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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(22): e26207, 2021 Jun 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34087892

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT: Terry nails and Lindsay nails are similar forms of proximal apparent leukonychia (PAL). A change in nail bed vascularity is thought to be responsible for PAL. The study was aimed at investigating the frequency of PAL in patients attending a liver disease clinic, the factors associated with its presence, its value for detecting cirrhosis, its prognostic value for mortality, and associated capillaroscopic findings.A total of 521 patients were included (age range, 18-94 years; 69% men). Systematic nail photographs were evaluated by 2 independent investigators. Disease-related data were obtained from the medical records. Mortality was evaluated after 7 years of follow-up. Nailfold capillaroscopy was performed on a subset of 80 patients.PAL was present in 228 patients (43.8%; Terry nails in 205, Lindsay nails in 20, and both in 3). The kappa-coefficient of interobserver agreement was 0.82. The presence of PAL was associated with cirrhosis and, accordingly, with portal hypertension and hepatocellular dysfunction. The positive likelihood ratio of PAL for the diagnosis of cirrhosis was 1.6 (95% CI 1.3-1.92). PAL was independently associated with chronic alcohol abuse and was not a significant predictor of mortality. Venous loop dilatation and prominence of the venous plexus were observed on capillaroscopy in patients with cirrhosis but were not significantly associated with PAL.In summary, PAL is a common finding in patients from a liver clinic; it is associated with liver cirrhosis and with alcohol abuse. PAL is not associated with specific capillaroscopic findings. We propose the generic term proximal apparent leukonychia instead of classic eponymous titles to avoid confusion in the literature.


Asunto(s)
Hipopigmentación/diagnóstico , Cirrosis Hepática/diagnóstico , Hepatopatías/patología , Angioscopía Microscópica/métodos , Enfermedades de la Uña/congénito , Adulto , Anciano , Alcoholismo/complicaciones , Capilares/patología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Hipopigmentación/etiología , Cirrosis Hepática/mortalidad , Hepatopatías/complicaciones , Masculino , Angioscopía Microscópica/estadística & datos numéricos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Enfermedades de la Uña/diagnóstico , Enfermedades de la Uña/etiología , Uñas/irrigación sanguínea , Uñas Malformadas/diagnóstico , Uñas Malformadas/patología , Fotograbar/métodos , Pronóstico
2.
Dermatol Online J ; 27(4)2021 Apr 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33999574

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 pandemic dramatically impacted the delivery of healthcare, including dermatological services. In the initial stages of the pandemic, reduced patient flow produced a dramatic drop in the volume of skin cancer screening. Consistent with COVID-19 precautions, our practice conducted visual skin examinations (VSE) utilizing semi-automated total body photography (TBP). METHODS: A cross-sectional study of patient characteristics and self-reported melanoma risk factors associated with TBP usage was conducted on all patients from May to November 2020 in a single practitioner private dermatology setting. The process and histopathology-confirmed outcomes were compared to those in the same 6-month period in 2019. RESULTS: For the May-November 2020 timeframe, those who opted for the home TBP (35%) compared to clinic TBP were younger, had higher self-reported skin cancer risk, and were more likely to have had previous TBP sessions. Overall, the number of TBP sessions increased, while dermoscopy usage and biopsy number decreased. There was no change in the number and distribution of skin cancer diagnoses compared to the same period in 2019. The Melanoma-In-Situ:Invasive Melanoma (MIS:INV) ratio was above the U.S. ratio reported for 2020 of 0.95:1 (95,710 MIS:100,350 INV). CONCLUSION: Semi-automated TBP was successfully implemented during the pandemic without affecting skin cancer detection.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Detección Precoz del Cáncer/métodos , Melanoma/patología , Fotograbar/métodos , Neoplasias Cutáneas/patología , Adulto , Anciano , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad
3.
Nurs Res ; 70(3): E21-E28, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33891385

