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1.
Food Res Int ; 187: 114334, 2024 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38763634

RESUMEN

Red-fleshed apple cultivars with an enhanced content of polyphenolic compounds have attracted increasing interest due to their promising health benefits. Here, we have analysed the polyphenolic content of young, red-fleshed apples (RFA) and optimised extraction conditions of phenolics by utilising natural deep eutectic solvents (NDES). We also compare the antioxidant, neuroprotective and antimicrobial activities of NDES- and methanol-extracted phenolics from young RFA. High-performance liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (HPLC-HRMS) was used for phenolics identification and quantification. Besides young RFA, ripe red-fleshed, young and ripe white-fleshed apples were analysed, revealing that young RFA possess the highest phenolic content (2078.4 ± 4.0 mg gallic acid equivalent/100 g), and that ripe white-fleshed apples contain the least amount of phenolics (545.0 ± 32.0 mg gallic acid equivalent/100 g). The NDES choline chloride-glycerol containing 40 % w/w H2O gave similar yields at 40 °C as methanol. In addition, the polyphenolics profile, and bioactivities of the NDES extract from young RFA were comparable that of methanol extracts. Altogether, our data show that NDES extracts of young RFA are a promising source of bioactive polyphenolics with potential applications in diverse sectors, e.g., for functional food production, smart material engineering and natural therapies.


Asunto(s)
Antioxidantes , Disolventes Eutécticos Profundos , Frutas , Malus , Polifenoles , Malus/química , Polifenoles/análisis , Polifenoles/aislamiento & purificación , Antioxidantes/análisis , Antioxidantes/química , Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión , Frutas/química , Disolventes Eutécticos Profundos/química , Extractos Vegetales/química , Colina/química , Glicerol/química , Fármacos Neuroprotectores/aislamiento & purificación , Fármacos Neuroprotectores/química , Espectrometría de Masas
2.
Food Res Int ; 187: 114437, 2024 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38763684

RESUMEN

Numerous datasets regarding anthocyanins have been noted elsewhere. These previous studies emphasized that all processes must be carried out meticulously from the source used to obtain anthocyanins to their inclusion in relevant applications. However, today, full standardization has not yet been achieved for these processes. For this, presenting the latest developments regarding anthocyanins under one roof would be a useful approach to guide the scientific literature. The current review was designed to serve the stated points. In this context, their biosynthesis pathway was elaborated. Superior potential of fruits and certain by-products in obtaining anthocyanins was revealed compared to their other counterparts. Health-promoting benefits of anthocyanins were detailed. Also, the situation of innovative techniques (ultrasound-assisted extraction, subcritical water extraction, pulse electrical field extraction, and so on) in the anthocyanin extraction was explained. The stability issues, which is one of the most important problems limiting the use of anthocyanins in applications were discussed. The role of copigmentation and various encapsulation techniques in solving these stability problems was summarized. This critical review is a map that provides detailed information about the processes from obtaining anthocyanins, which stand out with their functional properties, to their incorporation into various systems.


Asunto(s)
Antocianinas , Frutas , Frutas/química , Vías Biosintéticas , Extractos Vegetales/química
3.
Carbohydr Polym ; 338: 122218, 2024 Aug 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38763705

RESUMEN

Here, biogenic and multifunctional active food coatings and packaging with UV shielding and antimicrobial properties were structured from the aqueous dispersion of an industrial byproduct, suberin, which was stabilized with amphiphilic cellulose nanofibers (CNF). The dual-functioning CNF, synthesized in a deep eutectic solvent, functioned as an efficient suberin dispersant and reinforcing agent in the packaging design. The nanofibrillar percolation network of CNF provided a steric hindrance against the coalescence of the suberin particles. The low CNF dosage of 0.5 wt% resulted in dispersion with optimal viscosity (208.70 Pa.s), enhanced stability (instability index of <0.001), and reduced particle size (9.37 ± 2.43 µm). The dispersion of suberin and CNF was further converted into self-standing films with superior UV-blocking capability, good thermal stability, improved hydrophobicity (increase in water contact angle from 61° ± 0.15 to 83° ± 5.11), and antimicrobial properties against gram-negative bacteria. Finally, the synergistic bicomponent dispersions were demonstrated as fruit coatings for bananas and packaging for strawberries to promote their self-life. The coatings and packaging considerably mitigated fruit deterioration and improved their freshness by preventing moisture loss and microbial attack. This sustainable approach is expected to pave the way toward advanced, biogenic, and active food packaging based on widely available bioresources.


