Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 46.886
Filtrar
1.
Epidemiology ; 34(2): 293-301, 2023 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36722812

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Existing evidence on the link between smoking and appendicitis is scarce and ambiguous. We therefore conducted a population-based cohort study in Denmark to investigate whether smoking during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of appendicitis in offspring. METHODS: We used the Danish Birth Registry to include all singletons born during 1991-2017 and to identify maternal smoking status during pregnancy. We followed the children from birth until date of appendicitis, emigration, death, or administrative end of study (31 December 2018), whichever came first. We calculated crude and adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) of appendicitis with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) comparing children of mothers who smoked during pregnancy to children of nonsmokers. Further, we conducted a bias analysis and sibling analysis. RESULTS: We included 1,659,526 singletons of whom 19% were born to mothers who smoked during pregnancy. After maximum 28 years of follow-up, hazard rates for children of smokers were slightly higher than for children of nonsmokers [adjusted HR: 1.07 (95% CI = 1.04, 1.10)]. Stratification by sex revealed no association for males [adjusted HR: 1.02 (95% CI = 0.99, 1.06)], but a higher HR for females [adjusted HR: 1.13 (95% CI = 1.09, 1.18)]. This association increased with increasing length of follow-up, indicating that the association may be mediated by later-life exposures. The bias analysis indicated that misclassification of maternal smoking could attenuate a true association, while the sibling analysis showed no association. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal smoking during pregnancy and appendicitis in the offspring may be associated.


Asunto(s)
Apendicitis , Niño , Femenino , Masculino , Embarazo , Humanos , Apendicitis/epidemiología , Apendicitis/etiología , Estudios de Cohortes , Fumar/efectos adversos , Fumar/epidemiología , Fumadores , Hermanos
2.
BMC Med ; 21(1): 35, 2023 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36721200

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Congenital heart diseases (CHDs) remain a significant cause of infant morbidity and mortality. Epidemiological studies have explored maternal risk factors for offspring CHDs, but few have used genetic epidemiology methods to improve causal inference. METHODS: Three birth cohorts, including 65,510 mother/offspring pairs (N = 562 CHD cases) were included. We used Mendelian randomisation (MR) analyses to explore the effects of genetically predicted maternal body mass index (BMI), smoking and alcohol on offspring CHDs. We generated genetic risk scores (GRS) using summary data from large-scale genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and validated the strength and relevance of the genetic instrument for exposure levels during pregnancy. Logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) of CHD per 1 standard deviation (SD) higher GRS. Results for the three cohorts were combined using random-effects meta-analyses. We performed several sensitivity analyses including multivariable MR to check the robustness of our findings. RESULTS: The GRSs associated with the exposures during pregnancy in all three cohorts. The associations of the GRS for maternal BMI with offspring CHD (pooled OR (95% confidence interval) per 1SD higher GRS: 0.95 (0.88, 1.03)), lifetime smoking (pooled OR: 1.01 (0.93, 1.09)) and alcoholic drinks per week (pooled OR: 1.06 (0.98, 1.15)) were close to the null. Sensitivity analyses yielded similar results. CONCLUSIONS: Our results do not provide robust evidence of an effect of maternal BMI, smoking or alcohol on offspring CHDs. However, results were imprecise. Our findings need to be replicated, and highlight the need for more and larger studies with maternal and offspring genotype and offspring CHD data.


Asunto(s)
Estudio de Asociación del Genoma Completo , Cardiopatías Congénitas , Fumar , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Embarazo , Índice de Masa Corporal , Etanol , Cardiopatías Congénitas/epidemiología , Cardiopatías Congénitas/genética , Fumar/efectos adversos , Fumar/epidemiología , Análisis de la Aleatorización Mendeliana
3.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 1870, 2023 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36725974

RESUMEN

The use of alternative tobacco products, particularly medwakh, has expanded among youth in the Middle East and around the world. The present study is conducted to investigate the biochemical and pathophysiological changes caused by medwakh smoking, and to examine the salivary metabolomics profile of medwakh smokers. Saliva samples were collected from 30 non-smokers and 30 medwakh smokers and subjected to metabolomic analysis by UHPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS. The CRP and Glutathione Peroxidase 1 activity levels in the study samples were quantified by ELISA and the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) by TAC assay kits. Statistical measurements and thorough validation of data obtained from untargeted metabolomics identified 37 uniquely and differentially abundant metabolites in saliva of medwakh smokers. The levels of phthalate, L-sorbose, cytosine, uridine, alpha-hydroxy hippurate, and L-nicotine were noticeably high in medwakh smokers. Likewise, 20 metabolic pathways were differentially altered in medwakh smokers. This study identified a distinctive saliva metabolomics profile in medwakh smokers associated with altered redox homeostasis, metabolic pathways, antioxidant system, and CRP levels. The impact of the altered metabolites in medwakh smokers and their diagnostic utility require further research in large cohorts.


Asunto(s)
Antioxidantes , Fumar , Humanos , Adolescente , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Fumar/efectos adversos , Fumar/metabolismo , Fumar Tabaco , Metabolómica , Saliva/metabolismo , Oxidación-Reducción
4.
BMC Oral Health ; 23(1): 60, 2023 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36726081

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Smoking is an established modifying factor for the host immune response of periodontitis patients. However, its exact influence remains unclear. We aimed to compare the cytokine profile of periodontitis patients with and without smoking habits both before and after periodontal therapy to preliminarily explore its influence on the host immune response to periodontitis. METHODS: The protocol of the present meta-analysis was registered in the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) under the code CRD42021255656. Meta-analysis was performed for each cytokine if at least three studies were included. We synthesized the evidence to compare the cytokine profile of periodontitis with and without smoking both in gingival cervical fluid (GCF) and serum to explore the impact of smoking on periodontitis both locally and systemically. Moreover, we also compared the cytokine profile of the two groups of patients after periodontal therapy to explore the effect of smoking on the outcome of periodontal therapy. RESULTS: Fifteen studies were included in this meta-analysis. We found that there was no significant difference between the two groups of patients in the baseline cytokine profile. However, after periodontal therapy, smoking periodontitis patients showed significantly higher IL-1ß levels in their GCF than nonsmoking patients. DISCUSSION: There was no significant difference between smoking and nonsmoking periodontitis patients in the baseline cytokine profile. However, after periodontal therapy, smoking periodontitis patients showed significantly higher IL-1ß levels in their GCF than nonsmoking patients, which indicates that smoking may impair the response of periodontitis to periodontal treatment.


Asunto(s)
Periodontitis , Fumar , Humanos , Fumar/efectos adversos , Líquido del Surco Gingival , Revisiones Sistemáticas como Asunto , Periodontitis/terapia , Citocinas
5.
BMC Cancer ; 23(1): 92, 2023 Jan 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36703189

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Understanding the latest global spatio-temporal pattern of prostate cancer burden attributable to smoking can help guide effective global health policy. This study aims to elucidate the trends in smoking-related prostate cancer from 1990 to 2019 using Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2019 study data. METHODS: Data on prostate cancer attributable to smoking were extracted from Global Burden of Disease Study (GBD) 2019. The numbers and age-standardized rates on smoking-related prostate cancer mortality (ASMR) and disability-adjusted life years (ASDR) were analyzed by year, age, region, country, and socio-demographic index (SDI) level. Estimated annual percentage change (EAPC) was calculated to evaluate the temporal trends of ASMR and ASDR from 1990 to 2019. RESULTS: Of all prostate cancer deaths and DALYs globally in 2019, 6% and 6.6% were attributable to smoking, which contributed to 29,298 (95% CI 12,789 to 46,609) deaths and 571,590 (95% CI 253,490 to 917,820) disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) in 2019. The number of smoking-related deaths and DALYs showed an upward trend, increasing by half from 1990 to 2019, while ASMR and ASDR declined in five sociodemographic indexes (SDI) regions, with the fastest decline in high SDI regions. For geographical regions, Western Europe and East Asia were the high-risk areas of prostate cancer deaths and DALYs attributable to smoking, among which China and the United States were the countries with the heaviest burden. The ASMR has decreased in all age groups, with the fastest decrease occurring in 75-79 years old. The ASMR or ASDR tended to increase in countries with the lowest SDI, but declined in countries with the highest SDI. The EAPC in ASMR or ASDR was highly negatively correlated with Human Development Index (HDI) in 2019, with coefficients 0.46. CONCLUSION: The number of smoking-related prostate cancer deaths and DALYs continued to increase globally, whereas its ASMR and ASDR have been decreasing. This substantial progress is particularly significant in developed regions and vary across geographic regions. Medical strategies to prevent and reduce the burden should be adjusted and implemented based on country-specific disease prevalence.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de la Próstata , Fumar , Masculino , Humanos , Anciano , Años de Vida Ajustados por Calidad de Vida , Fumar/efectos adversos , Fumar/epidemiología , Fumar Tabaco/efectos adversos , Fumar Tabaco/epidemiología , Años de Vida Ajustados por Discapacidad , Salud Global , Neoplasias de la Próstata/epidemiología
6.
Lipids Health Dis ; 22(1): 15, 2023 Jan 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36707819

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The risk of postoperative recurrence is higher in lung cancer patients who smoke than non-smokers. However, objective evaluation of the postoperative recurrence risk is difficult using conventional pathological prognostic factors because of their lack of reproducibility. Consequently, novel objective biomarkers that reflect postoperative risk in lung cancer patients who smoke must be identified. Because cigarette smoking and oncogenesis alter lipid metabolism in lung tissue, we hypothesized that the lipid profiles in lung cancer tissues are influenced by cigarette smoking and can reflect the postoperative recurrence risk in smoking lung cancer patients. This study aimed to identify lipid biomarkers that reflect the smoking status and the postoperative recurrence risk. METHODS: Primary tumor tissues of lung adenocarcinoma (ADC) (n = 26) and squamous cell carcinoma (SQCC) (n = 18) obtained from surgery were assigned to subgroups according to the patient's smoking status. The ADC cohort was divided into never smoker and smoker groups, while the SQCC cohort was divided into moderate smoker and heavy smoker groups. Extracted lipids from the tumor tissues were subjected to liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis. Lipids that were influenced by smoking status and reflected postoperative recurrence and pathological prognostic factors were screened. RESULTS: Two and 12 lipid peaks in the ADC and SQCC cohorts showed a significant positive correlation with the Brinkman index, respectively. Among them, in the ADC cohort, a higher lipid level consisted of three phosphatidylcholine (PC) isomers, PC (14:0_18:2), PC (16:1_16:1), and PC (16:0_16:2), was associated with a shorter recurrence free period (RFP) and a greater likelihoods of progressed T-factor (≥ pT2) and pleural invasion. In the SQCC cohort, a lower m/z 736.5276 level was associated with shorter RFP and greater likelihood of recurrence. CONCLUSIONS: From our data, we propose three PC isomers, PC (14:0_18:2), PC (16:1_16:1), and PC (16:0_16:2), and a lipid peak of m/z 736.5276 as novel candidate biomarkers for postoperative recurrence risk in lung ADC and SQCC patients who are smokers.


Asunto(s)
Adenocarcinoma del Pulmón , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Humanos , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiología , Neoplasias Pulmonares/cirugía , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patología , Biomarcadores de Tumor/análisis , Fumar/efectos adversos , Lípidos
7.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev ; 24(1): 111-119, 2023 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36708559

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: There has been a reduction in tobacco smoking worldwide except in developing countries. Africa has the lowest prevalence of tobacco use in the world, however, the rising trends amidst the WHO FCTC implementation are worrisome as it is likely to increase the tobacco public health impact in the next decade. The study investigated factors associated with tobacco smoking among adults in Zambia. METHODS: We used secondary data extracted from the 2017 STEPS - NCDs Survey. Logistic regression was used to obtain unadjusted (UOR) and adjusted odds ratios (AOR) at 95% confidence interval (CI). RESULTS: Of the 4,301 adults who participated, 11.0% were current tobacco smokers (25.7% men and 2.27% women). Of these 75.6% and 11.9% drunk alcohol and had mental health problems, respectively. In multivariable analysis, factors significantly associated with increased odds of current tobacco smoking were older age groups of 45-59 years (AOR = 1.69; 95% CI: 1.17-2.43, p = 0.005) and 60-69 years (AOR = 2.22; 95% CI: 1.25-3.93, p = 0.006), alcohol consumption (AOR = 5.93; 95% CI: 4.44-7.91, p < 0.001), mental health problems (AOR = 2.08; 95% CI: 1.34-3.22, p = 0.001). On the other hand, female gender (AOR = 0.07; 95% CI: 0.05-0.10, p < 0.001), being diabetic (AOR = 0.52; 95% CI: 0.15-0.46, p = 0.026), education attainment; primary, secondary, and higher education (AOR = 0.65; 95% CI: 0.47-0.91, p = 0.012, AOR = 0.40; 95% CI: 0.29-0.55, p < 0.001 and AOR = 0.26; 95% CI: 0.15-0.46, p < 0.001), respectively, had reduced odds of tobacco smoking. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings underscore the high prevalence of tobacco smoking particularly in uneducated males who consume alcohol and have mental health problems.  The mental health problems and alcohol consumption in this population need to be addressed in concert with smoking cessation strategies.


Asunto(s)
Cese del Hábito de Fumar , Fumar , Masculino , Adulto , Humanos , Femenino , Anciano , Zambia/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Fumar/efectos adversos , Fumar/epidemiología , Fumar Tabaco , Tabaco
10.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0280443, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36652488

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Herpesviruses are recognized as major causes of human diseases. Following initial infection, Herpesviruses can undergo cycles of reactivation controlled largely by the immune system. Cigarette smoking is an important modulator of the immune system particularly in individuals with serious mental illness where smoking is associated with increased rates of cardiopulmonary diseases and mortality. However, the effect of smoking on Herpesviruses has not been extensively studied. METHODS: In this nested cohort study, cigarette smoking was assessed in 1323 persons with serious mental illness or without a psychiatric disorder ascertained in a psychiatric health care system and the adjacent community. Participants provided a blood sample from which were measured IgG class antibodies to five human Herpesviruses: Cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein Barr Virus (EBV), Herpes Simplex Virus-Type 1 (HSV-1); Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV); and Human Herpes Virus-Type 6 (HHV-6). The associations between smoking variables and antibody levels to the Herpesviruses were analyzed among diagnostic groups in multiple regression models adjusted for age, sex, and race. RESULTS: Current smoking was significantly associated with higher levels of antibodies to CMV (coefficient .183, 95% CI .049, .317, p<.001, q<.007) and the three EBV proteins (EBV NA -(coefficient .088, 95% CI .032, .143, p = .002, q<.014; EBV Virion - coefficient .100, 95% CI .037, .163, p = .002, q<.014; and EBV VCA - coefficient .119, 95% CI .061, .177, p = .00004, q<.0016). The amount of cigarettes smoked was also correlated with higher levels of antibodies to the three EBV proteins. Interaction analyses indicated that the association between cigarette smoking and levels of antibodies to CMV and EBV was independent of diagnostic group. Cigarette smoking was not significantly associated with the level of antibodies to HSV-1, VZV, or HHV-6. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals who smoke cigarettes have increased levels of IgG antibodies to CMV and EBV. Cigarette smoking may be a contributory factor in the relationship between CMV, EBV and chronic somatic disorders associated with these viruses.


Asunto(s)
Fumar Cigarrillos , Infecciones por Citomegalovirus , Infecciones por Virus de Epstein-Barr , Herpesvirus Humano 1 , Herpesvirus Humano 6 , Productos de Tabaco , Virus , Humanos , Herpesvirus Humano 4 , Estudios de Cohortes , Fumar/efectos adversos , Herpesvirus Humano 3 , Citomegalovirus , Inmunoglobulina G , Anticuerpos Antivirales
11.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 1035, 2023 Jan 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36658236

RESUMEN

Smoking is a trigger for asthma, which has led to an increase in asthma incidence in China. In smokers, asthma management starts with smoking cessation. Data on predictors of smoking cessation in Chinese patients with asthma are scarce. The objective of this study was to find the differences in clinical characteristics between current smokers and former smokers with asthma in order to identify factors associated with smoking cessation. Eligible adults with diagnosed asthma and smoking from the hospital outpatient clinics (n = 2312) were enrolled and underwent a clinical evaluation, asthma control test (ACT), and pulmonary function test. Information on demographic and sociological data, lung function, laboratory tests, ACT and asthma control questionnaire (ACQ) scores was recorded. Patients were divided into a current smokers group and a former smokers group based on whether they had quit smoking. Logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the factors associated with smoking cessation. Of all patients with asthma, 34.6% were smokers and 65.4% were former smokers, and the mean age was 54.5 ± 11.5 years. Compared with current smokers, the former smokers were older, had longer duration of asthma, had higher ICS dose, had more partially controlled and uncontrolled asthma, had more pack-years, had smoked for longer, and had worse asthma control. The logistic regression model showed that smoking cessation was positively correlated with age, female sex, pack-years, years of smoking, partially controlled asthma, uncontrolled asthma, and body mass index (BMI), but was negatively correlated with ACT, FEV1, FEV1%predicted, and widowed status. More than 30% of asthma patients in the study were still smoking. Among those who quit smoking, many quit late, often not realizing they need to quit until they have significant breathing difficulties. The related factors of smoking cessation identified in this study indicate that there are still differences between continuing smokers and former smokers, and these factors should be focused on in asthma smoking cessation interventions to improve the prognosis of patients with asthma.


Asunto(s)
Asma , Cese del Hábito de Fumar , Adulto , Anciano , Femenino , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Asma/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Fumadores , Fumar/efectos adversos , Fumar/epidemiología , Masculino
12.
J Cardiothorac Surg ; 18(1): 43, 2023 Jan 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36670443

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoking has been associated with an increased risk of complications after conventional coronary surgery. However, the impact of smoking on the risk of postoperative complications in minimally invasive coronary surgery is yet to be studied. We aimed to analyze the impact of the preoperative smoking status on the short- and long-term outcomes of minimally invasive direct coronary artery bypass grafting (MIDCAB) in the context of isolated surgical revascularization or in association with percutaneous coronary intervention. METHODS: This was a retrospective observational study of all patients undergoing MIDCAB at our institution between 2006 and 2020. Patients were divided into three groups: active smokers, ex-smokers who have quit smoking for at least 1 month before surgery, and non-smokers. The groups were compared using conventional statistical methods. Multivariate analysis was then performed where significant differences were found to eliminate bias. RESULTS: Throughout the study period, 541 patients underwent MIDCAB, of which 135 (25%) were active smokers, 183 (34%) were ex-smokers, and 223 (41%) were non-smokers. Smokers presented for surgery at a younger age (p < 0.0001), more frequently with a history of myocardial infarction (p < 0.001), peripheral artery disease (p < 0.001) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (p < 0.0001). Using multivariate analysis, active smoking was determined to be a significant risk factor for the need of urgent revascularization (odds ratio 2.36 [1.00-5.56], p = 0.049) and the composite of pulmonary complications (including pneumothorax, respiratory infection, respiratory dysfunction, subcutaneous emphysema and exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; odds ratio 2.84 [1.64-4.94], p < 0.001). Preoperative smoking status did not influence the long-term survival (p = 0.83). CONCLUSIONS: In our study, active smokers presented for MIDCAB at a younger age and more often with signs of atherosclerotic disease (history of myocardial infarction and peripheral artery disease). Active smoking was found to be the most significant risk factor for postoperative pulmonary complications, and is also associated with a more frequent need for urgent surgery at diagnosis. Long-term postoperative survival is not affected by the preoperative smoking status.


Asunto(s)
Infarto del Miocardio , Enfermedad Arterial Periférica , Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica , Humanos , Puente de Arteria Coronaria/métodos , Resultado del Tratamiento , Infarto del Miocardio/etiología , Complicaciones Posoperatorias/etiología , Fumar/efectos adversos , Fumar Tabaco , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Mínimamente Invasivos/efectos adversos
13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36674311

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Pancreatic cancer poses a serious medical problem worldwide. Studies have reported the relationship between smoking and cancer. This study aimed to evaluate the burden of pancreatic cancer attributable to smoking and its global, regional and national trends, patterns and alterations from 1990 to 2019. METHODS: Data were extracted from the Global Health Data Exchange query tool, including deaths, disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) and age-standardized rates (ASRs). Measures were stratified by sex, age, region, country/territory and sociodemographic index (SDI). We used Joinpoint regression to determine the secular trend of ASRs by calculating the average annual percentage change (AAPC). RESULTS: In 2019, smoking risk-related deaths and DALYs accounted for 21.3% and 21.1% of global pancreatic cancer, respectively. There were 113,384 (95% UI 98,830 to 128,466) deaths of smoking-attributable pancreatic cancer worldwide in 2019, of which 64.1% were in males. The disease burden was higher in males than in females. High-income regions or large population regions had the higher disease burden. East Asia carried the highest number of smoking-attributable pancreatic cancer deaths and DALYs. The Caribbean had the fastest increasing rate (AAPC = 3.849, 95% CI 3.310 to 4.391) of age-standardized death rate over the past 30 years. In 2019, China had the highest number of deaths, which was followed by the USA and Japan. There was a trend of increasing ASDR along with increases in SDI. CONCLUSION: Variations existed in the smoking risk-related pancreatic cancer burden among different sexes, age groups, regions and countries/territories. The burden of smoking-attributable pancreatic cancer should be considered an important health issue. Future strategies should include comprehensive policies to control tobacco use.


Asunto(s)
Carga Global de Enfermedades , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Masculino , Femenino , Humanos , Adulto , Años de Vida Ajustados por Calidad de Vida , Fumar/efectos adversos , Fumar/epidemiología , Costo de Enfermedad , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/epidemiología , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/etiología , Salud Global , Factores de Riesgo
14.
Comput Biol Chem ; 102: 107805, 2023 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36587566

RESUMEN

Growing evidence suggests that cigarette smoking alters the salivary microbiome composition and affects the risk of various complex diseases including cancer. However, the potential role of the smoking-associated microbiome in cancer development remains unexplained. Here, the putative roles of smoking-related microbiome alterations in carcinogenesis were investigated by in silico analysis and suggested evidence can be further explored by experimental methodologies. The Disbiome database was used to extract smoking-associated microbial taxa in saliva and taxon set enrichment analysis (TSEA) was conducted to identify the gene sets associated with extracted microbial taxa. We further analyzed the expression profiles of identified genes by using RNA-sequencing data from TCGA and GTEx projects. Associations of the genes with smoking-related phenotypes in cancer datasets were analyzed to prioritize genes for their interplay between smoking-related microbiome and carcinogenesis. Thirty-eight microbial taxa associated with smoking were included in the TSEA and this revealed sixteen genes that were significantly associated with smoking-associated microbial taxa. All genes were found to be differentially expressed in at least one cancer dataset, yet the ELF3 and CTSH were the most common differentially expressed genes giving significant results for several cancer types. Moreover, C2CD3, CTSH, DSC3, ELF3, RHOT2, and WSB2 showed statistically significant associations with smoking-related phenotypes in cancer datasets. This study provides in silico evidence for the potential roles of the salivary microbiome on carcinogenesis. The results shed light on the importance of smoking cessation strategies for cancer management and interventions to stratify smokers for their risk of smoking-induced carcinogenesis.


Asunto(s)
Microbiota , Humanos , Microbiota/genética , Saliva , Carcinogénesis , ARN Ribosómico 16S , Fumar/efectos adversos , Fumar/genética , Proteínas Asociadas a Microtúbulos
15.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 38(1): 95-107, 2023 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36593333

RESUMEN

We tested the hypothesis that six toxic risk factors from the TIGAR-O classification system are equally important for risk of chronic pancreatitis, at the level of the individual patient and in the general population. 108,438 women and men aged 20-100 years participating in the Copenhagen General Population Study from 2003 to 2015 were included. Associations of smoking, alcohol intake, waist/hip ratio, kidney function, plasma triglycerides, plasma Ca2+, and diseases within the causal pathway with risk of chronic pancreatitis, and corresponding population attributable risks were estimated. Information on chronic pancreatitis was from national Danish health registries. During median 9 years (range: 0-15) of follow-up, 313 individuals had a first diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis; the incidence of chronic pancreatitis per 10,000 person-years were 3.1 overall, 2.8 in women, and 3.5 in men. Of the six toxic risk factors and relative to individuals with low values, individuals in the top 5% had hazard ratios for chronic pancreatitis of 3.1(95% CI 2.1-4.5) for pack-years smoked, 2.5(1.5-4.0) for alcohol intake, and 1.6(1.1-2.6) for plasma triglycerides. Corresponding values versus those without the baseline disease were 12.6 (7.9-20.2) for acute pancreatitis, 1.9 (1.2-2.8) for gallstone disease, and 1.9 (1.3-2.7) for diabetes mellitus. The highest population attributable fractions were for women (1) ever smoking (31%), (2) gallstone disease (5%), and (3) diabetes mellitus (4%), and for men (1) ever smoking (38%), (2) acute pancreatitis (7%)/high alcohol intake (7%), and (3) high plasma triglycerides (5%). Smoking is the most important risk factor for chronic pancreatitis in the general population.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus , Cálculos Biliares , Pancreatitis Crónica , Masculino , Humanos , Femenino , Enfermedad Aguda , Factores de Riesgo , Fumar/efectos adversos , Fumar/epidemiología , Pancreatitis Crónica/epidemiología , Pancreatitis Crónica/etiología , Triglicéridos
16.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0281185, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36719880

RESUMEN

Leukocyte count in peripheral blood is an acute-phase reactant and is associated with the risk of atherosclerotic diseases. Blood lipid profile, a major risk factor of cardiovascular disease, is known to be associated with leukocyte count, but it remains to be determined how this association is affected by other factors including lifestyle and age. The subjects were 11261 Japanese middle-aged men (30~65 years old) who had received health checkup examinations. The relationships of leukocyte count with lipid-related indices (ratio of LDL cholesterol to HDL cholesterol [LDL-C/HDL-C], ratio of triglycerides to HDL cholesterol [TG/HDL-C] and cardiometabolic index [CMI]) were investigated. Leukocyte count, LDL-C/HDL-C, TG/HDL-C and CMI were significantly higher in smokers than in nonsmokers, while leukocyte count and LDL-C/HDL-C were significantly lower in regular drinkers than in nondrinkers. Both in overall subjects and subjects without habits of smoking and drinking, LDL-C/HDL-C, TG/HDL-C and CMI were significantly higher in the 2nd and 3rd tertiles for leukocyte count than in the 1st tertile and tended to be higher with an increase of the tertile. Odds ratios for high TG/HDL-C and high CMI of the 3rd vs. 1st tertiles for leukocyte count tended to be lower with an increase of age, and odds ratios for high TG/HDL-C and high CMI of the interaction term, consisting of age (60~65 vs. 30~39 years) and tertile (3rd vs. 1st tertiles for leukocyte count), were significantly lower than the reference level. In conclusion, leukocyte count is associated with lipid-related indices, and the associations are independent of smoking and alcohol drinking and tend to be weaker with an increase of age in Japanese middle-aged men.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas , Fumar , Persona de Mediana Edad , Masculino , Humanos , Anciano , HDL-Colesterol , LDL-Colesterol , Fumar/efectos adversos , Factores de Riesgo , Triglicéridos , Lípidos , Hábitos , Recuento de Leucocitos
17.
AORN J ; 117(2): 109-120, 2023 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36705450

RESUMEN

Tobacco use is associated with poor surgical outcomes and is the leading cause of preventable morbidity and mortality in the United States. Because of the risk for postoperative complications, researchers continue to examine the association between surgical patients' smoking status and adverse outcomes. This quantitative integrative review synthesizes evidence on the relationship between smoking status and postoperative outcomes according to information in the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program data set. The included studies involved 10 procedures and the evaluated outcomes comprise surgical complications (eg, surgical site infection), medical complications (eg, sepsis), and transitions in care (eg, discharge destination). The review results are mixed and are not generalizable because only two studies specified smoking status as a primary variable of interest. To develop policies for perioperative patient smoking cessation, perioperative nurses require additional research results on the relationships between smoking status and standardized variables.


Asunto(s)
Mejoramiento de la Calidad , Infección de la Herida Quirúrgica , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Evaluación de Resultado en la Atención de Salud , Fumar/efectos adversos , Fumar/epidemiología , Complicaciones Posoperatorias/epidemiología
18.
Obstet Gynecol ; 141(1): 119-125, 2023 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36701612

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between timing of smoking cessation during pregnancy and anthropometric indices of newborns. METHODS: Mothers and neonates enrolled in the JECS (Japan Environment and Children's Study), a nationwide birth cohort study, were examined. Patients with full-term neonates were included in the analysis, and 73,025 mother-neonate pairs with complete data were identified. The mothers were classified into six groups according to smoking status during pregnancy (nonsmokers [Q1, n=44,198]; ex-smokers who quit before pregnancy [Q2, n=16,461]; ex-smokers who quit in the first trimester [Q3, n=8,948]; ex-smokers who quit in the second trimester [Q4, n=498]; ex-smokers who quit in the third trimester [Q5, n=651]; and smokers who smoked throughout pregnancy [Q6, n=2,269)]). Data on smoking were based on questionnaires administered in the first, second, or third trimester and 1 month after delivery. The primary outcomes were birth weight, height, and head circumference. RESULTS: Compared with nonsmokers (Q1), no adverse outcomes were observed for ex-smokers who quit before pregnancy (Q2). The mean adjusted weights of male and female neonates were 135 g and 125 g lower, respectively, in Q6 participants than in Q1 participants. Comparing Q1 and Q6 participants, height was 0.6 cm and 0.7 cm smaller for male and female neonates, respectively. Head circumference in neonates of Q6 participants was 0.3 cm and 0.3 cm smaller for male and female neonates, respectively, than that in Q1 participants. Across all three measures, smoking cessation in the first and second trimester reduced the differential in outcomes between nonsmokers and individuals who smoked throughout pregnancy. CONCLUSION: Smoking during pregnancy is associated with reduced newborn birth weight, height, and head circumference. Earlier smoking cessation during pregnancy reduces the adverse effects of smoking on fetal growth.


Asunto(s)
Cese del Hábito de Fumar , Embarazo , Niño , Recién Nacido , Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Fumar/efectos adversos , Peso al Nacer , Estudios de Cohortes , Primer Trimestre del Embarazo
19.
Eur J Cancer ; 180: 99-107, 2023 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36592508

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The association between smoking and gallbladder cancer (GBC) risk is unclear. We investigated the association between smoking (including pack-years) and GBC risk. We also examined the combined effects of smoking and diabetes or prediabetes on GBC risk. METHODS: This Korean nationwide cohort study included 9,520,629 adults without cancer who underwent national health screening in 2009 and were followed-up until 2018. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to determine risk estimates after adjusting for potential confounders. RESULTS: During 78.4 million person-years (mean 8.2 ± 0.9 years) of follow-up, we identified 6066 patients with newly diagnosed GBC. Current and former smokers were associated with increased GBC risk (hazard ratio [HR], 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.117, 1.029-1.212 and 1.105, 1.016-1.202, respectively). Smoking of 20 to <30 and ≥30 pack-years was independently associated with increased GBC risk compared with never smoking (HR, 95% CI; 1.241, 1.100-1.400 and 1.231, 1.107-1.370, respectively). However, smoking of <10 and 10 to <20 pack-years was not. This threshold dose-response association between smoking pack-years and GBC risk was observed regardless of the glycaemic status (all P < 0.01). Furthermore, smoking of ≥20 pack-years and hyperglycaemia had a synergistic effect on the GBC risk (all P < 0.01). Smokers with ≥20 pack-years with diabetes had the highest risk of GBC compared to never smokers with normoglycaemia (HR, 1.658; 95% CI, 1.437-1.914). CONCLUSIONS: Smoking was associated with increased GBC risk with a threshold dose-response effect for smoking pack-years. The risk of GBC increases synergistically when smoking and hyperglycaemia coexist. More individualised cancer prevention education is required to reduce GBC risk.


Asunto(s)
Carcinoma in Situ , Diabetes Mellitus , Neoplasias de la Vesícula Biliar , Hiperglucemia , Adulto , Humanos , Fumar/efectos adversos , Fumar/epidemiología , Estudios de Cohortes , Factores de Riesgo , Neoplasias de la Vesícula Biliar/epidemiología , Neoplasias de la Vesícula Biliar/etiología , Modelos de Riesgos Proporcionales , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiología , Diabetes Mellitus/etiología , Hiperglucemia/complicaciones , Hiperglucemia/epidemiología
20.
Oral Oncol ; 137: 106300, 2023 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36638697

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Oral cavity cancer (OCC) is traditionally associated with smoking, but there is an increasing prevalence of the disease among non-smokers. This review investigates possible modifiable risk factors in the development of OCC in non-smokers (OCCNS). METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Scopus were searched for publications prior to June 2021. Comparative studies investigating modifiable OCCNS risk factors were identified following PRISMA guidelines. Publication date, population size, and results were indexed. Study quality was assessed using MINORS (Methodological Index for Non-Randomized Studies). Factors examined by multiple studies were analyzed using random-effect meta-analysis framework. RESULTS: Literature search resulted in 1,625 unique publications. 52 records met inclusion criterion, investigating alcohol (n = 22), chewing products (n = 18), diet (n = 7), dental health (n = 11), and medical comorbidities (n = 6). CONCLUSION: This review demonstrates the paucity of large studies investigating OCCNS risk factors. Further investigation is warranted to help clinicians risk-stratify patients without traditional risk factors.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de la Boca , No Fumadores , Humanos , Neoplasias de la Boca/epidemiología , Neoplasias de la Boca/etiología , Factores de Riesgo , Fumar/efectos adversos
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA
...