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Despite the increasing number of studies using photo-elicitation for data collection in qualitative research, there is a need to further explore its use among families of children and adolescents living with chronic illness. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to discuss methodological and pragmatic considerations about the use of photo-elicitation interviews (PEIs) for data collection with families of children and adolescents living with chronic illness. METHODS: We discussed methodological aspects of using PEIs as reported in publications. A search of the literature was carried out to identify articles presenting information on methodological aspects of the use of PEIs in qualitative data collection, regardless of age group. In pursuit of complementing the evidence with pragmatic considerations of using PEIs, we illustrate with an example of a recent qualitative study of our own that aimed to understand the narratives about hope of families of children and adolescents living with chronic illness. RESULTS: We synthesized common aspects that need to be considered when using PEIs with different populations: ethical issues, cameras, guidance, and interviews. We also presented our experience of using the PEI technique to collect data from families. Because of our experience, we denominate our method as the "family photo-elicitation interview" (FPEI). Our method goes beyond the PEI technique because it integrates aspects of family nursing theories when conducting interviews with families. FPEIs strengthen family interaction and allow family members to share their perspectives. DISCUSSION: We present a new perspective of PEIs-the FPEI-in the pediatric context. Previous studies have not addressed considerations about using PEIs for families. We hope our results assist novice researchers in planning and implementing FPEIs in qualitative research. We recommend that researchers explore the use of FPEIs in other contexts, such as geriatrics or palliative care.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad Crónica/psicología , Relaciones Familiares/psicología , Entrevistas como Asunto/métodos , Fotograbar/métodos , Adolescente , Niño , Humanos , Pediatría/métodos , Investigación Cualitativa , Proyectos de Investigación
4.
Lancet Digit Health ; 3(1): e29-e40, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33735066

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In current approaches to vision screening in the community, a simple and efficient process is needed to identify individuals who should be referred to tertiary eye care centres for vision loss related to eye diseases. The emergence of deep learning technology offers new opportunities to revolutionise this clinical referral pathway. We aimed to assess the performance of a newly developed deep learning algorithm for detection of disease-related visual impairment. METHODS: In this proof-of-concept study, using retinal fundus images from 15 175 eyes with complete data related to best-corrected visual acuity or pinhole visual acuity from the Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Diseases Study, we first developed a single-modality deep learning algorithm based on retinal photographs alone for detection of any disease-related visual impairment (defined as eyes from patients with major eye diseases and best-corrected visual acuity of <20/40), and moderate or worse disease-related visual impairment (eyes with disease and best-corrected visual acuity of <20/60). After development of the algorithm, we tested it internally, using a new set of 3803 eyes from the Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Diseases Study. We then tested it externally using three population-based studies (the Beijing Eye study [6239 eyes], Central India Eye and Medical study [6526 eyes], and Blue Mountains Eye Study [2002 eyes]), and two clinical studies (the Chinese University of Hong Kong's Sight Threatening Diabetic Retinopathy study [971 eyes] and the Outram Polyclinic Study [1225 eyes]). The algorithm's performance in each dataset was assessed on the basis of the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). FINDINGS: In the internal test dataset, the AUC for detection of any disease-related visual impairment was 94·2% (95% CI 93·0-95·3; sensitivity 90·7% [87·0-93·6]; specificity 86·8% [85·6-87·9]). The AUC for moderate or worse disease-related visual impairment was 93·9% (95% CI 92·2-95·6; sensitivity 94·6% [89·6-97·6]; specificity 81·3% [80·0-82·5]). Across the five external test datasets (16 993 eyes), the algorithm achieved AUCs ranging between 86·6% (83·4-89·7; sensitivity 87·5% [80·7-92·5]; specificity 70·0% [66·7-73·1]) and 93·6% (92·4-94·8; sensitivity 87·8% [84·1-90·9]; specificity 87·1% [86·2-88·0]) for any disease-related visual impairment, and the AUCs for moderate or worse disease-related visual impairment ranged between 85·9% (81·8-90·1; sensitivity 84·7% [73·0-92·8]; specificity 74·4% [71·4-77·2]) and 93·5% (91·7-95·3; sensitivity 90·3% [84·2-94·6]; specificity 84·2% [83·2-85·1]). INTERPRETATION: This proof-of-concept study shows the potential of a single-modality, function-focused tool in identifying visual impairment related to major eye diseases, providing more timely and pinpointed referral of patients with disease-related visual impairment from the community to tertiary eye hospitals. FUNDING: National Medical Research Council, Singapore.


