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3.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0296598, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38713675

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Human resources for health (HRH) play a pivotal role in effective health system operation, yet various impediments challenge sustainable development. This scoping review aimed to explore these challenges and potential solutions in aligning the health workforce to meet the evolving healthcare needs of the Moroccan population. METHODS: We conducted a scoping review searching PubMed, Science Direct, Cairn and Google Scholar for relevant articles published between 2014 and 2023. Additionally, non-peer-reviewed literature sourced from Ministry of Health consultations and allied websites was included. RESULTS: Among the nineteen studies meeting our inclusion criteria, the majority were cross-sectional and predominantly focused on challenges faced by nurses. While some papers delineated multiple HRH challenges (5/19), the rest addressed specific challenges. The identified challenges span organizational and personal levels. Organizationally, the focus was on training, lifelong learning, continuing education, health coverage and shortages, and job satisfaction. At a personal level, HRH in the public health sector encountered challenges such as burnout, stress, and broader occupational health concerns. CONCLUSIONS: The reviewed publications underscored a spectrum of challenges necessitating robust policy interventions. Despite promising developments in the Moroccan healthcare system, addressing the unequal urban-rural HRH distribution, augmenting funding, and enhancing HRH quality of life stand as pivotal imperatives.


Asunto(s)
Atención a la Salud , Marruecos , Humanos , Fuerza Laboral en Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Personal de Salud/psicología
5.
6.
BMC Prim Care ; 25(1): 154, 2024 May 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38711072

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: This research aimed to identify the fundamental and geographic characteristics of the primary healthcare personnel mobility in Nanning from 2000 to 2021 and clarify the determinants that affect their transition to non-primary healthcare institutions. METHODS: Through utilizing the Primary Healthcare Personnel Database (PHPD) for 2000-2021, the study conducts descriptive statistical analysis on demographic, economic, and professional aspects of healthcare personnel mobility across healthcare reform phases. Geographic Information Systems (QGIS) were used to map mobility patterns, and R software was employed to calculate spatial autocorrelation (Moran's I). Logistic regression identified factors that influenced the transition to non-primary institutions. RESULTS: Primary healthcare personnel mobility is divided into four phases: initial (2000-2008), turning point (2009-2011), rapid development (2012-2020), and decline (2021). The rapid development stage saw increased mobility with no spatial clustering in inflow and outflow. From 2016 to 2020, primary healthcare worker mobility reached its peak, in which the most significant movement occurred between township health centers and other institutions. Aside from their transition to primary medical institutions, the primary movement of grassroots health personnel predominantly directs towards secondary general hospitals, tertiary general hospitals, and secondary specialized hospitals. Since 2012, the number and mobility distance of primary healthcare workers have become noticeably larger and remained at a higher level from 2016 to 2020. The main migration of primary healthcare personnel occurred in their districts (counties). Key transition factors include gender, education, ethnicity, professional category, general practice registration, and administrative division. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence of the features of primary healthcare personnel mobility in the less developed western regions of China, in which Nanning was taken as a case study. It uncovers the factors that impact the flow of primary healthcare personnel to non-primary healthcare institutions. These findings are helpful to policy refinement and support the retention of primary healthcare workers.


Asunto(s)
Atención Primaria de Salud , Humanos , China , Atención Primaria de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Masculino , Femenino , Personal de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Sistemas de Información Geográfica , Movilidad Laboral , Fuerza Laboral en Salud/tendencias , Fuerza Laboral en Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Reforma de la Atención de Salud
8.
World Neurosurg ; 185: e16-e29, 2024 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38741324

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: There has been a modest but progressive increase in the neurosurgical workforce, training, and service delivery in Nigeria in the last 2 decades. However, these resources are unevenly distributed. This study aimed to quantitatively assess the availability and distribution of neurosurgical resources in Nigeria while projecting the needed workforce capacity up to 2050. METHODS: An online survey of Nigerian neurosurgeons and residents assessed the country's neurosurgical infrastructure, workforce, and resources. The results were analyzed descriptively, and geospatial analysis was used to map their distribution. A projection model was fitted to predict workforce targets for 2022-2050. RESULTS: Out of 86 neurosurgery-capable health facilities, 65.1% were public hospitals, with only 17.4% accredited for residency training. Dedicated hospital beds and operating rooms for neurosurgery make up only 4.0% and 15.4% of the total, respectively. The population disease burden is estimated at 50.2 per 100,000, while the operative coverage was 153.2 cases per neurosurgeon. There are currently 132 neurosurgeons and 114 neurosurgery residents for a population of 218 million (ratio 1:1.65 million). There is an annual growth rate of 8.3%, resulting in a projected deficit of 1113 neurosurgeons by 2030 and 1104 by 2050. Timely access to neurosurgical care ranges from 21.6% to 86.7% of the population within different timeframes. CONCLUSIONS: Collaborative interventions are needed to address gaps in Nigeria's neurosurgical capacity. Investments in training, infrastructure, and funding are necessary for sustainable development and optimized outcomes.


