Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 140.308
Filtrar
1.
South Med J ; 113(6): 285-291, 2020 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32483638

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate factors associated with postpartum contraceptive use among women with short and moderate-to-long birth intervals using population-based data from the Pregnancy Risk Assessment and Monitoring System. METHODS: Because only Mississippi and Tennessee include a question about birth interval length on their Pregnancy Risk Assessment and Monitoring System survey, this analysis was limited to women from those states who reported information on this variable (N = 2198). Demographic, lifestyle, and reproductive data, including information on postpartum contraceptive use, were obtained from surveys and birth certificates. Logistic regression was used to obtain odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: Nearly 90% of women reported currently using a form of contraception during the postpartum period. In the unadjusted model, among women with short birth intervals, there was no association between alcohol consumption during pregnancy and postpartum contraceptive use (OR 1.03, 95% CI 0.15-7.31); however, smoking during pregnancy was associated with a decreased odds of postpartum contraceptive use (OR 0.70, 95% CI 0.25-1.96). Among women with moderate-to-long birth intervals, alcohol use during pregnancy was associated with a decreased odds (OR 0.71, 95% CI 0.28-1.80) and smoking during pregnancy was associated with an increased odds (OR 1.18, 95% CI 0.60-2.30) of postpartum contraceptive use. Regardless of birth interval length, women with no health insurance had a decreased odds of postpartum contraceptive use when compared with women with health insurance (short birth interval: OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.32-2.49 and moderate-to-long birth interval: OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.52-1.39). Among women with short birth intervals, non-Hispanic black women had a decreased odds of postpartum contraceptive use (OR 0.14, 95% CI 0.03-0.64) and women who were unmarried or had a history of preterm delivery had an increased odds of postpartum contraceptive use (unmarried: OR 5.81, 95% CI 1.26-26.69 and preterm delivery: OR 4.19, 95% CI 1.42-12.37, respectively) after adjustment for confounders. Among women with moderate-to-long birth intervals, individuals who identified as Hispanic/mixed race/other had a statistically significant decreased odds of postpartum contraceptive use after adjustment (OR 0.43, 95% CI 0.18-0.99). CONCLUSIONS: Findings underscore the importance of postpartum medical visits for all women, regardless of birth interval length. Certain groups of women may need additional counseling regarding the importance of using contraceptives to prevent another closely spaced or unintended pregnancy.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Intervalo entre Nacimientos/estadística & datos numéricos , Conducta Anticonceptiva/estadística & datos numéricos , Grupos Étnicos/estadística & datos numéricos , Cobertura del Seguro/estadística & datos numéricos , Seguro de Salud , Periodo Posparto , Fumar/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Afroamericanos/estadística & datos numéricos , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Hispanoamericanos/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Estado Civil/estadística & datos numéricos , Mississippi/epidemiología , Oportunidad Relativa , Nacimiento Prematuro/epidemiología , Tennessee/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
2.
South Med J ; 113(6): 311-319, 2020 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32483642

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Prevalence and trends in all cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors among young adults (18-39 years) have not been evaluated on a large scale stratified by sex and race. The aim of this study was to establish the prevalence and temporal trend of CVD risk factors in US inpatients younger than 40 years of age from 2007 through 2014 with racial and sex-based distinctions. In addition, the impact of these risk factors on inpatient outcomes and healthcare resource utilization was explored. METHODS: A cross-sectional nationwide analysis of all hospitalizations, comorbidities, and complications among young adults from 2007 to 2014 was performed. The primary outcomes were frequency, trends, and race- and sex-based differences in coexisting CVD risk factors. Coprimary outcomes were trends in all-cause mortality, acute myocardial infarction, arrhythmia, stroke, and venous thromboembolism in young adults with CVD risk factors. Secondary outcomes were demographics and resource utilization in young adults with versus without CVD risk factors. RESULTS: Of 63 million hospitalizations (mean 30.5 [standard deviation 5.9] years), 27% had at least one coexisting CVD risk factor. From 2007 to 2014, admission frequency with CVD risk factors increased from 42.8% to 55.1% in males and from 16.2% to 24.6% in females. Admissions with CVD risk were higher in male (41.4% vs 15.9%) and white (58.4% vs 53.8%) or African American (22.6% vs 15.9%) patients compared with those without CVD risk. Young adults in the Midwest (23.9% vs 21.1%) and South (40.8% vs 37.9%) documented comparatively higher hospitalizations rates with CVD risk. Young adults with CVD risk had higher all-cause in-hospital mortality (0.4% vs. 0.3%) with a higher average length of stay (4.3 vs 3.2 days) and charges per admission ($30,074 vs $20,124). CONCLUSIONS: Despite modern advances in screening, management, and interventional measures for CVD, rising trends in CVD risk factors across all sex and race/ethnic groups call for attention by preventive cardiologists.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiología , Dislipidemias/epidemiología , Hipertensión/epidemiología , Obesidad/epidemiología , Enfermedades Vasculares Periféricas/epidemiología , Fumar/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Afroamericanos/estadística & datos numéricos , Arritmias Cardíacas/epidemiología , Arritmias Cardíacas/etnología , Americanos Asiáticos/estadística & datos numéricos , Bases de Datos Factuales , Diabetes Mellitus/etnología , Dislipidemias/etnología , Grupos Étnicos/estadística & datos numéricos , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Hispanoamericanos/estadística & datos numéricos , Mortalidad Hospitalaria , Hospitalización , Humanos , Hipertensión/etnología , Indios Norteamericanos/estadística & datos numéricos , Masculino , Infarto del Miocardio/epidemiología , Infarto del Miocardio/etnología , Obesidad/etnología , Grupo de Ascendencia Oceánica/estadística & datos numéricos , Enfermedades Vasculares Periféricas/etnología , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Factores Sexuales , Fumar/etnología , Accidente Cerebrovascular/epidemiología , Accidente Cerebrovascular/etnología , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Tromboembolia Venosa/epidemiología , Tromboembolia Venosa/etnología , Adulto Joven
4.
Nutrients ; 12(6)2020 Jun 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32503173

RESUMEN

The outbreak of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in late December 2019 in China, which later developed into a pandemic, has forced different countries to implement strict sanitary regimes and social distancing measures. Globally, at least four billion people were under lockdown, working remotely, homeschooling children, and facing challenges coping with quarantine and the stressful events. The present cross-sectional online survey of adult Poles (n = 1097), conducted during a nationwide quarantine, aimed to assess whether nutritional and consumer habits have been affected under these conditions. Over 43.0% and nearly 52% reported eating and snacking more, respectively, and these tendencies were more frequent in overweight and obese individuals. Almost 30% and over 18% experienced weight gain (mean ± SD 3.0 ± 1.6 kg) and loss (-2.9 ± 1.5 kg), respectively. Overweight, obese, and older subjects (aged 36-45 and >45) tended to gain weight more frequently, whereas those with underweight tended to lose it further. Increased BMI was associated with less frequent consumption of vegetables, fruit, and legumes during quarantine, and higher adherence to meat, dairy, and fast-foods. An increase in alcohol consumption was seen in 14.6%, with a higher tendency to drink more found among alcohol addicts. Over 45% of smokers experienced a rise in smoking frequency during the quarantine. The study highlights that lockdown imposed to contain an infectious agent may affect eating behaviors and dietary habits, and advocates for organized nutritional support during future epidemic-related quarantines, particularly for the most vulnerable groups, including overweight and obese subjects.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Dieta , Conducta Alimentaria , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Betacoronavirus , Índice de Masa Corporal , Conducta de Elección , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Polonia/epidemiología , Cuarentena , Fumar/epidemiología , Bocadillos , Aumento de Peso , Adulto Joven
5.
J Transl Med ; 18(1): 229, 2020 06 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32513197

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: On December 12th 2019, a new coronavirus (SARS-Cov2) emerged in Wuhan, China, sparking a pandemic of acute respiratory syndrome in humans (COVID-19). On the 24th of April 2020, the number of COVID-19 deaths in the world, according to the COVID-Case Tracker by Johns Hopkins University, was 195,313, and the number of COVID-19 confirmed cases was 2,783,512. The COVID-19 pandemic represents a massive impact on human health, causing sudden lifestyle changes, through social distancing and isolation at home, with social and economic consequences. Optimizing public health during this pandemic requires not only knowledge from the medical and biological sciences, but also of all human sciences related to lifestyle, social and behavioural studies, including dietary habits and lifestyle. METHODS: Our study aimed to investigate the immediate impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on eating habits and lifestyle changes among the Italian population aged ≥ 12 years. The study comprised a structured questionnaire packet that inquired demographic information (age, gender, place of residence, current employment); anthropometric data (reported weight and height); dietary habits information (adherence to the Mediterranean diet, daily intake of certain foods, food frequency, and number of meals/day); lifestyle habits information (grocery shopping, habit of smoking, sleep quality and physical activity). The survey was conducted from the 5th to the 24th of April 2020. RESULTS: A total of 3533 respondents have been included in the study, aged between 12 and 86 years (76.1% females). The perception of weight gain was observed in 48.6% of the population; 3.3% of smokers decided to quit smoking; a slight increased physical activity has been reported, especially for bodyweight training, in 38.3% of respondents; the population group aged 18-30 years resulted in having a higher adherence to the Mediterranean diet when compared to the younger and the elderly population (p < 0.001; p < 0.001, respectively); 15% of respondents turned to farmers or organic, purchasing fruits and vegetables, especially in the North and Center of Italy, where BMI values were lower. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we have provided for the first time data on the Italian population lifestyle, eating habits and adherence to the Mediterranean Diet pattern during the COVID-19 lockdown. However, as the COVID-19 pandemic is ongoing, our data need to be confirmed and investigated in future more extensive population studies.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus/fisiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Conducta Alimentaria , Estilo de Vida , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Cuarentena , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Niño , Dieta Mediterránea , Ingestión de Líquidos , Urgencias Médicas , Femenino , Adhesión a Directriz , Humanos , Italia , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Sueño , Fumar , Adulto Joven
6.
JAMA ; 323(22): 2268-2280, 2020 06 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32515814

RESUMEN

Importance: Smoking is a major risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), yet much of COPD risk remains unexplained. Objective: To determine whether dysanapsis, a mismatch of airway tree caliber to lung size, assessed by computed tomography (CT), is associated with incident COPD among older adults and lung function decline in COPD. Design, Setting, and Participants: A retrospective cohort study of 2 community-based samples: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) Lung Study, which involved 2531 participants (6 US sites, 2010-2018) and the Canadian Cohort of Obstructive Lung Disease (CanCOLD), which involved 1272 participants (9 Canadian sites, 2010-2018), and a case-control study of COPD: the Subpopulations and Intermediate Outcome Measures in COPD Study (SPIROMICS), which involved 2726 participants (12 US sites, 2011-2016). Exposures: Dysanapsis was quantified on CT as the geometric mean of airway lumen diameters measured at 19 standard anatomic locations divided by the cube root of lung volume (airway to lung ratio). Main Outcomes and Measures: Primary outcome was COPD defined by postbronchodilator ratio of forced expired volume in the first second to vital capacity (FEV1:FVC) less than 0.70 with respiratory symptoms. Secondary outcome was longitudinal lung function. All analyses were adjusted for demographics and standard COPD risk factors (primary and secondhand tobacco smoke exposures, occupational and environmental pollutants, and asthma). Results: In the MESA Lung sample (mean [SD] age, 69 years [9 years]; 1334 women [52.7%]), 237 of 2531 participants (9.4%) had prevalent COPD, the mean (SD) airway to lung ratio was 0.033 (0.004), and the mean (SD) FEV1 decline was -33 mL/y (31 mL/y). Of 2294 MESA Lung participants without prevalent COPD, 98 (4.3%) had incident COPD at a median of 6.2 years. Compared with participants in the highest quartile of airway to lung ratio, those in the lowest had a significantly higher COPD incidence (9.8 vs 1.2 cases per 1000 person-years; rate ratio [RR], 8.12; 95% CI, 3.81 to 17.27; rate difference, 8.6 cases per 1000 person-years; 95% CI, 7.1 to 9.2; P < .001) but no significant difference in FEV1 decline (-31 vs -33 mL/y; difference, 2 mL/y; 95% CI, -2 to 5; P = .30). Among CanCOLD participants (mean [SD] age, 67 years [10 years]; 564 women [44.3%]), 113 of 752 (15.0%) had incident COPD at a median of 3.1 years and the mean (SD) FEV1 decline was -36 mL/y (75 mL/y). The COPD incidence in the lowest airway to lung quartile was significantly higher than in the highest quartile (80.6 vs 24.2 cases per 1000 person-years; RR, 3.33; 95% CI, 1.89 to 5.85; rate difference, 56.4 cases per 1000 person-years; 95% CI, 38.0 to 66.8; P<.001), but the FEV1 decline did not differ significantly (-34 vs -36 mL/y; difference, 1 mL/y; 95% CI, -15 to 16; P=.97). Among 1206 SPIROMICS participants (mean [SD] age, 65 years [8 years]; 542 women [44.9%]) with COPD who were followed up for a median 2.1 years, those in the lowest airway to lung ratio quartile had a mean FEV1 decline of -37 mL/y (15 mL/y), which did not differ significantly from the decline in MESA Lung participants (P = .98), whereas those in highest quartile had significantly faster decline than participants in MESA Lung (-55 mL/y [16 mL/y ]; difference, -17 mL/y; 95% CI, -32 to -3; P = .004). Conclusions and Relevance: Among older adults, dysanapsis was significantly associated with COPD, with lower airway tree caliber relative to lung size associated with greater COPD risk. Dysanapsis appears to be a risk factor associated with COPD.


Asunto(s)
Volumen Espiratorio Forzado , Pulmón/patología , Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica/patología , Capacidad Vital , Anciano , Femenino , Humanos , Pulmón/anatomía & histología , Pulmón/diagnóstico por imagen , Pulmón/fisiopatología , Masculino , Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica/fisiopatología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Fumar/efectos adversos , Espirometría , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X
7.
JAMA ; 323(22): 2281-2289, 2020 06 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32515815

RESUMEN

Importance: Migraine with aura is known to increase the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The absolute contribution of migraine with aura to CVD incidence in relation to other CVD risk factors remains unclear. Objective: To estimate the CVD incidence rate for women with migraine with aura relative to women with other major vascular risk factors. Design, Setting, and Participants: Female health professionals in the US (the Women's Health Study cohort) with lipid measurements and no CVD at baseline (1992-1995) were followed up through December 31, 2018. Exposures: Self-reported migraine with aura compared with migraine without aura or no migraine at baseline. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was major CVD (first myocardial infarction, stroke, or CVD death). Generalized modeling procedures were used to calculate multivariable-adjusted incidence rates for major CVD events by risk factor status that included all women in the cohort. Results: The study population included 27 858 women (mean [SD] age at baseline, 54.7 [7.1] years), among whom 1435 (5.2%) had migraine with aura and 26 423 (94.8%) did not (2177 [7.8%] had migraine without aura and 24 246 [87.0%] had no migraine in the year prior to baseline). During a mean follow-up of 22.6 years (629 353 person-years), 1666 major CVD events occurred. The adjusted incidence rate of major CVD per 1000 person-years was 3.36 (95% CI, 2.72-3.99) for women with migraine with aura vs 2.11 (95% CI, 1.98-2.24) for women with migraine without aura or no migraine (P < .001). The incidence rate for women with migraine with aura was significantly higher than the adjusted incidence rate among women with obesity (2.29 [95% CI, 2.02-2.56]), high triglycerides (2.67 [95% CI, 2.38-2.95]), or low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (2.63 [95% CI, 2.33-2.94]), but was not significantly different from the rates among those with elevated systolic blood pressure (3.78 [95% CI, 2.76-4.81]), high total cholesterol (2.85 [95% CI, 2.38-3.32]), or family history of myocardial infarction (2.71 [95% CI, 2.38-3.05]). Incidence rates among women with diabetes (5.76 [95% CI, 4.68-6.84]) or who currently smoked (4.29 [95% CI, 3.79-4.79]) were significantly higher than those with migraine with aura. The incremental increase in the incidence rate for migraine with aura ranged from 1.01 additional cases per 1000 person-years when added to obesity to 2.57 additional cases per 1000 person-years when added to diabetes. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study of female health professionals aged at least 45 years, women with migraine with aura had a higher adjusted incidence rate of CVD compared with women with migraine without aura or no migraine. The clinical importance of these findings, and whether they are generalizable beyond this study population, require further research.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/etiología , Migraña con Aura/complicaciones , Migraña sin Aura/complicaciones , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/epidemiología , Complicaciones de la Diabetes , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Hiperlipidemias/complicaciones , Incidencia , Persona de Mediana Edad , Modelos Cardiovasculares , Obesidad/complicaciones , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Factores de Riesgo , Fumar/efectos adversos , Salud de la Mujer
8.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32545240

RESUMEN

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic causes fear, as its immediate consequences for the public have produced unprecedented challenges for the education and healthcare systems. We aimed to validate the fear of COVID-19 scale (FCoV-19S) and examine the association of its scores with health literacy and health-related behaviors among medical students. A cross-sectional study was conducted from 7 to 29 April 2020 on 5423 students at eight universities across Vietnam, including five universities in the North, one university in the Center, two universities in the South. An online survey questionnaire was used to collect data on participants' characteristics, health literacy, fear of COVID-19 using the FCoV-19S, and health-related behaviors. The results showed that seven items of the FCoV-19S strongly loaded on one component, explained 62.15% of the variance, with good item-scale convergent validity and high internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.90). Higher health literacy was associated with lower FCoV-19S scores (coefficient, B, -0.06; 95% confidence interval, 95%CI, -0.08, -0.04; p < 0.001). Older age or last academic years, being men, and being able to pay for medication were associated with lower FCoV-19S scores. Students with higher FCoV-19S scores more likely kept smoking (odds ratio, OR, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.08, 1.14; p < 0.001) or drinking alcohol (OR, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.02, 1.06; p < 0.001) at an unchanged or higher level during the pandemic, as compared to students with lower FCoV-19S scores. In conclusion, the FCoV-19S is valid and reliable in screening for fear of COVID-19. Health literacy was found to protect medical students from fear. Smoking and drinking appeared to have a negative impact on fear of COVID-19. Strategic public health approaches are required to reduce fear and promote healthy lifestyles during the pandemic.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Miedo , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Alfabetización en Salud , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Estudiantes de Medicina , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas , Betacoronavirus , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Fumar , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Universidades , Vietnam , Adulto Joven
9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(23): e20552, 2020 Jun 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32502021

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: To assess the association of the interaction between the rs9619311 and rs402007 polymorphisms and smoking with essential hypertension (EH) in a Chinese Han population. METHOD: Peripheral blood samples were extracted from 422 EH patients and 280 normotensive (NT) patients in a Chinese Han population. A whole blood genomic DNA extraction kit was used to extract genomic DNA from the blood samples. Polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism was used to detect the rs402007 polymorphism of a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin type motifs 1 gene and the rs9619311 polymorphism of the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-3 gene. The distributions of the genotypes and alleles between the 2 study groups (EH and NT) were compared. The main risk factors for EH were determined by using logistic regression analysis. The effects of gene-gene and gene-smoking interactions on EH were analyzed using multifactor dimensional reduction. RESULTS: The frequencies of the rs402007 GC + CC genotype and the C allele were significantly different between the EH and NT groups (0.68 vs 0.57, χ = 8.99, P = .003, odds ratio [OR] = 1.19; 0.45 vs 0.32, χ = 22.16, P < .001, OR = 1.38). The frequencies of the rs9619311 TC + CC genotype and the C allele were also significantly different between the 2 groups (0.33 vs 0.25, χ = 4.51, P = .04, OR = 1.44; 0.18 vs 0.13, χ = 7.03, P = .01, OR = 1.50). Logistic regression analysis suggests that the rs402007 and rs9619311 polymorphisms are independent risk factors for EH (OR = 2.37, 1.86; P < .001, respectively). The multifactor dimensionality redundant analysis results showed that the interaction among rs402007, rs9619311, and smoking was statistically significant (P = .001). CONCLUSIONS: A disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin type motifs 1 rs402007 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-3 rs9619311 polymorphisms are associated with EH in a Chinese Han population, and there was a positive interaction among rs402007, rs9619311, and smoking.


Asunto(s)
Proteína ADAMTS1/genética , Hipertensión Esencial/genética , Grupos Étnicos/genética , Predisposición Genética a la Enfermedad , Polimorfismo Genético , Fumar/epidemiología , Inhibidor Tisular de Metaloproteinasa-3/genética , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Alelos , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Asiática/genética , Estudios de Casos y Controles , China/epidemiología , Hipertensión Esencial/epidemiología , Femenino , Genotipo , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa
12.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233147, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32392262

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an evolving infectious disease that dramatically spread all over the world in the early part of 2020. No studies have yet summarized the potential severity and mortality risks caused by COVID-19 in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and we update information in smokers. METHODS: We systematically searched electronic databases from inception to March 24, 2020. Data were extracted by two independent authors in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Study quality was assessed using a modified version of the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. We synthesized a narrative from eligible studies and conducted a meta-analysis using a random-effects model to calculate pooled prevalence rates and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). RESULTS: In total, 123 abstracts were screened and 61 full-text manuscripts were reviewed. A total of 15 studies met the inclusion criteria, which included a total of 2473 confirmed COVID-19 patients. All studies were included in the meta-analysis. The crude case fatality rate of COVID-19 was 7.4%. The pooled prevalence rates of COPD patients and smokers in COVID-19 cases were 2% (95% CI, 1%-3%) and 9% (95% CI, 4%-14%) respectively. COPD patients were at a higher risk of more severe disease (risk of severity = 63%, (22/35) compared to patients without COPD 33.4% (409/1224) [calculated RR, 1.88 (95% CI, 1.4-2.4)]. This was associated with higher mortality (60%). Our results showed that 22% (31/139) of current smokers and 46% (13/28) of ex-smokers had severe complications. The calculated RR showed that current smokers were 1.45 times more likely [95% CI: 1.03-2.04] to have severe complications compared to former and never smokers. Current smokers also had a higher mortality rate of 38.5%. CONCLUSION: Although COPD prevalence in COVID-19 cases was low in current reports, COVID-19 infection was associated with substantial severity and mortality rates in COPD. Compared to former and never smokers, current smokers were at greater risk of severe complications and higher mortality rate. Effective preventive measures are required to reduce COVID-19 risk in COPD patients and current smokers.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica/complicaciones , Infecciones por Coronavirus/complicaciones , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/mortalidad , Infecciones por Coronavirus/fisiopatología , Humanos , Neumonía Viral/complicaciones , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/mortalidad , Neumonía Viral/fisiopatología , Prevalencia , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Fumar , Tasa de Supervivencia
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(10)2020 May 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32455539

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 pandemic is marked by a wide range of clinical disease courses, ranging from asymptomatic to deadly. There have been many studies seeking to explore the correlations between COVID-19 clinical outcomes and various clinical variables, including age, sex, race, underlying medical problems, and social habits. In particular, the relationship between smoking and COVID-19 outcome is controversial, with multiple conflicting reports in the current literature. In this study, we aim to analyze how smoking may affect the SARS-CoV-2 infection rate. We analyzed sequencing data from lung and oral epithelial samples obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). We found that the receptor and transmembrane protease necessary for SARS-CoV-2 entry into host cells, ACE2 and TMPRSS2, respectively, were upregulated in smoking samples from both lung and oral epithelial tissue. We then explored the mechanistic hypothesis that smoking may upregulate ACE2 expression through the upregulation of the androgen pathway. ACE2 and TMPRSS2 upregulation were both correlated to androgen pathway enrichment and the specific upregulation of central pathway regulatory genes. These data provide a potential model for the increased susceptibility of smoking patients to COVID-19 and encourage further exploration into the androgen and tobacco upregulation of ACE2 to understand the potential clinical ramifications.


Asunto(s)
Andrógenos/metabolismo , Infecciones por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Peptidil-Dipeptidasa A/genética , Neumonía Viral/metabolismo , Serina Endopeptidasas/genética , Fumar/metabolismo , Regulación hacia Arriba , Células Epiteliales Alveolares/metabolismo , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/genética , Humanos , Mucosa Bucal/metabolismo , Pandemias , Peptidil-Dipeptidasa A/metabolismo , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/genética , Receptores Androgénicos/genética , Receptores Androgénicos/metabolismo , Serina Endopeptidasas/metabolismo , Fumar/epidemiología , Fumar/genética
15.
J Evid Based Dent Pract ; 20(1): 101419, 2020 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32381417

RESUMEN

ARTICLE TITLE AND BIBLIOGRAPHIC INFORMATION: Joint effects of intensity and duration of cigarette smoking on the risk of head and neck cancer: a bivariate spline model approach. Di Credico G, Edefonti V, Polesel J et al. Oral Oncol 2019;94:47-57. SOURCE OF FUNDING: The 33 case-control studies whose data were pooled for this project were supported by a large number of governmental and foundation sources in the United States, Italy, Germany, Japan, Brazil, and Spain, as well as the World Cancer Research Fund, International Union Against Cancer, and the European Commission. No funding source was reported for the current analysis. TYPE OF STUDY/DESIGN: Secondary analysis of pooled data from 33 case-control studies.


Asunto(s)
Fumar Cigarrillos , Neoplasias de Cabeza y Cuello , Productos de Tabaco , Brasil , Humanos , Japón , Factores de Riesgo , Humo , Fumar , Estados Unidos
19.
Med J Malaysia ; 75(3): 309-310, 2020 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32467553

RESUMEN

No abstract provided.


Asunto(s)
Coronavirus , Betacoronavirus , China , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Humanos , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Fumar
20.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 146(7): 1765-1779, 2020 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32356175

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: As the number of cancer survivors in the United States increases, quantifying the risks and burden of second primary cancers (SPCs) among cancer survivors will help develop long-term prevention and surveillance strategies. We describe the risk of developing a SPC among survivors of 10 cancer sites with the highest survival rates in the United States. METHODS: Adult patients diagnosed with an index smoking-related (urinary bladder, kidney and renal pelvis, uterine cervix, oral cavity and pharynx, and colon and rectum) and index non-smoking-related (prostate, thyroid, breast, corpus and uterus, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma) cancers were identified from Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (2000-2015). SPC risks were quantified using standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) and excess absolute risks (EARs) per 10,000 person-years at risk (PYR). RESULTS: A cohort of 2,903,241 patients was identified and 259,685 (8.9%) developed SPC (7.6% of women and 10.3% of men). All index cancer sites (except prostate) were associated with a significant increase in SPC risk for women and men. Patients diagnosed with smoking-related index cancers (SIR range 1.20-2.16 for women and 1.12-1.91 for men) had a higher increased risk of SPC than patients with non-smoking-related index cancers (SIR range 1.08-1.39 for women and 1.23-1.38 for men) relative to the general population. CONCLUSION: We found that 1-in-11 cancer survivors developed a SPC. Given the increasing number of cancer survivors and the importance of SPC as a cause of cancer death, there is a need for increased screening for and prevention of SPC.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias Primarias Secundarias/epidemiología , Neoplasias Primarias Secundarias/etiología , Neoplasias/epidemiología , Adulto , Anciano , Susceptibilidad a Enfermedades , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Neoplasias/etiología , Medición de Riesgo , Factores de Riesgo , Programa de VERF , Fumar/efectos adversos
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA