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1.
Molecules ; 26(7)2021 Apr 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33917440

RESUMEN

Periodontitis is a set of chronic inflammatory diseases caused by the accumulation of Gram-negative bacteria on teeth, resulting in gingivitis, pocket formation, alveolar bone loss, tissue destruction, and tooth loss. In this study, the contents of ginsenosides isolated from Panax ginseng fruit extract were quantitatively analyzed, and the anti-inflammatory effects were evaluated in human periodontal ligament cells. The major ginsenosides, Re, Ra8, and Rf, present in ginseng fruit were simultaneously analyzed by a validated method using high-performance liquid chromatography with a diode-array detector; Re, Ra8, and Rf content per 1 g of P. ginseng fruit extract was 1.01 ± 0.03, 0.33 ± 0.01, and 0.55 ± 0.04 mg, respectively. Ginsenosides-Re, -Ra8, and -Rf inhibited the production of pro-inflammatory factors and the expression of important cytokines in periodontitis by inducing the expression of heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1), promoting osteoblast differentiation of periodontal ligament cells, suppressing alveolar bone loss, and promoting the expression of osteoblast-specific genes, such as alp, opn, and runx2. An inhibitory effect of these ginsenosides on periodontitis and alveolar bone loss was observed via the regulation of HO-1 and subsequent epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling. Silencing EGFR with EGFR siRNA confirmed that the effect of ginsenosides on HO-1 is mediated by EGFR. In conclusion, this study evaluated the contents of ginsenosides-Re, -Ra8, and -Rf isolated from P. ginseng fruit extract. Therefore, these results provide important basic data for future P. ginseng fruit component studies and suggest that ginsenosides Re, Ra8, and Rf have potential as future treatment options for periodontitis.


Asunto(s)
Antiinflamatorios/farmacología , Receptores ErbB/metabolismo , Ginsenósidos/aislamiento & purificación , Ginsenósidos/farmacología , Hemo-Oxigenasa 1/metabolismo , Osteogénesis/efectos de los fármacos , Panax/química , Ligamento Periodontal/citología , Diferenciación Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Núcleo Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Supervivencia Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Citocinas/metabolismo , Frutas/química , Regulación de la Expresión Génica/efectos de los fármacos , Ginsenósidos/química , Humanos , Mediadores de Inflamación/metabolismo , Límite de Detección , Lipopolisacáridos/farmacología , Factor 2 Relacionado con NF-E2/metabolismo , Osteoblastos/citología , Osteoblastos/efectos de los fármacos , Osteoblastos/metabolismo , Extractos Vegetales/química , Porphyromonas gingivalis/química , Análisis de Regresión , Transducción de Señal/efectos de los fármacos
2.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33808371

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Cross-sectional studies indicate that parental stress may be a barrier for healthy dietary behaviours among children. However, there is a lack of evidence from longitudinal studies on the association between parental stress and changes in dietary intake among toddlers. The aim of this study was to examine the association between parental stress and changes in dietary intake and quality among preschool children susceptible to obesity. METHODS: In the Healthy Start study, parents to 250 preschool children had completed a modified version of the Parental Stress Index and assessed the dietary intake of their children at baseline and after 15 months of follow up. The association between parental stress and changes in dietary intake and quality was examined using multiple linear regression analyses with adjustment for potential confounders. We tested for potential effect modification by group allocation and sex. RESULTS: There were no significant associations between parental stress and subsequent changes in child total energy intake, intake of macronutrients or intake of fruit, vegetables, sugar sweetened beverages, fish or starch, or dietary quality. CONCLUSION: This study provides no evidence to support an association between parental stress and subsequent change in dietary intake and quality of their children. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, Trial number: NCT01583335, Registered: 31 March 2012, retrospectively registered.


