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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 802: 149897, 2022 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34464798

RESUMEN

We conducted 35 experiments for spatial measurement of marijuana aerosols in a current smoker's residential spaces. Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations were measured every second at 1, 2, and 3 m horizontal distances from the smoker who performed prescribed 5-min smoking and vaping activities. In each experiment, five SidePak monitors measured PM2.5 concentrations at five different angles facing the front of the smoker, representing the worst-case exposures. We studied the effect of distance from the smoker for two marijuana sources - smoking a marijuana cigarette, or joint, and vaping a liquid-cartridge vaping pen. Experiments were conducted in the family room indoors and in the backyard outdoors where the smoker normally consumes marijuana. Indoor marijuana vaping had higher average exposures (5-min PM2.5) at 1 m distance than indoor marijuana smoking, but the levels from indoor vaping decreased more rapidly with distance (e.g., 77% reduction for vaping versus 33% for smoking from 1 to 2 m). Smoking and vaping in the outdoor environment reduce the average exposures down to <5% of the indoor levels at each distance. Cumulative frequency distributions of the 1-s PM2.5 concentrations revealed the frequencies of exceeding any selected transient peak exposure limit at a given distance. The frequency of exceedance decreased more quickly with distance for vaping than for smoking. Smoking and vaping outdoors made the transient peak exposures close to the source much less frequent than smoking and vaping indoors (e.g., <1% exceeded 1000 µg/m3 outdoors versus >20% indoors at 1 m). Plotting the frequency of exceedance versus distance could offer additional guidance for a recommended minimum distance from a marijuana source.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire Interior , Fumar Marihuana , Vapeo , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire Interior/análisis , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Tamaño de la Partícula , Material Particulado/análisis
2.
Addict Behav ; 124: 107098, 2022 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34521066

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: This study estimated self-reported perceived negative marijuana use consequences among a national sample of U.S. young adults, examining consequence prevalence differences by use frequency, college attendance, living situation, employment, sex, and race/ethnicity; and use frequency/sociodemographic characteristic interactions. METHODS: A subsample of 1,212 respondents from the 2004-2018 class cohorts of 12th grade students participating in the nationally-representative Monitoring the Future study was surveyed up to two times from modal ages 19 through 22 (in 2008-2019). Respondents self-reported negative consequences related to their own past 12-month marijuana use. Bivariate and multivariable models examined subgroup differences in consequence prevalence. RESULTS: Approximately 60% of those using frequently (20+ use occasions in the past 30 days) and 35% of those using non-frequently reported negative consequences. Among all young adult marijuana users, 31.1% reported emotional/physical consequences, 12.9% performance/financial consequences, and 12.3% relational consequences. Use frequency was positively associated with consequence likelihood, excluding regret and unsafe driving. Among college students, frequent use was more strongly associated with any and performance/financial consequences. Controlling for use frequency, men reported more performance/financial consequences; relational consequences were higher among Hispanic (vs. White) respondents, and those living with parents, employed full-time, and not attending 4-year colleges. CONCLUSION: Young adults using marijuana reported a wide range of negative use consequences; likelihood of most consequences increased with higher use frequency. Perceived consequences varied by college attendance, living situation, employment, sex, and race/ethnicity. Efforts to reduce negative marijuana consequences may be strengthened by recognizing and addressing the different types of negative consequences users perceive.


Asunto(s)
Fumar Marihuana , Uso de la Marihuana , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Fumar Marihuana/epidemiología , Uso de la Marihuana/epidemiología , Autoinforme , Estudiantes , Adulto Joven
3.
Addict Behav ; 124: 107120, 2022 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34560423

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Pre-gaming, or drinking before going out, is common among young adults and associated with heavier drinking and negative consequences. However, findings have been mixed as to whether a unique, day-level association between pre-gaming and negative consequences exists independent of alcohol intake. It is also unknown whether young adults experience more positive consequences of alcohol use on days they engage in pre-gaming. This study tested day-level associations between pre-gaming and positive and negative consequences, controlling for same-day alcohol intake, as well as whether these associations were moderated by person- and day-level variables. METHODS: Participants were 148 young adult heavy drinkers (Mage = 20.30, SDage = 1.45, 57.4% female) who reported past-month simultaneous alcohol and marijuana use. For up to 14 consecutive days, participants completed electronic surveys asking about their drinking behaviors and consequences the previous day. RESULTS: Prior to adjusting for alcohol intake, Poisson multilevel models showed that participants reported more negative and positive consequences on days they pre-gamed and those who reported pre-gaming more often throughout the study also experienced more negative and positive consequences overall. After controlling for alcohol intake, a positive, day-level association between pre-gaming and positive consequences remained. There was no evidence of moderation of study associations by person- or day-level variables. CONCLUSION: The unique association between pre-gaming and positive consequences may help explain why pre-gaming is linked with heavy drinking and other risky behaviors as positive consequences have been shown to reinforce such behaviors. Findings suggest pre-gaming may be a useful intervention point for alcohol reduction programs.


