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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(5)2021 Mar 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33808007

RESUMEN

Obesity and its associated conditions, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), are a particular worldwide health problem at present. Momordica cochinchinensis (MC) is consumed widely in Southeast Asia. However, whether it has functional effects on fat-induced metabolic syndrome remains unclear. This study was conducted to examine the prevention effect of Momordica cochinchinensis aril (MCA) on obesity, non-alcoholic fatty liver and insulin resistance in mice. MCA protected the mice against high-fat diet (HFD)-induced body weight gain, hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia, compared with mice that were not treated. MCA inhibited the expansion of adipose tissue and adipocyte hypertrophy. In addition, the insulin sensitivity-associated index that evaluates insulin function was also significantly restored. MCA also regulated the secretion of adipokines in HFD-induced obese mice. Moreover, hepatic fat accumulation and liver damage were reduced, which suggested that fatty liver was prevented by MCA. Furthermore, MCA supplementation suppressed hepatic lipid accumulation by activation of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR-alpha) signaling pathway in the human fatty liver HuS-E/2 cell model. Our data indicate that MCA altered the microbial contents of the gut and modulated microbial dysbiosis in the host, and consequently is involved in the prevention of HFD-induced adiposity, insulin resistance and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.


Asunto(s)
Frutas/química , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efectos de los fármacos , Momordica/química , Enfermedad del Hígado Graso no Alcohólico/tratamiento farmacológico , Obesidad/tratamiento farmacológico , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Animales , Dieta Alta en Grasa/efectos adversos , Masculino , Ratones , Enfermedad del Hígado Graso no Alcohólico/inducido químicamente , Enfermedad del Hígado Graso no Alcohólico/metabolismo , Enfermedad del Hígado Graso no Alcohólico/patología , Obesidad/inducido químicamente , Obesidad/metabolismo , Obesidad/patología , Extractos Vegetales/química
2.
Molecules ; 26(8)2021 Apr 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33921289

RESUMEN

The recent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is a global threat for healthcare management and the economic system, and effective treatments against the pathogenic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus responsible for this disease have not yet progressed beyond the developmental phases. As drug refinement and vaccine progression require enormously broad investments of time, alternative strategies are urgently needed. In this study, we examined phytochemicals extracted from Avicennia officinalis and evaluated their potential effects against the main protease of SARS-CoV-2. The antioxidant activities of A. officinalis leaf and fruit extracts at 150 µg/mL were 95.97% and 92.48%, respectively. Furthermore, both extracts displayed low cytotoxicity levels against Artemia salina. The gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy analysis confirmed the identifies of 75 phytochemicals from both extracts, and four potent compounds, triacontane, hexacosane, methyl linoleate, and methyl palminoleate, had binding free energy values of -6.75, -6.7, -6.3, and -6.3 Kcal/mol, respectively, in complexes with the SARS-CoV-2 main protease. The active residues Cys145, Met165, Glu166, Gln189, and Arg188 in the main protease formed non-bonded interactions with the screened compounds. The root-mean-square difference (RMSD), root-mean-square fluctuations (RMSF), radius of gyration (Rg), solvent-accessible surface area (SASA), and hydrogen bond data from a molecular dynamics simulation study confirmed the docked complexes' binding rigidity in the atomistic simulated environment. However, this study's findings require in vitro and in vivo validation to ensure the possible inhibitory effects and pharmacological efficacy of the identified compounds.


Asunto(s)
Avicennia/química , Fitoquímicos/uso terapéutico , /metabolismo , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/uso terapéutico , Avicennia/metabolismo , Sitios de Unión , /virología , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Humanos , Simulación del Acoplamiento Molecular , Simulación de Dinámica Molecular , Alcohol Feniletílico/química , Alcohol Feniletílico/metabolismo , Alcohol Feniletílico/uso terapéutico , Fenilpropionatos/química , Fenilpropionatos/metabolismo , Fenilpropionatos/uso terapéutico , Fitoquímicos/química , Fitoquímicos/metabolismo , Hojas de la Planta/química , Hojas de la Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de la Matriz Viral/química , Proteínas de la Matriz Viral/metabolismo
3.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 16: 2515-2532, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33824589

