Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 15.534
Filtrar
1.
Adv Neurobiol ; 24: 279-376, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32006364

RESUMEN

Fruits come in a wide variety of colors, shapes, and flavors. This chapter will cover selected fruits that are known to be healthy and highly nutritious. These fruits were chosen due to their common usage and availability. Since it is not possible to cover all health benefits or essential nutrients and important phytochemicals of the fruit composition, this chapter will focus on the key valuable constituents and their potential health effects.


Asunto(s)
Frutas/química , Frutas/clasificación , Valor Nutritivo , Antioxidantes/análisis , Flavonoides/análisis , Humanos , Fitoquímicos/análisis
2.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(4): 1110-1117, 2020 Jan 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31891498

RESUMEN

Select cultivars of table olives have more desirable traits and a higher economic value. There are suspected issues with cultivar mislabeling and traceability in the supply chain. Here, we describe a method to identify cultivars by genotyping of processed olives. DNA was extracted from leaves and California-style olives of seven commonly packed cultivars. Processed olive fruits yielded relatively low DNA concentrations (0.04-0.86 µg/g), and extracts had more impurities compared with leaves. From 15 candidate SSRs, five markers showing the highest number of unique allele combinations and discriminatory power were selected. These SSRs were successfully amplified and analyzed in all cultivars of olives except one. When directly comparing any two cultivars, different allele combinations were typically present for at least four of the five SSRs. Microsatellite analysis shows potential as a simple yet robust diagnostic tool. The method can be expanded to include other cultivars, styles of table olives, and potentially other processed plant-based foods.


Asunto(s)
Repeticiones de Microsatélite , Olea/genética , Alelos , Contaminación de Alimentos/análisis , Frutas/química , Frutas/clasificación , Frutas/genética , Genotipo , Olea/química , Olea/clasificación
3.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(5): 1315-1325, 2020 Feb 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31913632

RESUMEN

This study examined the bioaccessibility of polyphenolic compounds originating directly from fruits or from fruit extracts during their digestion conducted in a simulated human digestive tract. The results demonstrated that polyphenols bound to the food matrix are less bioavailable, but the type of food matrix plays an important role. Depending on the raw material, 14 to 58% of polyphenols present in fruit extracts were transferred to the supernatant, while in the case of polyphenols present in fruits, only 5-9% were transferred. Sediments obtained after in vitro digestion at the stomach and duodenum stage of fruit extracts contained virtually no polyphenols and demonstrated negligible antioxidant activity, whereas after digestion of whole fruits, the detected polyphenols constituted 5-44%. The intestinal microbiota were actively involved in the metabolism of polyphenols, mainly anthocyanins and glycosides remaining after the earlier stages of digestion.


Asunto(s)
Frutas/metabolismo , Mucosa Gástrica/metabolismo , Extractos Vegetales/metabolismo , Polifenoles/metabolismo , Disponibilidad Biológica , Digestión , Frutas/química , Mucosa Gástrica/química , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Extractos Vegetales/química , Polifenoles/química
4.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(5): 1468-1479, 2020 Feb 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31945291