Asunto(s)
Algoritmos , Aprendizaje Profundo , Oftalmopatías/complicaciones , Trastornos de la Visión/diagnóstico , Trastornos de la Visión/etiología , Anciano , Área Bajo la Curva , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Asiática , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Fotograbar/métodos , Prueba de Estudio Conceptual , Curva ROC , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Singapur/epidemiología
5.
Lancet Digit Health ; 3(2): e88-e97, 2021 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33509389

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Ocular changes are traditionally associated with only a few hepatobiliary diseases. These changes are non-specific and have a low detection rate, limiting their potential use as clinically independent diagnostic features. Therefore, we aimed to engineer deep learning models to establish associations between ocular features and major hepatobiliary diseases and to advance automated screening and identification of hepatobiliary diseases from ocular images. METHODS: We did a multicentre, prospective study to develop models using slit-lamp or retinal fundus images from participants in three hepatobiliary departments and two medical examination centres. Included participants were older than 18 years and had complete clinical information; participants diagnosed with acute hepatobiliary diseases were excluded. We trained seven slit-lamp models and seven fundus models (with or without hepatobiliary disease [screening model] or one specific disease type within six categories [identifying model]) using a development dataset, and we tested the models with an external test dataset. Additionally, we did a visual explanation and occlusion test. Model performances were evaluated using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC), sensitivity, specificity, and F1* score. FINDINGS: Between Dec 16, 2018, and July 31, 2019, we collected data from 1252 participants (from the Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery of the Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, the Department of Infectious Diseases of the Affiliated Huadu Hospital of Southern Medical University, and the Nantian Medical Centre of Aikang Health Care [Guangzhou, China]) for the development dataset; between Aug 14, 2019, and Jan 31, 2020, we collected data from 537 participants (from the Department of Infectious Diseases of the Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University and the Huanshidong Medical Centre of Aikang Health Care [Guangzhou, China]) for the test dataset. The AUROC for screening for hepatobiliary diseases of the slit-lamp model was 0·74 (95% CI 0·71-0·76), whereas that of the fundus model was 0·68 (0·65-0·71). For the identification of hepatobiliary diseases, the AUROCs were 0·93 (0·91-0·94; slit-lamp) and 0·84 (0·81-0·86; fundus) for liver cancer, 0·90 (0·88-0·91; slit-lamp) and 0·83 (0·81-0·86; fundus) for liver cirrhosis, and ranged 0·58-0·69 (0·55-0·71; slit-lamp) and 0·62-0·70 (0·58-0·73; fundus) for other hepatobiliary diseases, including chronic viral hepatitis, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, cholelithiasis, and hepatic cyst. In addition to the conjunctiva and sclera, our deep learning model revealed that the structures of the iris and fundus also contributed to the classification. INTERPRETATION: Our study established qualitative associations between ocular features and major hepatobiliary diseases, providing a non-invasive, convenient, and complementary method for hepatobiliary disease screening and identification, which could be applied as an opportunistic screening tool. FUNDING: Science and Technology Planning Projects of Guangdong Province; National Key R&D Program of China; Guangzhou Key Laboratory Project; National Natural Science Foundation of China.


Asunto(s)
Algoritmos , Simulación por Computador , Aprendizaje Profundo , Enfermedades del Sistema Digestivo/diagnóstico , Ojo , Tamizaje Masivo/métodos , Modelos Biológicos , Adulto , Área Bajo la Curva , China , Conjuntiva/diagnóstico por imagen , Enfermedades del Sistema Digestivo/complicaciones , Ojo/diagnóstico por imagen , Fondo de Ojo , Humanos , Iris/diagnóstico por imagen , Hígado , Persona de Mediana Edad , Fotograbar/métodos , Estudios Prospectivos , Curva ROC , Esclerótica/diagnóstico por imagen , Microscopía con Lámpara de Hendidura/métodos
6.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 9(1): e19346, 2021 01 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33496670