RESUMEN

Introduction: Fe3O4 nanoparticles (Fe3O4 NPs) with multiple functionalities are intriguing candidates for various biomedical applications. Materials and Methods: This study introduced a simple and green synthesis of Fe3O4 NPs using a low-cost stabilizer of plant waste extract rich in polyphenols content with a well-known antioxidant property as well as anticancer ability to eliminate colon cancer cells. Herein, Fe3O4 NPs were fabricated via a facile co-precipitation method using the crude extract of Garcinia mangostana fruit peel as a green stabilizer at different weight percentages (1, 2, 5, and 10 wt.%). The samples were analyzed for magnetic hyperthermia and then in vitro cytotoxicity assay was performed. Results: The XRD planes of the samples were corresponding to the standard magnetite Fe3O4 with high crystallinity. From TEM analysis, the green synthesized NPs were spherical with an average size of 13.42±1.58 nm and displayed diffraction rings of the Fe3O4 phase, which was in good agreement with the obtained XRD results. FESEM images showed that the extract covered the surface of the Fe3O4 NPs well. The magnetization values for the magnetite samples were ranging from 49.80 emu/g to 69.42 emu/g. FTIR analysis verified the functional groups of the extract compounds and their interactions with the NPs. Based on DLS results, the hydrodynamic sizes of the Fe3O4 nanofluids were below 177 nm. Furthermore, the nanofluids indicated the zeta potential values up to -34.92±1.26 mV and remained stable during four weeks of storage, showing that the extract favorably improved the colloidal stability of the Fe3O4 NPs. In the hyperthermia experiment, the magnetic nanofluids showed the acceptable specific absorption rate (SAR) values and thermosensitive performances under exposure of various alternating magnetic fields. From results of in vitro cytotoxicity assay, the killing effects of the synthesized samples against HCT116 colon cancer cells were mostly higher compared to those against CCD112 colon normal cells. Remarkably, the Fe3O4 NPs containing 10 wt.% of the extract showed a lower IC50 value (99.80 µg/mL) in HCT116 colon cancer cell line than in CCD112 colon normal cell line (140.80 µg/mL). Discussion: This research, therefore, introduced a new stabilizer of Garcinia mangostana fruit peel extract for the biosynthesis of Fe3O4 NPs with desirable physiochemical properties for potential magnetic hyperthermia and colon cancer treatment.


Asunto(s)
Antineoplásicos/farmacología , Frutas/química , Garcinia mangostana/química , Tecnología Química Verde/métodos , Hipertermia Inducida , Nanopartículas de Magnetita/química , Extractos Vegetales/química , Antioxidantes/farmacología , Muerte Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Línea Celular Tumoral , Supervivencia Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Dispersión Dinámica de Luz , Humanos , Hidrodinámica , Concentración 50 Inhibidora , Nanopartículas de Magnetita/ultraestructura , Tamaño de la Partícula , Espectrometría por Rayos X , Espectroscopía Infrarroja por Transformada de Fourier , Temperatura , Difracción de Rayos X
4.
J Chromatogr A ; 1645: 462107, 2021 May 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33857677

RESUMEN

In the analysis of contaminants in food products, sample preparation is performed by proper adsorbents, whose choice is crucial to eliminate matrix interference. In this work we modified SBA-15 adsorbents by functionalization with (3-aminopropyl)-triethoxysilane (SBA-15-APTES) and N-[3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl]aniline (SBA-15-AN) aiming to use them for the first time in the clean-up step of a QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe) extraction of micropollutants from strawberry, a sugar rich fruit. After physico-chemical characterization by nitrogen adsorption, infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis, the adsorption capabilities of SBA-15 sorbents and possible interaction mechanisms were studied at different pH (2.1-8.5) for glucose, sucrose and fructose at concentrations characteristic of those found in strawberries. The performance of the two SBA-15 sorbents was compared with that of commercial PSA (primary secondary amine), usually proposed in QuEChERS protocols. Both SBA-15 materials exhibit up to 30% higher adsorption than PSA, suggesting their possible QuEChERS application. Synthesized SBA-15 adsorbents were hence used as innovative dispersive sorbents in the QuEChERS extractions of 13 PAHs and 14 PCBs from strawberry. For PCBs, SBA-15-AN provides better matrix removal than PSA and comparable extraction recoveries around 90%. For PAHs, the use of SBA-15-AN has the advantage of lower relative standard deviation (7%) than PSA (19%).