RESUMEN

In this study, sample processing of bulk commodities using an efficient one-step comminution procedure with liquid nitrogen (LN2) was devised and assessed in the analysis of pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables. LN2 was added to the fresh samples from a tank by opening a valve, and the standard food chopper was kept in a laboratory hood to reduce safety risks. Test portions of four replicates each of 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 5, 10, and 15 g were taken from eight fruits and vegetables (tomato, squash, broccoli, apple, grape, peach, green bean, and cucumber) individually comminuted with LN2. For comparison without comminution, similar test portions of a reconstituted freeze-dried certified reference material of pesticides in cucumber were also analyzed by the same method. More than 100 pesticides were monitored by both ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) and instrument top sample preparation (ITSP) + fast low-pressure gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LPGC-MS/MS). A new version of QuEChERS-based sample preparation was followed, in which 5 mL of 4:1 (v/v) acetonitrile/water per gram of sample is used for extraction and 200 µL of initial extract is quickly evaporated, reconstituted in water, and ultracentrifuged for UHPLC-MS/MS analysis. For ITSP+LPGC-MS/MS, another portion of the initial extract undergoes salt-out partitioning with 4:1 (w/w) anhydrous MgSO4/NaCl and the upper layer extract is transferred to an autosampler vial for automated cleanup and analysis in parallel. Quality control spikes were made during the comminution, extraction, cleanup, and analysis steps to isolate and estimate the individual and overall measurement uncertainties of the approach. The recommended test portion size is 2 g for routine monitoring by this approach, but results demonstrated that subsamples as low as 0.5 g typically gave overall biases and relative standard deviations of <10% for nearly all pesticides, commodities, and methods, which is 3-5% lower than previously evaluated sample processing and analytical methods. This approach can be used to improve data quality, laboratory efficiency, and sample throughput in routine monitoring programs for regulatory, risk assessment, and other purposes.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación de Alimentos/análisis , Frutas/química , Ensayos Analíticos de Alto Rendimiento/métodos , Nitrógeno/química , Residuos de Plaguicidas/análisis , Verduras/química , Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión , Control de Calidad , Tamaño de la Muestra , Espectrometría de Masas en Tándem
5.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(2): 574-583, 2020 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31820633

RESUMEN

Food structure is a key determinant for the release of phenolic compounds during gastric and intestinal digestion. We evaluated the bioaccessibility of polyphenols from apple tissue during gastric digestion in vitro from bio-mechanical perspectives including the effects of gastric juice and mucin on the apple tissue matrix under simulated stomach peristalsis. The gastric model system was effective in releasing polyphenols because of simultaneous compression and extrusion, with 3 times higher release from coarse than from fine particles. However, bioaccessibility of polyphenols was reduced up to 44% in the presence of both cell walls and gastric mucin. Most individual phenolic molecules were gradually released and were stable in the gastric environment, except for procyanidin B2. The study suggests that the bioaccessibility of polyphenols from apples in the upper digestive tract is dependent on mechanical disintegration and the residual matrix present in the swallowed bolus.


Asunto(s)
Digestión , Malus/metabolismo , Polifenoles/metabolismo , Estómago/fisiología , Disponibilidad Biológica , Pared Celular/química , Pared Celular/metabolismo , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Humanos , Malus/química , Modelos Biológicos , Polifenoles/química
6.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(1): 147-159, 2020 Jan 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31826616

RESUMEN

This study was aimed at investigating the hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of a polysaccharide (RTFP) isolated from Rosa roxburghii Tratt fruit on type-2 diabetic db/db mice. The results indicated that the oral administration of RTFP could significantly decrease the body weight, fat, and liver hypertrophy and the levels of fasting blood glucose, serum insulin, and serum lipids of the db/db mice. Histopathological observation showed that RTFP could effectively protect the pancreas, liver, and epididymal fat against damage and dysfunction. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis confirmed that the gene expression levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors-γ (PPAR-γ), sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP-1c), acetyl-CoA carboxylase-1 (ACC-1), fatty acid synthase (FAS), and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6 Pase) were significantly down-regulated in the liver of db/db mice after treatment with RTFP. Moreover, RTFP treatment reversed gut dysbiosis by lowering the Firmicutes-to-Bacteroidetes ratio and enhancing the relative abundances of beneficial bacteria including Bacteroidaceae, Bacteroidaceae S24-7 group, and Lactobacillaceae. These findings suggest that RTFP can be used as a promising functional supplement for the prevention and treatment of type-2 diabetes mellitus.


