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1.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 264: 120283, 2022 Jan 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34428635

RESUMEN

In this work, we report in situ nonlinear microscopic images on plasmon-enhanced coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) and plasmon-Induced two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF)of non-fluorescent microorganism. Our unique synthesized Au@Ag nanorods provide with two distinct surface-plasmon resonance (SPR) at 400 and 800 nm, respectively, which can efficiently induce linear fluorescence signals of E. coli but also enhance the nonlinear optical spectroscopy signals of TPEF, and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) imaging of E. coli and S. aureus. Furthermore, calculations with complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) reveals the hot electrons of SPs can efficiently induce the biological fluorescence of non-fluorescent flavin nucleotides on the surface of E. coli. This novel mechanism is expected to guide the development and application of new microbial detection reagents. Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria can be well distinguished by nonlinear microscopic imaging of the CARS signal at 1589 cm-1. Benefit by the strong penetrability of non-linear optical signals, it is expected to realize in situ real-time detection and classification of pathogenic microbial infections in vivo.


Asunto(s)
Escherichia coli , Espectrometría Raman , Fotones , Coloración y Etiquetado , Staphylococcus aureus
2.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 267(Pt 1): 120493, 2022 Feb 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34740001

RESUMEN

The influence of three halogen elements F, Cl, Br on the fluorescent dyes were investigated by applying first principle calculations based on density functional method. We researched two aspects of absorption and emission and specifically analyzed the influence of halogen on the optical properties of molecules. First, the one-photon and two-photon absorption of these dyes were systematically investigated. Particularly, the two-photon absorption cross section were analysed. More important, the emission properties of these dyes were accurately researched by calculating wavelengths and fluorescence emission efficiencies. Furthermore, the fluorescence emission efficiencies of these molecules are accurately researched by calculating the radiative rate and the non-radiative decay rate. Our theoretical investigations reveal that the influence of halogen element on the optical properties of dyes, which achieved a more intuitive comparison of the luminous effects of these dye molecules.


Asunto(s)
Colorantes Fluorescentes , Fotones , Fenómenos Químicos , Fluorescencia , Halógenos
3.
Comput Methods Programs Biomed ; 213: 106524, 2022 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34818621

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Photoneutron production is a common concern when using 18-MV photon beams in radiation therapy. In Spatially Fractionated Grid Radiation Therapy (SFGRT), the grid block in the collimation system modifies the neutron production, photon scattering, and electron contamination in and out of the radiation field. Such an effect was studied with grids made of different high-Z materials by Monte Carlo simulations. The results were also used to evaluate the lifetime risk of fatal cancers. METHODS: MCNPX® code (2.7.0 extensions) was employed to simulate an 18-MV LINAC (Varian 2100 C/D). Three types of grid made of brass, cerrobend, and lead were used to study the neutron and electron fluence. Output factors for each grid with different field sizes were calculated. A revised female MIRD phantom with an 8-cm spherical tumor inside the liver was used to estimate the dose to the tumor and the critical organs. A 20-Gy SFGRT plan with Anterior Posterior (AP) - Posterior Anterior (PA) grid beams was compared with a Conventional Fractionated Radiation Therapy (CFRT) plan which delivered 40-Gy to the tumor by AP-PA open beams. Neutron equivalent dose, photon equivalent dose, as well as lifetime risks of fatal cancer were calculated in the organs at risk. RESULTS: The grid blocks reduced the fluence of contaminant electrons inside the treatment field by more than 50%. The neutron fluences per electron-history in SFGRT plans with brass, cerrobend and lead were on average 55%, 31% and 31% less than that of the CFRT plan, respectively. However, when converting to fluences per delivered dose (Gy), the cerrobend and lead grid may incur higher neutron dose for 20 × 20 cm2 field size and above. The changes in neutron mean energy, as well as the correlated radiation weighting factors, were insignificant. The total risk due to the photoneutrons in the SFGRT plans was 87% or lower than that in the CFRT plans. In both SFGRT and CFRT plans, the contribution of the primary and scattered photons to the fatal cancer risk was 2 times or more than the photoneutrons. The total risks from photons in SFGRT with brass, cerrobend, and lead blocks were 1.733, 1.374, and 1.260%, respectively, which were less than 30% of the total photon-risk in CFRT (5.827%). CONCLUSION: In the brass, cerrobend, and lead grids, the attenuation of photoneutrons outweighs its photoneutron production in 18-MV SFGRT. The total cancer risks from photons and photoneutrons in the SFGRT plans were 30% or less of the risks in the CFRT plans (5.911%). Using 18 MV photon beams with brass, cerrobend, and lead grid blocks is still a feasible option for SFGRT.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias , Protección Radiológica , Estudios de Factibilidad , Femenino , Humanos , Método de Montecarlo , Aceleradores de Partículas , Fotones
4.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 62(15): 23, 2021 12 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34935882

RESUMEN

Purpose: Two-photon vision relies on the perception of pulsed infrared light due to two-photon absorption in visual pigments. This study aimed to measure human pupil reaction caused by a two-photon 1040-nm stimulus and compare it with pupil responses elicited by 520-nm stimuli of similar color. Methods: Pupillary light reflex (PLR) was induced on 14 dark-adapted healthy subjects. Three types of fovea-centered stimuli of 3.5° diameter were tested: spirals formed by fast scanning 1040-nm (infrared [IR] laser) or 520-nm (visible [VIS] laser) laser beams and uniformly filled circle created by 520-nm LED (VIS light-emitting diode [LED]). The power of visible stimuli was determined with a dedicated procedure to obtain the same perceived brightness equivalent as for 800 µW used for two-photon stimulation. Results: The minimum pupil diameter for IR laser was 88% ± 10% of baseline, significantly larger than for both VIS stimuli: 74% ± 10% (laser) and 69% ± 9% (LED). Mean constriction velocity and time to maximum constriction had significantly smaller values for IR than for both VIS stimuli. Latency times were similar for IR and VIS lasers and slightly smaller for VIS LED. Conclusions: The two-photon stimulus caused a considerably weaker pupil reaction than one-photon stimuli of the same shape, brightness, and similar color. The smaller pupil response may be due to weaker two-photon stimulation of rods relative to cones as previously observed for two-photon vision. Contrary to normal vision, in a two-photon process the stray light is not perceived, which might reduce the number of stimulated photoreceptors and further weaken the PLR.


Asunto(s)
Luz , Pupila/efectos de la radiación , Reflejo Pupilar/fisiología , Adulto , Adaptación a la Oscuridad , Femenino , Humanos , Rayos Infrarrojos , Masculino , Fotones , Tiempo de Reacción , Adulto Joven
5.
6.
Igaku Butsuri ; 41(3): 134-142, 2021.
Artículo en Japonés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34744124

RESUMEN

A calibration service using a medical accelerator has been launched to calibrate a radiotherapy dosimeter in terms of an absorbed dose to water. The radiotherapy dosimeter calibrated by the calibration service can measure the absorbed dose to water without a beam quality conversion factor. In this paper, an overview of the calibration service for a high-energy photon beam and a high-energy electron beam was described, as well as methods of absorbed dose measurement and cross-calibration using the calibrated radiotherapy dosimeter. And the development status of a dose standard for a particle beam was reported.


Asunto(s)
Dosímetros de Radiación , Radiometría , Calibración , Calorimetría , Aceleradores de Partículas , Fotones , Radioterapia de Alta Energía , Agua
7.
Igaku Butsuri ; 41(3): 160, 2021.
Artículo en Japonés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34744132

RESUMEN

This is a review article on photon counting detector for radiation measurement by JSRT and JSMP (https://www.jsmp.org/en).