Asunto(s)
Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Neurocirujanos , Neurocirugia , Nigeria , Humanos , Neurocirugia/tendencias , Neurocirugia/educación , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud/tendencias , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Neurocirujanos/provisión & distribución , Neurocirujanos/tendencias , Fuerza Laboral en Salud/tendencias , Fuerza Laboral en Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Procedimientos Neuroquirúrgicos/tendencias , Procedimientos Neuroquirúrgicos/estadística & datos numéricos , Recursos Humanos/estadística & datos numéricos , Recursos Humanos/tendencias , Internado y Residencia/tendencias , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Predicción
10.
Glob Public Health ; 19(1): 2345370, 2024 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38686925

RESUMEN

Delivering specialised care for major burns requires a multidisciplinary health workforce. While health systems 'hardware' issues, such as shortages of the healthcare workforce and training gaps in burn care are widely acknowledged, there is limited evidence around the systems 'software' aspects, such as interest, power dynamics, and relationships that impact the healthcare workforce performance. This study explored challenges faced by the health workforce in burn care to identify issues affecting their performance. Qualitative in-depth interviews were conducted with a purposively selected sample (n = 31, 18 women and 13 men) of various cadres of the burn care health workforce in Uttar Pradesh, India. Inductive coding and thematic analysis identified three major themes. First, the dynamics within the multidisciplinary team where complex relations, power and normative hierarchy hampered performance. Second, the dynamics between health workers and patients due to the clinical and emotional challenges of dealing with burn injuries and multitasking. Third, dynamics between specialised burn units and broader health systems are narrated in challenges due to inadequate first response and delayed referral from primary care facilities. These findings indicate that burn care health workers in India face multiple challenges that need systemic intervention with a multipronged human resource for health framework.


Asunto(s)
Quemaduras , Entrevistas como Asunto , Investigación Cualitativa , Humanos , India , Femenino , Masculino , Adulto , Fuerza Laboral en Salud , Persona de Mediana Edad , Personal de Salud , Grupo de Atención al Paciente
11.
Hum Resour Health ; 22(1): 25, 2024 Apr 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38632567

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Health workforce projection models are integral components of a robust healthcare system. This research aims to review recent advancements in methodology and approaches for health workforce projection models and proposes a set of good practice reporting guidelines. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review by searching medical and social science databases, including PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, and EconLit, covering the period from 2010 to 2023. The inclusion criteria encompassed studies projecting the demand for and supply of the health workforce. PROSPERO registration: CRD 42023407858. RESULTS: Our review identified 40 relevant studies, including 39 single countries analysis (in Australia, Canada, Germany, Ghana, Guinea, Ireland, Jamaica, Japan, Kazakhstan, Korea, Lesotho, Malawi, New Zealand, Portugal, Saudi Arabia, Serbia, Singapore, Spain, Thailand, UK, United States), and one multiple country analysis (in 32 OECD countries). Recent studies have increasingly embraced a complex systems approach in health workforce modelling, incorporating demand, supply, and demand-supply gap analyses. The review identified at least eight distinct types of health workforce projection models commonly used in recent literature: population-to-provider ratio models (n = 7), utilization models (n = 10), needs-based models (n = 25), skill-mixed models (n = 5), stock-and-flow models (n = 40), agent-based simulation models (n = 3), system dynamic models (n = 7), and budgetary models (n = 5). Each model has unique assumptions, strengths, and limitations, with practitioners often combining these models. Furthermore, we found seven statistical approaches used in health workforce projection models: arithmetic calculation, optimization, time-series analysis, econometrics regression modelling, microsimulation, cohort-based simulation, and feedback causal loop analysis. Workforce projection often relies on imperfect data with limited granularity at the local level. Existing studies lack standardization in reporting their methods. In response, we propose a good practice reporting guideline for health workforce projection models designed to accommodate various model types, emerging methodologies, and increased utilization of advanced statistical techniques to address uncertainties and data requirements. CONCLUSIONS: This study underscores the significance of dynamic, multi-professional, team-based, refined demand, supply, and budget impact analyses supported by robust health workforce data intelligence. The suggested best-practice reporting guidelines aim to assist researchers who publish health workforce studies in peer-reviewed journals. Nevertheless, it is expected that these reporting standards will prove valuable for analysts when designing their own analysis, encouraging a more comprehensive and transparent approach to health workforce projection modelling.


