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1.
Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi ; 42(3): 222-227, 2020 Mar 23.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32252201

RESUMEN

Objective: To analyze the risk factors related to lung cancer in participants with low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) screening, to provide data support for identifying high-risk groups of lung cancer and to improve the effectiveness of LDCT lung cancer screening. Methods: A total of 5 366 asymptomatic subjects (2 762 males and 2 604 females) who underwent LDCT lung cancer screening were recruited at Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences from 2014 to 2017. The result of LDCT and the risk factors of participants were analyzed. The LDCT positive results were defined as solid or part-solid nodules≥5 mm and non-solid nodule≥8 mm. A total of 12 factors were included and multivariate logistic regression was used to analyze the risk factors associated with lung cancer in the study. Results: Of the 5 366 asymptomatic subjects, 389 were positive and 4 977 were negative for LDCT screening. Among them, 26 of 389 positive cases were confirmed as lung cancers pathologically, and the detection rate of stage I lung cancer was 92.3% (24/26). Multivariate logistic regression showed that age, smoking, low level of education were the relevant risk factors for lung cancer and positive nodules. A stratified analysis of age showed that no risk factors were detected in the 40-49 years old group, while age, smoking, low level of education (primary school and below) were recognized as risk factors in the ≥50 years old group. No statistically significant risk factor was detected between the lung cancer group and the positive nodules group. Conclusions: Age, smoking, and low level of education (primary school and below) are related risk factors for lung cancer and positive nodules. People aged 50 years or older, smoking, and low level of education may be a high risk group for lung cancer. LDCT can effectively detect early lung cancer.


Asunto(s)
Detección Precoz del Cáncer/métodos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagen , Tamizaje Masivo , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X/métodos , Adulto , China/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiología , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estadificación de Neoplasias , Factores de Riesgo , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Fumar/efectos adversos
2.
Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi ; 42(3): 228-233, 2020 Mar 23.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32252202

RESUMEN

Objective: To investigate the epidemiological characteristics and current status of surgical management for esophageal cancer in China. Methods: A national database was setup through a network platform. The clinical data of esophageal cancer treated by surgery was collected from 70 major hospitals in China between January 2009 and December 2014. Results: Complete data of 8 181 cases of esophageal cancer patients who underwent surgery were recorded in the database and recruited in the analysis. Among them, 6 052 cases were male and 2 129 were female, the average age was 60.5 years.The epidemiological investigation results showed that 148 cases (1.8%) had history of psychological trauma, 7 527 cases (92.0%) were lower social economic status, 5 072 cases (62.0%) were short of fresh vegetables and fruits, 6 544 cases (80.0%) ate rough food frequently, 3 722 cases (45.5%) drank untreated water directly from lake or river or shallow well, 3 436 cases (42.0%) had a unhealthy eating habit, including habits of eating food fast (507 cases, 6.2%), eating hot food or drinking hot tea/soup (998 cases, 12.2%), eating fried food (1 939 cases, 23.7%), 4 410 cases (53.9%) had the habits of smoking cigarettes and 2 822 cases (34.5%) drank white wine frequently.The pathological results showed that 7 813 cases (95.5%) were squamous cell carcinoma, 267 cases were adenocarcinoma (3.3%), 25 cases were adenosquamous cell carcinoma (0.3%) and 50 cases were small cell carcinoma (0.6%). A total of 1 800 cases (22.0%) received preoperative neoadjuvant therapy due to locally advanced disease or difficulty of resection. The esophagectomies were performed through left thoracotomy approach in 5 870 cases (71.8%), through right chest approach in 2 215 cases (27.1%), and the remain 96 cases (1.2%) received surgery though other approaches.A total of 8 001 cases (97.8%) underwent radical resection, the other 180 cases (2.2%) received palliative resection. The 30-day postoperative mortality rate was 0.5%, the overall ≥ grade Ⅱ postoperative complication rate was 11.6% (951 cases). The 1-yr, 3-yr, and 5-yr overall actual survival rates were 82.6%, 61.6%, and 52.9%, respectively. Conclusions: The data analysis of the national database for esophageal cancer shows that bad eating habits or eating rough food without enough nutrients, lower social and economic status, drinking white wine and smoking cigarettes frequently may be correlated with tumorigenesis of esophageal cancer. However, strong evidences produced by prospective observation studies are needed. Overall, the long-term survival of esophageal cancer patients has been improved gradually due to the application of advanced surgical techniques and reasonable multimodality treatment.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias Esofágicas/epidemiología , Neoplasias Esofágicas/cirugía , Esofagectomía , Fumar/efectos adversos , Adulto , Anciano , China/epidemiología , Neoplasias Esofágicas/patología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Terapia Neoadyuvante , Sistema de Registros , Tasa de Supervivencia , Sobrevivientes
3.
Pneumologie ; 74(5): 294-299, 2020 May.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32252110

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Since September 2007, the Federal Nonsmoker Protection Act regulates a general legal ban on smoking in federal facilities, public transport vehicles and passenger stations. Other smoking bans are not uniformly regulated and vary from state to state. In addition to places of public interest, sports venues and the workplace, particular attention in political debates has always been paid to bars and restaurants, where smoking has always been part of the picture. The situation of the Südstadt pubs in Cologne considered in this paper is governed by the expanded law for the protection of non-smokers in North Rhine Westphalia (NRW) of December 20, 2007. METHODS: A survey using a specifically created questionnaire comprising 24 items was carried out. Persons over 26 years of age visiting selected bars were interviewed in order to ensure that at the time the Nonsmoker Protection Act was introduced, participants had reached the legal age for smoking. Data acquisition was carried out both by direct surveys of participants in selected pubs in Cologne's Südstadt and by means of online surveys, attention to which had been drawn in the press, television and through social media. RESULTS: A total of 1318 completed questionnaires were evaluated. Participants were on average 49 years old (±â€Š12.1). Of the 1318 respondents, 726 were active smokers in 2007 (55.1 %). In 2018, 518 (39.3 %) (p: < 0.001) respondents stated that they were still active smokers. Of the 726 active smokers, 289 (39.8 %) had been consuming more than 20 cigarettes a day in 2007. In 2018, 179 of 518 (34.6 %) (p: < 0.001) were heavy smokers. In 2007, 303 persons (41.7 % of smokers) fell into the group of medium smokers with 10 - 19 cigarettes per day, in 2018 there were 227 (43.8 %) (p: < 0.001). The group of people who smoked less and consumed 1 - 9 cigarettes per day included a total of 134 persons (18.5 %) in 2007 and 112 (21.6 %) in 2018 (p: < 0.001). Among active smokers, the smoking ban was the most relevant cause for a change in smoking behaviour in this survey. Among non-smokers or former smokers, health aspects as well as family and friends were the decisive factors in rejecting tobacco products. SUMMARY: Based on a sample of 1318 participants among pub visitors, the study showed that the number of active smokers had significantly and distinctly decreased since the introduction of the Nonsmoker Protection Act in 2007. Furthermore, the number of people with rather low cigarette consumption showed a significant increase.


Asunto(s)
No Fumadores , Política Pública , Política para Fumadores , Cese del Hábito de Fumar , Fumar , Contaminación por Humo de Tabaco/prevención & control , Adulto , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Salud Pública , Fumar/efectos adversos , Fumar/legislación & jurisprudencia , Prevención del Hábito de Fumar , Contaminación por Humo de Tabaco/legislación & jurisprudencia
4.
Monaldi Arch Chest Dis ; 90(1)2020 Apr 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32253889

RESUMEN

We aimed to evaluate the effects of stage-matched repeated individual behavioural counselling (RIBCS) on the basis of the transtheoretical model (TTM) as an intervention to reduce and stop smoking. This study was conducted over a period of one year where all smokers presenting to a chest clinic in a tertiary centre were enrolled, each was classified on the basis of stage of readiness to change and underwent repeated counselling for a period of six months and each session was preceded and succeeded with filling of Fagerstorm test for nicotine dependence. Over the period of a year, 207 patients participated in this study, the mean age was 50.74±14.74 years; mean duration of tobacco use was 29.43±14.72 years; 64.3% were illiterate, 11.6% primary education, 14.1% were matric and while 10.1% were graduate. About 73% of smokers reported high level of nicotine dependence (FTND score >5/10). In the present study mean dependence score was 6.0±1.96; 44 (21.3%) were in pre-contemplation stage, 93 (44.9%) were in contemplation, 57 (27.5%) were in preparation and 13 (6.3%) were in action. The point prevalence excellence rate in follow up-I was 15%, follow up-II was 35.3% and follow up-III was 61.9% which was statistically significant. When we took both abstinence and reduction in smoking behaviour as one, p-value was <0.05. The point prevalence of abstinence rate (questionnaire validated) 1 month to 6 months was almost 4 times. Our intervention (RIBCS) succeeded in increasing the abstinence rates during the study period among smokers with a lower motivation to quit (pre-contemplators and contemplators) as well as those ready to quit (preparators). This is significant because of most existing smoking-cessation interventions target only motivated smokers, with few having a positive effect in smokers with a lower motivation to quit.


Asunto(s)
Terapia Conductista/métodos , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/psicología , Fumar/terapia , Tabaquismo/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Consejo/métodos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Motivación , Estudios Prospectivos , Fumar/efectos adversos , Fumar/psicología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Tabaquismo/complicaciones , Tabaquismo/diagnóstico , Tabaquismo/psicología , Adulto Joven
5.
Bone Joint J ; 102-B(3): 352-359, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32114822

RESUMEN

AIMS: Few risk factors for rotator cuff disease (RCD) and corresponding treatment have been firmly established. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between numerous risk factors and the incidence of surgery for RCD in a large cohort. METHODS: A population-based cohort of people aged between 40 and 69 years in the UK (the UK Biobank) was studied. People who underwent surgery for RCD were identified through a link with NHS inpatient records covering a mean of eight years after enrolment. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression was used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) as estimates of associations with surgery for RCD accounting for confounders. The risk factors which were considered included age, sex, race, education, Townsend deprivation index, body mass index (BMI), occupational demands, and exposure to smoking. RESULTS: Of the 421,894 people who were included, 47% were male. The mean age at the time of enrolment was 56 years (40 to 69). A total of 2,156 people were identified who underwent surgery for RCD. Each decade increase in age was associated with a 55% increase in the incidence of RCD surgery (95% confidence interval (CI) 46% to 64%). Male sex, non-white race, lower deprivation score, and higher BMI were significantly associated with a higher risk of surgery for RCD (all p < 0.050). Greater occupational physical demands were significantly associated with higher rates of RCD surgery (HR = 2.1, 1.8, and 1.4 for 'always', 'usually', and 'sometimes' doing heavy manual labour vs 'never', all p < 0.001). Former smokers had significantly higher rates of RCD surgery than those who had never smoked (HR 1.23 (95% CI 1.12 to 1.35), p < 0.001), while current smokers had similar rates to those who had never smoked (HR 0.94 (95% CI 0.80 to 1.11)). Among those who had never smoked, the risk of surgery was higher among those with more than one household member who smoked (HR 1.78 (95% CI 1.08 to 2.92)). The risk of RCD surgery was not significantly related to other measurements of secondhand smoking. CONCLUSION: Many factors were independently associated with surgery for RCD, including older age, male sex, higher BMI, lower deprivation score, and higher occupational physical demands. Several of the risk factors which were identified are modifiable, suggesting that the healthcare burden of RCD might be reduced through the pursuit of public health goals, such as reducing obesity and modifying occupational demands. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2020;102-B(3):352-359.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Musculares/cirugía , Exposición Profesional/efectos adversos , Procedimientos Ortopédicos/estadística & datos numéricos , Vigilancia de la Población , Manguito de los Rotadores/cirugía , Fumar/efectos adversos , Adulto , Anciano , Índice de Masa Corporal , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Incidencia , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Enfermedades Musculares/epidemiología , Enfermedades Musculares/etiología , Prevalencia , Estudios Prospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Reino Unido/epidemiología
6.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev ; 21(3): 783-790, 2020 03 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32212808

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Head and Neck (H and N) cancers include malignant tumors of the nasal cavity, pharynx, paranasal sinuses, oral cavity, larynx and salivary glands. Opium use might be related to these cancers. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between Opium and its Derivatives (O and D) use and the incidence of H and N cancers. METHODS: In this case-control study conducted in Kerman, 140 patients with HandN cancers and 280 healthy controls (matched for age, gender, and place of residence) were included. Information about their use of O and D, cigarette smoking, alcohol and diet were collected using a structured questionnaire. Conditional logistic regression was used to investigate the relation between variables. RESULTS: The use of opioids was associated with an increased risk of H and N cancers (Adjusted OR: 8.13; CI: 4.08-16.2). A significant dose-response relation between O and D use was observed, with high use Adjusted OR=8.91; 95% CI: 4.03-19.65 and low use Adjusted OR=6.52; 95% CI: 3.18- 13.36. This dose-response association was stronger in patients with laryngeal cancer and opioids use, with high use Adjusted OR = 11.17; 95% CI=4.48-28.09 and low use Adjusted OR = 9.46; 95% CI= 3.97- 22.52. CONCLUSION: The results show that opium use can be considered as an important risk factor for H and N cancers. Also in Iran, opium seems to play a more important role than cigarette smoking.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de Cabeza y Cuello/epidemiología , Opio/efectos adversos , Anciano , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/efectos adversos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Femenino , Neoplasias de Cabeza y Cuello/inducido químicamente , Humanos , Irán/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Fumar/efectos adversos , Fumar/epidemiología
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(7): e19118, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32049827

RESUMEN

Cigarette smoking is considered the main risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), although the mechanism remains unknown. surfactant protein A (SP-A) is thought to protect the lung from smoking-induced damage, but related studies performed in China are scarce. The aim of the study is to assess alterations of SP-A expression and distribution in lung samples from Chinese smokers with or without COPD.This cross-sectional study assessed 45 men in Wuhan Tongji Hospital after lobectomy for lung cancer in June 2010 to September 2010. Peripheral lung specimens were collected from control nonsmokers without airflow obstruction (nonsmoking group, n = 15), smokers without airflow obstruction (smoking group, n = 15), and patients with COPD (COPD group, n = 15). SP-A expression levels in lung tissue samples and its distribution in lung cells, type II pneumocytes (PNII), and alveolar macrophages (MACR) were determined by immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry.SP-A levels were significantly decreased in the COPD group (1.00 ±â€Š0.25) compared with the smoking (2.31 ±â€Š0.64) and nonsmoking (8.03 ±â€Š2.80) groups; the smoking group also showed significantly reduced levels compared with the nonsmoking group (P < .05). PNII expressing SP-A were less abundant in the COPD group (39.3% ±â€Š7.1%) compared with the smoking group (76.2% ±â€Š29.8%), whereas SP-A MACR were more abundant (92.4% ±â€Š7.1% vs 68.5% ±â€Š20.2%) (all P < .05). Among the 30 smokers, forced expiratory volume in one second (% predicted) was positively correlated with SP-A levels (r = 0.739) and the rate of SP-A+ PNII (r = 0.811), and negatively correlated with the rate of SP-A+ MACR (r = -0.758) (all P < .05).Changes in SP-A expression and distribution in lung tissues may be involved in COPD pathogenesis in smokers.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica/genética , Proteína A Asociada a Surfactante Pulmonar/metabolismo , Fumar/efectos adversos , Anciano , Estudios de Casos y Controles , China , Estudios Transversales , Volumen Espiratorio Forzado , Humanos , Pulmón/patología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica/etiología , Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica/fisiopatología , Fumadores/estadística & datos numéricos
8.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228769, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32017807

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Hair cortisol concentration (HCC) is an increasingly used measure of systemic cortisol concentration. However, determinants of HCC in children and adolescents are unclear because few prospective studies have been conducted to date. STUDY DESIGN: We followed 725 children in Project Viva, a pre-birth cohort study of mothers and children, who provided hair samples at mid-childhood (median age: 7.7 years) or early adolescence (median age: 12.9 years). We examined associations of various factors measured from pregnancy to mid-childhood with HCC in mid-childhood and early adolescence, as well as change in HCC between these time points (ΔHCC). RESULTS: There were 426 children with HCC measurements in both mid-childhood and early adolescence, 173 children with measures only in mid-childhood, and 126 with measures only in early adolescence. HCC was lower in mid-childhood (median 1.0pg/mg [interquartile range, IQR: 0.5, 2.4]) than early adolescence (2.2pg/mg [1.1, 4.4]). In multivariable-adjusted regression models, female sex (ß = -0.41, 95% CI: -0.67, -0.15) and birth weight-for-gestational age z-score (ß = -0.19, 95% CI: -0.33, -0.04) were associated with lower mid-childhood HCC, while prenatal smoking was associated with higher mid-childhood HCC (ß = 0.53, 95% CI: 0.04, 1.01). In early adolescence, child age (ß = 0.34 per year, 95% CI: 0.21, 0.46) female sex (ß = 0.33, 95% CI: 0.10, 0.57), and maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (ß = 0.15 per 5-kg/m2, 95% CI: 0.01, 0.29) were positively associated with HCC. Child anthropometric measures and biomarker concentrations were not associated with HCC. CONCLUSION: Maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, maternal prenatal smoking, and low birth weight were associated with higher mid-childhood and adolescent HCC. However, few postnatal characteristics were associated with HCC.


Asunto(s)
Cabello/metabolismo , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Efectos Tardíos de la Exposición Prenatal/metabolismo , Adolescente , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Embarazo , Fumar/efectos adversos
9.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0227908, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32092068

RESUMEN

We investigated the role of maternal environmental factors in the aetiology of congenital heart disease (CHD). A population-based case-control study (242 CHD cases, 966 controls) was conducted using an iPad questionnaire for mother with linkage to maternity and first trimester prescription records. Risk of CHD was associated with low maternal education (OR adjusted for confounders 1.59; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-2.49), pregestational diabetes (OR 4.04; 95% CI 1.00-16.28), self-reported maternal clotting disorders (adjOR 8.55, 95%CI 1.51-48.44), prescriptions for the anticlotting medication enoxaparin (adjOR 3.22, 95%CI 1.01-10.22) and self-reported vaginal infections (adjOR 1.69, 95%CI 1.01-2.80). There was no strong support for the hypothesis that periconceptional folic acid supplements have a protective effect, but there was a protective effect of frequent consumption of folate rich fruits (adjOR 0.64, 95%CI 0.47-0.89). Compared to the most common pre-pregnancy dietary pattern, CHD risk was associated with a poor diet low in fruit and vegetables (adjOR 1.56, 95%CI 1.05-2.34). Mothers of cases reported more pregnancy related stress (adjOR 1.69; 95% CI 1.22-2.34) and multiple stressors (adjOR 1.94, 95%CI 0.83-4.53). We found no supportive evidence for CHD risk being associated with obesity, smoking, depression or antidepressant use in this population. Our findings add to the previous evidence base to show potential for public health approaches to help prevent CHD in future by modifying environmental factors. Independent confirmation should be sought regarding elevated CHD risk associated with maternal blood clotting disorders and their treatment, since we are the first to report this.


Asunto(s)
Cardiopatías Congénitas/epidemiología , Adulto , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Diabetes Gestacional/patología , Dieta , Femenino , Ácido Fólico/farmacología , Humanos , Lactante , Conducta Materna , Salud Mental , Obesidad/complicaciones , Embarazo , Probabilidad , Reproducción , Factores de Riesgo , Fumar/efectos adversos , Estrés Psicológico/complicaciones
10.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228919, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32040536

RESUMEN

Cigarette smoking and tuberculosis are a significant cause of death worldwide. Several epidemiological studies have demonstrated cigarette smoking is a risk factor for tuberculosis. Electronic cigarettes have recently appeared as a healthier alternative to conventional smoking, although their impact in tuberculosis is not well understood. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of electronic cigarettes in phagocytosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and cytokines production. In vitro infection was carried out by exposing THP-1 macrophages to four electronic vapor extracts and the intracellular burden of M. tuberculosis was determined. The percentage of infection was evaluated by confocal microscopy and the cytokine production by Luminex. A reduction of intracellular M. tuberculosis burden in THP-1 macrophages was found after its exposure to electronic vapor extract; the same trend was observed by confocal microscopy when Mycobacterium bovis BCG-GFP strain was used. Electronic cigarettes stimulate a pro-inflammatory cytokine response. We conclude that electronic cigarettes impair the phagocytic function and the cytokine response to M. tuberculosis.


Asunto(s)
Citocinas/biosíntesis , Sistemas Electrónicos de Liberación de Nicotina , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/patogenicidad , Fagocitosis , Fumar/efectos adversos , Supervivencia Celular , Humanos , Inmunidad Innata , Mediadores de Inflamación/metabolismo , Macrófagos/inmunología , Macrófagos/microbiología , Macrófagos/patología , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/crecimiento & desarrollo , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/inmunología , Humo/efectos adversos , Células THP-1
11.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0229572, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32107502

RESUMEN

The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between overweight, obesity and the incidence of advanced dental caries in South Korean adults, using alternate measures. The participants included 376,077 people aged 20 years and older who had health examination at least one time between 2005 and 2008. This evaluation is based on a change of body mass index (BMI) category, for 10 years, using a nationally representative data resource available from the National Health Insurance System. Instead of using decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT), the diagnostic codes which indicate dental caries, pulpal disease and visiting frequency at dental health professionals were used in this case. A multivariate adjusted Cox regression analysis was performed to examine the association between advanced dental caries and BMI. In addition to the BMI, a multivariate analysis of gender, age, lifestyle behaviors and systemic disease information was included. To this end, the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated. Chiefly, it is noted that the overweight and obese people were more likely to develop advanced dental caries independent of the noted variables. The positive association between high BMI and incidence of advanced dental caries was more prominent in the population's characteristic of people who were in a classification of the elderly and women. Among the health and lifecycle behaviors, smoking or not was found to be one of the factors affecting the results. The alternate method used in this study showed that being overweight and obesity had a direct association with the incidence of advanced dental caries in Korean adults.


Asunto(s)
Caries Dental/complicaciones , Caries Dental/epidemiología , Obesidad/complicaciones , Sobrepeso/complicaciones , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Estudios de Cohortes , Bases de Datos Factuales , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , República de Corea , Fumar/efectos adversos , Adulto Joven
12.
Life Sci ; 246: 117428, 2020 Apr 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32057901

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Arl4c is overexpressed in several cancer tissues and is involved in cancer development. Nevertheless, the exact mechanism that regulates Arl4c expression in lung cancer has not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the regulatory mechanism of Arl4c and to explore potential chemotherapeutic drugs targeting Arl4c. METHODS: Immunohistochemistry was used to examine Arl4c expression levels in human lung adenocarcinoma cancer specimens. Protein expression was detected by western blot. Overexpression of Arl4c-Flag protein was used to detect the ubiquitination of Arl4c. A short interfering RNA against Arl4c was used for gene silencing. RESULTS: Arl4c was overexpressed in lung cancer tissues, and knockdown of Arl4c expression by siRNA decreased lung cancer A549 and 95-D cell proliferation. In addition, Arl4c expression was downregulated via inhibition of the AKT pathway in A549 and 95-D cells, whereas exposure to benzo (a) pyrene (a carcinogen in smoke) increased Arl4c expression in 16HBE cells via AKT activation. Finally, we found that chemotherapy drug hydroxycamptothecin (HCPT) could decrease Arl4c expression levels by inhibiting the activation of the AKT pathway in A549 and 95-D cells. Moreover, accumulation of ubiquitinated Arl4c protein was increased by HCPT and LY294002 (an AKT inhibitor) treatment whereas the proteasome inhibitor MG-132 attenuated the inhibitory effect of HCPT and LY294002 on Arl4c expression. CONCLUSION: Here, we highlighted the AKT pathway as an important regulatory pathway for Arl4c expression in lung cancer cells and identified HCPT as a promising drug for lung adenocarcinoma treatment that functioned by targeting Arl4c expression.


Asunto(s)
Factores de Ribosilacion-ADP/metabolismo , Adenocarcinoma del Pulmón/metabolismo , Adenocarcinoma/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogénicas c-akt/metabolismo , Transducción de Señal , Células A549 , Western Blotting , Camptotecina/análogos & derivados , Camptotecina/farmacología , Línea Celular Tumoral , Cromonas/farmacología , Regulación Neoplásica de la Expresión Génica , Técnicas de Silenciamiento del Gen , Humanos , Leupeptinas/farmacología , Morfolinas/farmacología , Proteínas Proto-Oncogénicas c-akt/antagonistas & inhibidores , Transducción de Señal/efectos de los fármacos , Fumar/efectos adversos
13.
Rev Med Suisse ; 16(682): 357-360, 2020 Feb 19.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32073770

RESUMEN

In Switzerland, about 13  % of pregnant women smoke, giving birth to more than 11'000 infants per year exposed to tobacco in utero. Although this proportion is stable since the 2000's, the users of nicotine with new devices (electronic cigarettes, inhaled heated tobacco, sniffed or chewed tobacco) are increasing. The literature is unanimous about deleterious effects of prenatal exposure to tobacco smoke on the fetus, with multiple short- and long-term consequences. Available data suggest that in utero exposure to e-cigarette could also expose the fetus to a similar profile of adverse effects. In this article, we review briefly the known epidemiological and mechanistic data on the short- and long-term effects of prenatal cigarette smoke and nicotine consumption.


Asunto(s)
Sistemas Electrónicos de Liberación de Nicotina , Exposición Materna/efectos adversos , Nicotina/efectos adversos , Efectos Tardíos de la Exposición Prenatal/inducido químicamente , Fumar/efectos adversos , Productos de Tabaco/efectos adversos , Femenino , Humanos , Embarazo , Suiza
14.
Pediatrics ; 145(3)2020 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32047098

RESUMEN

Recently, there has been a significant increase in the use of noncombustible nicotine-containing products, including electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes). Of increasing popularity are e-cigarettes that can deliver high doses of nicotine over short periods of time. These devices have led to a rise in nicotine addiction in adolescent users who were nonsmokers. Use of noncombustible nicotine products by pregnant mothers is also increasing and can expose the developing fetus to nicotine, a known teratogen. In addition, young children are frequently exposed to secondhand and thirdhand nicotine aerosols generated by e-cigarettes, with little understanding of the effects these exposures can have on health. With the advent of these new nicotine-delivery systems, many concerns have arisen regarding the short- and long-term health effects of nicotine on childhood health during all stages of development. Although health studies on nicotine exposure alone are limited, educating policy makers and health care providers on the potential health effects of noncombustible nicotine is needed because public acceptance of these products has become so widespread. Most studies evaluating the effects of nicotine on health have been undertaken in the context of smoke exposure. Nevertheless, in vitro and in vivo preclinical studies strongly indicate that nicotine exposure alone can adversely affect the nervous, respiratory, immune, and cardiovascular systems, particularly when exposure occurs during critical developmental periods. In this review, we have included both preclinical and clinical studies to identify age-related health effects of nicotine exposure alone, examining the mechanisms underlying these effects.


Asunto(s)
Desarrollo Infantil/efectos de los fármacos , Nicotina/efectos adversos , Adolescente , Niño , Preescolar , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Nicotina/metabolismo , Fumar/efectos adversos , Contaminación por Humo de Tabaco/efectos adversos
15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(5): e18744, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32000378

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: To the best of our knowledge, there is no consensus on dose-response between smoking, alcohol drinking, and bone healing. The aim of the present study is to conduct a comprehensive systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of studies to estimate the influence of smoking and alcohol use on the success of non-pathologic bone fracture healing in adult patients. METHODS: A systematic search will be performed using MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane CENTRAL, CINAHL, and AMED databases to identify randomized controlled trials and observational studies which have assessed the effect of smoking or alcohol drinking on fracture healing. Primary outcomes include delayed union or nonunion rate and time to union. Secondary outcomes are common complications which occur during bone healing including malunion and wound infection. Risk of bias will be evaluated using the Quality In Prognosis Studies (QUIPS) tool for quality assessment of each study. Dose-response meta-analysis will be performed between smoking, alcohol drinking, and bone healing. Evaluation of the quality of evidence will be conducted using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system. RESULTS: The present study will assess the effects of smoking and alcohol drinking on non-pathologic bone fracture healing in adult patients. CONCLUSION: We hope that this systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis will provide high quality evidence on dose-response between smoking, alcohol drinking, and bone fracture healing. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42019131454.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/efectos adversos , Fracturas no Consolidadas/etiología , Fumar/efectos adversos , Relación Dosis-Respuesta a Droga , Humanos , Metaanálisis como Asunto , Revisiones Sistemáticas como Asunto
17.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0222552, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32097409

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking is associated with an increased risk of developing respiratory diseases and various types of cancer. Early identification of such unfavorable outcomes in patients who smoke is critical for optimizing personalized medical care. METHODS: Here, we perform a comprehensive analysis using Systems Biology tools of publicly available data from a total of 6 transcriptomic studies, which examined different specimens of lung tissue and/or cells of smokers and nonsmokers to identify potential markers associated with lung cancer. RESULTS: Expression level of 22 genes was capable of classifying smokers from non-smokers. A machine learning algorithm revealed that AKR1B10 was the most informative gene among the 22 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) accounting for the classification of the clinical groups. AKR1B10 expression was higher in smokers compared to non-smokers in datasets examining small and large airway epithelia, but not in the data from a study of sorted alveolar macrophages. Moreover, AKR1B10 expression was relatively higher in lung cancer specimens compared to matched healthy tissue obtained from nonsmoking individuals. Although the overall accuracy of AKR1B10 expression level in distinction between cancer and healthy lung tissue was 76%, with a specificity of 98%, our results indicated that such marker exhibited low sensitivity, hampering its use for cancer screening such specific setting. CONCLUSION: The systematic analysis of transcriptomic studies performed here revealed a potential critical link between AKR1B10 expression, smoking and occurrence of lung cancer.


Asunto(s)
Aldo-Ceto Reductasas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiología , Fumar/efectos adversos , Biología de Sistemas/métodos , Transcriptoma , Aldo-Ceto Reductasas/genética , Biomarcadores de Tumor , Perfilación de la Expresión Génica , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Fumar/genética
18.
Br J Anaesth ; 124(3): 336-344, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31918847

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: General anaesthesia is increasingly common in elderly and obese patients. Greater age and body mass index (BMI) worsen gas exchange. We assessed whether this is related to increasing atelectasis during general anaesthesia. METHODS: This primary analysis included pooled data from previously published studies of 243 subjects aged 18-78 yr, with BMI of 18-52 kg m-2. The subjects had no clinical signs of cardiopulmonary disease, and they underwent computed tomography (CT) awake and during anaesthesia before surgery after preoxygenation with an inspired oxygen fraction (FIO2) of >0.8, followed by mechanical ventilation with FIO2 of 0.3 or higher with no PEEP. Atelectasis was assessed by CT. RESULTS: Atelectasis area of up to 39 cm2 in a transverse scan near the diaphragm was seen in 90% of the subjects during anaesthesia. The log of atelectasis area was related to a quadratic function of (age+age2) with the most atelectasis at ∼50 yr (r2=0.08; P<0.001). Log atelectasis area was also related to a broken-line function of the BMI with the knee at 30 kg m-2 (r2=0.06; P<0.001). Greater atelectasis was seen in the subjects receiving FIO2 of 1.0 than FIO2 of 0.3-0.5 (12.8 vs 8.1 cm2; P<0.001). A multiple regression analysis, including a quadratic function of age, a broken-line function of the BMI, and dichotomised FIO2 (0.3-0.5/1.0) adjusting for ventilatory frequency, strengthened the association (r2=0.23; P<0.001). PaO2 decreased with both age and BMI. CONCLUSIONS: Atelectasis during general anaesthesia increased with age up to 50 yr and decreased beyond that. Atelectasis increased with BMI in normal and overweight patients, but showed no further increase in obese subjects (BMI ≥30 kg m-2). Therefore, greater age and obesity appear to limit atelectasis formation during general anaesthesia.


Asunto(s)
Anestesia General/efectos adversos , Obesidad/complicaciones , Complicaciones Posoperatorias/prevención & control , Atelectasia Pulmonar/etiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribución por Edad , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Anestesia General/métodos , Índice de Masa Corporal , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Obesidad/fisiopatología , Complicaciones Posoperatorias/diagnóstico por imagen , Complicaciones Posoperatorias/etiología , Atelectasia Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagen , Atelectasia Pulmonar/fisiopatología , Atelectasia Pulmonar/prevención & control , Intercambio Gaseoso Pulmonar/fisiología , Respiración Artificial/métodos , Fumar/efectos adversos , Volumen de Ventilación Pulmonar/fisiología , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X , Adulto Joven
19.
Chemosphere ; 247: 125880, 2020 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31955044

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of interrelated risk factors, which increase the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer. The prevalence of MetS might be affected by environmental pollution and individual's poor lifestyles. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we aimed to evaluate the interactions effect of PAHs exposure and poor lifestyles on MetS among coke oven workers. We measured the concentrations of 11 urinary PAH metabolites among 682 coke oven workers by HPLC-MS. China adult blood lipid abnormality prevention guide (2016) was employed for diagnosing MetS. An interaction effect was tested in the modified Poisson regression models. RESULTS: The results showed that the urinary level of 1-NAP (P for trend = 0.043) and 2-FLU (P for trend = 0.037) had significant dose-response relationships with increased PR of MetS. For 1-NAP, statistically significant positive association was with low HDL among individuals (P for trend = 0.003). Besides, smoking was associated with a significantly increased risk of prevalence ratio of MetS (PR = 1.07; 95% CI 1.00-1.13), high triglycerides (PR = 1.13; 95% CI 1.05-1.20) and low HDL (PR = 1.07; 95% CI 1.01-1.14). Smokers who with high levels of 1-NAP and 2-FLU had higher prevalence ratio of MetS compared with non-smokers who with low levels of 1-NAP [PR (95% CI): 1.17 (1.06-1.29); P for trend = 0.002] and 2-FLU [PR (95% CI): 1.17 (1.06-1.29); P for trend = 0.004]. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggested PAHs exposure increased the prevalence ratio of MetS and this effect can be modified by smoking status.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Ocupacionales del Aire/análisis , Coque , Síndrome Metabólico/epidemiología , Exposición Profesional/estadística & datos numéricos , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análisis , Fumar/epidemiología , Adulto , China , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Exposición Profesional/análisis , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Fumar/efectos adversos
20.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227175, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31923188

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is associated with an increased risk of myocardial infarction and stroke but it remains unclear how to identify microvascular changes in this population. OBJECTIVES: We hypothesized that simple non-mydriatic retinal photography is feasible and can be used to assess microvascular damage in COPD. METHODS: Novel Vascular Manifestations of COPD was a prospective study comparing smokers with and without COPD, matched for age. Non-mydriatic, retinal fundus photographs were assessed using semi-automated software. RESULTS: Retinal images from 24 COPD and 22 control participants were compared. Cases were of similar age to controls (65.2 vs. 63.1 years, p = 0.38), had significantly lower Forced Expiratory Volume in one second (FEV1) (53.4 vs 100.1% predicted; p < 0.001) and smoked more than controls (41.7 vs. 29.6 pack years; p = 0.04). COPD participants had wider mean arteriolar (155.6 ±15 uM vs. controls [142.2 ± 12 uM]; p = 0.002) and venular diameters (216.8 ±20.7 uM vs. [201.3± 19.1 uM]; p = 0.012). Differences in retinal vessel caliber were independent of confounders, odds ratios (OR) = 1.08 (95% confidence intervals [CI] = 1.02, 1.13; p = 0.007) and OR = 1.05 (CI = 1.01, 1.09; p = 0.011) per uM increase in arteriolar and venular diameter respectively. FEV1 remained significantly associated with retinal vessel dilatation r = -0.39 (p = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Non-mydriatic retinal imaging is easily facilitated. We found significant arteriole and venous dilation in COPD compared to age-matched smokers without COPD associated with lung function independent of standard cardiovascular risk factors. Retinal microvascular changes are known to be strongly associated with future vascular events and retinal photography offers potential to identify this risk. TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov NCT02060292.


Asunto(s)
Procesamiento de Imagen Asistido por Computador/métodos , Microvasos/diagnóstico por imagen , Fotomicrografía/métodos , Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica/complicaciones , Enfermedades de la Retina/diagnóstico por imagen , Enfermedades de la Retina/etiología , Vasos Retinianos/diagnóstico por imagen , Adulto , Anciano , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Estudios de Factibilidad , Femenino , Fondo de Ojo , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Prospectivos , Vasos Retinianos/patología , Fumadores , Fumar/efectos adversos
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