trained in DMTS procedure.


Asunto(s)
Formación de Concepto , Aprendizaje Discriminativo , Humanos , Estimulación Luminosa , Probabilidad , Conducta Verbal
16.
Behav Brain Sci ; 44: e12, 2021 02 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33599600

RESUMEN

Lee and Schwarz suggest grounded procedures of separation as a mechanism for embodied cleansing. We compare this process to other mechanisms in grounded cognition and suggest a broader conceptualization that allows integration into general cognitive models of social behavior. Specifically, separation will be understood as a mindset of completed avoidance resulting in high abstraction and openness to new experiences.


Asunto(s)
Cognición , Formación de Concepto , Comprensión , Humanos , Conducta Social
17.
Neurosci Lett ; 749: 135755, 2021 04 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33610671

RESUMEN

Shape and spirit similarity are two kinds of common artistic modes in concept visualization. The adoption depends on the designers' subjective preference and judgment, which may cause potential risks for semantic communication. This article used pairs of real image-concrete word as the roots, and contrasted four kinds of multimodal mappings such as shape similarity-concrete concept, shape similarity-abstract concept, spirit similarity-concrete concept, and spirit similarity-abstract concept to compare the matching difference through the S1(picture)-S2(word) paradigm. The behavioral results showed that shape similarity had advantages in both matching rate and reaction time over spirit similarity, but the difference was more significant to the concrete word than to the abstract word. The ERPs showed that the N1, P2, and N400 components had alike effects with the behavioral results, but the mappings of spirit similarity-concrete concept elicited the largest positivity of P600, suggesting the complicated mechanisms of semantic integration and concreteness effect in the multimodal mappings. This study proves that the concrete concept should be visualized according to its appearance, not the most striking feature or function; but the visulization of abstract concept shows less difference after a concreteness transition.


Asunto(s)
Encéfalo/fisiología , Cognición/fisiología , Formación de Concepto/fisiología , Potenciales Evocados/fisiología , Adulto , Electroencefalografía/métodos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Tiempo de Reacción , Lectura
18.
Eur J Oncol Nurs ; 51: 101899, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33545654

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To produce a conceptual and operational definition of transition, in the context of end-of-life care, as experienced by informal caregivers. METHODS AND SAMPLE: The authors used Rodgers' (2000) concept analysis framework to examine this concept. FINDINGS: Common themes emerged using Rodgers' (2000) inductive approach confirming transition for informal caregivers at the end of life as a process comprising the presence of trigger(s)/event(s), awareness, instability and engagement/learning while maintaining normality. There was also duration to this process that was often unknown and unpredictable. This concept analysis provides useful insight into understanding the complex dynamics of transition during this period. The primary antecedent of this concept, prompting transition, is a diagnosis of non-curative disease for the patient. In some cases, a gradual realisation rather than a formal diagnosis that the illness has progressed to a non-curative stage, can also be an antecedent. CONCLUSION: Transition during end-of-life-care for informal caregivers can be a highly emotional time for this vulnerable cohort. Effective transitioning can ensure a stability and quality end-of-life outcomes, such as a peaceful death, as the awareness and learning that it brings, prompts planning actions for terminal care. Through recognising the findings of this concept analysis, deeper insight may be gained to support the provision of care, by nurses, to informal caregivers, prompting them towards effective transitions that foster the best interest of the patient.