Asunto(s)
Colon/microbiología , Hiperglucemia/tratamiento farmacológico , Hiperlipidemias/tratamiento farmacológico , Hipoglucemiantes/administración & dosificación , Hipolipemiantes/administración & dosificación , Extractos Vegetales/administración & dosificación , Polisacáridos/administración & dosificación , Rosa/química , Animales , Colon/metabolismo , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Frutas/química , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Hiperglucemia/metabolismo , Hiperglucemia/microbiología , Hiperlipidemias/metabolismo , Hiperlipidemias/microbiología , Hígado/efectos de los fármacos , Hígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Ratones , Triglicéridos/metabolismo
7.
Fitoterapia ; 140: 104432, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31759030

RESUMEN

Seven new lignans, cleistonkinins A- E (1-5), cleistonkisides A and B (6-7) were isolated from the fruits of Cleistanthus tonkinensis (Euphorbiaceae), together with five known aryltetralin lignans, cleisindoside B (8), cleistantoxin (9), cleisindoside D (10), neocleistantoxin (11) and polygamain (12). Their structures were established from spectral analysis, including mass spectrometry and 2D-NMR. The absolute configurations of 4-7 were determined by analysis of their experimental CD spectra and comparison with calculated electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra. Compounds 2 and 6 had selective inhibition with moderate cytotoxicity against Pan C1 and A549 cell lines, respectively. Cleistantoxin (9) was significantly active against A549, HeLa, Hep3B, Pan C1 and MCF7 cell lines while it was less cytotoxic against HeLa cells. Neocleistantoxin (11) exhibited remarkable inhibition toward A549, HeLa, MCF7 and Pan C1. This is the first report for cytotoxicity of 9 and 11 against A549, Hep3B and Pan C1 cell lines.


Asunto(s)
Antineoplásicos Fitogénicos/farmacología , Euphorbiaceae/química , Frutas/química , Lignanos/farmacología , Antineoplásicos Fitogénicos/aislamiento & purificación , Línea Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Lignanos/aislamiento & purificación , Estructura Molecular , Fitoquímicos/aislamiento & purificación , Fitoquímicos/farmacología , Vietnam
8.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(1): 279-291, 2020 Jan 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31802659

RESUMEN

This study aimed to identify the key aroma-active volatiles in cranberry wines through three vinification methods (White, Red and Thermo) using GC-MS/O to identify the important aroma compounds. A total of 70 compounds were detected, with 67 in wines and 61 in juices. The esters was the most diversified class, while alcohols and acids were the most abundant, especially 3-methylbutanol, methylbutyric acid, and benzoic acid. The volatile profiles of cranberry wines are distinctive from their source juices. Most alcohols, esters, and acids are fermentation-derived, while terpenes, phenols, aldehydes and ketones are varietal. The Red vinification retained the most varietal volatiles from the must, while the White and Thermo vinifications produced more volatiles during fermentation. Thermovinification reduced the yield of benzoic acid and its derivatives after fermentation. Olfactory analysis identified 47 aroma-active compounds, among which 41 were considered as the major aroma contributors (ethyl benzoate had the highest modified detection frequency).


Asunto(s)
Aromatizantes/química , Jugos de Frutas y Vegetales/análisis , Vaccinium macrocarpon/química , Compuestos Orgánicos Volátiles/química , Vino/análisis , Fermentación , Frutas/química , Cromatografía de Gases y Espectrometría de Masas , Odorantes/análisis
9.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(1): 59-66, 2020 Jan 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31816240

RESUMEN

Exposure of mature green "Takanotsume" chili fruit to blue and red light-emitting diodes (LEDs) was investigated. The red LED accelerated the red color development of chili as indicated by higher a* and chroma values, as well as lower hue angle and total chlorophyll compared to the blue LED and darkness (control). These were linked to increases in ß-carotene, free-capsanthin, and total carotenoids. The carotenoid biosynthesis-related genes, lycopene-ß-cyclase (Lcyb), ß-carotene hydroxylase (CrtZ), and capsanthin/capsolubin synthase (Ccs), were up-regulated by the red LED after 2 days of the experiment. The blue LED was more effective in increasing the expression of the phytoene synthase (Psy) gene at day 1 of experiment. The total phenolic, vitamin C content, and antioxidant capacity were also higher in the blue LED-treated chili. Results suggest that the responses of each carotenoid-related gene to the light wavelengths and the accumulation of phytochemicals are specific characteristics of this chili cultivar.