Asunto(s)
Ingestión de Alimentos , Verduras , Preescolar , Estudios Transversales , Dieta , Conducta Alimentaria , Frutas , Humanos , Obesidad
3.
Bioresour Technol ; 332: 125033, 2021 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33826979

RESUMEN

Food and energy requirements are increasing globally, and the challenge is to meet these demands in a sustainable manner. Oil palm has a relatively high productivity, but produces the lignocellulosic residue of empty fruit bunches (OPEFB). In this study, wet oxidation pretreatment is utilized to overcome the recalcitrance of OPEFB during semi-continuous anaerobic digestion (AD) with between 19.7 and 52.7% improvement over the control, and near total cellulose and hemicellulose content could be degraded. Clarified manure, the water phase of cattle and dairy manure after filtration, is further tested for its effect on methane production by providing necessary micronutrients and vitamins. An increase of 49% was found after addition of clarified manure to OPEFB compared to without this addition.


Asunto(s)
Frutas , Estiércol , Anaerobiosis , Animales , Biocombustibles , Bovinos , Celulosa , Peróxido de Hidrógeno , Metano , Aceite de Palma
4.
Complement Ther Clin Pract ; 43: 101383, 2021 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33862350

RESUMEN

Pomegranate is one of the most universally studied medicinal plants for its ethnomedical history, with several studies presenting the positive outcome of its use or its extracts in managing inflammation. The objective of the present trial was to investigate the efficiency of the traditionally used 5% of pomegranate peel extract in treating gingival inflammation. Herein, 34 chronic gingivitis patients were randomized in a 1:1 ratio for four weeks in a controlled, double-blind clinical trial to evaluate the effect of the adjunctive use of a pulsating jet irrigator containing 5% pomegranate peel extract solution to nonsurgical periodontal therapy against a placebo in managing these patients' condition. No adverse reactions had been reported, and within the limits of this study, it may be concluded that pomegranate peel extract can serve as a promising alternative in managing chronic gingivitis. This trial is registered on the German clinical trials register (DRKS-ID: DRKS00010602).


Asunto(s)
Gingivitis , Lythraceae , Granada (Fruta) , Frutas , Gingivitis/tratamiento farmacológico , Humanos , Extractos Vegetales/uso terapéutico
5.
Nutrients ; 13(3)2021 Mar 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33803576

RESUMEN

Accurate measurement of fruit and vegetable (FV) intake is important for nutrition surveillance and evaluation of dietary interventions. We compared two tools for reporting FV intake to objective measurement of skin carotenoids among children. FV cups/day was assessed by repeated 24 h dietary recalls (24H FV) and the National Cancer Institute's All-Day Fruit and Vegetable Screener (NCI FV). Skin carotenoids were measured by repeated resonance Raman spectroscopy (RRS) of the palm. FV cups were regressed on RRS scores in unadjusted, field-based, and research-setting models with covariates feasible in each scenario. Data were baseline values from children aged 2-12 years in low-income households enrolled in a healthy eating randomized trial in four U.S. states (n = 177). Twenty-four-hour FV cups were associated with skin carotenoids in all models (p < 0.001) but NCI FV cups were not. Predicted RRS scores for discrete 24H FV cups provide a guide to interpretation of RRS in children (2 cups FV intake ~36,000 RRS units), with the research-setting scenario generally providing the narrowest prediction range (+/-1924). When self-reported data are required, 24 h recalls are more accurate than NCI FV screener data; and, when limited time, resources, or literacy must be considered, RRS scores can be quickly obtained and easily interpreted.


Asunto(s)
Carotenoides/análisis , Encuestas sobre Dietas/normas , Dieta/estadística & datos numéricos , Tamizaje Masivo/normas , Autoinforme/normas , Niño , Preescolar , Estudios Transversales , Encuestas sobre Dietas/métodos , Femenino , Frutas , Humanos , Masculino , Tamizaje Masivo/métodos , Recuerdo Mental , Pobreza/estadística & datos numéricos , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Piel/química , Análisis Espectral/métodos , Análisis Espectral/estadística & datos numéricos , Estados Unidos , Verduras
6.
Molecules ; 26(5)2021 Mar 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33800936

