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1.
Recurso de Internet en Portugués | LIS - Localizador de Información en Salud | ID: lis-47863

RESUMEN

Organização lançou programa para ajudar fumantes a largarem o tabaco durante a pandemia


Asunto(s)
Fumadores , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Organización Mundial de la Salud
2.
Recurso de Internet en Portugués | LIS - Localizador de Información en Salud | ID: lis-47867

RESUMEN

Segundo a coordenadora do programa, os fumantes são 14 vezes mais vulneráveis a contrair uma forma mais grave de coronavírus, além de 50 tipos de outras doenças crônicas


Asunto(s)
Tabaquismo/prevención & control , Fumadores , Portales del Paciente
3.
J UOEH ; 42(3): 251-259, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32879189

RESUMEN

Preventing cardiovascular disease (CVD) is an urgent public health challenge. Although brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) can indicate the risk of arterial stiffness and CVD, findings regarding whether baPWV is associated with smoking are inconsistent. This study considered the influence of smoking on arteriosclerosis, specifically focusing on secondhand smoke (SHS), and aimed to construct a strategy for preventing the worsening of arteriosclerosis. We recruited 295 male employees from five companies who had smoking habits such as being smokers, living with smokers, and exposure to SHS outside the home. We measured body composition and hemodynamics, including blood pressure and baPWV, and found that baPWV had significant positive correlations with age, smoking index, alcohol consumption, body-fat percentage, blood pressure, and heart rate, and significant negative correlations with height, fat-free mass, and lower-limb muscle mass. Moreover, baPWV showed a significant adverse effect on participants who had metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk factors such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes. Multiple regression analysis showed that baPWV had significant positive relationships with age, height, MetS risk factors, cohabitation with smokers, blood pressure, and heart rate, and a significant negative relationship with lower-limb muscle mass. The same results were obtained when adjusting for current smoking status, smoking index, cohabitation with smokers at birth, and frequency of exposure to SHS outside the home. Exposure to tobacco smoke due to cohabitation with smokers increased baPWV regardless of the person's smoking habits. Thus, to prevent an increase in baPWV in housemates and smokers, it is necessary for smokers to quit smoking.


Asunto(s)
Arteriosclerosis/etiología , Arteriosclerosis/prevención & control , Salud Laboral , Características de la Residencia , Fumadores , Contaminación por Humo de Tabaco/efectos adversos , Rigidez Vascular , Lugar de Trabajo , Arteriosclerosis/fisiopatología , Progresión de la Enfermedad , Humanos , Masculino , Análisis de la Onda del Pulso , Factores de Riesgo , Cese del Hábito de Fumar
5.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 41(7): 1058-1062, 2020 Jul 10.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32741170

RESUMEN

Objective: To understand the awareness of smoking hazards and intention of smoking concession in residents aged 18-65 years in Beijing, and provide scientific evidence for the development and improvement of tobacco control policies and measures. Methods: Data were collected from the 2017 Beijing Non-communicable and Chronic Disease surveillance. A multi-stage stratified cluster sampling method was used to take samples from 165 communities in 16 districts of Beijing. Logistic regression was used to analyze the influencing factors. Results: Among 11 594 participants, 49.93% had no intention of smoking concession. The percentage of refusing smoking concession was higher in men (50.39%) than in women (43.01%), the difference was significant ( χ(2)=14.211, P=0.002), and higher in suburban residents (56.78%) than in urban residents (45.30%), the difference was significant ( χ(2)=51.977, P<0.001). For the smoking cessation motivation, "illness" was the reason for more former smokers (29.88%) compared with current smokers (11.50%), the difference was significant ( χ(2)=85.865, P<0.001). The awareness rates of smoking hazards was higher in women (34.97%) than in men (32.63%), the difference was significant (Z=5.612, P<0.001), higher in suburban residents (35.44%) than in urban residents (33.03%), the difference was significant (Z=-3.734, P<0.001), and higher in never smokers (35.15%) than in smokers (30.06%), the difference was significant ( χ(2)=62.277, P=0.005). Multiple logistic regression analysis results showed people with general awareness (OR=0.61, 95%CI: 0.39-0.94) and poor awareness (OR=0.67, 95%CI: 0.50-0.90) of smoking hazards were less likely to quit smoking and people with general awareness (OR=0.64, 95%CI: 0.53-0.76) and poor awareness (OR=0.87, 95%CI: 0.78-0.98) of smoking hazards were more likely to smoke. Conclusions: Smokers aged 18-65 in Beijing had low willingness for smoking cessation. Health problem was main consideration for smoking cessation. Never-smokers had better awareness of smoking hazards than smokers, and the awareness of smoking hazards was an influencing factor of smoking status.