Asunto(s)
Atención a la Salud , Fuerza Laboral en Salud , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Recursos Humanos , Predicción , Canadá
12.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0302122, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38635735

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Professional licensing bodies are valuable sources for tracking the health workforce, as many skilled health-care providers require formal training, registration, and licensure. Regulatory activities in Ethiopia were not effectively implemented due to poor follow-up and gaps in skilled human resources, budget, and information technology infrastructure. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore and describe the lived experiences and challenges faced by health care managers in health professionals' licensure practices in Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study design with a phenomenological approach was employed between March 26 and April 30, 2021, to collect qualitative data. We conducted in-depth interviews with a total of 32 purposively selected health system managers. An interview guide was prepared in English, translated into Amharic, and then pretested. Audio recorded data was transcribed verbatim, translated, and analysed manually by themes and sub-themes. A member check was done to check the credibility of the result. RESULTS: The data revealed four major themes: awareness of licensing practices, enforcement of licensing practices, systems for assuring the quality of licensing practices, and challenges to licensing practices. Lack of awareness among managers about health workforce licensing was reported, especially at lower-level employers. Regulators were clear on the requirements to issue a licence to the health workforce if they are competent in the licensing exam, while human resource managers do not emphasise whether the employees have a licence or not during employment. As a result of this, non-licenced health workers were employed. Health care managers mentioned that they did not know any monitoring tools to solve the issue of working without a licence. Fraudulent academic credentials, shortage of resources (human resources, finance, equipment, and supplies), and weak follow-up and coordination systems were identified as main practice challenges. CONCLUSIONS: This study reported a suboptimal health professionals' licensing practice in Ethiopia, which is against the laws and proclamations of the country that state to employ all health workers only with professional licenses. Challenges for health professionals' licensing practice were identified as fraudulent academic credentials, a shortage of resources (HR, finance, equipment, and supplies), and a weak follow-up and coordination system. Further awareness of licensing practices should be created, especially for lower-level employers. Regulators shall establish a reliable digital system to consistently assure the quality of licensing practices. Health care managers must implement mechanisms to regularly monitor the licensing status of their employees and ensure that government requirements are met. Collaboration and regular communication between regulators and employers can improve quality practices.


Asunto(s)
Personal de Salud , Fuerza Laboral en Salud , Humanos , Etiopía , Estudios Transversales , Recursos Humanos
13.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 24(1): 470, 2024 Apr 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38622621

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic unveiled huge challenges in health workforce governance in the context of public health emergencies in Africa. Several countries applied several measures to ensure access to qualified and skilled health workers to respond to the pandemic and provide essential health services. However, there has been limited documentation of these measures. This study was undertaken to examine the health workforce governance strategies applied by 15 countries in the World Health Organization (WHO) Africa Region in responding to the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We extracted data from country case studies developed from national policy documents, reports and grey literature obtained from the Ministries of Health and other service delivery agencies. This study was conducted from October 2020 to January 2021 in 15 countries - Angola, Burkina Faso, Chad, Eswatini, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal and Togo. RESULTS: All 15 countries had national multi-sectoral bodies to manage the COVID-19 response and a costed national COVID-19 response plan. All the countries also reflected human resources for health (HRH) activities along the different response pillars. These activities included training for health workers, and budget for the recruitment or mobilization of additional health workers to support the response, and for provision of financial and non-financial incentives for health workers. Nine countries recruited additional 35,812 health workers either on a permanent or temporary basis to respond to the COVID-19 with an abridged process of recruitment implemented to ensure needed health workers are in place on time. Six countries redeployed 3671 health workers to respond to the COVID-19. The redeployment of existing health workers was reported to have impacted negatively on essential health service provision. CONCLUSION: Strengthening multi-sector engagement in the development of public health emergency plans is critical as this promotes the development of holistic interventions needed to improve health workforce availability, retention, incentivization, and coordination. It also ensures optimized utilization based on competencies, especially for the existing health workers.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Fuerza Laboral en Salud , Humanos , Pandemias , COVID-19/epidemiología , Senegal , Organización Mundial de la Salud
14.
J Health Care Poor Underserved ; 35(1): 375-384, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38661876

RESUMEN

The Indian Health Service (IHS) faces severe workforce shortages due to underfunding and underdevelopment of clinical training programs. Unlike other direct federal health care systems that have implemented clinical training paradigms as central parts of their success, the IHS has no formalized process for developing such programs internally or in partnership with academic institutions. While the Indian Health Care Improvement Act (IHCIA) authorizes mechanisms by which the IHS can support overall workforce development, a critical portion of the act (U.S. Code 1616p) intended for developing clinical training programs within the agency remains unfunded. Here, we review the funding challenges of the IHCIA, as well as its authorized and funded workforce development programs that have only partially addressed workforce shortages. We propose that through additional funding to 1616p, the IHS could implement clinical training programs needed to prepare a larger workforce more capable of meeting the needs of American Indian/Alaska Native communities.