RESUMEN

Hydrogel beads based on the husk of agarwood fruit (HAF)/sodium alginate (SA), and based on the HAF/chitosan (CS) were developed for the removal of the dyes, crystal violet (CV) and reactive blue 4 (RB4), in aqueous solutions, respectively. The effects of the initial pH (2-10) of the dye solution, the adsorbent dosage (0.5-3.5 g/L), and contact time (0-540 min) were investigated in a batch system. The dynamic adsorption behavior of CV and RB4 can be represented well by the pseudo-second-order model and pseudo-first-order model, respectively. In addition, the adsorption isotherm data can be explained by the Langmuir isotherm model. Both hydrogel beads have acceptable adsorption selectivity and reusability for the study of selective adsorption and regeneration. Based on the effectiveness, selectivity, and reusability of these hydrogel beads, they can be treated as potential adsorbents for the removal of dyes in aqueous solutions.


Asunto(s)
Aniones/química , Cationes/química , Colorantes/aislamiento & purificación , Frutas/química , Hidrogeles/química , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/aislamiento & purificación , Madera/química , Adsorción , Colorantes/análisis , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , Purificación del Agua
7.
J Insect Sci ; 21(2)2021 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33844017

RESUMEN

The codling moth Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) is a destructive pest of apple (Malus domestica (Rosales: Rosaceae)), pear (Pyrus spp. (Rosales: Rosaceae)), and other pome tree fruits; outbreaks cause significant ecological and economic losses. In this study, we used CLIMEX model to predict and evaluate the global risk of C. pomonella based on historical climate data (1989-2018) and simulated future climate data (2071-2100) under the RCP4.5 scenarios. Cydia pomonella exhibited a wide distribution under both historical and future climate conditions. Climate change is predicted to expand the northern boundary of the potential distribution from approximately 60°N to 75°N. Temperature was the most dominant factor in climatic suitability for the pest. Combinations of multiple meteorological factors (relative humidity and precipitation) associated with a failure to break diapause in certain regions also affect suitability, particularly in northern South America and central Africa. Irrigation only had a slight impact on species favorability in some areas. The projections established in our study present insight into the global potential suitability of C. pomonella under climate change scenarios by the end of the 21st century. Farmers should be aware of the risk associated with the pest based on the results, which would provide guidance for quarantine agencies and trade negotiators worldwide.


Asunto(s)
Cambio Climático , Modelos Estadísticos , Mariposas Nocturnas , Dinámica Poblacional , Animales , Clima , Productos Agrícolas/economía , Diapausa , Análisis Factorial , Frutas , Calentamiento Global , Malus , Mariposas Nocturnas/crecimiento & desarrollo , Mariposas Nocturnas/fisiología , Control de Plagas , Pyrus , Temperatura , Árboles
8.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33804846

RESUMEN

Although the consumption of fruits and vegetables is being promoted by different institutions as a key question of public health, their consumption is decreasing and their waste is increasing. To address this situation, we propose to include the consumer's perception of the quality (from a sensory point of view) of a fruit, in particular Valencian oranges, in the supplier's selection process by retailers. To do so, we use a combination of consumer and trained sensory panels and Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). This approach is completely novel in the literature. According to the expert panel, the most important criteria when evaluating the quality of an orange are fruity smell, juiciness, sweetness and acidity. These criteria are related to the freshness and taste of the oranges. Consumers found the methodology proposed useful and easy to develop. The application of the AHP methodology has helped to facilitate a participatory discussion among consumers on the concept of the quality of the oranges. The methodology proposed can help the agrifood sector in different ways up and down the supply chain. Specially, it can contribute to better meet consumer's demands, increasing the consumption of fruits and vegetables and reducing its waste.