Asunto(s)
Cuidadores/psicología , Cuidado Terminal/organización & administración , Cuidado de Transición , Cuidadores/estadística & datos numéricos , Formación de Concepto , Enfermería de Cuidados Paliativos al Final de la Vida , Humanos
19.
Psicothema (Oviedo) ; 33(1): 7-15, feb. 2021. ilus, tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-199548

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Even though the terms "action" and "inaction" have been used to describe objects of attitudes, behaviors, and goals, the meaning of action and inaction for lay people has not been investigated. METHOD: In Study 1, participants were asked to spontaneously generate words and behaviors associated with action or inaction. In Studies 2 and 3, participants were presented with behaviors and asked to report whether each behavior involved agency, effort, and change. RESULTS: Natural language processing of the responses from Study 1 revealed lay conceptualizations included topics related to occurrence, agency, effort, and change. In Studies 2 and 3, simple regressions showed agency, effort, and change correlated with judgments of action and inaction. However, once these predictors were simultaneously entered into a multiple regression, effort captured most of the variance. CONCLUSIONS: These fi ndings suggest that, even though agency and change are important to the defi nition of action and inaction, effort is Paramount


Naïve de Acción e Inacción: un Estudio de Asociaciones Libres Realizado con Procesamiento de Lenguaje Natural y Codifi cación Jerárquica. ANTECEDENTES: pese a que los términos "acción" e "inacción" se han utilizado para describir objetos de actitudes, comportamientos y metas, no se ha investigado el significado de acción e inacción para los ciudadanos de a pie. MÉTODO: en el Estudio 1 se pidió a los participantes que generaran espontáneamente palabras y comportamientos asociados con la acción o la inacción. En los Estudios 2 y 3 se presentaron comportamientos y los participantes reportaron si cada comportamiento involucraba intencionalidad, esfuerzo y cambio. RESULTADOS: un procesamiento de lenguaje natural de las respuestas del Estudio 1 reveló conceptualizaciones naïve que incluían temas relacionados con la ocurrencia, la intencionalidad, el esfuerzo y el cambio. En los Estudios 2 y 3, regresiones simples mostraron que las dimensiones de intencionalidad, esfuerzo y cambio se correlacionaban con juicios de acción e inacción. Sin embargo, una vez que estos predictores se incluyeron simultáneamente en una regresión múltiple, el esfuerzo capturó la mayor parte de la varianza. CONCLUSIÓN: estos hallazgos sugieren que aunque el cambio y la intencionalidad son importantes para la defi nición de acción e inacción, la dimensión de esfuerzo es primordial


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adolescente , Adulto Joven , Adulto , Actitud , Toma de Decisiones , Objetivos , Solución de Problemas , Reconocimiento en Psicología , Formación de Concepto , Intención , Teoría Psicológica , Pensamiento , Algoritmos , Semántica
20.
Atten Percept Psychophys ; 83(3): 1312-1328, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33420715

RESUMEN

Perception, representation, and memory of ensemble statistics has attracted growing interest. Studies found that, at different abstraction levels, the brain represents similar items as unified percepts. We found that global ensemble perception is automatic and unconscious, affecting later perceptual judgments regarding individual member items. Implicit effects of set mean and range for low-level feature ensembles (size, orientation, brightness) were replicated for high-level category objects. This similarity suggests that analogous mechanisms underlie these extreme levels of abstraction. Here, we bridge the span between visual features and semantic object categories using the identical implicit perception experimental paradigm for intermediate novel visual-shape categories, constructing ensemble exemplars by introducing systematic variations of a central category base or ancestor. In five experiments, with different item variability, we test automatic representation of ensemble category characteristics and its effect on a subsequent memory task. Results show that observer representation of ensembles includes the group's central shape, category ancestor (progenitor), or group mean. Observers also easily reject memory of shapes belonging to different categories, i.e. originating from different ancestors. We conclude that complex categories, like simple visual form ensembles, are represented in terms of statistics including a central object, as well as category boundaries. We refer to the model proposed by Benna and Fusi (bioRxiv 624239, 2019) that memory representation is compressed when related elements are represented by identifying their ancestor and each one's difference from it. We suggest that ensemble mean perception, like category prototype extraction, might reflect employment at different representation levels of an essential, general representation mechanism.


Asunto(s)
Mapeo Encefálico , Encéfalo , Formación de Concepto , Humanos , Juicio , Semántica , Percepción Visual
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