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: For the classification of facial paresis, various systems of description and evaluation in the form of clinician-graded or software-based scoring systems are available. They serve the purpose of scientific and clinical assessment of the spontaneous course of the disease or monitoring therapeutic interventions. Nevertheless, none have been able to achieve universal acceptance in everyday clinical practice. Hence, a quick and precise tool for assessing the functional status of the facial nerve would be desirable. In this context, the possibilities that the TrueDepth camera of recent iPhone models offer have sparked our interest. OBJECTIVE: This paper describes the utilization of the iPhone's TrueDepth camera via a specially developed app prototype for quick, objective, and reproducible quantification of facial asymmetries. METHODS: After conceptual and user interface design, a native app prototype for iOS was programmed that accesses and processes the data of the TrueDepth camera. Using a special algorithm, a new index for the grading of unilateral facial paresis ranging from 0% to 100% was developed. The algorithm was adapted to the well-established Stennert index by weighting the individual facial regions based on functional and cosmetic aspects. Test measurements with healthy subjects using the app were performed in order to prove the reliability of the system. RESULTS: After the development process, the app prototype had no runtime or buildtime errors and also worked under suboptimal conditions such as different measurement angles, so it met our criteria for a safe and reliable app. The newly defined index expresses the result of the measurements as a generally understandable percentage value for each half of the face. The measurements that correctly rated the facial expressions of healthy individuals as symmetrical in all cases were reproducible and showed no statistically significant intertest variability. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the experience with the app prototype assessing healthy subjects, the use of the TrueDepth camera should have considerable potential for app-based grading of facial movement disorders. The app and its algorithm, which is based on theoretical considerations, should be evaluated in a prospective clinical study and correlated with common facial scores.


Asunto(s)
Nervio Facial/fisiopatología , Parálisis Facial/fisiopatología , Aplicaciones Móviles , Fotograbar/métodos , Teléfono Inteligente/estadística & datos numéricos , Percepción de Profundidad , Estudios de Factibilidad , Humanos , Informática Médica , Trastornos del Movimiento , Estudios Prospectivos , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Telemedicina
8.
Lancet Digit Health ; 2(6): e295-e302, 2020 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33328123

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Screening for chronic kidney disease is a challenge in community and primary care settings, even in high-income countries. We developed an artificial intelligence deep learning algorithm (DLA) to detect chronic kidney disease from retinal images, which could add to existing chronic kidney disease screening strategies. METHODS: We used data from three population-based, multiethnic, cross-sectional studies in Singapore and China. The Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Diseases study (SEED, patients aged ≥40 years) was used to develop (5188 patients) and validate (1297 patients) the DLA. External testing was done on two independent datasets: the Singapore Prospective Study Program (SP2, 3735 patients aged ≥25 years) and the Beijing Eye Study (BES, 1538 patients aged ≥40 years). Chronic kidney disease was defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate less than 60 mL/min per 1·73m2. Three models were trained: 1) image DLA; 2) risk factors (RF) including age, sex, ethnicity, diabetes, and hypertension; and 3) hybrid DLA combining image and RF. Model performances were evaluated using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). FINDINGS: In the SEED validation dataset, the AUC was 0·911 for image DLA (95% CI 0·886 -0·936), 0·916 for RF (0·891-0·941), and 0·938 for hybrid DLA (0·917-0·959). Corresponding estimates in the SP2 testing dataset were 0·733 for image DLA (95% CI 0·696-0·770), 0·829 for RF (0·797-0·861), and 0·810 for hybrid DLA (0·776-0·844); and in the BES testing dataset estimates were 0·835 for image DLA (0·767-0·903), 0·887 for RF (0·828-0·946), and 0·858 for hybrid DLA (0·794-0·922). AUC estimates were similar in subgroups of people with diabetes (image DLA 0·889 [95% CI 0·850-0·928], RF 0·899 [0·862-0·936], hybrid 0·925 [0·893-0·957]) and hypertension (image DLA 0·889 [95% CI 0·860-0·918], RF 0·889 [0·860-0·918], hybrid 0·918 [0·893-0·943]). INTERPRETATION: A retinal image DLA shows good performance for estimating chronic kidney disease, underlying the feasibility of using retinal photography as an adjunctive or opportunistic screening tool for chronic kidney disease in community populations. FUNDING: National Medical Research Council, Singapore.


Asunto(s)
Aprendizaje Profundo , Oftalmopatías/complicaciones , Interpretación de Imagen Asistida por Computador/métodos , Fotograbar/métodos , Insuficiencia Renal Crónica/complicaciones , Insuficiencia Renal Crónica/diagnóstico , Algoritmos , China , Estudios Transversales , Oftalmopatías/diagnóstico , Femenino , Fondo de Ojo , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Singapur
9.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244494, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33362230

RESUMEN

The tri-spine horseshoe crab, Tachypleus tridentatus, is a threatened species that inhabits coastal areas from South to East Asia. A Conservation management system is urgently required for managing its nursery habitats, i.e., intertidal flats, especially in Japan. Habitat suitability maps are useful in drafting conservation plans; however, they have rarely been prepared for juvenile T. tridentatus. In this study, we examined the possibility of constructing robust habitat suitability models (HSMs) for juveniles based on topographical data acquired using unmanned aerial vehicles and the Structure from Motion (UAV-SfM) technique. The distribution data of the juveniles in the Tsuyazaki and Imazu intertidal flats from 2017 to 2019 were determined. The data were divided into a training dataset for HSM construction and three test datasets for model evaluation. High accuracy digital surface models were built for each region using the UAV-SfM technique. Normalized elevation was assessed by converting the topographical models that consider the tidal range in each region, and the slope was calculated based on these models. Using the training data, HSMs of the juveniles were constructed with normalized elevation and slope as the predictor variables. The HSMs were evaluated using the test data. The results showed that HSMs exhibited acceptable discrimination performance for each region. Habitat suitability maps were built for the juveniles in each region, and the suitable areas were estimated to be approximately 6.1 ha of the total 19.5 ha in Tuyazaki, and 3.7 ha of the total 7.9 ha area in Imazu. In conclusion, our findings support the usefulness of the UAV-SfM technique in constructing HSMs for juvenile T. tridentatus. The monitoring of suitable habitat areas for the juveniles using the UAV-SfM technique is expected to reduce survey costs, as it can be conducted with fewer investigators over vast intertidal zones within a short period of time.


Asunto(s)
Seguimiento de Parámetros Ecológicos/métodos , Ecosistema , Especies en Peligro de Extinción , Cangrejos Herradura/fisiología , Animales , Seguimiento de Parámetros Ecológicos/instrumentación , Mapeo Geográfico , Japón , Fotograbar/instrumentación , Fotograbar/métodos , Tecnología de Sensores Remotos/instrumentación , Tecnología de Sensores Remotos/métodos , Olas de Marea
10.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5602, 2020 11 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33154366

RESUMEN

Multidimensional photography can capture optical fields beyond the capability of conventional image sensors that measure only two-dimensional (2D) spatial distribution of light. By mapping a high-dimensional datacube of incident light onto a 2D image sensor, multidimensional photography resolves the scene along with other information dimensions, such as wavelength and time. However, the application of current multidimensional imagers is fundamentally restricted by their static optical architectures and measurement schemes-the mapping relation between the light datacube voxels and image sensor pixels is fixed. To overcome this limitation, we propose tunable multidimensional photography through active optical mapping. A high-resolution spatial light modulator, referred to as an active optical mapper, permutes and maps the light datacube voxels onto sensor pixels in an arbitrary and programmed manner. The resultant system can readily adapt the acquisition scheme to the scene, thereby maximising the measurement flexibility. Through active optical mapping, we demonstrate our approach in two niche implementations: hyperspectral imaging and ultrafast imaging.


Asunto(s)
Fotograbar/instrumentación , Fotograbar/métodos , Diseño de Equipo , Imagenología Tridimensional , Análisis Espectral
11.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239913, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33002080

RESUMEN

Optic-disc photography (ODP) has proven to be very useful for optic nerve evaluation in glaucoma. In real clinical practice, however, limited patient cooperation, small pupils, or media opacities can limit the performance of ODP. The purpose of this study was to propose a deep-learning approach for increased resolution and improved legibility of ODP by contrast, color, and brightness compensation. Each high-resolution original ODP was transformed into two counterparts: (1) down-scaled 'low-resolution ODPs', and (2) 'compensated high-resolution ODPs' produced via enhancement of the visibility of the optic disc margin and surrounding retinal vessels using a customized image post-processing algorithm. Then, the differences between these two counterparts were directly learned through a super-resolution generative adversarial network (SR-GAN). Finally, by inputting the high-resolution ODPs into SR-GAN, 4-times-up-scaled and overall-color-and-brightness-transformed 'enhanced ODPs' could be obtained. General ophthalmologists were instructed (1) to assess each ODP's image quality, and (2) to note any abnormal findings, at 1-month intervals. The image quality score for the enhanced ODPs was significantly higher than that for the original ODP, and the overall optic disc hemorrhage (DH)-detection accuracy was significantly higher with the enhanced ODPs. We expect that this novel deep-learning approach will be applied to various types of ophthalmic images.


Asunto(s)
Aprendizaje Profundo , Glaucoma/diagnóstico por imagen , Procesamiento de Imagen Asistido por Computador/métodos , Disco Óptico/diagnóstico por imagen , Fotograbar/métodos , Humanos , Procesamiento de Imagen Asistido por Computador/normas , Límite de Detección , Fotograbar/normas
12.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0237570, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33044975

RESUMEN

Photo-identification (photo-id) is a method used in field studies by biologists to monitor animals according to their density, movement patterns and behavior, with the aim of predicting and preventing ecological risks. However, these methods can introduce subjectivity when manually classifying an individual animal, creating uncertainty or inaccuracy in the data as a result of the human criteria involved. One of the main objectives in photo-id is to implement an automated mechanism that is free of biases, portable, and easy to use. The main aim of this work is to develop an autonomous and portable photo-id system through the optimization of image classification algorithms that have high statistical dependence, with the goal of classifying dorsal fin images of the blue whale through offline information processing on a mobile platform. The new proposed methodology is based on the Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) that, in conjunction with statistical discriminators such as the variance and the standard deviation, fits the extracted data and selects the closest pixels that comprise the edges of the dorsal fin of the blue whale. In this way, we ensure the elimination of the most common external factors that could affect the quality of the image, thus avoiding the elimination of relevant sections of the dorsal fin. The photo-id method presented in this work has been developed using blue whale images collected off the coast of Baja California Sur. The results shown have qualitatively and quantitatively validated the method in terms of its sensitivity, specificity and accuracy on the Jetson Tegra TK1 mobile platform. The solution optimizes classic SIFT, balancing the results obtained with the computational cost, provides a more economical form of processing and obtains a portable system that could be beneficial for field studies through mobile platforms, making it available to scientists, government and the general public.


Asunto(s)
Aletas de Animales/anatomía & histología , Balaenoptera/anatomía & histología , Aplicaciones Móviles , Fotograbar/métodos , Algoritmos , Animales , Bases de Datos Factuales , Procesamiento de Imagen Asistido por Computador/métodos , Procesamiento de Imagen Asistido por Computador/estadística & datos numéricos , Reconocimiento de Normas Patrones Automatizadas/métodos , Reconocimiento de Normas Patrones Automatizadas/estadística & datos numéricos , Fotograbar/estadística & datos numéricos
13.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5252, 2020 10 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33067438

RESUMEN

Simultaneous and efficient ultrafast recording of multiple photon tags contributes to high-dimensional optical imaging and characterization in numerous fields. Existing high-dimensional optical imaging techniques that record space and polarization cannot detect the photon's time of arrival owing to the limited speeds of the state-of-the-art electronic sensors. Here, we overcome this long-standing limitation by implementing stereo-polarimetric compressed ultrafast photography (SP-CUP) to record light-speed high-dimensional events in a single exposure. Synergizing compressed sensing and streak imaging with stereoscopy and polarimetry, SP-CUP enables video-recording of five photon tags (x, y, z: space; t: time of arrival; and ψ: angle of linear polarization) at 100 billion frames per second with a picosecond temporal resolution. We applied SP-CUP to the spatiotemporal characterization of linear polarization dynamics in early-stage plasma emission from laser-induced breakdown. This system also allowed three-dimensional ultrafast imaging of the linear polarization properties of a single ultrashort laser pulse propagating in a scattering medium.


Asunto(s)
Imagen Óptica/instrumentación , Fotograbar/instrumentación , Grabación en Video/instrumentación , Rayos Láser , Imagen Óptica/métodos , Fotograbar/métodos , Fotones , Grabación en Video/métodos
14.
J Vis Exp ; (163)2020 09 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32955504

RESUMEN

An experimental and image analysis technique is presented for imaging cavitation bubbles and calculating their area. The high-speed imaging experimental technique and image analysis protocol presented here can also be applied for imaging microscopic bubbles in other fields of research; therefore, it has a wide range of applications. We apply this to image cavitation around dental ultrasonic scalers. It is important to image cavitation to characterize it and to understand how it can be exploited for various applications. Cavitation occurring around dental ultrasonic scalers can be used as a novel method of dental plaque removal, which would be more effective and cause less damage than current periodontal therapy techniques. We present a method for imaging the cavitation bubble clouds occurring around dental ultrasonic scaler tips using a high-speed camera and a zoom lens. We also calculate the area of cavitation using machine learning image analysis. Open source software is used for image analysis. The image analysis presented is easy to replicate, does not require programming experience, and can be modified easily to suit the application of the user.