Asunto(s)
Citrus sinensis , Comportamiento del Consumidor , Frutas , Olfato , Gusto
9.
Food Microbiol ; 98: 103780, 2021 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33875208

RESUMEN

Human coronaviruses (HCoVs) are mainly associated with respiratory infections. However, there is evidence that highly pathogenic HCoVs, including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS-CoV), infect the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and are shed in the fecal matter of the infected individuals. These observations have raised questions regarding the possibility of fecal-oral route as well as foodborne transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and MERS-CoV. Studies regarding the survival of HCoVs on inanimate surfaces demonstrate that these viruses can remain infectious for hours to days, however, there is limited data regarding the viral survival on fresh produce, which is usually consumed raw or with minimal heat processing. To address this knowledge gap, we examined the persistence of HCoV-229E, as a surrogate for highly pathogenic HCoVs, on the surface of commonly consumed fresh produce, including: apples, tomatoes, cucumbers and lettuce. Herein, we demonstrated that viral infectivity declines within a few hours post-inoculation (p.i) on apples and tomatoes, and no infectious virus was detected at 24h p.i, while the virus persists in infectious form for 72h p.i on cucumbers and lettuce. The stability of viral RNA was examined by droplet-digital RT-PCR (ddRT-PCR), and it was observed that there is no considerable reduction in viral RNA within 72h p.i.


Asunto(s)
Coronavirus Humano 229E/aislamiento & purificación , Contaminación de Alimentos/análisis , Frutas/virología , Verduras/virología , Línea Celular , Humanos , Ontario , ARN Viral/aislamiento & purificación
10.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 173, 2021 Apr 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33838661

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The shedding of premature sweet cherry (Prunus avium L) fruitlet has significantly impacted production, which in turn has a consequential effect on economic benefits. RESULT: To better understand the molecular mechanism of sweet cherry fruitlet abscission, pollen viability and structure had been observed from the pollination trees. Subsequently, the morphological characters of the shedding fruitlet, the plant hormone titers of dropping carpopodium, the transcriptome of the abscising carpopodium, as well as the HD-ZIP gene family were investigated. These findings showed that the pollens giving rise to heavy fruitlet abscission were malformed in structure, and their viability was lower than the average level. The abscising fruitlet and carpopodium were characterized in red color, and embryos of abscising fruitlet were aborted, which was highly ascribed to the low pollen viability and malformation. Transcriptome analysis showed 6462 were significantly differentially expressed, of which 2456 genes were up-regulated and 4006 down-regulated in the abscising carpopodium. Among these genes, the auxin biosynthesis and signal transduction genes (α-Trp, AUX1), were down-regulated, while the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase gene (ACO) affected in ethylene biosynthesis, was up-regulated in abscising carpopodium. About genes related to cell wall remodeling (CEL, PAL, PG EXP, XTH), were up-regulated in carpopodium abscission, which reflecting the key roles in regulating the abscission process. The results of transcriptome analysis considerably conformed with those of proteome analysis as documented previously. In comparison with those of the retention fruitlet, the auxin contents in abscising carpopodium were significantly low, which presumably increased the ethylene sensitivity of the abscission zone, conversely, the abscisic acid (ABA) accumulation was considerably higher in abscising carpopodium. Furthermore, the ratio of (TZ + IAA + GA3) / ABA also obviously lower in abscising carpopodium. Besides, the HD-ZIP gene family analysis showed that PavHB16 and PavHB18 were up-regulated in abscising organs. CONCLUSION: Our findings combine morphology, cytology and transcriptional regulation to reveal the molecular mechanism of sweet cherry fruitlet abscission. It provides a new perspective for further study of plant organ shedding.


Asunto(s)
Frutas/crecimiento & desarrollo , Genes de Plantas , Proteínas de Homeodominio/genética , Reguladores del Crecimiento de las Plantas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Prunus avium/genética , Transcriptoma , Proteínas de Homeodominio/metabolismo , Familia de Multigenes , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Prunus avium/crecimiento & desarrollo
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(5)2021 Mar 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33807862

RESUMEN

Chitosan-based edible coatings represent an eco-friendly and biologically safe preservative tool to reduce qualitative decay of fresh and ready-to-eat fruits during post-harvest life due to their lack of toxicity, biodegradability, film-forming properties, and antimicrobial actions. Chitosan-based coatings modulate or control oxidative stress maintaining in different manner the appropriate balance of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in fruit cells, by the interplay of pathways and enzymes involved in ROS production and the scavenging mechanisms which essentially constitute the basic ROS cycle. This review is carried out with the aim to provide comprehensive and updated over-view of the state of the art related to the effects of chitosan-based edible coatings on anti-oxidant systems, enzymatic and non-enzymatic, evaluating the induced oxidative damages during storage in whole and ready-to-eat fruits. All these aspects are broadly reviewed in this review, with particular emphasis on the literature published during the last five years.