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Ambientales/análisis , Dióxido de Silicio/química , Extracción en Fase Sólida/métodos , Adsorción , Fragaria/química , Frutas/química , Bifenilos Policlorados/análisis , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análisis
5.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 42(2): 952-959, 2021 Feb 08.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33742891

RESUMEN

Peppers are a high Cd-enriched vegetable. On the basis of a preliminary screening experiment of 91 pepper varieties and soil culture experiments during the entire growth period of 26 varieties, a high Cd variety (X15), medium Cd variety (X39), and two low varieties (X45 and X55) were selected to study the effect of different cadmium levels (0, 5, and 10 mg·kg-1 Cd) on enrichment, transport, and accumulation as well as its subcellular distribution and chemical form. Based on the results, 5 mg·kg-1 and 10 mg·kg-1 of Cd inhibited shoot dry weights of four pepper varieties but increased the root dry weights of X15, X45, and X55 varieties. Sodium chloride-bound cadmium and acetate-bound cadmium are the main forms of cadmium in the pepper fruits. Subcellular cadmium concentrations in the roots, leaves, and fruits of pepper plants were ranked in order cytoplasm > cell wall > organelle, and in the stems the order was cell wall > cytoplasm > organelle. Cd compartmentalization plays an important role in pepper resistance to cadmium stress. Under dosages of 5 mg·kg-1 Cd and 10 mg·kg-1 Cd, Cd concentrations in stems and leaves were ranked in order X39 > X15 > X55 > X45, with fruit Cd concentrations ranked in order X15 > X39 > X55 > X45. The Cd concentration was lowest in the roots of X15 whereas this variety has the highest concentrations in its fruit. The Cd concentrations in the roots, stems, and leaves of X39 were the highest among the four varieties whereas the concentration in the fruit was lower than in the X15 variety. The concentration of Cd in pepper fruits depends on the Cd transport capacity redistribution ability to the shoots.


Asunto(s)
Cadmio , Contaminantes del Suelo , Cadmio/análisis , Cadmio/toxicidad , Frutas/química , Hojas de la Planta/química , Raíces de Plantas/química , Contaminantes del Suelo/análisis , Contaminantes del Suelo/toxicidad , Verduras
6.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 160, 2021 Mar 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33784996

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Being a promising tropical woody oilseed crop, the evergreen and recurrent plants of Sacha Inchi (Plukenetia volubilis L.) has complex phenology and source-sink interactions. Carbon source-sink manipulations with control and two treatments (reduce source, ca. 10% mature leaf pruning; reduce sink, 10% fruitlet thinning) were conducted on 2.5-year-old field-grown P. volubilis plantation during the early-wet season in a seasonal tropical area. RESULTS: Leaf photosynthetic rate and specific leaf area largely remained unchanged in response to defoliation or defloration. Compared with control, higher N contents on average were observed in both remaining leaves and branches of the defoliated plants, suggesting that N-mobilization was mainly due to the enhanced N uptake from soil. Carbon, but not N, is a source-driven growth process of P. volubilis plants, as defoliation reduced the contents of non-structural carbohydrates (especially sugar) in branches, although temporally, whereas defloration increased available C reserve. The seasonal dynamic pattern of fruit ripening was altered by source-sink regulations. Total seed yield throughout the growing season, which depends on fruit set and retention (i.e., number of matured fruit) rather than individual fruit development (size), was slightly increased by defloration but was significantly decreased by defoliation. Compared with control, defloration did not enrich the KEGG pathway, but defoliation downregulated the TCA cycle and carbohydrate and lipid metabolisms in fruitlets after 24 days of the applications of source-sink manipulation. CONCLUSION: Carbohydrate reserves serve to buffer sink-source imbalances that may result from temporary adjustment in demand for assimilates (e.g., defloration) or shortfalls in carbon assimilation (e.g., defoliation). Defoliation is disadvantageous for the yield and also for carbohydrate and lipid accumulation in fruits of P. volubilis plants. Although more studies are needed, these results provide new insights to the further improvement in seed yield of the strong source-limited P. volubilis plants by source/sink manipulations.