Asunto(s)
Intoxicación Alcohólica , Fumar Marihuana , Uso de la Marihuana , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Etanol , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Uso de la Marihuana/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
4.
Addict Behav ; 124: 107118, 2022 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34583272

RESUMEN

Simultaneous alcohol and marijuana use (SAM) such that their effects overlap has emerged as a behavior that is riskier than using either substance separately. It has been associated with high-risk binge drinking and driving while intoxicated during young adulthood, and it has been demonstrated to cause greater physical and mental impairment than use of alcohol or marijuana separately. To identify intervention and prevention targets specific to SAM, we examined the relationships between alcohol- and marijuana-specific beliefs and attitudes (risk factors) and self-reported SAM compared to non-simultaneous co-use (CAM) and alcohol use only in the past 30 days in a sample of young adults (n = 1,023, mean age = 23.17; SD = 0.43). Of those who reported drinking alcohol in the past 30 days, 20.7% reported SAM, 12.6% reported CAM, and 66.6% reported using only alcohol. Results from multinomial logistic regression analyses indicated that some marijuana-specific risk factors (e.g., belief that it is not at all wrong for someone their age to use marijuana) differentiated SAM or CAM from alcohol use only, but alcohol-specific risk factors generally did not. However, the perceptions that parents approved of their using marijuana or frequently drinking heavily were associated with a greater likelihood of SAM compared to CAM (OR ranged from 2.25 to 3.53). Findings point to the salience of individuals' attitudes and beliefs around marijuana use and their perception of parental approval of heavy drinking and marijuana use as potential targets for prevention programs targeting risk reduction among young adults.


Asunto(s)
Cannabis , Fumar Marihuana , Uso de la Marihuana , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas , Etanol , Humanos , Uso de la Marihuana/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
5.
Addict Behav ; 124: 107087, 2022 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34464915

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Marijuana is the most frequently used illicit drug among college students, and there is a need to understand the social processes that contribute to young adults' marijuana use. Substance use behaviors tend to be more similar (homophilous) among individuals with social ties to one another. However, little is known about whether marijuana use homophily within young adult relationships is due to social selection (seeking out ties with similar marijuana use to one's own) or social influence (adopting similar marijuana use behaviors as one's ties), or both. METHODS: Students (N = 1,489; 54.6% female; Mage = 18.6 years) at one University completed online surveys in their first three semesters of college. Surveys assessed participant characteristics, marijuana use, and ties to up to 10 other students in the whole (sociocentric) network of first-year college students. Stochastic-actor oriented models (SAOMs) were used to analyze the co-evolution of marijuana use and social ties over time. RESULTS: Participants were more likely to select peers with similar past 30-day marijuana use as themselves. Concurrently, students' past 30-day marijuana use became more similar to their peers' use over time. DISCUSSION: Evidence for selection and influence effects were highly significant after controlling for network structure and other covariates indicating these processes may work in tandem to increase marijuana use homophily over the first year of college. This highlights the importance of relationships made early in the first-year of college, as these initial peer ties are likely to reinforce marijuana use behaviors that occur within these relationships.


Asunto(s)
Fumar Marihuana , Uso de la Marihuana , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias , Adolescente , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Fumar Marihuana/epidemiología , Uso de la Marihuana/epidemiología , Grupo Paritario , Estudiantes , Universidades , Adulto Joven
6.
SMAD, Rev. eletrônica saúde mental alcool drog ; 17(4): 23-32, out.-dez. 2021. ilus
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS, Index Psicología - Revistas | ID: biblio-1347838

RESUMEN

OBJETIVO: conhecer as influências da regulamentação do consumo da Cannabis no Uruguai sobre o consumo desta substância psicoativa na região de fronteira com o Brasil. MÉTODO: estudo qualitativo, exploratório e descritivo. Participaram 14 pessoas que usam Cannabis, residentes em uma cidade da fronteira Brasil/Uruguai. Dados coletados por entrevista semiestruturada, analisados através da Análise de Conteúdo. RESULTADO: as transformações sociais estão relacionadas com a aceitação social do consumo; visualização de pessoas idosas que utilizam a substância e maior interação entre pessoas que usam Cannabis dos países envolvidos. As transformações no consumo estão relacionadas com a possibilidade de se adquirir Cannabis in natura, disponibilidade de variados tipos e subespécies da planta e o fluxo de brasileiros para realizar o consumo no lado uruguaio da fronteira. CONCLUSÃO: investigar espaços de fusão social, cultural e política, pode servir para reflexão acerca do atual cenário brasileiro, e implementação de ações que busquem salvaguardar os direitos humanos, respeitando a autonomia, e cuidando sobre a perspectiva de saúde.


OBJECTIVE: to know the influences of the regulation of Cannabis use in Uruguay on the consumption of this psychoactive substance in the border region with Brazil. METHOD: a qualitative, exploratory and descriptive study. The participants were 14 individuals who use Cannabis, living in a city on the Brazil/Uruguay border. Data was collected by semi-structured interviews and analyzed through Content Analysis. RESULT: social transformations are related to the social acceptance of consumption; visualization of older adults who use the substance and greater interaction between individuals who use Cannabis from the countries involved. The changes in consumption are related to the possibility of acquiring Cannabis in natura, to the availability of various types and subspecies of the plant, and to the flow of Brazilians to carry out consumption on the Uruguayan side of the border. CONCLUSION: investigating spaces of social, cultural and political fusion can serve to reflect on the current Brazilian scenario, and to implement actions that seek to safeguard human rights, respecting autonomy, and taking care about the health perspective.


OBJETIVO: conocer la influencia de la regulación del consumo de Cannabis en Uruguay sobre el consumo de esa sustancia psicoactiva en la región fronteriza con Brasil. MÉTODO: estudio cualitativo, exploratorio y descriptivo. Participaron 14 personas que consumen Cannabis y viven en una ciudad de la frontera entre Brasil y Uruguay. Los datos fueron recopilados por medio de entrevista semiestructurada, analizados mediante Análisis de Contenido. RESULTADO: las transformaciones sociales están relacionadas con la aceptación social del consumo; visualización de personas mayores que consumen la sustancia y mayor interacción entre personas que consumen Cannabis en los países involucrados. Los cambios en el consumo están relacionados con la posibilidad de adquirir Cannabis in natura, la disponibilidad de varios tipos y subespecies de la planta y el flujo de brasileños para realizar el consumo en el lado uruguayo de la frontera. CONCLUSIÓN: investigar espacios de fusión social, cultural y política, puede servir para reflexionar sobre el escenario brasileño actual e implementar acciones que busquen salvaguardar los derechos humanos, respetando la autonomía y cuidando la perspectiva de la salud.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Uruguay , Áreas Fronterizas , Brasil , Fumar Marihuana , Abuso de Marihuana , Salud Fronteriza
7.
Dev Psychol ; 57(12): 2250-2264, 2021 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34928672

RESUMEN

Adolescent marijuana use has become increasingly more problematic compared with the past; thus, understanding developmental processes that increase the liability of marijuana use is essential. Two developmental pathways to adolescent substance use have been proposed: an externalizing pathway that emphasizes the expression of aggressive and delinquent behavior, and an internalizing pathway that emphasizes the role of depressive symptoms and negative affect. In this study, we aimed to examine the synergistic role of impulsiveness and sensation seeking in the two risk pathways to determine whether both high and low levels of the traits are risk factors for marijuana use. Our study included 343 adolescents (52% were girls, 78% identified as Hispanic) that oversampled high-risk youth (78% had a family history of substance use disorder), assessed biannually between the ages of 13-16 years old. Moderated mediation analyses revealed that high levels of sensation seeking indirectly predicted marijuana use through higher mean levels of externalizing behavior. The positive relationship between sensation seeking and externalizing behavior was only significant at high levels of impulsiveness. Conversely, low levels of sensation seeking indirectly predicted marijuana use through higher mean levels of internalizing behavior. The negative relationship between sensation seeking and internalizing behavior was only significant at low levels of impulsiveness. Collectively, these results demonstrate that high and low levels of both impulsiveness and sensation seeking confer increased risk of marijuana use, albeit through different mechanisms. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Fumar Marihuana , Uso de la Marihuana , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias , Adolescente , Cognición , Femenino , Humanos , Sensación
9.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34948769

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: We examined e-cigarette use as a prospective predictor of alcohol and marijuana abuse symptoms in a sample consisting of Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander (NHPI), Filipino, Asian (i.e., Japanese, Chinese, Korean), and White young adults. NHPI represent a highly vulnerable group with regard to substance use and are severely understudied. METHODS: Data were collected from 1463 young adults (M age = 22.2, SD = 3.2; 59.5% women) enrolled across community colleges in Hawai'i at two time-points six months apart. RESULTS: Higher frequency of e-cigarette use at baseline was predictive of higher alcohol (B = 0.06, SE = 0.02, p < 0.01) and marijuana (B = 0.06, SE = 0.02, p < 0.01) use problems at six-month follow up, adjusting for baseline cigarette smoking, problem alcohol/marijuana use, sensation seeking, and demographic variables. Ethnicity was found to significantly moderate the relationship between baseline e-cigarette use and problem marijuana use later, such that White and NHPI ethnicities were particularly vulnerable to the effects of e-cigarette use on problem marijuana use. CONCLUSION: NHPI are often combined with Asians in national surveys, which obfuscates the higher risks faced by NHPI compared with groups that are routinely classified as Asians (e.g., Chinese, Japanese, Filipinos). The current research highlights the NHPI's vulnerability in terms of the effects of e-cigarette use on marijuana and alcohol abuse symptoms.


Asunto(s)
Fumar Cigarrillos , Sistemas Electrónicos de Liberación de Nicotina , Abuso de Marihuana , Fumar Marihuana , Vapeo , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Fumar Marihuana/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
10.
Chem Res Toxicol ; 34(10): 2169-2179, 2021 10 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34622654

RESUMEN

The outbreak of e-cigarette or vaping product use-associated lung injury (EVALI) has been cause for concern to the medical community, particularly given that this novel illness has coincided with the COVID-19 pandemic, another cause of severe pulmonary illness. Though cannabis e-cigarettes tainted with vitamin E acetate were primarily associated with EVALI, acute lung injuries stemming from cannabis inhalation were reported in the literature prior to 2019, and it has been suggested that cannabis components or additives other than vitamin E acetate may be responsible. Despite these concerning issues, novel cannabis vaporizer ingredients continue to arise, such as Δ8-tetrahydrocannabinol, Δ10-tetrahydrocannabinol, hexahydrocannabinol, and cannabichromene. In order to address cannabis e-cigarette safety and vaping in an effective manner, we provide a comprehensive knowledge of the latest products, delivery modes, and ingredients. This perspective highlights the types of cannabis vaping modalities common to the United States cannabis market, with special attention to cartridge-type cannabis e-cigarette toxicology and their involvement in the EVALI outbreak, in particular, acute lung injurious responses. Novel ingredient chemistry, origins, and legal statuses are reviewed, as well as the toxicology of known cannabis e-cigarette aerosol components.


Asunto(s)
Cannabis/química , Lesión Pulmonar/etiología , Fumar Marihuana/efectos adversos , Extractos Vegetales/química , Aerosoles/química , Aerosoles/toxicidad , Cannabis/metabolismo , Dronabinol/química , Dronabinol/toxicidad , Sistemas Electrónicos de Liberación de Nicotina , Humanos , Extractos Vegetales/toxicidad , Vitamina E/química
11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639657

RESUMEN

Marijuana is the most common illicit substance globally. The rate of marijuana use is increasing in young adults in the US. The current environment of legalizing marijuana use is further contributing to an increase of users. The purpose of this study was to explore the characteristics of adults who abuse marijuana (20-49 years old) and analyze behavior and social relation variables related to depression and suicide risk using machine-learning algorithms. A total of 698 participants were identified from the 2019 National Survey on Drug Use and Health survey as marijuana dependent in the previous year. Principal Component Analysis and Chi-square were used to select features (variables) and mean imputation method was applied for missing data. Logistic regression, Random Forest, and K-Nearest Neighbor machine-learning algorithms were used to build depression and suicide risk prediction models. The results showed unique characteristics of the group and well-performing prediction models with influential risk variables. Identified risk variables were aligned with previous studies and suggested the development of marijuana abuse prevention programs targeting 20-29 year olds with a regular depression and suicide screening. Further study is suggested for identifying specific barriers to receiving timely treatment for depression and suicide risk.


Asunto(s)
Cannabis , Abuso de Marihuana , Fumar Marihuana , Uso de la Marihuana , Adulto , Humanos , Aprendizaje Automático , Abuso de Marihuana/epidemiología , Uso de la Marihuana/epidemiología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto Joven
13.
Am J Nurs ; 121(11): 50-52, 2021 11 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34673697

RESUMEN

Information for nurses, patients, and the public.


Asunto(s)
Fumar Marihuana/efectos adversos , Marihuana Medicinal/administración & dosificación , Recreación , Analgésicos , Humanos
15.
Psychol Addict Behav ; 35(6): 712-722, 2021 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34591512

RESUMEN

Objective: The current study expands the literature on simultaneous alcohol and marijuana (SAM) use by focusing on the distinction between unplanned and planned SAM use to identify potential intervention targets. This study explored whether unplanned or planned SAM use was associated with differences in alcohol and/or marijuana use and consequences. Method: A community sample of young adults (aged 18-25) with recent alcohol and SAM use was recruited [N = 409; mean (SD) = 21.61 (2.17) years; 50.9% female; 48.2% non-Hispanic/Latinx White]. Participants completed five 2-week bursts of online daily surveys (2 ×/day; 81.99% of morning and 82.23% of afternoon surveys completed) and reported on substance use intentions and behavior. Results: Descriptive findings showed that among days on which participants reported SAM use, 41.85% of the days were unplanned SAM use days. Based on daily-level results from multilevel models, on days with unplanned SAM use, young adults reported consuming fewer drinks, fewer hours high from marijuana, and lower subjective intoxication/high, compared to planned SAM use days, thus indicating that planned SAM use was riskier. Unplanned SAM use was not significantly associated with positive or negative consequences related to alcohol or marijuana, after accounting for the number of drinks or hours high from marijuana. Conclusions: Current findings suggest that interventions should target days on which young adults are planning to engage in SAM use. Future work is needed to identify factors that predict planned SAM use on specific occasions and also to disentangle the potential role of unplanned heavy use. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Cannabis , Fumar Marihuana , Uso de la Marihuana , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias , Adolescente , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Humanos , Uso de la Marihuana/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
16.
Psychol Addict Behav ; 35(6): 682-690, 2021 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34591517

RESUMEN

Objective: Co-use of alcohol and marijuana has increased among college students, though comparisons among simultaneous (i.e., use of both substances such that effects overlap), dual (i.e., use of both substances within a similar time period but without overlapping effects), and marijuana-only use are limited. This study aimed to understand differences between simultaneous, dual, and marijuana-only users on marijuana use rates, consequences, and context of use in a multi-university study. Method: College students (N = 4,764; Mage = 19.9 years) who were mainly female (70.6%) and White (67.9%) completed an online survey. The Marijuana Use Grid captured marijuana use quantity/frequency, and the Brief Marijuana Consequences Questionnaire and the Cannabis Use Disorders Identification Test-Revised assessed problem use. Location, method of consumption, and social context of use also were assessed. Results: Fifty-five percent of the sample endorsed lifetime use of alcohol and marijuana. Of these students, 36.1% endorsed past-month simultaneous use, 10.8% endorsed past-month dual use, and 6.4% endorsed past-month marijuana-only use. Simultaneous users reported more marijuana use and problems than dual users. Marijuana-only users did not differ from simultaneous users on marijuana use indices, though they reported greater use than dual users as well. Simultaneous users used marijuana in plant form, at parties, and with unknown others a greater percentage of the time than dual users, while dual users used edibles and ingested marijuana a greater percentage of the time. Conclusions: Given their greater levels of marijuana use and marijuana-related problems, screening and interventions for simultaneous alcohol-marijuana use are needed in college students. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Cannabis , Fumar Marihuana , Uso de la Marihuana , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas , Humanos , Fumar Marihuana/epidemiología , Uso de la Marihuana/epidemiología , Universidades , Adulto Joven
17.
J Stud Alcohol Drugs ; 82(5): 584-594, 2021 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34546904

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: This study examined past-2-week driving after marijuana use (DMU) and driving after having five or more drinks (D5D) during young adulthood, specifically focusing on associations between within-person change in social roles (living situation, marriage, parenthood, education, employment) and mediators (perceived risk, evenings out, and religiosity) from modal ages 19 to 30. METHOD: Multilevel analyses were conducted using survey data collected from 2013 to 2019 from 1,873 adults (1,060 women; total number of data collection waves = 7,037) participating in the longitudinal Monitoring the Future study. RESULTS: Change across waves from not being married to married was associated with lower DMU likelihood at any particular wave both directly and via mediation through wave-level change in evenings out. Change in employment (not employed to employed full time) was associated with higher D5D likelihood at any particular wave both directly and via mediation through change in evenings out. Wave-level change in other social roles was indirectly associated with DMU/D5D likelihood via wave-level change in evenings out. CONCLUSIONS: Change in all social roles examined was associated with change in evenings out, which appears to be a primary, proximal predictor of young adult DMU/D5D. Improved understanding of how socialization change is associated with driving after substance use may strengthen efforts to reduce the harms associated with such driving behaviors.


Asunto(s)
Conducción de Automóvil , Cannabis , Fumar Marihuana , Uso de la Marihuana , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas , Humanos , Uso de la Marihuana/epidemiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34501895

RESUMEN

Determining the predictive variables associated with cannabis use and cannabis-related problems can ease the identification of young cannabis consumers who can benefit from prevention interventions. This study aimed: (1) to describe, among university students, the cannabis use and cannabis-use problems, intention to use cannabis and family climate based on the gender and the people the student lives with; (2) to explore whether the family climate and intention to use cannabis are predictors of cannabis use and cannabis-related problems. The sample was composed of 339 Spanish undergraduates (51.9% females) in a 17-to-25 age range (19.67 ± 1.53). The variables were assessed through a battery based on the ESPAD survey, cannabis abuse screening test, cannabis use intention questionnaire and family climate scale. More men than women had used cannabis in the precedent year and showed greater intention to use cannabis, whereas more women than men showed greater self-efficacy in not using cannabis. The family climate did not predict cannabis use and cannabis-related problems. However, subjective norms and self-efficacy were key predictors of cannabis use and cannabis-use problems, respectively. Different factors seemed to predict the use cannabis in the past year versus cannabis-related problems, and these differences may help inform the development and delivery of preventative efforts.


Asunto(s)
Cannabis , Fumar Marihuana , Humanos , Intención , Fumar Marihuana/epidemiología , Estudiantes , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Universidades
20.
Psychol Addict Behav ; 35(6): 698-711, 2021 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34472880

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Given the adverse outcomes associated with simultaneous alcohol and marijuana (SAM) use, understanding factors that give rise to occasions of simultaneous use is critical. This study examines the relationships between situational motives and contexts and three situational outcomes: simultaneous alcohol and marijuana use (SAM) use versus cannabis-only use, number of cannabis uses, and subjective effects. METHOD: Past-month SAM users (n = 341; 52% female; 75% White; 10% Latinx/Hispanic; age 18-24) from three U.S. college campuses completed 8 weeks of surveys up to five times a day. Three-level generalized linear mixed-effects models tested the effects of situational motives and social and physical contexts on occasion type (SAM vs. cannabis-only), cannabis use, and subjective effects. RESULTS: Situational social and enhancement motives were related to greater odds of SAM relative to cannabis-only use; expansion motives were reported more often on cannabis-only occasions. Using with others and at friends' places, being with others consuming cannabis, and being with others who are intoxicated were more likely when combining alcohol with cannabis. Increased number of cannabis uses and subjective effects in a social context were evident only on cannabis-only occasions. Using alone and using at home were greater on cannabis-only occasions and were associated with lower cannabis use and subjective effects. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of alcohol and cannabis use occurs during social situations and when motivated by positive reinforcement but number of cannabis uses is not increased when consuming cannabis with alcohol in social situations. Characterizing the complex interplay of situational factors that contribute to risky use will inform interventions. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Cannabis , Fumar Marihuana , Uso de la Marihuana , Adolescente , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas , Humanos , Fumar Marihuana/epidemiología , Uso de la Marihuana/epidemiología , Motivación , Adulto Joven
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