Asunto(s)
Monitoreo de Radiación , Diagnóstico por Imagen , Fotones , Física , Radiografía
8.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(21)2021 Oct 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770344

RESUMEN

(1) Background: Small Animal Fast Insert for MRI detector I (SAFIR-I) is a preclinical Positron Emission Tomography (PET) insert for the Bruker BioSpec 70/30 Ultra Shield Refrigerated (USR) preclinical 7T Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) system. It is designed explicitly for high-rate kinetic studies in mice and rats with injected activities reaching 500MBq, enabling truly simultaneous quantitative PET and Magnetic Resonance (MR) imaging with time frames of a few seconds in length. (2) Methods: SAFIR-I has an axial field of view of 54.2mm and an inner diameter of 114mm. It employs Lutetium Yttrium OxyorthoSilicate (LYSO) crystals and Multi Pixel Photon Counter (MPPC) arrays. The Position-Energy-Timing Application Specific Integrated Circuit, version 6, Single Ended (PETA6SE) digitizes the MPPC signals and provides time stamps and energy information. (3) Results: SAFIR-I is MR-compatible. The system's Coincidence Resolving Time (CRT) and energy resolution are between separate-uncertainty 209.0(3)ps and separate-uncertainty 12.41(02) Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM) at low activity and separate-uncertainty 326.89(12)ps and separate-uncertainty 20.630(011) FWHM at 550MBq, respectively. The peak sensitivity is ∼1.6. The excellent performance facilitated the successful execution of first in vivo rat studies beyond 300MBq. Based on features visible in the acquired images, we estimate the spatial resolution to be ∼2mm in the center of the Field Of View (FOV). (4) Conclusion: The SAFIR-I PET insert provides excellent performance, permitting simultaneous in vivo small animal PET/MR image acquisitions with time frames of a few seconds in length at activities of up to 500MBq.


Asunto(s)
Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Tomografía de Emisión de Positrones , Animales , Diseño de Equipo , Cinética , Ratones , Fantasmas de Imagen , Fotones , Ratas
9.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1187: 339159, 2021 Dec 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34753573

RESUMEN

Acute lung injury (ALI) is a pulmonary inflammatory disease with high morbidity and mortality rates. However, owing to the unknown etiology and rapid progression of the disease, the diagnosis of ALI is full of challenges with no effective treatment. Since the inflammatory response and oxidative stress played vital roles in the development of ALI, we herein developed the largest emission cross-shift (△λ = 145 nm) two-photon ratiometric fluorescent probe of TPRS-HOCl with high selectivity and short response time toward hypochlorous acid (HOCl) for exploring the relevance between the degree of ALI and HOCl concentration in the development process of the disease. In addition, the inhibition effect of HOCl during different treatment periods was also evaluated. Moreover, the tendency of imaging results was basically in accordance with that of hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining and the treatment effect became better in the early stage when using N-acetylcysteine (NAC), demonstrating the sensitivity of TPRS-HOCl toward ALI response. Thus, TPRS-HOCl has great potential to diagnose ALI in the early stage and guide for effective treatment.


Asunto(s)
Lesión Pulmonar Aguda , Ácido Hipocloroso , Lesión Pulmonar Aguda/diagnóstico por imagen , Pruebas Diagnósticas de Rutina , Colorantes Fluorescentes , Humanos , Fotones
10.
Nanoscale Horiz ; 6(12): 998-1005, 2021 11 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34731228

RESUMEN

Directed transport of singlet excitation energy is a key process in natural light-harvesting systems and a desired feature in assemblies of functional organic molecules for organic electronics and nanotechnology applications. However, progress in this direction is hampered by the lack of concepts and model systems. Here we demonstrate an all-optical approach to manipulate singlet exciton transport pathways within supramolecular nanostructures via singlet-triplet annihilation, i.e., to enforce an effective motion of singlet excitons along a predefined direction. For this proof-of-concept, we locally photo-generate a long-lived triplet exciton population and subsequently a singlet exciton population on single bundles of H-type supramolecular nanofibres using two temporally and spatially separated laser pulses. The local triplet exciton population operates as a gate for the singlet exciton transport since singlet-triplet annihilation hinders singlet exciton motion across the triplet population. We visualize this manipulation of singlet exciton transport via the fluorescence signal from the singlet excitons, using a detection-beam scanning approach combined with time-correlated single-photon counting. Our reversible, all-optical manipulation of singlet exciton transport can pave the way to realising new design principles for functional photonic nanodevices.


Asunto(s)
Nanoestructuras , Fotones , Rayos Láser , Luz
11.
J Synchrotron Radiat ; 28(Pt 6): 1916-1920, 2021 Nov 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34738946

RESUMEN

X-ray ptychography and X-ray fluorescence are complementary nanoscale imaging techniques, providing structural and elemental information, respectively. Both methods acquire data by scanning a localized beam across the sample. X-ray ptychography processes the transmission signal of a coherent illumination interacting with the sample, to produce images with a resolution finer than the illumination spot and step size. By enlarging both the spot and the step size, the technique can cover extended regions efficiently. X-ray fluorescence records the emitted spectra as the sample is scanned through the localized beam and its spatial resolution is limited by the spot and step size. The requisites for fast ptychography and high-resolution fluorescence appear incompatible. Here, a novel scheme that mitigates the difference in requirements is proposed. The method makes use of two probes of different sizes at the sample, generated by using two different energies for the probes and chromatic focusing optics. The different probe sizes allow to reduce the number of acquisition steps for the joint fluorescence-ptychography scan compared with a standard single beam scan, while imaging the same field of view. The new method is demonstrated experimentally using two undulator harmonics, a Fresnel zone plate and an energy discriminating photon counting detector.


Asunto(s)
Imagen Óptica , Fotones , Radiografía , Rayos X
12.
J Synchrotron Radiat ; 28(Pt 6): 1954-1965, 2021 Nov 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34738951

RESUMEN

The optical design and performance of the recently opened 13A biological small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) beamline at the 3.0 GeV Taiwan Photon Source of the National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center are reported. The beamline is designed for studies of biological structures and kinetics in a wide range of length and time scales, from angstrom to micrometre and from microsecond to minutes. A 4 m IU24 undulator of the beamline provides high-flux X-rays in the energy range 4.0-23.0 keV. MoB4C double-multilayer and Si(111) double-crystal monochromators (DMM/DCM) are combined on the same rotating platform for a smooth rotation transition from a high-flux beam of ∼4 × 1014 photons s-1 to a high-energy-resolution beam of ΔE/E ≃ 1.5 × 10-4; both modes share a constant beam exit. With a set of Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) mirrors, the X-ray beam is focused to the farthest SAXS detector position, 52 m from the source. A downstream four-bounce crystal collimator, comprising two sets of Si(311) double crystals arranged in a dispersive configuration, optionally collimate the DCM (vertically diffracted) beam in the horizontal direction for ultra-SAXS with a minimum scattering vector q down to 0.0004 Å-1, which allows resolving ordered d-spacing up to 1 µm. A microbeam, of 10-50 µm beam size, is tailored by a combined set of high-heat-load slits followed by micrometre-precision slits situated at the front-end 15.5 m position. The second set of KB mirrors then focus the beam to the 40 m sample position, with a demagnification ratio of ∼1.5. A detecting system comprising two in-vacuum X-ray pixel detectors is installed to perform synchronized small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering data collections. The observed beamline performance proves the feasibility of having compound features of high flux, microbeam and ultra-SAXS in one beamline.


Asunto(s)
Fotones , Sincrotrones , Dispersión del Ángulo Pequeño , Taiwán , Difracción de Rayos X , Rayos X
13.
J Phys Chem B ; 125(41): 11457-11472, 2021 10 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34641684

RESUMEN

Organic electronic materials have advantages over inorganics in terms of versatility, cost, and processability. Recent advancements in organic materials for light-emitting diodes (OLED), field effect transistors (OFET), and photovoltaics have engendered extensive innovation potential on this field. In this research, we focus on synthesizing SQ (silsesquioxane) based oligomers cross-linked by dibromo-aromatic linkers and explore how the cross-linker influences their photophysical properties. Bis-trialkoxy silyl (linker) model compounds were synthesized to compare noncage photophysical properties with the oligomers. Several techniques such as UV/vis, fluorescence, FTIR, and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) have been used to characterize the systems. Time-resolved fluorescence and femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy were used to understand the excited state dynamics of these materials. Studies were carried out to understand the differences between monomers and oligomers and potential energy transfer and charge transfer between the cages and cross-linking chromophores. Transient absorption showed lower energy absorption from the excited states, suggesting short-range communication between moieties. Single photon counting studies have shown distinct lifetime differences between most linkers and cages display possible excitation energy transfer through these materials. Transient absorption anisotropy measurements have shown signatures for excitation energy transfer between linker chromophores for oligomeric compounds. The silsesquioxane (SQ) backbone of the oligomers gives substantial thermal stability as well as solution processability, giving better flexibility for achieving energy transfer between linking chromophores.


Asunto(s)
Colorantes , Fotones , Transferencia de Energía , Análisis Espectral
14.
Med Phys ; 48(11): 7461-7475, 2021 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34613620

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Determination of absorbed dose is well established in many dosimetry protocols and considered to be highly reliable using ionization chambers under reference conditions. If dosimetry is performed under other conditions or using other detectors, however, open questions still remain. Such questions frequently refer to appropriate correction factors. A converted energy per mass (cema)-based approach to formulate such correction factors offers a good understanding of the specific response of a detector for dosimetry under various measuring conditions and thus an estimate of pros and cons of its application. METHODS: Determination of absorbed dose requires the knowledge of the beam quality correction factor kQ,Qo , where Q denotes the quality of a user beam and Qo is the quality of the radiation used for calibration. In modern Monte Carlo (MC)-based methods, kQ,Qo is directly derived from the MC-calculated dose conversion factor, which is the ratio between the absorbed dose at a point of interest in water and the mean absorbed dose in the sensitive volume of an ion chamber. In this work, absorbed dose is approximated by the fundamental quantity cema. This approximation allows the dose conversion factor to be substituted by the cema conversion factor. Subsequently, this factor is decomposed into a product of cema ratios. They are identified as the stopping power ratio water to the material in the sensitive detector volume, and as the correction factor for the fluence perturbation of the secondary charged particles in the detector cavity caused by the presence of the detector. This correction factor is further decomposed with respect to the perturbation caused by the detector cavity and that caused by external detector properties. The cema-based formalism was subsequently tested by MC calculations of the spectral fluence of the secondary charged particles (electrons and positrons) under various conditions. RESULTS: MC calculations demonstrate that considerable fluence perturbation may occur particularly under non-reference conditions. Cema-based correction factors to be applied in a 6-MV beam were obtained for a number of ionization chambers and for three solid-state detectors. Feasibility was shown at field sizes of 4 × 4 and 0.5 cm × 0.5 cm. Values of the cema ratios resulting from the decomposition of the dose conversion factor can be well correlated with detector response. Under the small field conditions, the internal fluence correction factor of ionization chambers is considerably dependent on volume averaging and thus on the shape and size of the cavity volume. CONCLUSIONS: The cema approach is particularly useful at non-reference conditions including when solid-state detectors are used. Perturbation correction factors can be expressed and evaluated by cema ratios in a comprehensive manner. The cema approach can serve to understand the specific response of a detector for dosimetry to be dependent on (a) radiation quality, (b) detector properties, and (c) electron fluence changes caused by the detector. This understanding may also help to decide which detector is best suited for a specific measurement situation.


Asunto(s)
Fotones , Radiometría , Calibración , Método de Montecarlo , Fenómenos Físicos
15.
Acta Oncol ; 60(11): 1419-1424, 2021 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34596486

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Small megavoltage photon fields are increasingly used in modern radiotherapy techniques such as stereotactic radiotherapy. Therefore, it is important to study the reliability of dosimetry in the small-field conditions. The IBA Razor Nano Chamber (Nano chamber) ionization chamber is particularly intended for small-field measurements. In this work, properties of the Nano chamber were studied with both measurements and Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The measurements and MC simulations were performed with 6 MV, 6 MV FFF and 10 MV FFF photon beams from the Varian TrueBeam linear accelerator. The source-to-surface distance was fixed at 100 cm. The measurements and MC simulations included profiles, percentage depth doses (PDD), and output factors (OF) in square jaw-collimated fields. The MC simulations were performed with the EGSnrc software system in a large water phantom. RESULTS: The measured profiles and PDDs obtained with the Nano chamber were compared against IBA Razor Diode, PTW microDiamond and the PTW Semiflex ionization chamber. These results indicate that the Nano chamber is a high-resolution detector and thus suitable for small field profile measurements down to field sizes 2 × 2 cm2 and appropriate for the PDD measurements. The field output correction factors kQclin, Qmsrfclin, fmsr and field OFs ΩQclin, Qmsrfclin, fmsr were determined according to TRS-483 protocol In the 6 MV FF and FFF beams, the determined correction factors kQclin, Qmsrfclin, fmsr were within 1.2% for the field sizes of 1 × 1 cm2-3 × 3 cm2 and the experimental and MC defined field output factors ΩQclin,Qmsrfclin,fmsr showed good agreement. CONCLUSION: The Nano chamber with its small cavity volume is a potential detector for the small-field dosimetry. In this study, the properties of this detector were characterized with measurements and MC simulations. The determined correction factors kQclin, Qmsrfclin, fmsr are novel results for the NC in the TrueBeam fields.


Asunto(s)
Aceleradores de Partículas , Radiometría , Humanos , Método de Montecarlo , Fotones , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados
16.
Nano Lett ; 21(20): 8602-8608, 2021 10 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34662137

RESUMEN

Structural coloration is a recurring solution in biological systems to control visible light. In nature, basic structural coloration results from light interacting with a repetitive nanopattern, but more complex interactions and striking results are achieved by organisms incorporating additional hierarchical structures. Artificial reproduction of single-level structural color has been achieved using repetitive nanostructures, with flat sheets of inverse opals being very popular because of their simple and reliable fabrication process. Here, we control photonic structures at several length scales using a combination of direct laser writing and nanosphere assembly, producing freeform hierarchical constructions of inverse opals with high-intensity structural coloration. We report the first 3D prints of stacked, overhanging and slanted microstructures of inverse opals. Among other characteristics, these hierarchical photonic structures exhibit geometrically tunable colors, focal-plane-dependent patterns, and arbitrary alignment of microstructure facet with self-assembled lattice. Based on those results, novel concepts of multilevel information encoding systems are presented.


Asunto(s)
Nanoestructuras , Fotones , Luz , Óptica y Fotónica , Impresión Tridimensional
17.
Phys Med ; 90: 158-163, 2021 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34662819

RESUMEN

Internal Bremsstrahlung (IB) is a continuous electromagnetic radiation accompanying beta decay; however, this process is not considered in radiation protection studies, particularly when estimating exposure from beta-decaying radionuclides. The aims of the present work are: i) to show that neglecting the IB process in Monte Carlo (MC) simulation leads to an underestimation of the energy deposited in a ionization chamber, in the case of a high-energy pure beta emitter such as Yttrium-90 (90Y), and ii) to determine the most reliable choice of source term for 90Y IB to be used in MC simulations. For this radionuclide, commonly employed in nuclear medicine and radiochemistry applications, experimental data acquired with a well ionization chamber have been compared with Monte Carlo (MC) calculations carried out in the GAMOS framework. Simulations that do not include the effect of the IB process, are found to give results underestimating the experimental values by 12-14%. Consequently, two models for the IB energy spectra, previously described by Italiano et al. [1], have been implemented using MC simulation and a good agreement has been achieved with one of them. We therefore conclude that inclusion of IB process in Monte Carlo simulation packages is advisable for a more accurate and complete treatment of electromagnetic interactions.


Asunto(s)
Fotones , Protección Radiológica , Simulación por Computador , Método de Montecarlo
18.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(19)2021 Sep 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34640788

RESUMEN

In this invited review, we provide an overview of the recent advances in biomedical photonic sensors within the last five years. This review is focused on works using optical-fibre technology, employing diverse optical fibres, sensing techniques, and configurations applied in several medical fields. We identified technical innovations and advancements with increased implementations of optical-fibre sensors, multiparameter sensors, and control systems in real applications. Examples of outstanding optical-fibre sensor performances for physical and biochemical parameters are covered, including diverse sensing strategies and fibre-optical probes for integration into medical instruments such as catheters, needles, or endoscopes.


Asunto(s)
Fibras Ópticas , Fotones
19.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(19)2021 Oct 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34640923

RESUMEN

We report a statistical approach to model the resonant peak wavelength (RPW) equation(s) of a photonic crystal fibre (PCF)-based surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensors in terms of the PCF structural parameters (air-hole diameter, pitch, core diameter and gold layer thickness) at various tolerance levels. Design of experiments (statistical tool) is used to investigate the role played by the PCF structural parameters for sensing performance evaluation-RPW, across three tolerance levels (±2%, ±5% and ±10%). Pitch of the hollow-core PCF was discovered to be the major influencing parameter for the sensing performance (RPW) of the PCF-based SPR sensor while the inner metal (gold) layer thickness and core diameter are the least contributing parameters. This novel statistical method to derive the sensing performance parameter(s) of the PCF-based SPR sensors can be applied effectively and efficiently in the designing, characterisation, tolerance analysis not only at the research level, but also in optical fibre sensor fabrication industry to improve efficiency and lower cost.


Asunto(s)
Óptica y Fotónica , Resonancia por Plasmón de Superficie , Oro , Fibras Ópticas , Fotones
20.
Radiol Phys Technol ; 14(4): 381-389, 2021 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34716568

RESUMEN

The evaluation of the entrance surface dose (ESD) ensures safe radiation doses for X-ray imaging patients. The air kerma free-in-air value used to estimate ESD may be affected by those X-rays that scatter from the scatterer placed behind the chamber at the time of measurement, thereby leading to assessment errors. Therefore, the influence of scattered radiation on air kerma measurements was investigated. Monte Carlo simulations were performed for various detector-to-scatterer distances and scatterer materials. The simulation results were compared with actual measurements to confirm the simulation accuracy. The source-chamber distance was set to 50 and 100 cm for the experimental measurements and simulation, respectively, and the chamber-scatterer distance was varied. The Monte Carlo simulation results reproduced the actual measurements with an accuracy of 3.5%. The effect of backscattering varied with the tube voltage and irradiation field size. The effect was observed in the order of prominence for the following scatterer materials: water-equivalent phantom, acrylic, concrete, lead, and iron. Furthermore, this effect decreased exponentially with increasing chamber-scatterer distance. For a field size of 10 × 10 cm2, the finite-distance backscatter factor decreased with an increasing chamber-scatterer distance for all materials. The cause of backscattering in diagnostic X-ray energy regions differs depending on the scatterer material, as well as the photon energy and field size. Backscattering decreases exponentially as the distance between the detector and scatterer increases.


Asunto(s)
Fotones , Radiometría , Humanos , Método de Montecarlo , Fantasmas de Imagen , Radiografía , Rayos X
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