Asunto(s)
Procesamiento de Imagen Asistido por Computador , Microburbujas , Fotograbar , Raspado Dental/instrumentación , Movimiento (Física) , Fotograbar/métodos , Sonicación/instrumentación
15.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13447, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32902039

RESUMEN

Nest building is an instinctive behavior toward protection from predators, body temperature regulation, and courtship. Previously, we discovered that acute and chronic social defeat stress suppresses the onset of nest-building behavior in male mice (C57BL/6J). Here, we analyzed nest building and other behavioral deficits induced by acute social defeat stress (ASDS). We utilized a customized cage and specifically developed observational programs for nest building, social avoidance, and other behaviors using an infrared depth camera to acquire three-dimensional (3D) data of animal behavior (Negura system). We determined the volume of nesting materials from these 3D depth images. Mice exposed to ASDS showed increased spontaneous activities, decreased rearing, and delayed nest building; however, nest-building activity was gradually recovered during the dark period of the 24 hr observation interval. At the endpoint following 24 hr, the ASDS and control groups showed no differences in nest volumes. Furthermore, we observed the time courses of both nest building and social avoidance behaviors and their relationship using the Negura system. Our data demonstrated a weak positive correlation between nest-building delay and social avoidance in ASDS mice. The Negura system can observe various behaviors that reflect the effects of social defeat stress.


Asunto(s)
Reacción de Prevención , Técnicas de Observación Conductual/instrumentación , Imagenología Tridimensional/instrumentación , Relaciones Interpersonales , Comportamiento de Nidificación/fisiología , Fotograbar/instrumentación , Conducta Social , Estrés Psicológico/psicología , Animales , Técnicas de Observación Conductual/métodos , Enfermedad Crónica , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Imagenología Tridimensional/métodos , Masculino , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Ratones Endogámicos ICR , Fotograbar/métodos
16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32948087

RESUMEN

Background: Fear of Harm (FoH) predicts return to sports in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction (ACLR) and can be assessed using the Photographic Sports Activities for ACLR (PHOSA-ACLR). This study was conducted to determine whether FoH assessed using the PHOSA-ACLR is a latent trait, and to analyze differences in PHOSA-ACLR in athletes with or without an ACL rupture. Methods: Three convenience samples completed the PHOSA-ACLR: (1) ACLR patients (n = 58; mean age 25.9 years; range 17-56; SD = 8.2; 43% male); (2) first year Physical Therapy (PT) students (n = 169; mean age = 19.2; SD = 2.0; 48% male), and (3) junior football players (n = 30; mean age = 18.3; range 17-20; SD = 3.2; 94% males). ACLR patients additionally reported functioning and Fear of Movement. PHOSA-ACLR items were analyzed with Item Response Theory using the Graded Response Model (GRM). Differences between three groups of participants were analyzed using Univariate Analysis of Variance. Results: Data fitted the two-parameter GRM, and therefore the items of the PHOSA-ACLR constitute a latent trait. There was a significant difference between the three groups in PHOSA-ACLR after controlling for age and gender (F (2, 255) = 17.1, p < 0.001). PT students reported higher levels of FoH compared to either ACLR patients or healthy soccer players. Conclusions: PHOSA-ACLR items constitute a latent trait of FoH for ACLR-specific movements. Contrary to expectations, PHOSA-ACLR is higher in first year physiotherapy students compared to patients rehabilitating from ACLR, and healthy junior soccer players.


Asunto(s)
Lesiones del Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/psicología , Reconstrucción del Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/psicología , Ansiedad/psicología , Traumatismos en Atletas/psicología , Miedo , Fútbol , Adolescente , Adulto , Lesiones del Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/epidemiología , Lesiones del Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/cirugía , Ansiedad/diagnóstico , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Traumatismos en Atletas/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Fotograbar/métodos , Fisioterapeutas , Adulto Joven
17.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0238072, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822418

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Early detection and treatment are important management strategies for neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The purpose of this study was to determine the sensitivity and specificity in detecting neovascular AMD using two wide-field imaging systems: ClarusTM (CLARUS 500™, Carl Zeiss Meditec AG, Jena, Germany) and Optos®(Optos California®, Optos PLC, Dunfermline, United Kingdom), compared to conventional digital fundus photographs. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 109 eyes of 73 consecutive patients with neovascular AMD, who underwent standard examination and multimodal imaging, including fundus photography, and optical coherence tomography (OCT). Unmasked graders utilized slit-lamp biomicroscopy and OCT to diagnose neovascular AMD. Masked graders evaluated ClarusTM, Optos®, and digital fundus photograph methods to determine the presence of choroidal neovascularization associated with AMD. Sensitivity and specificity analyses were performed using combined fundoscopy and OCT as the reference standard. RESULTS: Ninety eyes were diagnosed with neovascular AMD and the remaining 19 eyes were normal based on the reference standard. Of these, neovascular AMD was detected using ClarusTM in 94.4% (85/90). The sensitivities of Optos® and digital fundus photographs were 81.1% (73/90) and 87.8% (79/90), respectively. The specificities using ClarusTM, Optos®, and digital fundus photographs were 89.5% (17/19), 94.7% (18/19), and 89.5% (17/19), respectively. CONCLUSION: ClarusTM, with its ability to image high-resolution wide field fundus, was considered superior for diagnosing neovascular AMD with high sensitivity and specificity. It may be a useful screening tool for early detection of neovascular AMD, facilitating prompt referral and treatment.


Asunto(s)
Degeneración Macular/diagnóstico , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Femenino , Fondo de Ojo , Humanos , Degeneración Macular/patología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Fotograbar/métodos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Tomografía de Coherencia Óptica/métodos
18.
Acta Diabetol ; 57(12): 1493-1499, 2020 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32748176

RESUMEN

AIMS: To evaluate diabetic retinopathy (DR) screening with a portable handheld smartphone-based retinal camera and telemedicine in an urban primary healthcare setting and to evaluate the learning curve for image acquisition, performed by healthcare personnel without previous experience in retinal imaging. METHODS: This was a prospective study that enrolled patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) followed at a primary healthcare unit in São Paulo, Brazil. After a brief training in image acquisition, there was further continuous feedback given by a retina specialist during the remote image reading process. Each patient underwent two fundus and one anterior ocular segment images per eye, after mydriasis. Patients were classified according to the need of referral. RESULTS: A total of 627 adult individuals with T2DM underwent retinal evaluation. The population was composed by 63.2% female individuals, age median of 66 years, diabetes duration 10.7 ± 8.2 years and HbA1c 7.7 ± 1.9% (61 + 20.8 mmol/mol). The most prevalent associated comorbidities were arterial hypertension (80.3%) and dyslipidemia (50.2%). Referral decision was possible in 81.2% patients. Most patients had absent or non-referable DR; the main ocular media opacity detected was cataract. After the 7th day of image acquisition, the daily rate of patients whose images allowed clinical decision was maintained above 80%. A higher HbA1c was associated with referable DR. CONCLUSIONS: A low-cost DR screening strategy with a handheld device and telemedicine is feasible and has the potential to increase coverage of DR screening in underserved areas; the possibility of mobile units is relevant for DR screening in the context of COVID-19 pandemic. Daily rate of patients whose examinations allowed clinical decision. X-axis: day of examination; Y-axis: rate (%) of patients whose examinations allowed a clinical decision.


Asunto(s)
Retinopatía Diabética/diagnóstico , Tamizaje Masivo/métodos , Fotograbar/métodos , Retina/diagnóstico por imagen , Telemedicina/métodos , Adulto , Anciano , Brasil , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicaciones , Retinopatía Diabética/diagnóstico por imagen , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Tamizaje Masivo/instrumentación , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Atención Primaria de Salud/métodos , Estudios Prospectivos , Derivación y Consulta , Teléfono Inteligente , Telemedicina/instrumentación
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