Asunto(s)
Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Intención , Fumadores/psicología , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/psicología , Fumar/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Beijing/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Medición de Riesgo , Fumadores/estadística & datos numéricos , Fumar/efectos adversos , Fumar/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
6.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1237, 2020 Aug 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32795286

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Tobacco control strategies have engendered overall declines in smoking; however, a large gap remains between people with and without mental health problems, causing substantial health inequalities. Population-level information on barriers and opportunities for improvements is scarce. We aimed to assess mental health status of cigarette smokers and recent ex-smokers ('past-year smokers') in England, and smoking and harm reduction behaviour and quit attempts by mental health status. METHODS: Data were collected from 5637 current and 434 recent ex-smokers in 2016/17 in household surveys of representative samples of adults. We calculated weighted prevalence of different indicators of mental health problem: a) ever diagnosis, b) none, moderate, serious past-month distress, c) past-year treatment. We compared weighted smoking status, cigarette type, dependence, motivation to stop smoking, cutting down, use of nicotine replacement therapy or e-cigarettes, short-term abstinence, and quit attempts according to mental health status. RESULTS: Among past-year smokers: 35.9% ever had a diagnosis; 24.3% had experienced moderate, an additional 9.7% serious, past-month distress; 21.9% had had past-year treatment. Those with an indication of a mental health problem were more highly dependent and more likely to smoke roll-your-own cigarettes but also more likely to be motivated to stop smoking, to cut down, use nicotine replacement therapy or e-cigarettes and to have attempted to quit in the past year. CONCLUSIONS: About a third of cigarette smokers in England have mental health problems. Interventions should address their increased dependence and leverage higher prevalence of harm reduction behaviours, motivation to stop and attempts to stop smoking.


Asunto(s)
Reducción del Daño , Trastornos Mentales/epidemiología , Fumadores/psicología , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/psicología , Fumar/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Inglaterra/epidemiología , Femenino , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Fumadores/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto Joven
7.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235709, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32650339

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Since 2005, the Smoking Treatment for Ontario Patients (STOP) program has provided smoking cessation treatment of varying form and intensity to smokers through 11 distinct treatment models, either in-person at partnering healthcare organizations or remotely via web or telephone. We aimed to characterize the patient populations reached by different treatment models. METHODS: We linked self-report data to health administrative databases to describe sociodemographics, physical and mental health comorbidity, healthcare utilization and costs. Our sample consisted of 107,302 patients who enrolled between 18Oct2005 and 31Mar2016, across 11 models operational during different time periods. RESULTS: Patient populations varied on sociodemographics, comorbidity burden, and healthcare usage. Enrollees in the Web-based model were youngest (median age: 39; IQR: 29-49), and enrollees in primary care-based Family Health Teams were oldest (median: 51; IQR: 40-60). Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and hypertension were the most common physical health comorbidities, twice as prevalent in Family Health Teams (32.3% and 30.8%) than in the direct-to-smoker (Web and Telephone) and Pharmacy models (13.5%-16.7% and 14.7%-17.7%). Depression, the most prevalent mental health diagnosis, was twice as prevalent in the Addiction Agency (52.1%) versus the Telephone model (25.3%). Median healthcare costs in the two years up to enrollment ranged from $1,787 in the Telephone model to $9,393 in the Addiction Agency model. DISCUSSION: While practitioner-mediated models in specialized and primary care settings reached smokers with more complex healthcare needs, alternative settings appear better suited to reach younger smokers before such comorbidities develop. Although Web and Telephone models were expected to have fewer barriers to access, they reached a lower proportion of patients in rural areas and of lower socioeconomic status. Findings suggest that in addition to population-based strategies, embedding smoking cessation treatment into existing healthcare settings that reach patient populations with varying disparities may enhance equitable access to treatment.


Asunto(s)
Aceptación de la Atención de Salud , Fumadores/psicología , Adulto , Comorbilidad , Estudios Transversales , Depresión/epidemiología , Depresión/patología , Femenino , Costos de la Atención en Salud , Humanos , Hipertensión/epidemiología , Hipertensión/patología , Internet , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Ontario/epidemiología , Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica/epidemiología , Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica/patología , Cese del Hábito de Fumar , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Teléfono
8.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235276, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32673331

RESUMEN

Smoking cessation reduces the cardiovascular risk but increases body weight. We investigated the risk of subsequent myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke according to weight gain after smoking cessation, using a nationwide population based cohort. We enrolled 3,797,572 Korean adults aged over 40 years who participated in national health screenings between 2009 and 2010. Subjects who quit smoking were classified into three subgroups according to the weight change between baseline and 4 years prior. Myocardial infarctions and ischemic strokes were followed until the end of 2015. We compared the hazard ratios among smoking cessation subgroups, non-smokers, and current smokers. The mean changes in weight (1.5 ± 3.9 kg) of the smoking cessation group were higher than those of the other groups (p < 0.0001). A total of 31,277 and 46,811 subjects were newly diagnosed with myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke, respectively. Regardless of weight change, all subgroups of smoking cessation had significantly less risk than current smokers. The subgroup of smoking cessation with weight gain over 4kg showed the lowest risk for myocardial infarctions (hazard ratio 0.646, 95% confidence interval 0.583-0.714, p < 0.0001) and ischemic strokes (hazard ratio 0.648, 95% confidence interval 0.591-0.71, p < 0.0001) after multivariable adjustment. In conclusion, weight gain after smoking cessation did not adversely affect the cardiovascular protective effect.


Asunto(s)
Infarto Encefálico/epidemiología , Infarto del Miocardio/epidemiología , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/estadística & datos numéricos , Fumar/efectos adversos , Aumento de Peso , Adulto , Anciano , Infarto Encefálico/etiología , Infarto Encefálico/prevención & control , Ex-Fumadores/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Infarto del Miocardio/etiología , Infarto del Miocardio/prevención & control , No Fumadores/estadística & datos numéricos , Modelos de Riesgos Proporcionales , República de Corea/epidemiología , Factores de Riesgo , Fumadores/estadística & datos numéricos
9.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32722469

RESUMEN

Combustible tobacco users appear to be at greater risk for serious complications from COVID-19. This study examined cigar smokers' perceived risk of COVID-19, quit intentions, and behaviors during the current pandemic. We conducted an online study between 23 April 2020 to 7 May 2020, as part of an ongoing study examining perceptions of different health effects of cigars. All participants used cigars in the past 30 days (n = 777). Three-quarters of the sample (76.0%) perceived they had a higher risk of complications from COVID-19 compared to non-smokers. The majority of participants (70.8%) intended to quit in the next six months due to COVID-19, and almost half of the sample (46.5%) reported making a quit attempt since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic. Far more participants reported increasing their tobacco use since COVID-19 started (40.9%) vs. decreasing their tobacco use (17.8%). Black or African American participants, participants who reported using a quitline, and participants with higher COVID-19 risk perceptions had higher intentions to quit using tobacco due to COVID-19, and higher odds of making a quit attempt since COVID-19 started. More research is needed to understand how tobacco users are perceiving COVID-19 risks and changing their tobacco use behaviors.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Fumadores/psicología , Cese del Uso de Tabaco/psicología , Adulto , Afroamericanos , Betacoronavirus , Fumar Puros , Infecciones por Coronavirus/etnología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Humanos , Intención , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/etnología , Tabaco , Productos de Tabaco , Uso de Tabaco , Cese del Uso de Tabaco/etnología , Estados Unidos
10.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 528(3): 413-419, 2020 07 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-436643

RESUMEN

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a worldwide pandemic. It has a high transmission rate among humans, and is a threat to global public health. However, there are no effective prophylactics or therapeutics available. It is necessary to identify vulnerable and susceptible groups for adequate protection and care against this disease. Recent studies have reported that COVID-19 has angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as a functional receptor, which may lead to the development of severe cerebrovascular diseases (CVD), including strokes, in patients with risk factors for CVD such as diabetes and smoking. Thus, the World Health Organization (WHO) advised caution against COVID-19 for smokers and patients with underlying clinical symptoms, including cardiovascular diseases. Here, we observed ACE2 expression in the brain of rat middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model and evaluated the effects of cigarette smoke extract (CSE) and diabetes on ACE2 expression in vessels. We showed that the levels of ACE2 expression was increased in the cortex penumbra after ischemic injuries. CSE treatment significantly elevated ACE2 expression in human brain vessels. We found that ACE2 expression was upregulated in primary cultured human blood vessels with diabetes compared to healthy controls. This study demonstrates that ACE2 expression is increased in ischemic brains and vessels exposed to diabetes or smoking, makes them vulnerable to COVID-19 infection.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus/metabolismo , Isquemia Encefálica/virología , Encéfalo/irrigación sanguínea , Diabetes Mellitus , Peptidil-Dipeptidasa A/biosíntesis , Receptores Virales/biosíntesis , Fumadores , Accidente Cerebrovascular/virología , Regulación hacia Arriba , Animales , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidad , Encéfalo/efectos de los fármacos , Isquemia Encefálica/genética , Isquemia Encefálica/metabolismo , Infecciones por Coronavirus/genética , Infecciones por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Diabetes Mellitus/genética , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolismo , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Susceptibilidad a Enfermedades , Infarto de la Arteria Cerebral Media/complicaciones , Masculino , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Pandemias , Peptidil-Dipeptidasa A/genética , Neumonía Viral/genética , Neumonía Viral/metabolismo , Neumonía Viral/virología , Ratas , Ratas Sprague-Dawley , Receptores Virales/genética , Humo/efectos adversos , Accidente Cerebrovascular/genética , Accidente Cerebrovascular/metabolismo , Regulación hacia Arriba/efectos de los fármacos
11.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(28): 34978-34986, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32577980

RESUMEN

Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for 1999-2016 were used to investigate variabilities in serum cotinine levels for US adult smokers (N = 8951) and nonsmokers (N = 28,205) aged ≥ 20 years across the stages of glomerular function (GF). Those with serum cotinine levels < 3.3 ng/mL and did not report using any tobacco products during the last 5 days were classified as nonsmokers. Those with serum cotinine levels ≥ 3.3 ng/mL and reported using cigarettes, cigars, pipes, and/or water pipes with or without using e-cigarettes and/or smokeless tobacco products during the last 5 days were classified as nonsmokers. Those who had eGFR > 90 mL/min/1.73 m2 were classified to be in GF stage 1 or GF-1, those with 60 ≤ eGFR ≤ 90 mL/min/1.73 m2 were classified to be in GF-2, those with 45 ≤ eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 were classified to be in GF-3A, and those with 15 ≤ eGFR <45 mL/min/1.73 m2 were classified to be in GF-3B/4. Among nonsmokers, except for females and non-Hispanic blacks, adjusted levels of serum cotinine (AGM) decreased relatively sharply from GF-1 to GF-2, stayed relatively stable at GF-2 and GF-3A, and then rose moderately to GF-3B/4. For example, for non-Hispanic whites, AGMs were 0.042, 0.033, 0.031, and 0.037 ng/mL at GF-1, GF-2, GF-3A, and GF-3B/4 respectively. Among smokers, except for females and non-Hispanic blacks, AGMs increased relatively sharply from GF-1 to GF-2 and then decreased from GF-2 to GF-3/4. For example, for males, AGMs were 151.9, 192.0, and 162.9 ng/mL at GF-1, GF-2, and GF-3/4 respectively. AGMs for male smokers were lower than for female smokers at GF-3/4 (162.9 vs. 197.2 ng/mL, p < 0.01). The order of AGMs by race/ethnicity was non-Hispanic blacks > non-Hispanic whites > Hispanics and others at every GF stage. AGMs at GF-3/4 were higher than AGMs at GF-1 for smokers.


Asunto(s)
Sistemas Electrónicos de Liberación de Nicotina , Contaminación por Humo de Tabaco , Adulto , Cotinina , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , No Fumadores , Encuestas Nutricionales , Fumadores , Fumar
12.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 528(3): 413-419, 2020 07 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32513532

RESUMEN

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a worldwide pandemic. It has a high transmission rate among humans, and is a threat to global public health. However, there are no effective prophylactics or therapeutics available. It is necessary to identify vulnerable and susceptible groups for adequate protection and care against this disease. Recent studies have reported that COVID-19 has angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as a functional receptor, which may lead to the development of severe cerebrovascular diseases (CVD), including strokes, in patients with risk factors for CVD such as diabetes and smoking. Thus, the World Health Organization (WHO) advised caution against COVID-19 for smokers and patients with underlying clinical symptoms, including cardiovascular diseases. Here, we observed ACE2 expression in the brain of rat middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model and evaluated the effects of cigarette smoke extract (CSE) and diabetes on ACE2 expression in vessels. We showed that the levels of ACE2 expression was increased in the cortex penumbra after ischemic injuries. CSE treatment significantly elevated ACE2 expression in human brain vessels. We found that ACE2 expression was upregulated in primary cultured human blood vessels with diabetes compared to healthy controls. This study demonstrates that ACE2 expression is increased in ischemic brains and vessels exposed to diabetes or smoking, makes them vulnerable to COVID-19 infection.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus/metabolismo , Isquemia Encefálica/virología , Encéfalo/irrigación sanguínea , Diabetes Mellitus , Peptidil-Dipeptidasa A/biosíntesis , Receptores Virales/biosíntesis , Fumadores , Accidente Cerebrovascular/virología , Regulación hacia Arriba , Animales , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidad , Encéfalo/efectos de los fármacos , Isquemia Encefálica/genética , Isquemia Encefálica/metabolismo , Infecciones por Coronavirus/genética , Infecciones por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Diabetes Mellitus/genética , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolismo , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Susceptibilidad a Enfermedades , Infarto de la Arteria Cerebral Media/complicaciones , Masculino , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Pandemias , Peptidil-Dipeptidasa A/genética , Neumonía Viral/genética , Neumonía Viral/metabolismo , Neumonía Viral/virología , Ratas , Ratas Sprague-Dawley , Receptores Virales/genética , Humo/efectos adversos , Accidente Cerebrovascular/genética , Accidente Cerebrovascular/metabolismo , Regulación hacia Arriba/efectos de los fármacos
13.
Nitric Oxide ; 103: 1-3, 2020 10 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32590117

RESUMEN

It has long been suggested that NO may inhibit an early stage in viral replication. Furthermore, in vitro tests have shown that NO inhibits the replication cycle of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus. Despite smoking being listed as a risk factor to contract Covid-19, only a low proportion of the smokers suffered from SARS-corona infection in China 2003, and from Covid-19 in China, Europe and the US. We hypothesize, that the intermittent bursts of high NO concentration in cigarette smoke may be a mechanism in protecting against the virus. Mainstream smoke from cigarettes contains NO at peak concentrations of between about 250 ppm and 1350 ppm in each puff as compared to medicinal use of no more than 80 to a maximum of 160 ppm. The diffusion of NO through the cell wall to reach the virus should be significantly more effective at the very high NO concentration in the smoke, according to classic laws of physics. The only oxide of nitrogen in the mainstream smoke is NO, and the NO2 concentration that is inhaled is very low or undetectable, and methemoglobin levels are lower in smokers than non-smokers, reasonably explained by the breaths of air in between the puffs that wash out the NO. Specialized iNO machines can now be developed to provide the drug intermittently in short bursts at high concentration dose, which would then provide both a preventative drug for those at high risk, as well as an effective treatment, without the health hazards associated with smoking.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus/efectos de los fármacos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Óxido Nítrico/farmacología , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Sustancias Protectoras/farmacología , Administración por Inhalación , Infecciones por Coronavirus/tratamiento farmacológico , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Óxido Nítrico/administración & dosificación , Sustancias Protectoras/administración & dosificación , Fumadores , Fumar
14.
Ter Arkh ; 92(3): 25-29, 2020 Apr 27.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32598789

RESUMEN

AIM: To assess the risk of exacerbations of bronchial asthma (BA) in smoking patients with the asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) overlap (ACO) after inpatient treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 36 smokers with ACO (main group) and 36 non-smoking patients (control group) with severe or moderate exacerbation of bronchial asthma were examined. Assessment of the severity of exacerbation of BA before treatment, levels of control and risk of exacerbations of BA after treatment was determined according to the Federal clinical guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of BA (2016). Spirometry, monitoring of blood oxygenation using transcutaneous spectral pulse oximetry and enzyme immunoassay for determination of matrix metalloproteinases 9 were performed. Smoking experience, smoking index and pack/years index were taken into account in patients with ACO. The carboxyhaemoglobin level was analyzed by the carbon monoxide fraction in the exhaled air. RESULTS: For the first time in patients with the ACO, the ability of heavy tobacco smoking and associated decrease in blood oxygenation to potentiate the negative impact of other predictors on the risk of exacerbations of the underlying disease was revealed. In smoking patients with the ACO, for the first time, a direct association of higher levels of matrix metalloproteinases 9 (measured before inpatient treatment) with such a predictor of the risk of further exacerbations of the disease as more frequent detection of symptoms of uncontrolled BA was revealed. In non-smoking patients with BA, a direct relationship between increased sputum secretion and eosinophilia of blood and/or sputum (a predictor of exacerbation of BA) and the relative duration of episodes of decreased blood oxygenation was established. CONCLUSION: It was found that intensive and prolonged smoking increases the duration and reduces the effectiveness of inpatient treatment of patients with ACO, contributing to the preservation of air traps and low (forced expiratory volume in 1 second 60%) ventilation capacity of the lungs with the persistence of moderately reduced blood oxygenation; the risk of further exacerbations of BA in this phenotype of patients is significantly higher than in non-smoking patients with BA without combination with COPD.


Asunto(s)
Asma , Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica , Volumen Espiratorio Forzado , Humanos , Pacientes Internos , Fumadores
17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(23): e20667, 2020 Jun 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32502055

RESUMEN

RATIONALE: Pulmonary sarcomatoid carcinoma (PSC) is an uncommon type of non-small cell lung cancer, exhibiting aggressive behavior and resistance to the conventional chemoradiotherapy. To date, the optimal treatment for PSC has not been elucidated. PATIENT CONCERNS: Three male patients including a 69-year-old smoker (Case 1), a 45-year-old non-smoker (Case 2), and a 69-year-old smoker (Case 3) were admitted because of cough, back pain, and loss of body weight respectively. DIAGNOSES: Radiographical examinations in these patients showed bulky intrathoracic lesions, which were pathologically diagnosed as PSC staging III-IV by computed tomography-guided percutaneous biopsy and endoscopy. INTERVENTIONS: Immunotherapy was not covered by their health insurance and they refused immune checkpoint inhibitors for financial reasons. In addition, a radical resection was not appropriate due to the advanced staging of these lesions. Therefore, first-line albumin-bound paclitaxel (nab-paclitaxel, 260 mg/m of the body surface area) and carboplatin (area under curve 5) combined with oral apatinib (425 mg, daily) were administered empirically. OUTCOMES: Two patients achieved a partial response and the other case showed stable disease lasting for more than 6 months. However, 1 of them indicated progression on the 7-month follow up. LESSONS: Nab-paclitaxel/carboplatin plus apatinib showed limited short-term efficacy in advanced, unresectable PSC. The rapid resistance of PSC to the current therapeutic regimen necessitates further researches, as more effective agents are urgently needed.


Asunto(s)
Albúminas/administración & dosificación , Antineoplásicos/administración & dosificación , Carboplatino/administración & dosificación , Carcinoma de Pulmón de Células no Pequeñas/tratamiento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamiento farmacológico , Paclitaxel/administración & dosificación , Piridinas/administración & dosificación , Anciano , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administración & dosificación , Biopsia , Carcinoma de Pulmón de Células no Pequeñas/diagnóstico por imagen , Carcinoma de Pulmón de Células no Pequeñas/patología , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagen , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , No Fumadores , Fumadores , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X
18.
Immunol Lett ; 224: 28-29, 2020 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32522666

RESUMEN

Statistical surveys of COVID-19 patients indicate, against all common logic, that people who smoke are less prone to the infection and/or exhibit less severe respiratory symptoms than non-smokers. This suggests that nicotine may have some preventive or modulatory effect on the inflammatory response in the lungs. Because it is known that the response to, and resolution of the SARS-CoV-2 infection depends mainly on the lung macrophages, we discuss the recent scientific findings, which may explain why and how nicotine may modulate lung macrophage response during COVID-19 infection.


Asunto(s)
Antiinflamatorios/administración & dosificación , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidad , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Síndrome de Liberación de Citoquinas/prevención & control , Citocinas/inmunología , Pulmón/efectos de los fármacos , Nicotina/administración & dosificación , Agonistas Nicotínicos/administración & dosificación , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Fumadores , Administración por Inhalación , Betacoronavirus/efectos de los fármacos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/inmunología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Síndrome de Liberación de Citoquinas/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Liberación de Citoquinas/inmunología , Síndrome de Liberación de Citoquinas/virología , Interacciones Huésped-Patógeno , Humanos , Pulmón/inmunología , Pulmón/virología , Macrófagos/efectos de los fármacos , Macrófagos/inmunología , Macrófagos/virología , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Neumonía Viral/inmunología , Neumonía Viral/virología , Factores Protectores , Receptores Nicotínicos/efectos de los fármacos , Receptores Nicotínicos/inmunología , Factores de Riesgo , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Receptor Nicotínico de Acetilcolina alfa 7/agonistas , Receptor Nicotínico de Acetilcolina alfa 7/inmunología
19.
Recurso de Internet en Portugués | LIS - Localizador de Información en Salud | ID: lis-47410

RESUMEN

Dados do estudo Vigitel (Vigilância de Fatores de Risco e Proteção para Doenças Crônicas por Inquérito Telefônico) mostram que, em 2019, 9,8% da população entrevistada declarou que ainda é fumante. O índice é 0,5% mais alto que o valor apurado há um ano. Ainda assim, a queda é de 38% em um período de 13 anos. Em 2006, 15,6% dos brasileiros declaravam-se fumantes.


Asunto(s)
Tabaquismo , Enfermedad Crónica , Fumadores
20.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 8(6): e19494, 2020 06 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-605405

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) outbreak may motivate smokers to attempt to stop in greater numbers. However, given the temporary closure of UK stop smoking services and vape shops, smokers attempting to quit may instead seek out mobile health support, such as smartphone apps. OBJECTIVE: We examined, using an interrupted time series approach, whether the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak has been associated with a step change or increasing trend in UK downloads of an otherwise popular smoking cessation app, Smoke Free. METHODS: Data were from daily and nondaily adult smokers in the United Kingdom who had downloaded the Smoke Free app between January 1, 2020, and March 31, 2020 (primary analysis), and January 1, 2019, and March 31, 2020 (secondary analysis). The outcome variable was the number of downloads aggregated at the 12-hourly (primary analysis) or daily level (secondary analysis). The explanatory variable was the start of the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak, operationalized as March 1, 2020 (primary analysis), and January 15, 2020 (secondary analysis). Generalized additive mixed models adjusted for relevant covariates were fitted. RESULTS: Data were collected on 45,105 (primary analysis) and 119,881 (secondary analysis) users. In both analyses, there was no evidence for a step change or increasing trend in downloads attributable to the start of the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak. Calculation of Bayes factors (BFs) indicated that the data for the primary analysis favored the null hypothesis compared with large associations (for level, BF=0.25; for slope, BF=0.26) but were insensitive to the detection of small associations (for level, BF=0.78; for slope, BF=1.35). CONCLUSIONS: In the United Kingdom, between January 1, 2020, and March 31, 2020, and between January 1, 2019, and March 31, 2020, there was no evidence that the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak has been associated with a large step change or increasing trend in downloads of a popular smoking cessation app. Findings on the association of the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak with a small step change or increasing trend were inconclusive.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Brotes de Enfermedades , Aplicaciones Móviles/estadística & datos numéricos , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Fumadores/psicología , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/psicología , Adulto , Humanos , Análisis de Series de Tiempo Interrumpido , Motivación , Pandemias , Fumadores/estadística & datos numéricos , Reino Unido/epidemiología
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