Asunto(s)
Celulosa , Embalaje de Alimentos , Lípidos , Nanofibras , Madera , Nanofibras/química , Celulosa/química , Embalaje de Alimentos/métodos , Madera/química , Lípidos/química , Interacciones Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Viscosidad , Musa/química , Agua/química , Bacterias Gramnegativas/efectos de los fármacos , Frutas/química
4.
Carbohydr Polym ; 338: 122194, 2024 Aug 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38763709

RESUMEN

The rising demand for food packaging has led to a growing interest in sustainable and eco-friendly food coatings. Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), being a versatile cellulose derivative produced from various lignocellulosic sources, has emerged in edible food coatings. This review evaluates the research trends on CMC production from empty fruit bunch (EFB) as a potential edible food coating material by systematic review approach. It explores sustainable pre-treatment for green cellulose and different CMC synthesis methods. The review compares CMC-based coatings to other materials, focusing on formulation processes, coating quality, safety, and commercial feasibility. The bibliometric analysis is performed to correlate food coating and CMC. As a result, the study discovered the rapid growth in research on edible food coatings made from CMC for various food industry applications. The green approach such as ozone pre-treatment appear as promising method for cellulose isolation from EFB to be used as raw material for CMC. The synthesis conditions of the treatment would affect the CMC characteristics and usage. Herein, utilizing CMC from cellulose EFB in coating formulation and on coated food shows different benefits. This review provides a road map for future research with potential to make important contributions to the food industry's long-term evolution.


Asunto(s)
Embalaje de Alimentos , Frutas , Frutas/química , Carboximetilcelulosa de Sodio/química , Celulosa/química
5.
Carbohydr Polym ; 338: 122236, 2024 Aug 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38763717

RESUMEN

Avicennia marina (Forssk.) Vierh. is a highly salt-tolerant mangrove, and its fruit has been traditionally used for treating constipation and dysentery. In this study, a pectin (AMFPs-0-1) was extracted and isolated from this fruit for the first time, its structure was analyzed, and the effects on the human gut microbiota were investigated. The results indicated that AMFPs-0-1 with a molecular weight of 798 kDa had a backbone consisting of alternating →2)-α-L-Rhap-(1→ and →4)-α-D-GalpA-(1→ residues and side chains composed of →3-α-L-Araf-(1→-linked arabinan with a terminal ß-L-Araf, →5-α-L-Araf-(1→-linked arabinan, and →4)-ß-D-Galp-(1→-linked galactan that linked to the C-4 positions of all α-L-Rhap residues in the backbone. It belongs to a type I rhamnogalacturonan (RG-I) pectin but has no arabinogalactosyl chains. AMFPs-0-1 could be consumed by human gut microbiota and increase the abundance of some beneficial bacteria, such as Bifidobacterium, Mitsuokella, and Megasphaera, which could help fight digestive disorders. These findings provide a structural basis for the potential application of A. marina fruit RG-I pectic polysaccharides in improving human intestinal health.


Asunto(s)
Avicennia , Fermentación , Frutas , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Pectinas , Prebióticos , Pectinas/química , Frutas/química , Avicennia/química , Avicennia/microbiología , Humanos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efectos de los fármacos , Peso Molecular
6.
Carbohydr Polym ; 338: 122205, 2024 Aug 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38763727