Asunto(s)
Capsicum/metabolismo , Capsicum/efectos de la radiación , Fitoquímicos/metabolismo , Pigmentos Biológicos/metabolismo , Capsicum/crecimiento & desarrollo , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Color , Frutas/química , Frutas/crecimiento & desarrollo , Frutas/metabolismo , Regulación de la Expresión Génica de las Plantas , Luz , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Xantófilas/metabolismo , beta Caroteno/metabolismo
10.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(3): 1350-1357, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31617215

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Non-conventional water sources and water-saving techniques can be valuable in semi-arid regions, although their long-term effects on citrus quality are little known. This study evaluated the effects of irrigation with two sources, transfer water (TW) and reclaimed water (RW), combined with two irrigation strategies, full irrigation (FI) and regulated deficit irrigation (RDI), on fruit quality of mandarins and grapefruits during eight growth seasons. RESULTS: Reclaimed water irrigation in mandarin, without water restriction, influenced maturity index (MI) less than TW-FI, because titratable acidity (TA) increased to a greater degree than soluble solid contents (SSC). Nevertheless, juice quality standards were satisfied. Regardless of the irrigation treatment (FI or RDI), a trend towards increasing fruit weight was also detected with RW. In grapefruit, its rootstock (Citrus macrophylla) enhanced salinity resilience with respect to the rootstock of mandarin ('Carrizo' citrange) and, hence, MI was not affected by RW. The RDI strategy, without saline stress (TW-RDI), increased, to a similar degree, both SSC and TA in mandarin fruit, not affecting the MI. In grapefruit, the water stress of RDI did improve the MI due to the TA did not change and SSC increased significantly, the TA did not change. The combination of both strategies, RW-RDI, decreased the MI only in some years because TA increased proportionally more than SSC in mandarin. CONCLUSIONS: The medium- and long-term feasibility of using RW and RDI to irrigate citrus was demonstrated. However, they must be performed cautiously and with appropriate management to avoid damaging fruit quality as a result of phytotoxic elements. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Asunto(s)
Riego Agrícola/métodos , Citrus/crecimiento & desarrollo , Frutas/química , Agua/metabolismo , Citrus/química , Citrus/metabolismo , Frutas/crecimiento & desarrollo , Frutas/metabolismo , Aguas Salinas/análisis , Aguas Salinas/metabolismo , Agua/análisis
11.
Biomed Chromatogr ; 34(1): e4720, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31634409

RESUMEN

Apple peel is frequently exposed to pesticides, especially in the last stages of the pesticide treatment practice. For a certain period, peel retains most of the applied pesticides, which precisely indicates the presence of pesticide residues. This study was conducted to establish and evaluate the method for the residue analysis of pyrimethanil, cyprodinil, trifloxystrobin, bifenthrin and boscalid by GC-MS in peel of Granny Smith, Golden Delicious and Idared varieties. The method consisted of few steps, without the routine usage of sorbents, and resulted in efficient removal of waxes, targeted as main interferences in GC-MS analysis. The matrix effect, boscalid selectivity issue, trend of lower trueness for bifenthrin in all matrices and for all analytes in Granny Smith matrix were in some way associated with the waxes. Finally, the method was applied to the analysis of three varieties of apple orchard samples, after 9 and 5 months of treatment with commercial formulations that contain pyrimethanil, cyprodinil and boscalid as active ingredients. Since the developed method consisted of few steps and used nontoxic and economic reagents, it could be implemented as a fast, economic and reliable screening method.