Asunto(s)
Carbono/metabolismo , Euphorbiaceae/metabolismo , Frutas/crecimiento & desarrollo , Nitrógeno/metabolismo , Euphorbiaceae/crecimiento & desarrollo , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo
7.
J Chromatogr A ; 1642: 462038, 2021 Apr 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33714773

RESUMEN

Interest in the quantification of highly polar substances in crops has noticeably increased in the last five years. This study was designed to assess quantification of six polar residues, chlorate, ethephon, fosetly-aluminium (fosetyl-Al), glyphosate, phosphonic acid and perchlorate. A total of 2513 pomegranate samples intended for export from Turkey were analysed using the Quick Polar Pesticides (QuPPe) method. The method was in-house validated with very good performance results. The limits of quantification (LOQs) for residues were much lower than the respective EU Maximum Residue Levels (MRLs). Phosphonic acid was detected in 38.5% of pomegranate samples at quantifiable concentrations, calculated as fosetyl-Al. The concentrations ranged between 0.005 and 12.9 mg kg-1. The 20% of pomegranate samples showed fosetyl-Al levels above the EU MRL of 2 mg kg-1. Other polar residues were not detected in any pomegranate samples. This is the first report about highly polar pesticides in pomegranates cultivated in Turkey.


Asunto(s)
Compuestos Organofosforados/análisis , Residuos de Plaguicidas/análisis , Ácidos Fosforosos/análisis , Granada (Fruta)/química , Espectrometría de Masas en Tándem/métodos , Cromatografía Liquida , Contaminación de Alimentos/análisis , Frutas/química , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados
8.
Food Chem ; 352: 129341, 2021 Aug 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33657483

RESUMEN

A healthy life means a balance between physical activity and a diet rich in fruits and vegetables, however, some plant-based foods can have certain adverse effects due to the presence of anti-nutritional factors, such as lectins, capable of binding molecules and preventing their normal assimilation. The level of lectins in Synsepalum dulcificum fruit was determined by hemagglutination assays in human blood, and its comparison with foods characterized as having high and low lectin content. The relative hemagglutinating activity of berries from Synsepalum dulcificum compared to our positive high lectin content food reference (Pinto bean) corresponds to 3.13-6.25%, representing safe levels for nutritional food.


Asunto(s)
Análisis de los Alimentos/normas , Lectinas de Plantas/análisis , Synsepalum/química , Dieta , Frutas/química , Humanos , Estándares de Referencia
9.
Molecules ; 26(5)2021 Feb 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33669142

RESUMEN

Water-soluble fluorescent carbon dots (CDs) were synthesized by a hydrothermal method using citric acid as the carbon source and ethylenediamine as the nitrogen source. The repeated and scale-up synthetic experiments were carried out to explore the feasibility of macroscopic preparation of CDs. The CDs/Fe3+ composite was prepared by the interaction of the CDs solution and Fe3+ solution. The optical properties, pH dependence and stability behavior of CDs or the CDs/Fe3+ composite were studied by ultraviolet spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy. Following the principles of fluorescence quenching after the addition of Fe3+ and then the fluorescence recovery after the addition of asorbic acid, the fluorescence intensity of the carbon dots was measured at λex = 360 nm, λem = 460 nm. The content of ascorbic acid was calculated by quantitative analysis of the changing fluorescence intensity. The CDs/Fe3+ composite was applied to the determination of different active molecules, and it was found that the composite had specific recognition of ascorbic acid and showed an excellent linear relationship in 5.0-350.0 µmol·L-1. Moreover, the detection limit was 3.11 µmol·L-1. Satisfactory results were achieved when the method was applied to the ascorbic acid determination in jujube fruit. The fluorescent carbon dots composites prepared in this study may have broad application prospects in a rapid, sensitive and trace determination of ascorbic acid content during food processing.


Asunto(s)
Ácido Ascórbico/análisis , Carbono/química , Colorantes Fluorescentes/química , Puntos Cuánticos/química , Colorantes Fluorescentes/síntesis química , Frutas/química , Ziziphus/química
10.
Molecules ; 26(4)2021 Feb 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33669312

RESUMEN

Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease and one of the fastest-growing health challenges of the last decades. Studies have shown that chronic low-grade inflammation and activation of the innate immune system are intimately involved in type 2 diabetes pathogenesis. Momordica charantia L. fruits are used in traditional medicine to manage diabetes. Herein, we report the purification of a new 23-O-ß-d-allopyranosyl-5ß,19-epoxycucurbitane-6,24-diene triterpene (charantoside XV, 6) along with 25ξ-isopropenylchole-5(6)-ene-3-O-ß-d-glucopyranoside (1), karaviloside VI (2), karaviloside VIII (3), momordicoside L (4), momordicoside A (5) and kuguaglycoside C (7) from an Indian cultivar of Momordica charantia. At 50 µM compounds, 2-6 differentially affected the expression of pro-inflammatory markers IL-6, TNF-α, and iNOS, and mitochondrial marker COX-2. Compounds tested for the inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzymes at 0.87 mM and 1.33 mM, respectively. Compounds showed similar α-amylase inhibitory activity than acarbose (0.13 mM) of control (68.0-76.6%). Karaviloside VIII (56.5%) was the most active compound in the α-glucosidase assay, followed by karaviloside VI (40.3%), while momordicoside L (23.7%), A (33.5%), and charantoside XV (23.9%) were the least active compounds. To better understand the mode of binding of cucurbitane-triterpenes to these enzymes, in silico docking of the isolated compounds was evaluated with α-amylase and α-glucosidase.


Asunto(s)
Antiinflamatorios/farmacología , Simulación por Computador , Frutas/química , Glicósidos/química , Glicósidos/farmacología , Hipoglucemiantes/farmacología , Momordica charantia/química , Triterpenos/química , Triterpenos/farmacología , Animales , Antiinflamatorios/química , Bioensayo , Espectroscopía de Resonancia Magnética con Carbono-13 , Glicósidos/aislamiento & purificación , Hipoglucemiantes/química , Ligandos , Ratones , Conformación Molecular , Simulación del Acoplamiento Molecular , Espectroscopía de Protones por Resonancia Magnética , Células RAW 264.7 , ARN Mensajero/genética , ARN Mensajero/metabolismo , Triterpenos/aislamiento & purificación , alfa-Amilasas/química , alfa-Amilasas/metabolismo , alfa-Glucosidasas/química , alfa-Glucosidasas/metabolismo
11.
Molecules ; 26(4)2021 Feb 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33670110

RESUMEN

Consumer interest in foods with enhanced nutritional quality has increased in recent years. The nutritional and bioactive characterization of fruits and their byproducts, as well as their use in the formulation of new food products, is advisable, contributing to decrease the global concerns related to food waste and food security. Moreover, the compounds present in these raw materials and the study of their biological properties can promote health and help to prevent some chronic diseases. Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill. (prickly pear) is a plant that grows wild in the arid and semi-arid regions of the world, being a food source for ones and a potential for others, but not properly valued. This paper carries out an exhaustive review of the scientific literature on the nutritional composition and bioactive compounds of prickly pear and its constituents, as well as its main biological activities and applications. It is a good source of dietary fiber, vitamins and bioactive compounds. Many of its natural compounds have interesting biological activities such as anti-inflammatory, hypoglycemic and antimicrobial. The antioxidant power of prickly pear makes it a good candidate as an ingredient of new food products with fascinating properties for health promotion and/or to be used as natural extracts for food, pharmaceutic or cosmetic applications. In addition, it could be a key player in food security in many arid and semi-arid regions of the world, where there are often no more plants.


Asunto(s)
Fibras de la Dieta/uso terapéutico , Frutas/química , Opuntia/química , Enfermedad Crónica/tratamiento farmacológico , Humanos , Valor Nutritivo , Opuntia/crecimiento & desarrollo , Fitoquímicos/química , Fitoquímicos/uso terapéutico , Vitaminas/química , Vitaminas/uso terapéutico
12.
Molecules ; 26(4)2021 Feb 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33670455

RESUMEN

Many studies suggest anthocyanins may prevent the development of several diseases. However, anthocyanin bioactivity against cellular stress is not fully understood. This study aimed to evaluate the protective effect of berry anthocyanins on stressed cells using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The impact of in vitro gastrointestinal digestion on anthocyanin profiles was also assessed. Bilberry and blackcurrant had higher anthocyanin levels than raspberry and strawberry, but digestion reduced the detected anthocyanins by approximately 90%. Yeast cells with and without digested or nondigested anthocyanin extracts were exposed to H2O2 and examined for survival. In the presence of anthocyanins, particularly from digested strawberry, a significant increase in cell survival was observed, suggesting that the type and levels of anthocyanins are important factors, but they also need to undergo gastrointestinal (GI) structural modifications to induce cell defence. Results also showed that cells need to be exposed to anthocyanins before the stress was applied, suggesting induction of a cellular defence system by anthocyanins or their derivatives rather than by a direct antioxidative effect on H2O2. Overall, data showed that exposure of severely stressed yeast cells to digested berry extracts improved cell survival. The findings also showed the importance of considering gastrointestinal digestion when evaluating anthocyanins' biological activity.


Asunto(s)
Frutas/química , Peróxido de Hidrógeno/toxicidad , Viabilidad Microbiana/efectos de los fármacos , Estrés Oxidativo/efectos de los fármacos , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/citología , Antocianinas/análisis , Antocianinas/química , Sustancias Protectoras/farmacología , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/efectos de los fármacos , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/crecimiento & desarrollo
13.
Molecules ; 26(4)2021 Feb 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33670482

RESUMEN

In this paper, the structural and optical properties of ZnO-SiO2-based ceramics fabricated from oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) were investigated. The OPEFB waste was burned at 600, 700 and 800 °C to form palm ash and was then treated with sulfuric acid to extract silica from the ash. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses confirmed the existence of SiO2 in the sample. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) showed that the particles displayed an irregular shape and became finer after leaching. Then, the solid-state method was used to produce the ZnO-SiO2 composite and the samples were sintered at 600, 800, 1000, 1200 and 1400 °C. The XRD peaks of the Zn2SiO4 showed high intensity, which indicated high crystallinity of the composite. FESEM images proved that the grain boundaries were larger as the temperature increased. Upon obtaining the absorbance spectrum from ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, the energy band gaps obtained were 3.192, 3.202 and 3.214 eV at room temperature, 600 and 800 °C, respectively, and decreased to 3.127, 2.854 and 2.609 eV at 1000, 1200 and 1400 °C, respectively. OPEFB shows high potential as a silica source in producing promising optical materials.


Asunto(s)
Frutas/química , Aceite de Palma/química , Dióxido de Silicio/síntesis química , Óxido de Zinc/síntesis química , Dióxido de Silicio/química , Análisis Espectral , Temperatura , Residuos , Difracción de Rayos X , Óxido de Zinc/química
14.
Molecules ; 26(4)2021 Feb 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33670565

RESUMEN

Optimization of the extraction conditions of polyphenolic compounds for different parts of the Damas species, Conocarpus lancifolius and Conocarpus erectus, grown under UAE conditions was studied. The combination of ethanol concentration (50, 75, and 100%), temperature (45, 55, and 65 °C) and time (1, 2, and 3 h) was used by applying the Response Surface Methodology. The data showed that the extracts (n = 90) contained phenolic compounds, flavonoids, and tannins, and were free of alkaloids. Changing the extraction conditions had a significant effect on the detection of phytosterols, saponins, and glycosides and on the solubility of vanillic acid, p-coumaric acid, sinapic acid, t-ferulic acid, rutin hydrate, protocatechuic acid, quercetin, and flavone. The data reveal that the roots and leaves of C. erectus and the leaves and fruits of C.lancifolius are the most important plant parts from which to extract these compounds. This study draws attention to the unordinary use of Conocarpus spp. as a source of natural food additive.