RESUMEN

Developing multifunctional films with antibacterial, antioxidant, and sustained-release properties is a robust strategy for preventing contamination of perishable fruits by foodborne microorganisms. This study engineered a sustained-release biodegradable antibacterial film loaded with EGCG (Pickering emulsion (PE)/α-Cyclodextrin (α-CD)/Konjac glucomannan (KGM)) through multi-strategy cross-linking for fruit preservation. EGCG is stabilized using PE and incorporated into the α-CD/KGM inclusion compound; the unique structure of α-CD enhances EGCG encapsulation, while KGM provides the film toughness and surface adhesion. The composite film's physicochemical properties, antioxidant, bacteriostatic and biodegradability were studied. Results showed that Pickering emulsions with 3 % oil phase exhibited excellent stability. Moreover, α-CD introduction increased the loading and sustained release of EGCG from the film, and its concentration significantly affected the light transmission, thermal stability, mechanical strength, mechanical characteristics and antioxidant capacity of the composite membrane. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the composite film increased significantly with increasing α-CD concentration. Application of the film to tomatoes and strawberries effectively inhibited Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus growth, prolonging the shelf-life of the fruits. Notably, the composite film exhibits superior biodegradability in soil. This EGCG-loaded PE/α-CD/KGM composite film is anticipated to be a multifunctional antimicrobial preservation material with sustained-release properties and biodegradable for perishable food applications.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos , Antioxidantes , Catequina , Emulsiones , Escherichia coli , Frutas , Mananos , alfa-Ciclodextrinas , alfa-Ciclodextrinas/química , Catequina/análogos & derivados , Catequina/química , Catequina/farmacología , Mananos/química , Mananos/farmacología , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Antibacterianos/química , Frutas/química , Emulsiones/química , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacología , Escherichia coli/efectos de los fármacos , Conservación de Alimentos/métodos , Staphylococcus aureus/efectos de los fármacos , Embalaje de Alimentos/métodos , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Reactivos de Enlaces Cruzados/química , Liberación de Fármacos
7.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 4295, 2024 May 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38769327

RESUMEN

Chili pepper (Capsicum) is known for its unique fruit pungency due to the presence of capsaicinoids. The evolutionary history of capsaicinoid biosynthesis and the mechanism of their tissue specificity remain obscure due to the lack of high-quality Capsicum genomes. Here, we report two telomere-to-telomere (T2T) gap-free genomes of C. annuum and its wild nonpungent relative C. rhomboideum to investigate the evolution of fruit pungency in chili peppers. We precisely delineate Capsicum centromeres, which lack high-copy tandem repeats but are extensively invaded by CRM retrotransposons. Through phylogenomic analyses, we estimate the evolutionary timing of capsaicinoid biosynthesis. We reveal disrupted coding and regulatory regions of key biosynthesis genes in nonpungent species. We also find conserved placenta-specific accessible chromatin regions, which likely allow for tissue-specific biosynthetic gene coregulation and capsaicinoid accumulation. These T2T genomic resources will accelerate chili pepper genetic improvement and help to understand Capsicum genome evolution.


Asunto(s)
Capsaicina , Capsicum , Evolución Molecular , Genoma de Planta , Filogenia , Telómero , Capsicum/genética , Capsicum/metabolismo , Capsaicina/metabolismo , Telómero/genética , Telómero/metabolismo , Frutas/genética , Frutas/metabolismo , Retroelementos/genética , Regulación de la Expresión Génica de las Plantas
8.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 11508, 2024 05 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38769439

RESUMEN

There is a growing trend towards enhancing the post-harvest shelf life and maintaining the nutritional quality of horticultural products using eco-friendly methods. Raspberries are valued for their diverse array of phenolic compounds, which are key contributors to their health-promoting properties. However, raspberries are prone to a relatively short post-harvest lifespan. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of exogenous melatonin (MEL; 0, 0.001, 0.01, and 0.1 mM) on decay control and shelf-life extension. The results demonstrated that MEL treatment significantly reduced the fruit decay rate (P ≤ 0.01). Based on the findings, MEL treatment significantly increased titratable acidity (TA), total phenolics content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and total anthocyanin content (TAC). Furthermore, the MEL-treated samples showed increased levels of rutin and quercetin content, as well as antioxidant activity as measured by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reduction activity potential (FRAP). Additionally, the samples exhibited higher levels of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and catalase (CAT) enzymes compared to the control samples. Moreover, the levels of pH, total soluble solids (TSS), and IC50 were decreased in the MEL-treated samples (P ≤ 0.01). The highest amount of TA (0.619 g/100 ml juice), rutin (16.722 µg/ml juice) and quercetin (1.467 µg/ml juice), and PAL activity (225.696 nm/g FW/min) was observed at 0.001 mM treatment, while, the highest amount of TAC (227.235 mg Cy-g/100 ml juice) at a concentration of 0.01 mM and CAT (0.696 u/g FW) and TAL activities (9.553 nm/100 g FW) at a concentration of 0.1 mM were obtained. Considering the lack of significant differences in the effects of melatonin concentrations and the low dose of 0.001 mM, this concentration is recommended for further research. The hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) divided the treatments into three groups based on their characteristics. Based on the Pearson correlation between TPC, TFC, TAC, and TAA, a positive correlation was observed with antioxidant (DPPH and FRAP) and enzyme (PAL and CAT) activities. The results of this study have identified melatonin as an eco-friendly compound that enhances the shelf life of raspberry fruits by improving phenolic compounds, as well as antioxidant and enzyme activities.