Asunto(s)
United States Indian Health Service , Humanos , Estados Unidos , United States Indian Health Service/organización & administración , Fuerza Laboral en Salud , Indígenas Norteamericanos , Desarrollo de Personal/organización & administración , Financiación Gubernamental , Mejoramiento de la Calidad/organización & administración , Personal de Salud/educación
16.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 24(1): 422, 2024 Apr 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38570839

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic presented a myriad of challenges for the health workforce around the world due to its escalating demand on service delivery. A motivated health workforce is critical to effectual emergency response and in some settings, incentivizing health workers motivates them and ensures continuity in the provision of health services. We describe health workforce experiences with incentives and dis-incentives during the COVID-19 response in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Senegal, Nigeria, and Uganda. METHODS: This is a multi-country qualitative research study involving four African countries namely: DRC, Nigeria, Senegal, and Uganda which assessed the workplace incentives instituted in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Key informant interviews (n = 60) were conducted with staff at ministries of health, policy makers and health workers. Interviews were virtual using the telephone or Zoom. They were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed thematically. Themes were identified and quotes were used to support findings. RESULTS: Health worker incentives included (i) financial rewards in the form of allowances and salary increments. These motivated health workers, sustaining the health system and the health workers' efforts during the COVID-19 response across the four countries. (ii) Non-financial incentives related to COVID-19 management such as provision of medicines/supplies, on the job trainings, medical care for health workers, social welfare including meals, transportation and housing, recognition, health insurance, psychosocial support, and supervision. Improvised determination and distribution of both financial and non-financial incentives were common across the countries. Dis-incentives included the lack of personal protective equipment, lack of transportation to health facilities during lockdown, long working hours, harassment by security forces and perceived unfairness in access to and inadequacy of financial incentives. CONCLUSION: Although important for worker motivation, financial and non-financial incentives generated some dis-incentives because of the perceived unfairness in their provision. Financial and non-financial incentives deployed during health emergencies should preferably be pre-determined, equitably and transparently provided because when arbitrarily applied, these same financial and non-financial incentives can potentially become dis-incentives. Moreover, financial incentives are useful only as far as they are administered together with non-financial incentives such as supportive and well-resourced work environments. The potential negative impacts of interventions such as service delivery re-organization and lockdown within already weakened systems need to be anticipated and due precautions exercised to reduce dis-incentives during emergencies.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Motivación , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiología , Fuerza Laboral en Salud , Nigeria/epidemiología , República Democrática del Congo/epidemiología , Senegal , Uganda/epidemiología , Pandemias , Urgencias Médicas , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles
17.
Nurse Pract ; 49(5): 6, 2024 May 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38662487
18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38648423

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: There are many reasons why orthopaedic surgeons move or change careers. We asked the questions: (1) What is the geographic distribution of orthopaedic surgeons with respect to age, sex, and race and ethnicity? (2) How has our workforce changed over time with regard to these factors? (3) Are there any patterns or trends detected regarding policy or regulatory events that coincide with these differences? METHODS: The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons surveys over 30,000 members, collecting data on demographics, age, race sex, and practice statistics. We calculated geographic distributions and evaluated these differences over time-potential influences from malpractice suits or tort reform were investigated. RESULTS: Overall surgeon density increased over time. The largest negative changes were noted in District of Columbia, Wyoming, and North Dakota and positive changes in Colorado, South Dakota, and West Virginia. Age across all states increased (mean 1.7 years). Number of female surgeons increased in most states (4.6% to 5.7%). Number of African Americans increased from 1.6% to 1.8%, Hispanic/LatinX from 1.8% to 2.2%, Asian from 5.5% to 6.7%, and multiracial from 0.8% to 1.2%. No change was noted in the percentage of Native American surgeons. DISCUSSION: Surgeon density increased from 2012 to 2018; the cause for this change was not evident. Small increases in surgeon population, female surgeons, and in some underrepresented minorities were seen.


Asunto(s)
Cirujanos Ortopédicos , Humanos , Femenino , Masculino , Estados Unidos , Cirujanos Ortopédicos/estadística & datos numéricos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto , Ortopedia , Etnicidad/estadística & datos numéricos , Fuerza Laboral en Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Fuerza Laboral en Salud/tendencias , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Recursos Humanos , Diversidad de la Fuerza Laboral
19.
Br J Nurs ; 33(7): 323, 2024 Apr 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38578939
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