Asunto(s)
Antioxidantes/química , Quitosano/química , Productos Agrícolas , Películas Comestibles , Conservación de Alimentos , Conservantes de Alimentos/química , Frutas
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(5)2021 Mar 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33808007

RESUMEN

Obesity and its associated conditions, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), are a particular worldwide health problem at present. Momordica cochinchinensis (MC) is consumed widely in Southeast Asia. However, whether it has functional effects on fat-induced metabolic syndrome remains unclear. This study was conducted to examine the prevention effect of Momordica cochinchinensis aril (MCA) on obesity, non-alcoholic fatty liver and insulin resistance in mice. MCA protected the mice against high-fat diet (HFD)-induced body weight gain, hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia, compared with mice that were not treated. MCA inhibited the expansion of adipose tissue and adipocyte hypertrophy. In addition, the insulin sensitivity-associated index that evaluates insulin function was also significantly restored. MCA also regulated the secretion of adipokines in HFD-induced obese mice. Moreover, hepatic fat accumulation and liver damage were reduced, which suggested that fatty liver was prevented by MCA. Furthermore, MCA supplementation suppressed hepatic lipid accumulation by activation of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR-alpha) signaling pathway in the human fatty liver HuS-E/2 cell model. Our data indicate that MCA altered the microbial contents of the gut and modulated microbial dysbiosis in the host, and consequently is involved in the prevention of HFD-induced adiposity, insulin resistance and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.


Asunto(s)
Frutas/química , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efectos de los fármacos , Momordica/química , Enfermedad del Hígado Graso no Alcohólico/tratamiento farmacológico , Obesidad/tratamiento farmacológico , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Animales , Dieta Alta en Grasa/efectos adversos , Masculino , Ratones , Enfermedad del Hígado Graso no Alcohólico/inducido químicamente , Enfermedad del Hígado Graso no Alcohólico/metabolismo , Enfermedad del Hígado Graso no Alcohólico/patología , Obesidad/inducido químicamente , Obesidad/metabolismo , Obesidad/patología , Extractos Vegetales/química
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(6)2021 Mar 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33809693

RESUMEN

The N-terminal of Myc-like basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors (bHLH TFs) contains an interaction domain, namely the MYB-interacting region (MIR), which interacts with the R2R3-MYB proteins to regulate genes involved in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway. However, the functions of MIR-domain bHLHs in this pathway are not fully understood. In this study, PbbHLH2 containing the MIR-domain was identified and its function investigated. The overexpression of PbbHLH2 in "Zaosu" pear peel increased the anthocyanin content and the expression levels of late biosynthetic genes. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation showed that PbbHLH2 interacted with R2R3-MYB TFs PbMYB9, 10, and 10b in onion epidermal cells and confirmed that MIR-domain plays important roles in the interaction between the MIR-domain bHLH and R2R3-MYB TFs. Moreover, PbbHLH2 bound and activated the dihydroflavonol reductase promoter in yeast one-hybrid (Y1H) and dual-luciferase assays. Taken together these results suggested that the MIR domain of PbbHLH2 regulated anthocyanin biosynthesis in pear fruit peel.


Asunto(s)
Antocianinas/biosíntesis , Factores de Transcripción con Motivo Hélice-Asa-Hélice Básico/química , Factores de Transcripción con Motivo Hélice-Asa-Hélice Básico/metabolismo , Vías Biosintéticas , Frutas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Pyrus/metabolismo , Secuencia de Aminoácidos , Frutas/genética , Regulación de la Expresión Génica de las Plantas , Cebollas/citología , Filogenia , Epidermis de la Planta/citología , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Regiones Promotoras Genéticas , Unión Proteica , Dominios Proteicos , Pyrus/genética , Relación Estructura-Actividad
14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33804059

RESUMEN

In the last decade, vegetable safety issues have received growing attention from both consumers and public authorities in China, as vegetable safety hazards pose a serious threat to public health. In 2017, the Industry & Trade Bureau in China implemented a "Market Renovation Program". This program includes the renovation of wholesale and wet markets, the formal registration of all stallholders in these markets and the introduction of a rapid test for pesticides residues. We apply the co-regulation framework to assess the implementation and results of the renovation program on the safety of vegetables. A mixed methods approach is used to investigate the effects of the renovation program. The qualitative study elaborates on the implementation of the renovation program and the behavioural changes of stakeholders in handling vegetables through interviews and field observations. The quantitative results confirm that the renovation program has a positive impact on vegetable safety. In conclusion, this study shows that the key factor for the success of the renovation program is the transition of authority from the local, public authority to the market management.


Asunto(s)
Residuos de Plaguicidas , Verduras , China , Frutas , Salud Pública
15.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(1): e20181265, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33886697

RESUMEN

Blackberry is a species which has high potential to grow in an organic production system. However, there is scarce information on the behavior of cultivars and selections of this species conducted in an ecologically based system, a fact that makes it difficult to recommend cultivars for this production system. This study aimed to evaluate and characterize the phenology and productive aspects of six blackberry genotypes grown in an organic system, in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul (RS) state, Brazil. Evaluation of the following variables was carried out in the three first production cycles (2015-2016, 2016-2017 and 2017-2018): phenology, number of fruits.pl-¹, mean fruit yield.pl-¹, yield (kg.ha-¹), mean fruit mass (g) and soluble solid content (° Brix). Regarding phenology, genotype Black 112 was later than the others whereas Black 178 was the most precocious one. In the last year under evaluation, genotypes yielded around 10 ton.ha-¹, except Black 128 selection, which yielded approximately 6,767 ton.ha-¹. Genotypes Black 178, Black 112 and Black 145 and both cultivars BRS Xingu and Tupy exhibited potential to grow in an organic production system.


Asunto(s)
Rubus , Brasil , Frutas/genética , Genotipo
16.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 24(suppl 1): e210013, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33886886

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of fruit and vegetable consumption, practice of leisure time physical activity (LTPA) and binge drinking for small areas of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais. METHODS: Ecological study conducted with data from the Surveillance System for Risk and Protection Factors for Noncommunicable Diseases by Telephone Survey (Sistema de Vigilância de Fatores de Risco e Proteção para Doenças Crônicas por Inquérito Telefônico - Vigitel). The prevalence of risk and protection factors from 2006 to 2013 were estimated and the 95% confidence intervals calculated. "Small areas" corresponded to the municipality division into four strata of health risk classification given by the Health Vulnerability Index 2012 (Índice de Vulnerabilidade à Saúde - IVS). RESULTS: The mean prevalences for the period were: about 42% of regular intake of fruit and vegetable, 34.7% of leisure time activity and 20.4% of binge drinking. The prevalence of fruit and vegetable consumption was higher in low-risk areas (58.5%; 95%CI 56.8 - 60.2) and lower in very high-risk areas (32.3%; 95%CI 27.7 - 36.9). The practice of LTPA was higher in low-risk areas (40.8%; 95%CI 38.9 - 42.8) and lower in very high risk (25.2%; 95%CI 20.6 - 29.9). Binge drinking was higher in low-risk areas (22.9%; 95%CI 21.7 - 24.2) compared to very high-risk areas (14.3%; 95%CI 11.4 - 17.3). CONCLUSION: It was identified a gradient in the distribution of risk and protection factors for noncommunicable diseases in Belo Horizonte according to the risk classification. This information can support programs aimed at reducing health inequalities, especially in the most vulnerable areas.