Asunto(s)
Antioxidantes , Frutas , Melatonina , Fitoquímicos , Rubus , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/análisis , Melatonina/farmacología , Rubus/química , Fitoquímicos/análisis , Fitoquímicos/química , Frutas/química , Frutas/efectos de los fármacos , Fenoles/análisis , Flavonoides/análisis , Catalasa/metabolismo , Fenilanina Amoníaco-Liasa/metabolismo , Antocianinas/análisis
9.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 61: 420-426, 2024 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38777464

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Exclusion diets are common practices among individuals with Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD). Reports that certain foods trigger or worsen symptoms are recurrent but lack evidence. The aim of the study was to identify which foods were most frequently avoided by patients with Crohn's Disease (CD) and Ulcerative Colitis (UC) and whether the consumption of any food group was associated with disease activity. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with adult patients seen at an outpatient clinic in a tertiary public hospital. Dietary intake and eating habits were accessed through questionnaires administered via telephone interview. Disease activity and symptoms were assessed using the Harvey-Bradshaw Index (IHB) for CD and the Lichtiger Index (LI) for UC. Poisson regression with a robust variance estimator was used to estimate prevalence ratios. Analyzes were performed using SPSS - Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. RESULTS: The study included 145 patients. Of these, 69.7% avoided certain foods, with citrus fruits and raw vegetables among the most avoided (16.8% and 13.8%, respectively). Regular consumption of fruits (PR = 0.56; CI 95% 0.32-0.97; p = 0.042) and vegetables (PR = 0.56; CI 95% 0.32-0.98; p = 0.045) was associated with a 44% lower prevalence of the active phase of the disease, compared to those who do not consume these foods, adjusted for age, sex and type of disease. Other food items did not present significant associations in the adjusted model. CONCLUSIONS: Fruit and vegetable intake appears to have a protective role in the recurrence of IBD. Excluding foods is a common practice, even among patients in remission, and this should be combated as it can lead to nutritional losses. It is important to reinforce with patients the benefits of a varied and less restrictive diet.


Asunto(s)
Dieta , Conducta Alimentaria , Frutas , Enfermedades Inflamatorias del Intestino , Verduras , Humanos , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Masculino , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Enfermedades Inflamatorias del Intestino/epidemiología , Enfermedad de Crohn/epidemiología , Colitis Ulcerosa/epidemiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
10.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 10856, 2024 05 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38740857

RESUMEN

Bitter gourd, being perishable, requires timely harvesting. Delayed harvesting can result in a substantial reduction in fruit quality. while premature harvesting leads to underdeveloped fruit and decreased yields, the continuous flowering pattern in bitter gourd underscores the significance of accurately assessing fruit growth and ensuring timely harvesting for subsequent fruit setting and development. The current reliance on the experience of production personnel represents a substantial inefficiency. We present an improved real-time instance segmentation model based on YOLOv5-seg. The utilization of dynamic snake convolution enables the extraction of morphological features from the curved and elongated structure of bitter gourd. Diverse branch blocks enhance feature space diversity without inflating model size and inference time, contributing to improved recognition of expansion stages during bitter gourd growth. Additionally, the introduction of Focal-EIOU loss accurately locates the boundary box and mask, addressing sample imbalances in the L2 stage. Experimental results showcase remarkable accuracy rates of 99.3%, 93.8%, and 98.3% for L1, L2, and L3 stages using mAP@0.5. In comparison, our model outperforms other case segmentation models, excelling in both detection accuracy and inference speed. The improved YOLOv5-seg model demonstrates strong performance in fine-grained recognition of bitter gourd during the expansion stage. It efficiently segments bitter gourd in real-time under varying lighting and occlusion conditions, providing crucial maturity information. This model offers reliable insights for agricultural workers, facilitating precise harvesting decisions.


