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1.
Behav Brain Sci ; 42: e303, 2020 01 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31896364

RESUMEN

In the integrative memory model proposed by Bastin et al., familiarity is thought to arise from attribution of fluency signals. We suggest that, from a computational and anatomical perspective, this conceptualization converges with a global-matching account of familiarity assessment. We also argue that consideration of global matching and evidence accumulation in decision making could help further our understanding of the proposed attribution system.


Asunto(s)
Memoria , Reconocimiento en Psicología , Formación de Concepto , Humanos , Trastornos de la Memoria , Recuerdo Mental
2.
Nat Hum Behav ; 4(1): 69-87, 2020 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31591520

RESUMEN

The classification of individuals into different racial groups provides a precondition for racial bias in cognition and behaviour, but how the brain enables spontaneous racial categorization is not fully understood. Here using multimodal brain imaging measures, including electroencephalography, functional magnetic resonance imaging and magnetoencephalography, we probe the neural dynamics of racial categorization by quantifying the repetition suppression of neural responses to faces of different individuals of each racial group (that is, Asian, black or white). We show that categorization of other-race faces engages early two-stage dynamic activities in neural networks consisting of multiple interactive brain regions. Categorization of same-race faces, however, recruits a different and simple network in a later time window. Dynamic neural activities involved in racial categorization predict racial biases in face recognition and altruistic intention. These results suggest that there are distinct neural dynamics by which the brain sorts people into different racial groups as a social ground for cognition and action.


Asunto(s)
Altruismo , Mapeo Encefálico , Corteza Cerebral/fisiología , Formación de Concepto/fisiología , Grupos de Población Continentales , Reconocimiento Facial/fisiología , Red Nerviosa/fisiología , Racismo , Percepción Social , Adulto , Corteza Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagen , Electroencefalografía , Femenino , Humanos , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Magnetoencefalografía , Masculino , Red Nerviosa/diagnóstico por imagen , Factores de Tiempo , Adulto Joven
3.
Dev Sci ; 23(2): e12887, 2020 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31309631

RESUMEN

The mentalistic view of early theory of mind posits that infants possess a robust and sophisticated understanding of false belief that is masked by the demands of traditional explicit tasks. Much of the evidence supporting this mentalistic view comes from infants' looking time at events that violate their expectations about the beliefs of a human agent. We conducted a replication of the violation-of-expectation procedure, except that the human agent was replaced by an inanimate agent. Infants watched a toy crane repeatedly move toward a box containing an object. In the absence of the crane, the object changed location. When the crane returned, 16-month-old infants looked longer when it turned toward the object's new location, consistent with the attribution of a false belief to the crane. These results suggest that infants spontaneously attribute false beliefs to inanimate agents. A video abstract of this article can be viewed at https://youtu.be/qqEPPhd9FDo.


Asunto(s)
Motivación/fisiología , Teoría de la Mente/fisiología , Cognición , Comprensión , Formación de Concepto , Cultura , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Juego e Implementos de Juego , Percepción Social
4.
J Pers Soc Psychol ; 118(1): 22-56, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31478705

RESUMEN

We investigate the psychological bases underlying moral dilemma judgment with the help of multinomial processing tree modeling, and consider how determinants of dilemma judgment should best be conceptualized. We argue that, for conceptual as well as empirical reasons, norms and consequences should be considered as more intimately linked with one another than their systematic juxtaposition in dilemma research may suggest, and propose that norm-endorsement should be viewed through a consequentialist lens as well. Investigating this proposal, we introduce a variant of the CNI model of moral dilemma judgment, which focuses on the use of proscriptive norms only. In five experiments, we validate this proCNI model and assess the parameters' sensitivity to different types of consequences and personal involvement. Our findings suggest that the parameter representing "norms" is sensitive to consequences as well, such that norms do not guide moral judgment unless they are expected to produce tangible consequences. Thus, present research suggests that the split between norms and "consequences" (or "deontology" and "utilitarianism") as determinants of judgment is artificial. We suggest that, ultimately, viewing dilemma judgments through a consequentialist lens may be a useful approach for advancing theoretical development in the field of dilemma research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Teoría Ética , Juicio , Principios Morales , Adulto , Formación de Concepto , Femenino , Humanos , Relaciones Interpersonales , Masculino , Adulto Joven
5.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 951, 2019 Dec 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31823781