Asunto(s)
Frutas/química , Cromatografía de Gases y Espectrometría de Masas/métodos , Malus/química , Residuos de Plaguicidas/análisis , Compuestos de Bifenilo/análisis , Compuestos de Bifenilo/química , Límite de Detección , Modelos Lineales , Niacinamida/análogos & derivados , Niacinamida/análisis , Niacinamida/química , Residuos de Plaguicidas/química , Pirimidinas/análisis , Pirimidinas/química , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Ceras/química , Ceras/aislamiento & purificación
12.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(3): 1056-1063, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31650546

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Natural antioxidants have received increased attention owing to their safe use without side effects; however, their application has been limited because of lower antioxidant activity and stability during digestion when compared with those of synthetic antioxidants. Although research is ongoing to overcome these problems, it is still challenging to find effective solutions. In this study, we aimed to improve the properties and stability of natural antioxidants during in vitro digestion by synergistic combination and nanoencapsulation. RESULTS: Ten selected fruit and vegetable concentrates (acai berry, aronia, blackberry, cranberry, wild berry, raspberry, blueberry, red grape, cabbage, and spinach) were evaluated for their antioxidant capacity when combined via the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay. Among the 45 combinations, the highest synergistic ORAC value was noted for the blueberry and cabbage concentrates (BUCA; 0.8 and 1.2 mg mL-1 ) at an antioxidant ratio of 5:5. Chitosan/carrageenan (CSCR) nanoparticles are physically more stable than chitosan/gum arabic nanoparticles during in vitro digestion and were selected for the oral delivery of BUCA. Under simulated intestinal conditions, BUCA-loaded CSCR nanoparticles showed significantly more stable antioxidant activity and total phenolic content than non-nanoencapsulated BUCA. The highest antioxidant stability was observed in the BUCA-loaded CSCR nanoparticles prepared with 0.2 mg mL-1 carrageenan, which showed two-times higher ORAC value and ten-times higher total phenolic content than non-nanoencapsulated BUCA after 12 h of in vitro digestion. CONCLUSION: CSCR nanoencapsulation of natural antioxidants could be an effective technique for improving antioxidant stability during digestion. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Asunto(s)
Antioxidantes/química , Frutas/química , Extractos Vegetales/química , Verduras/química , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Digestión , Composición de Medicamentos , Estabilidad de Medicamentos , Frutas/metabolismo , Humanos , Nanotecnología , Capacidad de Absorbancia de Radicales de Oxígeno , Extractos Vegetales/metabolismo , Verduras/metabolismo
13.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(3): 915-925, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31670393

RESUMEN

Squalene (SQ) is an intermediate hydrocarbon in the biosynthesis of phytosterols and terpenes in plants. It is widely used for applications such as skin moisturizers, vaccines, or in carriers for active lipophilic molecules. It has commonly been obtained from sharks, but restrictions on their use have created a need to find alternative sources. We present a review of studies concerning SQ in olive groves to characterize its content and to provide new aspects that may increase the circular economy of the olive tree. There is a large variation in SQ content in virgin olive oil due to cultivars and agronomic issues such as region, climate, types of soil, crop practices, and harvest date. Cultivars with the highest SQ content in their virgin olive oil were 'Nocellara de Belice', 'Drobnica', 'Souri', and 'Oblica'. An interaction between cultivar and aspects such as irrigation practices or agricultural season is frequently observed. Likewise, the production of high SQ content needs precise control of fruit maturation. Leaves represent an interesting source, if its extraction and yield compensate for the expenses of their disposal. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction from olive oil deodorizer distillates offers an opportunity to obtain high-purity SQ from this derivative. Exploiting SQ obtained from olive groves for the pharmaceutical or cosmetic industries poses new challenges and opportunities to add value and recycle by-products. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Asunto(s)
Olea/química , Escualeno/economía , Residuos/economía , Frutas/química , Frutas/economía , Frutas/crecimiento & desarrollo , Frutas/metabolismo , Olea/crecimiento & desarrollo , Olea/metabolismo , Aceite de Oliva/química , Aceite de Oliva/economía , Aceite de Oliva/metabolismo , Fitosteroles/análisis , Fitosteroles/economía , Fitosteroles/metabolismo , Suelo/química , Escualeno/análisis , Escualeno/metabolismo , Residuos/análisis
14.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(3): 1230-1237, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31696522