Asunto(s)
Frutas , Frutas/crecimiento & desarrollo , Lycium/crecimiento & desarrollo , Algoritmos
11.
Age Ageing ; 53(Supplement_2): ii80-ii89, 2024 May 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38748910

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Increasing fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption is associated with reduced cardiovascular disease risk in observational studies but with little evidence from randomised controlled trials (RCTs). The impact of concurrent pharmacological therapy is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To pool data from six RCTs to examine the effect of increasing FV intake on blood pressure (BP) and lipid profile, also exploring whether effects differed by medication use. DESIGN: Across trials, dietary intake was assessed by diet diaries or histories, lipids by routine biochemical methods and BP by automated monitors. Linear regression provided an estimate of the change in lipid profile or BP associated with a one portion increase in self-reported daily FV intake, with interaction terms fitted for medication use. RESULTS: The pooled sample included a total of 554 participants (308 males and 246 females). Meta-analysis of regression coefficients revealed no significant change in either systolic or diastolic BP per portion FV increase, although there was significant heterogeneity across trials for systolic BP (I2 = 73%). Neither adjusting for change in body mass index, nor analysis according to use of anti-hypertensive medication altered the relationship. There was no significant change in lipid profile per portion FV increase, although there was a significant reduction in total cholesterol among those not on lipid-lowering therapy (P < 0.05 after Bonferroni correction). CONCLUSION: Pooled analysis of six individual FV trials showed no impact of increasing intake on BP or lipids, but there was a total cholesterol-lowering effect in those not on lipid-lowering therapy.


Asunto(s)
Presión Sanguínea , Frutas , Lípidos , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Verduras , Humanos , Presión Sanguínea/efectos de los fármacos , Masculino , Femenino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Lípidos/sangre , Anciano , Dieta Saludable , Antihipertensivos/uso terapéutico , Biomarcadores/sangre
12.
Food Res Int ; 183: 114195, 2024 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38760130

RESUMEN

Anthocyanins are polyphenolic compounds that provide pigmentation in plants as reflected by pH-dependent structural transformations between the red flavylium cation, purple quinonoidal base, blue quinonoidal anion, colourless hemiketal, and pale yellow chalcone species. Thermodynamically stable conditions of hydrated plant cell vacuoles in vivo correspond to the colourless hemiketal, yet anthocyanin colour expression appears in an important variety of hues within plant organs such as flowers and fruit. Moreover, anthocyanin colour from grape berries is significant in red winemaking processes as it plays a crucial role in determining red wine quality. Here, nonlinear ordinary differential equations were developed to represent the evolution in concentration of various anthocyanin species in both monomeric (chemically reactive) and self-associated (temporally stable) forms for the first time, and simulations were verified experimentally. Results indicated that under hydrating conditions, anthocyanin pigmentation is preserved by self-association interactions, based on pigmented monomeric anthocyanins experiencing colour loss whereas colour-stable self-associated anthocyanins increase in concentration nonlinearly over time. In particular, self-association of the flavylium cation and the quinonoidal base was shown to influence colour expression and stability within Geranium sylvaticum flower petals and Vitis vinifera grape skins. This study ultimately characterises fundamental mechanisms of anthocyanin stabilisation and generates a quantitative framework for anthocyanin-containing systems.


Asunto(s)
Antocianinas , Color , Vitis , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Vitis/química , Cinética , Vino/análisis , Frutas/química , Concentración de Iones de Hidrógeno , Dinámicas no Lineales
13.
Food Res Int ; 183: 114203, 2024 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38760135

RESUMEN

Beer is the third most consumed beverage in the world, trailing only water and tea but ranking first among alcoholic beverages. In recent years, producers and researchers have shown a growing interest in brewing diversification and innovation, due to of the widespread consumption of beer. In order to create beers and beer-like products with unique and consumer-pleasing characteristics, the use of unconventional raw materials has become a subject of intensive research. The purpose of this paper is to identify, evaluate and summarize the findings of all relevant unconventional raw materials used in relevant scientific studies, as well as the effect on the metabolomics of beer and beer-like beverages.For the enhancement of beer characteristics, the production process may involve the use of an extremely diverse variety of unconventional raw materials that are not included on thelist of usual ingredients for the beer industry. However, the general trend is to use locally available ingredients as well as functional ingredients. Twoof the most studied functional characteristics involve phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity, which is why the fruit is by far the most commonly used adjunct category, as fruits are particularly important sources of polyphenols and antioxidants. Other uncommon adjuncts used in brewing includeplants, starch sources, spices or even propolis. Moreover, unconventional raw materials are used to enhance the sensory profile by create new characteristics such as new tastes and flavors, accentuation of the cooling sensation or even increasing acceptability among potential consumers, who do not appreciate traditional beers due to their specific characteristics.


Asunto(s)
Antioxidantes , Cerveza , Metabolómica , Gusto , Cerveza/análisis , Humanos , Antioxidantes/análisis , Frutas/química , Polifenoles/análisis , Fermentación , Manipulación de Alimentos/métodos
14.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1399704, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38737855

RESUMEN

Background: Fruits are essential for health, yet their consumption in children is inadequate, with unclear influencing factors. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among students in grades 3-12 in Beijing, China, from September 2020 to June 2021. Fruit consumption in children was surveyed using a self-administered food frequency questionnaire. Additionally, children's food and nutrition literacy and family food environments were assessed using the "Food and Nutrition Literacy Questionnaire for Chinese School-age Children" and the "Family Food Environment Questionnaire for Chinese School-age Children," respectively. Results: Out of 10,000 participating children, 62.5% consumed fruit daily, with a lower frequency among boys (59.3%) compared to girls (65.8%), and among senior students (48.6%) compared to junior (63.6%) and primary students (71.2%). Fruit consumption was positively associated with other healthy foods (vegetables, whole grains, etc.) and negatively with unhealthy foods (sugared soft drinks). Children with higher food and nutrition literacy consumed fruits daily more frequently (82.4% vs. 59.9%, ORs = 2.438, 95%CI: 2.072-2.868). A significant positive correlation was found between children's fruit consumption and a healthy family food environment (66.4% vs. 50.2%, OR = 1.507, 95%CI: 1.363-1.667). Conclusion: The results indicate that individual food and nutrition literacy and family food environment are key positive predictors of children's fruit consumption. Future interventions should focus on educating children and encouraging parents to foster supportive family environments.


Asunto(s)
Frutas , Humanos , Femenino , Masculino , Estudios Transversales , Niño , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Conducta Alimentaria , Beijing , Adolescente , China , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Alfabetización en Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Familia
15.
Funct Plant Biol ; 512024 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38743838

RESUMEN

Soil salinisation is an important abiotic stress faced in grape cultivating, leading to weakened plant vigour and reduced fruit quality. Melatonin as a novel hormone has shown positive exogenous application value. Therefore, this study used wine grape (Vitis vinifera ) 'Pinot Noir' as a test material to investigate the changes of foliar spraying with different concentrations of melatonin on the physiology and fruit quality of wine grapes in a field under simulated salt stress (200mmolL-1 NaCl). The results showed that foliar spraying of melatonin significantly increased the intercellular CO2 concentration, maximum photochemical quantum yield of PSII, relative chlorophyll and ascorbic acid content of the leaves, as well as the single spike weight, 100-grain weight, transverse and longitudinal diameters, malic acid, α-amino nitrogen and ammonia content of fruits, and decreased the initial fluorescence value of leaves, ascorbate peroxidase activity, glutathione content, fruit transverse to longitudinal ratio and tartaric acid content of plants under salt stress. Results of the comprehensive evaluation of the affiliation function indicated that 100µmolL-1 melatonin treatment had the best effect on reducing salt stress in grapes. In summary, melatonin application could enhance the salt tolerance of grapes by improving the photosynthetic capacity of grape plants under salt stress and promoting fruit development and quality formation, and these results provide new insights into the involvement of melatonin in the improvement of salt tolerance in crop, as well as some theoretical basis for the development and industrialisation of stress-resistant cultivation techniques for wine grapes.