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Responsive regulation assumes that the parties being regulated are trustworthy and motivated by social responsibility. This assumes that regulation based upon trust will improve the regulated organization more effectively than other regulation models. The purpose of our qualitative study was to unravel the most important elements of trust in the inspectee which can support the inspector's work and to develop a model and a framework of trust that can be used by the inspectors to legitimize their trust in the inspectee. METHODS: We conducted an empirical study on trust regarding the regulation of care services to reveal how trust in the inspectee is conceptualized and assessed. Based on literature and empirical research, we synthesized the concept of trust into six elements, five regarding behavior, and a sixth looking at information about its context. We developed a practical framework for the concept to reduce the conceptual ambiguity, strengthen regulatory assessment, and support appropriate tailoring of the regulatory response. RESULTS: Six elements with respect to trust emerged from the data: showing integrity; transparency; ability to learn; accepting feedback; showing actual change in behavior; context information. These five behavioral elements, plus the context information were merged into a Framework of Trust and designed into an interactive PDF document. CONCLUSIONS: This study has sought to address a gap in the empirical knowledge regarding the assessment of trust in the inspectee. The results aim to inform and clarify the regulatory conceptualization and understanding of trust in the inspectee. Other inspectorates may learn from these results for their own practice and explore whether operational deployment of our Framework of Trust effects their assessment and enforcement strategies.


Asunto(s)
Formación de Concepto , Prestación de Atención de Salud/normas , Regulación y Control de Instalaciones , Confianza , Investigación Empírica , Humanos , Países Bajos , Investigación Cualitativa
6.
F1000Res ; 82019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31824658

RESUMEN

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a clinically defined disorder, and inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity are its main symptom domains. The presentation, lifelong continuation and treatment response of ADHD symptoms, however, is highly heterogeneous. To better define, diagnose, treat and prevent ADHD, it is essential that we understand the biological processes underlying all of these elements. In this review, given the high heritability of ADHD, we discuss how and why genetics can foster such progress. We examine what genetics have taught us so far with regard to ADHD definition, classification, clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment. Finally, we offer a prospect of what genetic studies on ADHD may bring in the future.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad , Cognición , Formación de Concepto , Humanos , Conducta Impulsiva
7.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2019: 2367075, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31814816

RESUMEN

Mammalian brains respond to new concepts via a type of neural coding termed "concept coding." During concept coding, the dentate gyrus (DG) plays a vital role in pattern separation and pattern integration of concepts because it is a brain region with substantial neurogenesis in adult mammals. Although concept coding properties of the brain have been extensively studied by experimental work, modeling of the process to guide both further experimental studies and applications such as natural language processing is scarce. To model brain-like concept coding, we built a spiking neural network inspired by adulthood neurogenesis in the DG. Our model suggests that neurogenesis may facilitate integration of closely related concepts and separation of less relevant concepts. Such pattern agrees with the previous experimental observations in classification tasks and place cells in the hippocampus. Therefore, our simulation provides insight for future experimental studies on the neural coding difference between perception and cognition. By presenting 14 contexts each containing 4 concepts to the network, we found that neural responses of the DG changed dynamically as the context repetition time increased and were eventually consistent with the category organization of humans. Thus, our work provides a new framework of word representation for the construction of brain-like knowledge map.


Asunto(s)
Formación de Concepto , Giro Dentado , Modelos Neurológicos , Redes Neurales de la Computación , Potenciales de Acción , Animales , Asociación , Simulación por Computador , Formación de Concepto/fisiología , Giro Dentado/fisiología , Humanos , Neurogénesis/fisiología , Plasticidad Neuronal , Neuronas/fisiología
8.
Rev Esc Enferm USP ; 53: e03523, 2019.
Artículo en Portugués, Inglés, Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31800815

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To discuss how care-permanence comprehensiveness is for patients undergoing treatment in nephrology. METHOD: A qualitative, exploratory and descriptive study anchored in Sociopoetics, conducted in the first semester of 2018, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, with nurses from nephrology services. The data were produced after applying the creative technique with drawings and collages and taking recorded statements about the signifieds and signfiers of care-permanence. The analysis was performed based on the principles of Sociopoetics from the philosophical conceptions of the research groups. RESULTS: Fifteen (15) nurses with experience in nephrology services participated in this study. Four conceptual axes were shared referring to: comprehensive care; complex care; continuous care; and inclusive care, which considers the patient's family, team, society and their context, in addition to the patient themselves. CONCLUSION: A philosophical reflection on care of the human being implies considering the physical, emotional, and individual dimensions, but also its micro and macromolecular revolutions of existence as a social being. The nature of knowledge from the ludic production enabled reflection and awareness for all the time and at all times about the comprehensiveness of care by nurses in nephrology.