Asunto(s)
Borrachera , Verduras , Borrachera/epidemiología , Brasil/epidemiología , Ejercicio Físico , Frutas , Humanos , Actividades Recreativas , Factores Socioeconómicos
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(6)2021 Mar 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33802641

RESUMEN

Vitis vinifera 'Nebbiolo' is one of the most important wine grape cultivars used to produce prestigious high-quality wines known throughout the world, such as Barolo and Barbaresco. 'Nebbiolo' is a distinctive genotype characterized by medium/high vigor, long vegetative and ripening cycles, and limited berry skin color rich in 3'-hydroxylated anthocyanins. To investigate the molecular basis of these characteristics, 'Nebbiolo' berries collected at three different stages of ripening (berry pea size, véraison, and harvest) were compared with V. vinifera 'Barbera' berries, which are rich in 3',5'-hydroxylated anthocyanins, using transcriptomic and analytical approaches. In two consecutive seasons, the two genotypes confirmed their characteristic anthocyanin profiles associated with a different modulation of their transcriptomes during ripening. Secondary metabolism and response to stress were the functional categories that most differentially changed between 'Nebbiolo' and 'Barbera'. The profile rich in 3'-hydroxylated anthocyanins of 'Nebbiolo' was likely linked to a transcriptional downregulation of key genes of anthocyanin biosynthesis. In addition, at berry pea size, the defense metabolism was more active in 'Nebbiolo' than 'Barbera' in absence of biotic attacks. Accordingly, several pathogenesis-related proteins, WRKY transcription factors, and stilbene synthase genes were overexpressed in 'Nebbiolo', suggesting an interesting specific regulation of defense pathways in this genotype that deserves to be further explored.


Asunto(s)
Metabolismo Secundario , Vitis/inmunología , Vitis/metabolismo , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Frutas/metabolismo , Regulación de la Expresión Génica de las Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Genotipo , Metabolismo Secundario/genética , Solubilidad , Transcripción Genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Vitis/genética , Vitis/crecimiento & desarrollo
18.
Wiad Lek ; 74(3 cz 2): 708-712, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33843639

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The aim: Investigate the eating behaviour of international students in Ukraine. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: A cross-sectional quantitative research approach was taken in conducting this study. 193 international students (98 males, 95 females) filled the questionnaire assessing their diet for the past 7 days, perceived changes made to their diet since their arrival to Ukraine, knowledge of healthy dietary habits, and perceived barriers to maintaining a healthy diet. At the time of this study, the students were between the ages of 18 and 36 years, of 11 nationalities, and enrolled at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels in 12 Ukrainian tertiary institutions. RESULTS: Results: Assessment of the students' diet quality reveals that 75.1% of the students consume fruits at least 2 times/day and 73.1% consume vegetables at least 3 times/day. More students consume poultry daily and fish at least twice a week than beef and pork daily. More than half of the students consume starchy foods, mostly rice daily. Only 7.3% of the students consume up to 1 alcoholic beverage daily. Gender significantly affects the consumption of alcohol, dairy products, low fat milk and milk products, and marginally affects beef and dark chocolate. 95 % of the student have made changes to their diet since coming to Ukraine. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: The dietary behaviour of international students in Ukraine is characterized by: high consumption of fruits and vegetables, high intake of lean meats and fish, higher consumption of unsaturated fats and oils than saturated ones, and low consumption of soft and alcoholic drinks.


Asunto(s)
Dieta , Conducta Alimentaria , Adolescente , Adulto , Animales , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Frutas , Humanos , Masculino , Estudiantes , Ucrania , Adulto Joven
19.
Am J Bot ; 108(3): 411-422, 2021 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33792046