Asunto(s)
Frutas , Melatonina , Fotosíntesis , Hojas de la Planta , Estrés Salino , Vitis , Vitis/efectos de los fármacos , Vitis/fisiología , Vitis/crecimiento & desarrollo , Melatonina/farmacología , Melatonina/administración & dosificación , Frutas/efectos de los fármacos , Frutas/crecimiento & desarrollo , Estrés Salino/efectos de los fármacos , Hojas de la Planta/efectos de los fármacos , Fotosíntesis/efectos de los fármacos , Clorofila/metabolismo , Ácido Ascórbico/farmacología , Vino
16.
BMC Res Notes ; 17(1): 136, 2024 May 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38745224

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES / PURPOSE: After school programs represents a setting for promoting healthy dietary habits. The aim of this study was to evaluate how effective the after school program staff perceived nutrition training aiming to improve quality of food purchased and meal practices. We further aimed to assess the changes in purchase of primarily fish and fish products, whole grains and fruit and vegetables, by collecting receipts from food purchase before and after the intervention. RESULTS: This is a mixed methods study. Group interviews with after school staff were carried out and the data was analyzed deductively according to the RE-AIM framework. Receipts from food purchase were collected. Findings from the qualitative interviews indicated that the intervention had been a positive experience for the staff and suggested a new way of working with promoting healthy foods in after school program units. Although there were some challenges reported, the staff made necessary adjustments to make the changes possible to sustain over time. Findings from the receipts support the changes reported by the staff. These showed increased purchase of vegetables, fish, and whole grain in all four after school program units. After school programs in similar settings may expand on these findings to improve the students' dietary habits.


Asunto(s)
Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud , Instituciones Académicas , Humanos , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud/métodos , Servicios de Alimentación/normas , Comidas , Verduras , Conducta Alimentaria , Promoción de la Salud/métodos , Frutas , Dieta Saludable , Femenino , Masculino
17.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 11248, 2024 05 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38755228

RESUMEN

An effective strategy for enhancing fruit production continuity during extended sweet pepper season involves adopting innovative biostimulants such as potassium silicate (PS) and vinasse. Adjusting PS and vinasse concentrations are crucial for maintaining the balance between vegetative and fruit growth, particularly in sweet pepper with a shallow root system, to sustain fruiting over prolonged season. However, the interaction between PS and vinasse and the underlying physiological mechanisms that extend the sweet pepper season under greenhouse conditions remain unclear. This study aimed to investigate the impact of PS and vinasse treatments on the yield and biochemical constituents of perennial pepper plants cultivated under greenhouse conditions. For two consecutive seasons [2018/2019 and 2019/2020], pepper plants were sprayed with PS (0, 0.5, and 1 g/l) and drenched with vinasse (0, 1, 2, and 3 l/m3). To estimate the impact of PS and vinasse on the growth, yield, and biochemical constituents of pepper plants, fresh and dry biomass, potential fruit yield, and some biochemical constituents were evaluated. Results revealed that PS (0.5 g/l) coupled with vinasse (3 l/m3) generated the most remarkable enhancement, in terms of plant biomass, total leaf area, total yield, and fruit weight during both growing seasons. The implementation of vinasse at 3 l/m3 with PS at 0.5 and 1 g/l demonstrated the most pronounced augmentation in leaf contents (chlorophyll index, nitrogen and potassium), alongside improved fruit quality, including total soluble solid and ascorbic acid contents, of extended sweet pepper season. By implementing the optimal combination of PS and vinasse, growers can significantly enhance the biomass production while maintaining a balance in fruiting, thereby maximizing the prolonged fruit production of superior sweet pepper under greenhouse conditions.