Asunto(s)
Actitud del Personal de Salud , Atención Integral de Salud , Enfermedades Renales/enfermería , Enfermería en Nefrología , Brasil , Formación de Concepto , Humanos , Filosofía en Enfermería
9.
Cuad. bioét ; 30(100): 289-302, sept.-dic. 2019.
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-185242

RESUMEN

El artículo busca anticipar los desafíos que se vislumbran hacia el futuro una vez que se perfeccione la técnica de la edición genética. En primer lugar, se encuadra la edición genética en el marco de la especificidad de la tecnología moderna. En segundo lugar, se plantea cómo el contraste de lo natural con lo artificial ilumina el problema que significa pretender sustituir lo natural, en el sentido de lo dado, con lo proyectado por la tecnología. Posteriormente, después de constatar el carácter incipiente de la reflexión teológica sobre la técnica, se plantea la convergencia de la idea de creación con un respeto por los equilibrios naturales, propios de la sensibilidad ecológica contemporánea. Se muestra así, que la propuesta cristiana no es la tecnofobia, sino la integración de la técnica -como elemento central de la cultura que desarrolla el ser humano- con la naturaleza y la asunción del carácter limitado de las realidades naturales, incluyendo al mismo ser humano. De este modo, la vulnerabilidad, como realización de esta finitud, es la característica que nos iguala y nos exige el reconocimiento de nuestra dignidad, mucho más que la realización de un ideal de perfección tecnológicamente mediado, aunque fuera accesible para todos


This paper tries to look forward to the incoming ethical challenges related with genetic editing. It begins with contextualizing genetic edition within the specific nature of modern technology. Afterwards it presents the contrast between natural beings and artifacts that sheds light for answering the question about the real possibility of replacing natural beings, as they are, with technologically projected living beings. In the third place, after acknowledging the scarce attention given by contemporary theology to technology, it shows the convergence of the Christian concept of creation with the respect for balance in nature, as most part of the contemporaty ecological sensibility upholds. Building on this common ground it shows that the Christian attitude towards technology is not technofobical but the integration of technology -a central element of contemporary culture- with nature, accepting the limitation of any natural being including mankind. In this way, vulnerability, as a visible consequence of this finitude, is the very attribute of human beings that makes ourselves equal and requieres recongnition of our common dignity, way over the idea of acquiring an ideal perfection through technology, even if it was accesible to all


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Proteína 9 Asociada a CRISPR , Teología , Ingeniería Genética/ética , Ingeniería Genética/instrumentación , Formación de Concepto/ética
10.
Development ; 146(24)2019 12 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31862794

RESUMEN

Two phrases attributed to Lewis Wolpert - 'positional information' and 'The French Flag Model' - have become so intertwined that they are now used almost interchangeably. Here, I argue that this represents an unfortunate oversimplification of Wolpert's ideas that arose gradually in the developmental biology community, some significant time after his key papers were published. In contrast to common belief, Wolpert did not use the phrase French Flag 'Model' but instead introduced the French Flag 'Problem'. This famous metaphor was not a proposal of how patterning works, but rather an abstraction of the question to be addressed. More specifically, the French flag metaphor was an attempt to de-couple the problem from the multiple possible models that could solve it. In this spirit, Wolpert's first article on this topic also proposed (in addition to the well-known gradient model) an alternative solution to the French Flag Problem that was self-organising and had no gradients, and in which each cell 'cannot compute where it is in the system', i.e. there is no positional information. I discuss the history and evolution of these terms, and how they influence the way we study patterning.


Asunto(s)
Tipificación del Cuerpo/fisiología , Biología Evolutiva/historia , Emblemas e Insignias , Metáfora , Modelos Biológicos , Animales , Quimiotaxis/fisiología , Color , Formación de Concepto , Biología Evolutiva/tendencias , Francia , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Concentración Osmolar
11.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 72(suppl 3): 348-359, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31851273

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: to develop the concept ambience for labor and normal institutionalized delivery, identifying in the literature its antecedent, defining attributes and the consequent. METHOD: the method used was the analysis of literature, corresponding to the first stage of the qualitative method of concept analysis. The theoretical operation was performed in the databases CINAHL COCHRANE, LILACS, PsycINFO, and PubMed. RESULTS: aspects of the parturient woman and the qualification of the physical and social space are presented as the antecedent. The defining attributes outline the assistance interaction process with Non-Invasive Technologies. As the consequent, we highlight the outcome for normal delivery, pain relief and comfort, woman satisfaction and well-being. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS: the analysis of the antecedent, defining attributes and the consequent allowed the elaboration of an unprecedent theoretical proposition of this concept.