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Ensuring the yield, quality, and profitability of okra by preventing and controlling pests with the application of insecticides has increased in the last decade. Some insecticide residues might remain in edible parts of okra (fruits) and lead to several potential human health problems. Therefore, research on the residue behaviour, risk assessment and removal approach of insecticides on okra fruits is important for food safety, together with the proper application and residual elimination of insecticides in okra. RESULTS: A simple liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was established and validated for determining the tebufenozide residues in okra fruits. The recoveries of tebufenozide in okra fruits were >72% with relative standard deviations of 0.6 to 6.1%. The dissipation rates of tebufenozide were different in okra fruits cultivated under open land and glasshouse field conditions because of the discriminating humidity and temperature conditions. The dietary intake of the tebufenozide residues from okra fruit consumption for Chinese consumers was fairly low, with approximately no potential health risk. The processing factor values of washing, blanching, washing + blanching and soaking were all less than one, which indicated that these processes could effectively reduce the residual hydrazide in the okra fruit. CONCLUSION: The developed method for analysing tebufenozide in okra fruits was applicable for field studies on this insecticide. The potential health risk of tebufenozide in okra fruits could be negligible to the health of different age groups of Chinese consumers. The soaking process effectively removed tebufenozide residues from okra fruits. The obtained data will help Chinese governments establish a maximum residue limit of tebufenozide in okra and provide data for the risk assessment and removal of tebufenozide in other crops. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Asunto(s)
Abelmoschus/química , Hidrazinas/análisis , Insecticidas/análisis , Residuos de Plaguicidas/análisis , Inocuidad de los Alimentos , Frutas/química , Humanos , Medición de Riesgo
15.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(3): 1301-1310, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31743440

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Grape berries exhibit various beneficial health effects due to the potent antioxidant roles of their phenolic compounds. A new Vitis vinifera grape cultivar (Karaerik) grown in Turkey has attracted growing interest due to its antioxidant phenolic compounds, which have still not been investigated. The phenolic/anthocyanin profile needs to be investigated to ascertain its potential health benefits and market value in the region. The present study therefore involves a detailed characterization of the anthocyanin composition of 'Karaerik' grape berries in conjunction with a determination of the antioxidant capacity value of the phenolics present in the skin and the whole berry. RESULTS: Total phenolic compounds (average 8.56 and 2.88 g gallic acid equivalent kg-1 fresh weight) and anthocyanin (7.48 and 1.66 g mv-3-glc equivalent kg-1 fresh weight) contents varied significantly in the skin and whole berry. Malvidin-based anthocyanins made the highest contribution to the pigment content of the berry. Accordingly, the major anthocyanin in the skin (average 42.08 mol%) and whole berry (39.98 mol%) was malvidin-3-glucoside (mv-3-glc). In addition, we found strong evidence of the occurrence of sometimes reported malvidin-3-pentoside and particularly of the not previously reported feruloyl derivative of malvidin-3-(6″-feruloyl)-glucoside (mv-3-ferglc) for V. vinifera grapes. CONCLUSION: The current study is the first report to profile the anthocyanins of the grape with a detailed description of the rare and novel anthocyanin in V. vinifera grapes. The berry is also a potential source of phenolics/anthocyanins with a high antioxidant capacity value and is worthy of comparison with other V. vinifera grapes. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Asunto(s)
Antocianinas/química , Extractos Vegetales/química , Vitis/química , Antioxidantes/química , Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión , Frutas/química , Fenoles/química , Espectrometría de Masa por Ionización de Electrospray , Turquia
16.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(3): 1328-1335, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31743449