Asunto(s)
Capsicum , Frutas , Silicatos , Capsicum/crecimiento & desarrollo , Capsicum/efectos de los fármacos , Capsicum/metabolismo , Frutas/crecimiento & desarrollo , Frutas/efectos de los fármacos , Frutas/metabolismo , Biomasa , Potasio/metabolismo , Potasio/análisis , Estaciones del Año , Hojas de la Planta/crecimiento & desarrollo , Hojas de la Planta/metabolismo , Hojas de la Planta/efectos de los fármacos , Biometría , Compuestos de Potasio/farmacología
18.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 60(43): 5598-5601, 2024 May 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38712724

RESUMEN

A simple aqueous host:guest sensing array can selectively discriminate between different types of citrus varietal from peel extract samples. It can also distinguish between identical citrus samples at varying stages of ripening. The discrimination effects stem from detection of changes in the terpenoid composition of the peel extracts by the host:guest array, despite the overwhelming excess of a single component, limonene, in each sample. The hosts are insensitive to limonene but bind other monoterpenes strongly, even though they are similar in structure to the major limonene component. This work demonstrates the capability of host:guest arrays in sensing target molecules in environments with the competing agents present at high abundances in the sample matrix.


Asunto(s)
Citrus , Terpenos , Citrus/química , Terpenos/química , Terpenos/análisis , Limoneno/química , Limoneno/análisis , Frutas/química
19.
Food Chem ; 451: 139384, 2024 Sep 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38692235

RESUMEN

The economic impact of fruit cracking in pomegranate products is substantial. In this study, we present the inaugural comprehensive analysis of transcriptome and metabolome in the outermost pericarp of pomegranate fruit in bagging conditions. Our investigation revealed a notable upregulation of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) associated with the calcium signaling pathway (76.92%) and xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase (XTH) genes (87.50%) in the fruit peel of non-cracking fruit under bagging. Metabolomic analysis revealed that multiple phenolics, flavonoids, and tannins were identified in pomegranate. Among these, calmodulin-like 23 (PgCML23) exhibited a significant correlation with triterpenoids and demonstrated a marked upregulation under bagging treatment. The transgenic tomatoes overexpressing PgCML23 exhibited significantly higher cellulose content and xyloglucan endotransglucosylase (XET) enzyme activity in the pericarp at the red ripening stage compared to the wild type. Conversely, water-soluble pectin content, polygalacturonase (PG), and ß-galactosidase (ß-GAL) enzyme activities were significantly lower in the transgenic tomatoes. Importantly, the heterologous expression of PgCML23 led to a substantial reduction in the fruit cracking rate in tomatoes. Our findings highlight the reduction of fruit cracking in bagging conditions through the manipulation of PgCML23 expression.


Asunto(s)
Frutas , Metabolómica , Proteínas de Plantas , Granada (Fruta) , Transcriptoma , Frutas/química , Frutas/genética , Frutas/metabolismo , Frutas/crecimiento & desarrollo , Granada (Fruta)/química , Granada (Fruta)/genética , Granada (Fruta)/metabolismo , Granada (Fruta)/crecimiento & desarrollo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Solanum lycopersicum/genética , Solanum lycopersicum/metabolismo , Solanum lycopersicum/química , Solanum lycopersicum/crecimiento & desarrollo , Plantas Modificadas Genéticamente/genética , Plantas Modificadas Genéticamente/metabolismo , Plantas Modificadas Genéticamente/química , Regulación de la Expresión Génica de las Plantas
20.
Food Chem ; 451: 139497, 2024 Sep 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38692240

RESUMEN

The objective of this study was to evaluate the impacts of different drying technologies including microwave drying (MD), vacuum microwave drying (VMD), sun drying (SD), vacuum drying (VD), hot air drying (HAD), and vacuum freeze drying (VFD) on the physical characteristics, nutritional properties and antioxidant capacities of kiwifruit pomace in order to realize by-product utilization and improve energy efficiency. Results showed that both MD and VMD significantly reduced drying time by >94.6%, compared to traditional thermal drying which took 14-48 h. MD exhibited the highest content of soluble dietary fiber (9.5%) and the lowest energy consumption. Furthermore, VMD resulted in the highest content of vitamin C (198.78 mg/100 g) and reducing sugar (73.78%), and the antioxidant capacities ranked only second to VFD. Given the financial advantages and product quality, VMD was suggested to be advantageous technology in actual industrial production.


Asunto(s)
Actinidia , Antioxidantes , Desecación , Frutas , Valor Nutritivo , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/análisis , Actinidia/química , Frutas/química , Desecación/métodos , Desecación/instrumentación , Liofilización , Manipulación de Alimentos/instrumentación , Manipulación de Alimentos/métodos , Vacio , Fibras de la Dieta/análisis
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