RESUMEN

PREMISE: Climate change is having major impacts on alpine and arctic regions, and inter-annual variations in temperature are likely to increase. How increased climate variability will impact plant reproduction is unclear. METHODS: In a 4-year study on fruit production by an alpine plant community in northern Sweden, we applied three warming regimes: (1) a static level of warming with open-top chambers (OTC), (2) press warming, a yearly stepwise increase in warming, and (3) pulse warming, a single-year pulse event of higher warming. We analyzed the relationship between fruit production and monthly temperatures during the budding period, fruiting period, and whole fruit production period and the effect of winter and summer precipitation on fruit production. RESULTS: Year and treatment had a significant effect on total fruit production by evergreen shrubs, Cassiope tetragona, and Dryas octopetala, with large variations between treatments and years. Year, but not treatment, had a significant effect on deciduous shrubs and graminoids, both of which increased fruit production over the 4 years, while forbs were negatively affected by the press warming, but not by year. Fruit production was influenced by ambient temperature during the previous-year budding period, current-year fruiting period, and whole fruit production period. Minimum and average temperatures were more important than maximum temperature. In general, fruit production was negatively correlated with increased precipitation. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that predicted increased climate variability and increased precipitation due to climate change may affect plant reproductive output and long-term community dynamics in alpine meadow communities.


Asunto(s)
Frutas , Pradera , Regiones Árticas , Cambio Climático , Suecia , Temperatura
20.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 16: 2515-2532, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33824589

RESUMEN

Introduction: Fe3O4 nanoparticles (Fe3O4 NPs) with multiple functionalities are intriguing candidates for various biomedical applications. Materials and Methods: This study introduced a simple and green synthesis of Fe3O4 NPs using a low-cost stabilizer of plant waste extract rich in polyphenols content with a well-known antioxidant property as well as anticancer ability to eliminate colon cancer cells. Herein, Fe3O4 NPs were fabricated via a facile co-precipitation method using the crude extract of Garcinia mangostana fruit peel as a green stabilizer at different weight percentages (1, 2, 5, and 10 wt.%). The samples were analyzed for magnetic hyperthermia and then in vitro cytotoxicity assay was performed. Results: The XRD planes of the samples were corresponding to the standard magnetite Fe3O4 with high crystallinity. From TEM analysis, the green synthesized NPs were spherical with an average size of 13.42±1.58 nm and displayed diffraction rings of the Fe3O4 phase, which was in good agreement with the obtained XRD results. FESEM images showed that the extract covered the surface of the Fe3O4 NPs well. The magnetization values for the magnetite samples were ranging from 49.80 emu/g to 69.42 emu/g. FTIR analysis verified the functional groups of the extract compounds and their interactions with the NPs. Based on DLS results, the hydrodynamic sizes of the Fe3O4 nanofluids were below 177 nm. Furthermore, the nanofluids indicated the zeta potential values up to -34.92±1.26 mV and remained stable during four weeks of storage, showing that the extract favorably improved the colloidal stability of the Fe3O4 NPs. In the hyperthermia experiment, the magnetic nanofluids showed the acceptable specific absorption rate (SAR) values and thermosensitive performances under exposure of various alternating magnetic fields. From results of in vitro cytotoxicity assay, the killing effects of the synthesized samples against HCT116 colon cancer cells were mostly higher compared to those against CCD112 colon normal cells. Remarkably, the Fe3O4 NPs containing 10 wt.% of the extract showed a lower IC50 value (99.80 µg/mL) in HCT116 colon cancer cell line than in CCD112 colon normal cell line (140.80 µg/mL). Discussion: This research, therefore, introduced a new stabilizer of Garcinia mangostana fruit peel extract for the biosynthesis of Fe3O4 NPs with desirable physiochemical properties for potential magnetic hyperthermia and colon cancer treatment.


Asunto(s)
Antineoplásicos/farmacología , Frutas/química , Garcinia mangostana/química , Tecnología Química Verde/métodos , Hipertermia Inducida , Nanopartículas de Magnetita/química , Extractos Vegetales/química , Antioxidantes/farmacología , Muerte Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Línea Celular Tumoral , Supervivencia Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Dispersión Dinámica de Luz , Humanos , Hidrodinámica , Concentración 50 Inhibidora , Nanopartículas de Magnetita/ultraestructura , Tamaño de la Partícula , Espectrometría por Rayos X , Espectroscopía Infrarroja por Transformada de Fourier , Temperatura , Difracción de Rayos X
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