Asunto(s)
Formación de Concepto , Trabajo de Parto/psicología , Adulto , Ambiente , Femenino , Humanos , Institucionalización/normas , Institucionalización/estadística & datos numéricos , Embarazo , Investigación Cualitativa
12.
Health Res Policy Syst ; 17(1): 88, 2019 Nov 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31760953

RESUMEN

Research co-production is about doing research with those who use it. This approach to research has been receiving increasing attention from research funders, academic institutions, researchers and even the public as a means of optimising the relevance, usefulness, usability and use of research findings, which together, the argument goes, produces greater and more timely impact. The papers in this cross BMC journal collection raise issues about research co-production that, to date, have not been fully considered and suggest areas for future research for advancing the science and practice of research co-production. These papers address some gaps in the literature, make connections between subfields and provide varied perspectives from researchers and knowledge users.


Asunto(s)
Formación de Concepto , Conducta Cooperativa , Investigación en Medicina Traslacional , Investigación Participativa Basada en la Comunidad
13.
CBE Life Sci Educ ; 18(4): ar54, 2019 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31675278

RESUMEN

Mastery of jargon terms is an important part of student learning in biology and other science, technology, engineering, and mathematics domains. In two experiments, we investigated whether prelecture quizzes enhance memory for jargon terms, and whether that enhanced familiarity can facilitate learning of related concepts that are encountered during subsequent lectures and readings. Undergraduate students enrolled in neuroanatomy and physiology courses completed 10-minute low-stakes quizzes with feedback on jargon terms either online (experiment 1) or using in-class clickers (experiment 2). Quizzes occurred before conventional course instruction in which the terms were used. On exams occurring up to 12 weeks later, we observed improved student performance on questions that targeted memory of previously quizzed jargon terms and their definitions relative to questions on terms that were not quizzed. This pattern occurred whether those questions were identical (experiment 1) or different (experiment 2) from those used during quizzing. Benefits of jargon quizzing did not consistently generalize, however, to exam questions that assessed conceptual knowledge but not necessarily jargon knowledge. Overall, this research demonstrates that a brief and easily implemented jargon-quizzing intervention, deliverable via Internet or in-class platforms, can yield substantial improvements in students' course-relevant scientific lexica, but does not necessarily impact conceptual learning.


Asunto(s)
Rendimiento Académico , Biología/educación , Formación de Concepto , Evaluación Educacional , Internet , Humanos , Conocimiento , Aprendizaje , Estudiantes , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
14.
PLoS One ; 14(11): e0224696, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31693693

RESUMEN

This paper aims to clarify the inconsistencies present in the field of student mathematics-related beliefs. Despite the general agreement about the important role that beliefs play in the learning of mathematics, the study of student mathematics-related beliefs has resulted in a body of uncoordinated research. The lack of consensus on defining and classifying beliefs has generated much confusing terminology, preventing a consistent conceptualization of the phenomenon. To identify the problem underlying existing inconsistencies, we have undertaken a systematic review of the literature to analyse the belief conceptualisations proposed by the most cited authors in this field of research. Our analysis suggests that authors often fail to conceptualise beliefs in four important ways: existing theories related to the phenomenon under research are normally not considered; definitions are often too broad and do not clearly confine the construct under evaluation; and existing beliefs sub-constructs are rarely defined and thus not explicitly distinguished. Our study has also revealed that some of the scales developed to measure the belief constructs lack of content and internal validity. We believe that these findings open new lines of research that may help to clarify the field of student mathematics-related beliefs.


Asunto(s)
Formación de Concepto , Cultura , Aprendizaje , Matemática/educación , Estudiantes/psicología , Humanos , Motivación
15.
Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci ; 14(10): 1037-1048, 2019 10 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31680151

RESUMEN

Although many studies have shown that the temporoparietal junction (TPJ) is involved in inferring others' beliefs, neural correlates of 'second-order' inferences (inferring another's inference about one's own belief) are still elusive. Here we report a functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment to examine the involvement of TPJ for second-order inferences. Participants played an economic game with three types of opponents: a human opponent outside the scanner, an artificial agent that followed a fixed probabilistic strategy according to a game-theoretic solution (FIX) and an artificial agent that adjusted its choices through a machine-learning algorithm (LRN). Participants' choice behaviors against the human opponent and LRN were similar but remarkably different from those against FIX. The activation of the left TPJ (LTPJ) was correlated with choice behavior against the human opponent and LRN but not against FIX. The overall activity pattern of the LTPJ for the human opponent was also similar to that for LRN but not for FIX. In contrast, the right TPJ (RTPJ) showed higher activation for the human opponent than FIX and LRN. These results suggest that, while the RTPJ is associated with the perception of human agency, the LTPJ is involved in second-order inferences in strategic decision making.


Asunto(s)
Formación de Concepto/fisiología , Toma de Decisiones/fisiología , Lateralidad Funcional/fisiología , Lóbulo Parietal/fisiología , Lóbulo Temporal/fisiología , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Masculino , Adulto Joven
16.
Prim Health Care Res Dev ; 20: e147, 2019 11 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31679552

RESUMEN

This statement has been produced by the European Region of the World Confederation for Physiotherapy (ER-WCPT) to promote the role of the physiotherapy profession within primary care, to describe the health and economic benefits to health systems and populations of having a skilled, appropriately resourced and utilised physiotherapy workforce in primary care services, and to illustrate how different models of physiotherapy service delivery are contributing to these health and cost benefits.


Asunto(s)
Fisioterapeutas , Atención Primaria de Salud , Rol Profesional , Formación de Concepto , Europa (Continente) , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Humanos
17.
PLoS One ; 14(11): e0225050, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31751363

RESUMEN

Psychological effects connected with fluent processing are called fluency effects. In a sample of 403 participants we test whether conceptual fluency effects can be found in the context of inductive reasoning, a context that has not been investigated before. As a conceptual manipulation we vary the use of symbols (persons and crosses) in reasoning tasks. These symbols were chosen to provide hints for the solution of the implemented tasks and thus manipulate fluency. We found evidence that these hints influence ease of processing. The proportion of solved tasks increased by 11% on average in the condition with conceptual hints, F(1,399) = 13.47, partial η2 = .033, p < .001. However, we did not find an effect of the conceptual manipulation on the temporal perception of the task. In a second study (n = 62) we strengthened our findings by investigating solution strategies for the tasks in more detail, 79% of the participants described the tasks in a way they were intended. Our results illustrate the advantages of the separation of ease of processing, fluency experience, and judgments.


Asunto(s)
Formación de Concepto , Solución de Problemas , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Movimiento , Percepción , Análisis y Desempeño de Tareas , Factores de Tiempo
18.
Brain Cogn ; 136: 103617, 2019 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574378

RESUMEN

We used fMRI to dissociate decisional and perceptual functions in color categorization. Participants viewed sequences of colored squares which varied in perceptual distance (0, 1 or 2 hue steps) and color (green, blue) and then judged whether one or two colors were present. Occipital, caudate, and anterior insula regions were active when more than one hue was presented, indicating a role in perceptual processing and attentional monitoring. Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex showed greater activity when two colors were present than a single color, indicating a role in coding color category. Cognitive control regions of the intraparietal sulcus and presupplementary motor area were sensitive to the interaction of decision and distance in perceptual space, indicating a role in combining these functions during decision making. These results support theories that colors are represented categorically at high levels of the cognitive hierarchy, and that visual cortex is sensitive to hue rather than color category.


Asunto(s)
Corteza Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagen , Percepción de Color/fisiología , Formación de Concepto/fisiología , Corteza Visual/diagnóstico por imagen , Adulto , Atención/fisiología , Color , Femenino , Humanos , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Masculino , Adulto Joven
19.
Science ; 366(6461): 62-66, 2019 10 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31604303

RESUMEN

Human language allows us to create an infinitude of ideas from a finite set of basic building blocks. What is the neurobiology of this combinatory system? Research has begun to dissect the neural basis of natural language syntax and semantics by analyzing the basics of meaning composition, such as two-word phrases. This work has revealed a system of composition that involves rapidly peaking activity in the left anterior temporal lobe and later engagement of the medial prefrontal cortex. Both brain regions show evidence of shared processing between comprehension and production, as well as between spoken and signed language. Both appear to compute meaning, not syntactic structure. This Review discusses how language builds meaning and lays out directions for future neurobiological research on the combinatory system.


Asunto(s)
Lenguaje , Lingüística , Corteza Prefrontal/fisiología , Semántica , Lóbulo Temporal/fisiología , Mapeo Encefálico , Comprensión , Formación de Concepto , Humanos , Magnetoencefalografía , Lóbulo Parietal/fisiología , Lengua de Signos , Habla , Percepción del Habla
20.
Psychol Assess ; 31(10): 1206-1207, 2019 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31580134

RESUMEN

Sleep, Lynam, Widiger, Crowe, and Miller (2019) discuss a number of concerns previously raised with respect to the distinction between impairment and trait in the Alternative Model of Personality Disorders (AMPD). In particular, they cite issues of overlap between the 2 as raising concerns about parsimony of representation. In this response, I briefly address both the importance of parsimony and its limitations as a consideration in the classification of personality disorders. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de la Personalidad , Personalidad , Formación de Concepto , Manual Diagnóstico y Estadístico de los Trastornos Mentales , Humanos , Inventario de Personalidad
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