Asunto(s)
Antioxidantes/análisis , Combretaceae/química , Fenoles/análisis , Fitoquímicos/análisis , Frutas/química , Extractos Vegetales/química , Hojas de la Planta/química , Raíces de Plantas/química , Polifenoles/aislamiento & purificación
15.
Molecules ; 26(4)2021 Feb 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33673385

RESUMEN

Extracts rich in bioactive compounds added to edible films have allowed the development of active packaging that increases the shelf life of food. However, it is necessary to search for solvents that are nontoxic and not harmful to the environment, with natural deep eutectic solvents (NADES) being an attractive and easily synthesized alternative. This research aimed to design NADES by lyophilization to be used in the extraction of anthocyanins from the Chilean Luma chequen (Molina) A. Gray berry, and subsequently adding them to the matrix of edible ƙ-carrageenan films. For this purpose, ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) was used and the anthocyanin content was evaluated with the pH differential method. The antioxidant capacity of extracts was determined by DPPH assay and the antibacterial capacity by diffusion agar tests. The results obtained indicate that the designed NADES are efficient at extracting anthocyanins, reaching concentrations between 81.1 and 327.6 mg eq cyanidin 3-glucoside/100 g dw of L. chequen (Molina) A. Gray. The extracts reached inhibition diameters between 5 and 34 mm against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Salmonella typhi strains. Once the extracts were incorporated into ƙ-carrageenan films, active edible films with antioxidant and antibacterial capacities were obtained.


Asunto(s)
Antocianinas/aislamiento & purificación , Antioxidantes/química , Películas Comestibles , Embalaje de Alimentos , Antocianinas/química , Antioxidantes/aislamiento & purificación , Antioxidantes/farmacología , Carragenina/química , Carragenina/farmacología , Frutas/química , Humanos , Extractos Vegetales/química , Extractos Vegetales/aislamiento & purificación , Solventes/química , Ultrasonido
16.
Food Chem ; 351: 129314, 2021 Jul 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33647696

RESUMEN

A method for early quantification of unripe macaw fruits oil content using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR) and partial least squares (PLS) is presented. After harvest, the fruit takes about 30 days to reach its maximum oil accumulation. The oil content was quantified thirty days after harvest using Soxhlet extraction. PLS models were built using NIR spectra of shell obtained five days after harvest (Shell5). The Shell5 model was compared with models built using NIR spectra of the shell (Shell30) and mesocarp thirty days after harvest (Pulp30). Ordered predictors selection was used to select the most informative variables. The best models presented root mean square error of prediction and correlation coefficient of prediction of 4.87% and 0.89 for Shell5; 5.83% and 0.85 for Shell30; 4.76% and 0.92 for Pulp30. Thus, the anticipated prediction of oil content could reduce the time and costs of macaw palm quality control and storage.


Asunto(s)
Arecaceae/química , Frutas/química , Aceites Vegetales/análisis , Espectroscopía Infrarroja Corta/métodos
17.
Food Chem ; 352: 129396, 2021 Aug 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33652195

RESUMEN

Extracts from 'Zhéri' and 'Hicaznar' varieties of pomegranate, Punica granatum L., were obtained by subjecting powdered peels to extraction using water, water/ethanol (1:1; v/v), ethanol, acetone and heptane. Using the agar diffusion assay, extracts with water and/or ethanol were shown to display significant antimicrobial activity with diameters of inhibition zones up to 20 mm. Ethanolic extracts, which were the most active, were fractionated using SPE, HPLC and UHPLC, and the active compounds they contain were identified by mass spectrometry. Punicalagin, under its α and ß anomeric forms, was identified as the antibacterial compound in pomegranate peel extracts. Both forms were active with MIC values between 0.3 and 1.2 µg.ml-1, and they easily converted from one to the other with an α/ß equilibrium ratio of 3/7. Their spectrum of activity targeted 10 out of 13 Gram positive and two out of three Gram negative bacteria as well as a yeast strain.


Asunto(s)
Antiinfecciosos/farmacología , Taninos Hidrolizables/farmacología , Granada (Fruta)/química , Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión , Frutas/química , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana
18.
Food Chem ; 351: 129308, 2021 Jul 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33652297

RESUMEN

This study investigated the effects of foliar application of fulvic acid antitranspirant (FA-AT) on Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) and Riesling grapes and wines in a warm viticulture region of China. FA-AT controlled the contents of total soluble solids, fructose and glucose in mature grapes and alcohol in wines. FA-AT improved total phenols and flavonoids in Riesling grapes, and total tannin and individual flavanols in CS grapes and wine, while reducing total individual phenolic acids and flavonols in CS wine. Increased volatiles in CS grapes (hexyl acetate, linalool) and wine (isoamyl alcohol, 1-hexanol, 2-phenylethanol) detected by SPME-GC-MS can contribute to the fruity and floral aroma. FA-AT reduced the accumulation of anthocyanins in CS grapes and wine without an eventual reduction in the tonality of wine by sensory analysis, and improved the taste and balance of Riesling wine. Overall, FA-AT can improve the quality of grapes and wines produced in warm viticulture regions.


Asunto(s)
Agricultura/métodos , Benzopiranos/química , Frutas/química , Azúcares/análisis , Vitis/química , Vino/análisis , Antocianinas/análisis , China , Flavonoides/análisis , Flavonoles/análisis , Cromatografía de Gases y Espectrometría de Masas , Odorantes/análisis , Fenoles/análisis , Taninos/análisis , Compuestos Orgánicos Volátiles/análisis
19.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 32(3): 976-982, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33754564

RESUMEN

To find out the recessive factors of soil degradation threatening the healthy development of Weibei apple orchards, we examined soil compaction status and its inducing factors. This study could provide a theoretical basis for apple orchard scientific management. We evalua-ted the changes of soil bulk density and compaction with the depth of soil layer in 0-60 cm in four apple orchards with various planting period, including <10 years (4-6 years), 10-20 years (14-16 years) and >20 years (24-26 years). The location and degradation degree of soil compaction in orchard were investigated. Through analyzing the number of soil aggregates and the stability, soil clay and organic matter contents, we tried to find the reasons for the internal compacting of soil in Weibei orchards. The results showed that soil bulk density and compactness in the 0-60 cm soil layer significantly increased with increasing planting years and soil depth. With the 20 cm soil layer as a boundary, soil of Weibei orchards in different planting years showed obvious variation characteristics of loose in upper and compact in lower. The above indicators in soil layer above 20 cm basically met the normal requirements of apple trees, whereas soil layer below 20 cm exceeded the threshold for healthy growth of apple trees. The main reasons for soil compaction below the subsurface layer were poor soil aggregation, the lack of soil organic matter, less human disturbance during fruit planting, and the movement of scattered clay particles to the lower layer. With increasing years of fruit planting, soil compaction became more severe.


Asunto(s)
Malus , Suelo , Agricultura , China , Frutas/química , Humanos , Agua/análisis
20.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 345: 109129, 2021 May 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33711686

RESUMEN

The production of pome fruits as pears and apples, as well as their derived industries, is of great economic importance in North Patagonia. The elaboration of fermented beverages as cider or perry has evidenced a substantial diversification during the last years, with the evaluation of different fruit varieties, yeast starters and technological changes. In this work, two cryotolerant yeasts belonging to the species Saccharomyces uvarum were evaluated at laboratory and pilot scale in sterile and no-sterile pear must. One of the strains was originally isolated from apple chicha (strain NPCC1314) and the other from apple cider (strain NPCC1420) in Patagonia. Both physicochemical and sensory features of the fermented products were evaluated. Both strains were able to successfully complete the fermentations, although strain NPCC1420 showed the better kinetic properties including a faster sugar consumption than the strain NPCC1314. Both strains showed excellent implantation capacity, but the fermented products showed different chemical profiles. The perry fermented with the strain NPCC1314 was characterized by better sensory attributes as assessed by trained panelists and a greater acceptance for untrained public than the same fermented with the strain NPCC1420. The two strains were able to consume sorbitol, both in pear must and in agar-plates supplemented with sorbitol as the sole carbon source. This ability is described for the first time in S. uvarum, at least for the two strains evaluated in this work.


Asunto(s)
Bebidas Alcohólicas/análisis , Alimentos y Bebidas Fermentados/microbiología , Pyrus/microbiología , Saccharomyces/metabolismo , Argentina , Reactores Biológicos , Chile , Fermentación , Frutas/química , Frutas/microbiología , Malus/microbiología , Saccharomyces/aislamiento & purificación , Levaduras/clasificación , Levaduras/aislamiento & purificación
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