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In recent years, mini-watermelons have increased in popularity. To maintain production and quality standards, various agronomic techniques have been applied. For the Cucurbitaceae family, grafting technique has been used to improve resistance to abiotic stresses, crop productivity and fruit qualitative characteristics. There is some previous literature on this matter, but no information on the influence of grafting on the aroma compounds of mini-watermelons is available. Hence, our research aimed to evaluate the effect of some rootstocks, which were selected on the basis of their tolerance to pathogens, on the quality of mini-watermelons, with particular attention to the volatile aroma compounds. RESULTS: Volatile aroma compounds were analysed using solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The most represented compounds were C6 and C9 aldehydes and alcohols, which characterize the fruit aroma of the Cucurbitaceae family: (Z)-2-nonenal, (E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal, (Z)-3-nonen-1-ol and (Z,Z)-3,6-nonadien-1-ol were prevalent. Quantitative differences resulted in relation to the various selected rootstocks. Among these, the RS841 rootstock was found to be the most suitable for maintaining yield, quality parameters, sensory characteristics and volatile aroma compounds of mini-watermelon fruits. CONCLUSIONS: The results highlighted that the rootstock, as for other Cucurbitaceae varieties, influences fruit quality and plant yield also for the mini-water melon; the results show the importance of screening for rootstock/scion combinations in order to select a graft able to provide resistance to abiotic stresses, and at the same time improve yield and fruit quality. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Asunto(s)
Citrullus/química , Producción de Cultivos/métodos , Odorantes/análisis , Compuestos Orgánicos Volátiles/química , Alcoholes/análisis , Aldehídos/análisis , Citrullus/crecimiento & desarrollo , Frutas/química , Frutas/crecimiento & desarrollo , Cromatografía de Gases y Espectrometría de Masas
17.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(3): 961-968, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31591725

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Among the challenges for postharvest researchers is that of understanding the physiological and biochemical pathways associated with postharvest fruit decay. Fruit senescence directly affects sensorial and nutritional quality during postharvest life. It has been clarified that reactive oxygen species and oxidative damage are responsible for fruit senescence. Some cultivars of yellow-fleshed kiwifruit can be stored for a short period compared with green-fleshed kiwifruit. Postharvest performance is affected by the physiological state of the fruit at harvest, associated with its postharvest management. Among several postharvest applications, ozone treatment is considered as a cost-effective and eco-friendly food-processing technology to preserve the fruits' quality during cold storage. In this study, we investigated the influence of ozone, after gradual cooling treatment, on the antioxidant defense system in Actinidia chinensis, 'Soreli'. RESULTS: Bioactive compound content decreased during cold storage, and ozone treatment enhanced the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase during cold storage. This treatment preserved membrane integrity by inhibiting lipoxygenase activity and malondialdehyde accumulation. A multivariate statistical approach, using principal component analysis, provided the global response to the effect of ozone postharvest treatment during cold storage in kiwifruit 'Soreli'. CONCLUSION: Ozone treatment improves the efficiency of antioxidative system and storability of 'Soreli' kiwifruits. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Asunto(s)
Actinidia/química , Antioxidantes/análisis , Conservación de Alimentos/métodos , Frutas/efectos de los fármacos , Ozono/farmacología , Actinidia/efectos de los fármacos , Actinidia/crecimiento & desarrollo , Actinidia/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Color , Conservación de Alimentos/instrumentación , Frutas/química , Frutas/crecimiento & desarrollo , Frutas/metabolismo , Malondialdehído/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutasa/metabolismo
18.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(3): 953-960, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31512245

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: 'Arauco' is the only autochthonous olive cultivar from Argentina. Little has been reported so far regarding the management of this crop. In this work, variations in fruit and chemical characteristics of olives harvested over a wide range of dates and seasons are reported for this cultivar at two sites in Mendoza province in central west Argentina. RESULTS: During the harvest periods studied, fruit oil content on a dry basis remained at its maximum and was stable, but fruit oil content on fresh basis increased as water content decreased with delay in harvest date. Harvest date affected the maturity index of fruits as well as the oxidative stability and phenolic content of oil. In contrast, the fatty acid profile was not consistently affected by harvest date. Environmental conditions, mainly the occurrence and intensity of frosts, strongly influenced oil quality as well as maturity with delay in harvest date. CONCLUSION: The most appropriate harvest time to obtain Arauco oil with a high oil yield and good chemical quality was before mid-May and with maturity index lower than 2. Fruits harvested after mid-May were exposed to minimum temperatures between -1.2 °C and - 4.0 °C, producing oil with low phenolic compounds and oxidative stability. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Asunto(s)
Frutas/química , Olea/crecimiento & desarrollo , Aceite de Oliva/química , Argentina , Producción de Cultivos , Ácidos Grasos/química , Frutas/crecimiento & desarrollo , Olea/química , Oxidación-Reducción , Fenoles/química , Estaciones del Año , Temperatura Ambiental , Factores de Tiempo
19.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(3): 926-935, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31523827

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The effects were studied of different inoculation strategies for selected starters -yeasts and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) - used for the fermentation process of two Greek olive cultivars, Conservolea and Kalamàta. The LAB strains applied were Leuconostoc mesenteroides K T5-1 and L. plantarum A 135-5; the selected yeast strains were S. cerevisiae KI 30-16 and Debaryomyces hansenii A 15-44 for Kalamàta and Conservolea olives, respectively. RESULTS: Table olive fermentation processes were monitored by performing microbiological analyses, and by monitoring changes in pH, titratable acidity and salinity, sugar consumption, and the evolution of volatile compounds. Structural modifications occurring in phenolic compounds of brine were investigated during the fermentation using liquid chromatography / diode array detection / electrospray ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (LC/DAD/ESI-MSn ) and quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using a diode array detector. Phenolic compounds in processed Kalamàta olive brines consisted of phenolic acids, verbascoside, caffeoyl-6-secologanoside, comselogoside, and the dialdehydic form of decarboxymethylelenolic acid linked to hydroxytyrosol, whereas oleoside and oleoside 11-methyl ester were identified only in Conservolea olive brines. CONCLUSION: Volatile profile and sensory evaluation revealed that the 'MIX' (co-inoculum of yeast and LAB strain) inoculation strategy led to the most aromatic and acceptable Kalamàta olives. For the Conservolea table olives, the 'YL' treatment gave the most aromatic and the overall most acceptable product. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Asunto(s)
Debaromyces/metabolismo , Microbiología de Alimentos/métodos , Lactobacillales/metabolismo , Olea/química , Olea/microbiología , Fenol/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Fermentación , Frutas/química , Frutas/microbiología , Humanos , Fenol/análisis , Sales (Química)/análisis , Sales (Química)/metabolismo , Gusto
20.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 202: 111682, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31731077

RESUMEN

Development of highly robust and solar-light-responsive photocatalysts for the disposal of organic dyes from wastewater is a matter of great significance in order to solve the problems of water pollution. Solar-driven photocatalytic degradation of dyes is considered as a quite efficient, sustainable and cost-effective approach as it involved the inexhaustible and renewable source of energy. In photocatalytic processes, the generation of electron-hole pairs at the surface of the photocatalyst is accomplished by harvesting solar energy. The electron-hole pairs are converted into •OH radicals that are responsible for the degradation of dyes. Herein, we reported the synthesis of nanosized iron (FeNPs) using the aqueous fruit extract of Actinidia chinensis as a reducing as well as the stabilizing agent. The structure and morphology of synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using various advanced techniques. The TEM micrographs showed that the synthesized FeNPs was predominantly cubic and rod-shaped having the size in the range of 91.78-107 nm. The as-prepared FeNPs were acted as effective photocatalysts and their photocatalytic activity evaluated against alizarin yellow R (AYR) dye. The effect of different reaction conditions such as temperature, pH, time and catalyst loading on photocatalytic degradation of AYR dye was investigated under sunlight irradiation. The FeNPs showed promising photocatalytic activity and up to 93.7% of the dye was degraded in 42 h. The kinetics parameter of the reaction was also evaluated which showed that the photocatalytic degradation of AYR dye followed the pseudo-first-order reaction. In terms of better degradation, the role of FeNPs might be extended for the treatment of different organic dyes from wastewater.


Asunto(s)
Compuestos Azo/química , Hierro/química , Nanopartículas del Metal/química , Aguas Residuales/química , Actinidia/química , Actinidia/metabolismo , Catálisis , Colorantes/química , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Tecnología Química Verde , Concentración de Iones de Hidrógeno , Fotólisis/efectos de la radiación , Extractos Vegetales/química , Luz Solar , Temperatura Ambiental , Factores de Tiempo , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/química
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA