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1.
Rev Saude Publica ; 54: 31, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32236302

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of cigarette use among adolescents and to identify associated health risk behaviors. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study with a representative sample, composed of 1059 adolescents between 13 and 19 years old, enrolled in primary and secondary public schools of Olinda, Pernambuco, in 2014. Information was obtained through self-administered questionnaires (validated version of YRBS 2007). Cigarette experimentation was defined as smoking at least once in life. Adolescents who smoked at least one day within 30 days prior to the survey were considered current smokers. Most students were female and 16 years old or older. RESULTS: Almost 30% used it in life and about 10% smoked within the 30 days before the survey. Suicidal ideation (PR = 1.51, 95%CI 1.25-1.82), alcohol use (PR = 1.41, 95%CI 1.03-1.92), marijuana (PR = 1.64, 95%CI 1.37-1.96), excessive alcohol consumption (PR = 1.57, 95%CI 1.15-2.16) and sexual experience (PR = 1.78, 95%CI 1.43-2.21) have increased the risk of using cigarettes. Feelings of sadness (PR = 1.70, 95%CI 1.22-2.36), alcohol use (PR=2.40, 95%CI 1.12-5.12), excessive alcohol consumption (PR = 2.5, 95% CI 1.24-5.38), marijuana (PR = 2.31, 95%CI.57-3.39) and cocaine (PR = 1.99, 95%CI.32-3.01) increased the risk of cigarette use within the 30 days before the survey. CONCLUSIONS: Cigarette use among adolescents from Olinda was high, being considered higher than the national prevalence. Possible factors associated with cigarette use were drug use (alcohol, marijuana, and cocaine) and behaviors related to sexual experience, feelings of sadness and suicidal ideation.


Asunto(s)
Conducta del Adolescente , Conductas de Riesgo para la Salud , Fumar/epidemiología , Adolescente , Conducta del Adolescente/psicología , Brasil/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Tristeza , Conducta Sexual , Fumar/psicología , Factores Socioeconómicos , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/epidemiología , Ideación Suicida , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Factores de Tiempo , Violencia/estadística & datos numéricos
2.
J Glob Health ; 10(1): 010804, 2020 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32257168

RESUMEN

Background: Suboptimal health status (SHS) is an intermediate health status between ideal health and illness. As a determinant of cardiovascular disease and stroke, SHS is hypothesized to be associated with the development of cognitive impairment and dementia. This study aimed to investigate whether individuals with SHS have poor cognitive ability based on a community-based cohort in northern Chinese population. Methods: 3524 participants who were enrolled in Jidong cohort 2015 in Tangshan City were investigated in this study. Cognitive function was measured with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). SHS level was evaluated using a self-reporting Suboptimal Health Status Questionnaire-25 (SHSQ-25). The relationship between SHS and cognitive function was analyzed with logistic regression analysis, by which odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated. Results: The prevalence of cognitive impairment was 3.4% (121/3524) in our study, with the prevalence rates of 1.9% (34/1750) among men and 4.9% (87/1774) in women. The medians of total score of MMSE were 28 (interquartile range (IQR) = 27-29) in the SHS group, and 29 (IQR = 27-30) in the ideal health group. Logistic regression analysis showed that SHS was significantly correlated with cognitive impairment (adjusted OR = 2.936, 95% CI = 1.428-6.033). With regard to gender, the OR was 5.067 (95% CI = 1.346-19.068) in men, which was higher than that in women (OR = 2.324, 95% CI = 1.130-4.779). Conclusions: SHS might be a risk factor for cognitive function in northern Chinese population. Early screening of SHS individuals, as well as urgent treatment of SHS might contribute to the prevention of cognitive impairment.


Asunto(s)
Cognición/fisiología , Disfunción Cognitiva/epidemiología , Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , Estado de Salud , Calidad de Vida/psicología , Adulto , Distribución por Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Asiática , Índice de Masa Corporal , Disfunción Cognitiva/psicología , Estudios de Cohortes , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pruebas de Estado Mental y Demencia , Persona de Mediana Edad , Distribución por Sexo , Fumar/epidemiología , Factores Socioeconómicos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
3.
Cent Eur J Public Health ; 28(1): 13-17, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32228811

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Few studies have investigated smoking habits among foster care home children and employees, who are at high risk for smoking. Additionally, there are no published studies on the intention to quit smoking among employees of the Romanian Child Protection system, a gap we address in this manuscript. METHODS: A repeated cross-sectional survey was conducted among foster care employees in three Transylvanian counties (Mures, Sibiu, Covasna) in January 2014 to February 2015 (baseline) and September-December 2016 (follow-up). A foster home-based smoking prevention and cessation intervention targeting employees and children was conducted between the two waves. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine associations between socio-demographics, reasons for smoking, tobacco use patterns, reasons for quitting, and tobacco policy attitudes on intention to quit (dependent variable), controlling for participation in the smoking prevention intervention. RESULTS: 305 employees participated in the baseline (76.4% of females, 23.6% of males) and 304 employees in the follow-up surveys (68.8% of females, 31.2% of males) after the smoking prevention and cessation intervention. At baseline, 34.8% of respondents reported that no one was smoking within the foster care home, which increased to 59.1% at follow-up (p < 0.001). Being male and a high level of professional satisfaction were the only correlates of intention to quit in the bivariate models at baseline. Professional satisfaction and a belief that smoking is bad for one's health were the only correlates of intention to quit at follow-up. In multivariable models, professional satisfaction was the only consistent predictor of intention to quit at both time points (OR 5.63, 95% CI 1.71-18.56; OR 4.98, 95% CI 1.43-17.30). CONCLUSIONS: Efforts should be made to promote cessation among foster care employees that includes evidence-based support, along with compliance to policies that prohibit smoking indoors to reinforce cessation efforts.


Asunto(s)
Servicios de Protección Infantil/organización & administración , Cuidados en el Hogar de Adopción , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/psicología , Fumar/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalencia , Rumanía/epidemiología
4.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev ; 21(3): 783-790, 2020 03 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32212808

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Head and Neck (H and N) cancers include malignant tumors of the nasal cavity, pharynx, paranasal sinuses, oral cavity, larynx and salivary glands. Opium use might be related to these cancers. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between Opium and its Derivatives (O and D) use and the incidence of H and N cancers. METHODS: In this case-control study conducted in Kerman, 140 patients with HandN cancers and 280 healthy controls (matched for age, gender, and place of residence) were included. Information about their use of O and D, cigarette smoking, alcohol and diet were collected using a structured questionnaire. Conditional logistic regression was used to investigate the relation between variables. RESULTS: The use of opioids was associated with an increased risk of H and N cancers (Adjusted OR: 8.13; CI: 4.08-16.2). A significant dose-response relation between O and D use was observed, with high use Adjusted OR=8.91; 95% CI: 4.03-19.65 and low use Adjusted OR=6.52; 95% CI: 3.18- 13.36. This dose-response association was stronger in patients with laryngeal cancer and opioids use, with high use Adjusted OR = 11.17; 95% CI=4.48-28.09 and low use Adjusted OR = 9.46; 95% CI= 3.97- 22.52. CONCLUSION: The results show that opium use can be considered as an important risk factor for H and N cancers. Also in Iran, opium seems to play a more important role than cigarette smoking.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de Cabeza y Cuello/epidemiología , Opio/efectos adversos , Anciano , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/efectos adversos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Femenino , Neoplasias de Cabeza y Cuello/inducido químicamente , Humanos , Irán/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Fumar/efectos adversos , Fumar/epidemiología
5.
BMC Med Genet ; 21(1): 55, 2020 03 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32188413

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Glutathione S-transferases play a key role in the detoxification of persistent oxidative stress products which are one of several risks factors that may be associated with many types of disease processes such as cancer, diabetes, and hypertension. In the present study, we characterize the null genotypes of GSTM1 and GSTT1 in order to investigate the association between them and the risk of developing essential hypertension. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study in Burkina Faso, including 245 subjects with essential hypertension as case and 269 control subjects with normal blood pressure. Presence of the GSTT1 and GSTM1 was determined using conventional multiplex polymerase chain reaction followed by gel electrophoresis analysis. Biochemical parameters were measured using chemistry analyzer CYANExpert 130. RESULTS: Chi-squared test shows that GSTT1-null (OR = 1.82; p = 0.001) and GSTM1-active/GSTT1-null genotypes (OR = 2.33; p <  0.001) were significantly higher in cases than controls; the differences were not significant for GSTM1-null, GSTM1-null/GSTT1-active and GSTM1-null/GSTT1-null (p > 0.05). Multinomial logistic regression revealed that age ≥ 50 years, central obesity, family history of hypertension, obesity, alcohol intake and GSTT1 deletion were in decreasing order independent risk factors for essential hypertension. Analysis by gender, BMI and alcohol showed that association of GSTT1-null with risk of essential hypertension seems to be significant when BMI < 30 Kg/m2, in non-smokers and in alcohol users (all OR ≥ 1.77; p ≤ 0.008). Concerning GSTT1, GSTM1 and cardiovascular risk markers levels in hypertensive group, we found that subjects with GSTT1-null genotype had higher waist circumference and higher HDL cholesterol level than those with GSTT1-active (all p <  0.005), subjects with GSTM1-null genotype had lower triglyceride than those with GSTM1-active (p = 0.02) and subjects with the double deletion GSTM1-null/GSTT1-null had higher body mass index, higher waist circumference and higher HDL cholesterol than those with GSTM1-active/GSTT1-active genotype (all p = 0.01). CONCLUSION: Our results confirm that GSTT1-null genotype is significantly associated with risk of developing essential hypertension in Burkinabe, especially when BMI < 30 Kg/m2, in non-smokers and in alcohol users, and it showed that the double deletion GSTM1-null/GSTT1-null genotypes may influence body lipids repartition.


Asunto(s)
Hipertensión Esencial/genética , Glutatión Transferasa/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Eliminación de Secuencia , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/sangre , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Índice de Masa Corporal , Burkina Faso/epidemiología , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Hipertensión Esencial/sangre , Hipertensión Esencial/epidemiología , Femenino , Predisposición Genética a la Enfermedad , Genotipo , Humanos , Lípidos/sangre , Mutación con Pérdida de Función , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Factores de Riesgo , Fumar/sangre , Fumar/epidemiología
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(12): e19454, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32195941

RESUMEN

Pain is a significant burden among different communities, but little is known regarding the epidemiology of pain, particularly with respect to socioeconomic status (SES).The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of body pain and to identify risk factors of pain in middle-aged and older Chinese.The data were extracted from the 2008 Chinese Suboptimal Health Study that consisted of 18,316 Chinese subjects aged 18 to 65 years. Information on SES including occupation and education levels and body pain were collected. A Likert scale was used to evaluate reported body pain. We used the multiple logistic regression model to examine the association between SES and body pain.Overall, 65.34% reported body pain (male: 60.93%; female: 69.73%). After adjustments based on sex, age, education, area of residence, marital status, smoking, drinking and health status, the results showed that students (odds ratio [OR] = 1.51; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.32-1.74) and professionals (OR = 1.22; 95% CI: 1.08-1.37) had significant high risk for body pain, compared with civil servants and farmers (OR = 0.64; 95% CI: 0.55-0.75) who significantly lower risk of body pain. The study demonstrates there is a significant negative association between education and reported body pain.The results indicated an association between SES and body pain within the Chinese community. Body pain varied among different Chinese occupation-related population and people with higher education level are less like to have body pain.


Asunto(s)
Dolor/epidemiología , Factores Socioeconómicos , Adolescente , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Femenino , Estado de Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Características de la Residencia , Factores Sexuales , Fumar/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
7.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 9(1): 28, 2020 Mar 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32169118

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: By the end of October 2019, there were 958 thousand people were reported living with HIV/AIDS in China. Unhealthy lifestyle factors, such as smoking, drinking alcohol, using illicit drugs and no physical activity have been found to mitigate the positive impact of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on viral load and HIV-related quality of life. Moreover, risky sexual behavior among HIV-positive persons places their partners at risk for HIV transmission and other sexually transmitted infections. The aim of the study is to determine the prevalence of unhealthy behavior of people living with HIV/AIDS and related influencing factors, particularly those that are closely connected with HIV infection and ART effects. METHODS: An institutional based cross-sectional study design was used to collect data from people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in Beijing and Yunnan Province. The following information was included in the questionnaire survey: social-demographic characteristics, health behavior information, sexual risk behaviors. Binary logistic regression model was conducted to analyze the influencing factors of unhealthy general health behaviors and risky sexual behaviors. RESULTS: In total, 2575 PLWHA were included in the study and 78.3% (2017/2575) were male. For the general health behaviors, 34.2% (987/2544) smoke; 33.8% (870/2575) drank alcohol and 2.3% (49/2134) reported the use of illicit drugs in the previous 6 months. From the sexual behaviors perspective, 59.0% (1519/2575) had sex in the previous 6 months. Among people who had sex, 92.0% (1398/1519) had fixed sexual partners. Among those with no fixed sexual partner, 38.0% (46/121) had more than three partners. Among men who had sex, 34.7% (448/1292) reported having sex with men in the previous 6 months and 16.7% (75/448) of these had group sexual activity. Among participants, 72.2% (1053/1458) used condoms every time they had sex while 6.4% (94/1458) of people never used condom. Male people living with HIV/AIDS were more likely to have sexual risk behaviors (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 2.208, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.147-4.252) and unhealthy general health behaviors (adjusted OR = 2.029, 95% CI: 1.480-2.783). The odds of higher risk sexual behaviors was 1.546 times (95% CI: 1.302-1.827, P = 0.001) greater among participants who drank alcohol compared with their non-drinking counterparts. CONCLUSIONS: PLWHA is a group that is vulnerable to problematic health behaviors, especially for men who were more likely to drink alcohol, have more sexual partners, more sexual risk behaviors including group sexual activity, not using condoms and using drugs. Therefore, interventions focusing on gender-specific risk behaviors reduction for people living with HIV/AIDS are now necessary to control the spread of HIV infection and improve the efficacy of antiviral treatment.


Asunto(s)
Fármacos Anti-VIH/uso terapéutico , Condones/estadística & datos numéricos , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por VIH/psicología , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Conducta Sexual , Adolescente , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , China/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Calidad de Vida , Factores de Riesgo , Asunción de Riesgos , Parejas Sexuales , Fumar/epidemiología , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/epidemiología
8.
DNA Cell Biol ; 39(3): 379-388, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32031872

RESUMEN

microRNAs' (miRNAs) loci may influence hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development. Many recent studies have assessed the relationship between miRNA-499, miRNA-146a, and miRNA-196a2 loci and HCC risk. However, the observed results are conflicting. A total of 584 HCC patients and 923 age- and sex-matched controls were recruited. The correlation of miRNA-499 rs3746444, miRNA-146a rs2910164, and miRNA-196a2 rs11614913 with HCC development was assessed. In the <53-year-old subgroup, a correlation of the rs2910164 locus with HCC risk was found (GG/CG vs. CC: adjusted p = 0.011, GG vs. CC: adjusted p = 0.021 and CG vs. CC: adjusted p = 0.027). The association between miRNA-146a rs2910164 and the risk of HCC was also found in the never smoking (GG/CG vs. CC: adjusted p = 0.011 and CG vs. CC: adjusted p = 0.018). Using false-positive report probability method and power value, we identified that miRNA-146a rs2910164 conferred a risk to HCC in the <53-year-old and never-smoking subgroups. In conclusion, this study indicates rs2910164 may be a risk factor for HCC, especially in the <53-year-old and never-smoking subgroups.


Asunto(s)
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , MicroARNs/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/epidemiología , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Femenino , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Fumar/epidemiología
9.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 28: e3230, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués, Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32022150

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: to determine the consumption of alcohol, tobacco, eating habits, and physical activity among nursing students and to detect whether being a nursing student is a protective factor against these habits. METHOD: a questionnaire was used to collect information on age, academic year, sex, alcohol and tobacco consumption, physical activity, and healthy eating. An information sheet and informed consent form were given. The sample was composed of 264 students aged between 18-30 years from four academic years. RESULTS: of the total sample, 15.5% smoked, 83.7% consumed alcoholic beverages and 97.2% consumed over the weekend. The total of 68.6% did not practice exercises and 70.5% needed changes in their diet. CONCLUSION: nursing students have high levels of alcohol consumption and low levels of smoking compared with other studies. The higher the academic year, the lower the age of onset of tobacco consumption. The number of men who exercised was higher, which is considered a protective factor against alcohol and tobacco consumption and is related to a healthy diet. Smoking has a negative influence on diet. The students needed to change their diet. Finally, being a nursing student is not considered a protective factor against alcohol and tobacco consumption, nor having good eating habits and exercising.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Ejercicio Físico , Conducta Alimentaria , Fumar/epidemiología , Estudiantes de Enfermería/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
10.
Public Health Rep ; 135(2): 253-261, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32017658

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Paternal involvement is associated with improved infant and maternal outcomes. We compared maternal behaviors associated with infant morbidity and mortality among married women, unmarried women with an acknowledgment of paternity (AOP; a proxy for paternal involvement) signed in the hospital, and unmarried women without an AOP in a representative sample of mothers in the United States from 32 sites. METHODS: We analyzed 2012-2015 data from the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System, which collects site-specific, population-based data on preconception, prenatal and postpartum behaviors, and experiences from women with a recent live birth. We calculated adjusted prevalence ratios (aPRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to examine associations between level of paternal involvement and maternal perinatal behaviors. RESULTS: Of 113 020 respondents (weighted N = 6 159 027), 61.5% were married, 27.4% were unmarried with an AOP, and 11.1% were unmarried without an AOP. Compared with married women and unmarried women with an AOP, unmarried women without an AOP were less likely to initiate prenatal care during the first trimester (married, aPR [95% CI], 0.94 [0.92-0.95]; unmarried with AOP, 0.97 [0.95-0.98]), ever breastfeed (married, 0.89 [0.87-0.90]; unmarried with AOP, 0.95 [0.94-0.97]), and breastfeed at least 8 weeks (married, 0.76 [0.74-0.79]; unmarried with AOP, 0.93 [0.90-0.96]) and were more likely to use alcohol during pregnancy (married, 1.20 [1.05-1.37]; unmarried with AOP, 1.21 [1.06-1.39]) and smoke during pregnancy (married, 3.18 [2.90-3.49]; unmarried with AOP, 1.23 [1.15-1.32]) and after pregnancy (married, 2.93 [2.72-3.15]; unmarried with AOP, 1.17 [1.10-1.23]). CONCLUSIONS: Use of information on the AOP in addition to marital status provides a better understanding of factors that affect maternal behaviors.


Asunto(s)
Estado Civil/estadística & datos numéricos , Conducta Materna , Madres/estadística & datos numéricos , Paternidad , Adolescente , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Certificado de Nacimiento , Lactancia Materna/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Embarazo , Atención Prenatal/estadística & datos numéricos , Medición de Riesgo , Fumar/epidemiología , Estados Unidos
11.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 153, 2020 Jan 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32005213

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Oral cancers account for 3% of annual U.S. cancer diagnosis, 2 in 5 of which are diagnosed late when prognosis is poor. The purpose of this study was to report the population-level prevalence of oral cancer examination among adult smokers and alcohol drinkers and assess if these modifiable lifestyle factors are associated with receiving an oral cancer examination. METHODS: Adult participants ≥30 years (n = 9374) of the 2013-2016 cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were included. Oral cancer examination (yes/no), smoking (never, former, current) and alcohol use (abstainers, former, current) were self-reported. Survey-logistic regression estimated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of ever and past year oral cancer examination adjusted for age, gender, race/ethnicity, education, income, and time since last dental visit. RESULTS: One third (33%) reported ever been examined for oral cancer, 66% of whom reported an examination in the past year. Adjusted OR (95% CI) of past year examination comparing current and former smokers to non-smokers were 0.51 (0.29, 0.88) and 0.74 (0.53, 1.04) respectively. Similarly, current and former alcohol drinkers relative to abstainers were less likely to report a past year oral cancer examination, OR (95% CI) = 0.84 (0.53, 1.30) and 0.50 (0.30, 0.83) respectively. CONCLUSION: This study showed that smokers and alcohol users were less likely than abstainers to self-report a past year oral cancer examination. Access to affordable and targeted oral cancer examination within the dental care setting might ensure that these high-risk individuals get timely examinations and earlier diagnosis that might improve prognosis and survival.


Asunto(s)
Atención Odontológica , Disparidades en Atención de Salud , Estilo de Vida , Neoplasias de la Boca/diagnóstico , Examen Físico/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Anciano , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Encuestas Nutricionales , Factores de Riesgo , Autoinforme , Fumar/epidemiología , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
12.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 155, 2020 Jan 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32005217

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Smoking, especially among adolescents, is considered a serious public health concern worldwide being associated with increased mortality. The present study was designed as the first systematic review and meta-analysis of the prevalence of current and former smoking behavior among adolescents in Iran. METHODS: Seven international scholarly databases, namely Scopus, Embase, Pubmed/Medline, ISI/Web of Science (WOS), the Cochrane Library, Psyc Info and Cinahl, were extensively searched from January 2000 to September 18, 2019. Google Scholar was also mined. Iranian databases were searched as well (namely, MagIran, Scientific Information Database (SID), and Barakatkns). The DerSimonian-Laird's approach, via the Freeman-Tukey double arcsine method, was used to synthesize the prevalence estimates. RESULTS: The prevalence of current smokers among Iranian adolescents was estimated to be 9% (95% CI: 7 to 10). Stratifying based on gender, the prevalence was 12% among boys (95% CI: 10 to 14) and 6% among girls (95% CI: 5 to 8). The prevalence of former smokers among Iranian adolescents using the random-effect model was computed to be 24% (95% CI: 21 to 27). CONCLUSION: The findings of this study showed that the prevalence of current and former smoking behavior among Iranian adolescents is a relevant public health concern. The country's young population should be given more attention by health policy- and decision-makers and implementation of ad hoc prevention and control policies should be on their agenda.


Asunto(s)
Fumadores/estadística & datos numéricos , Fumar/epidemiología , Adolescente , Niño , Humanos , Irán/epidemiología , Prevalencia
13.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 151, 2020 Jan 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32005218

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: There are few data available about hardcore smokers and their behavioral characteristics among the lung cancer screening (LCS) population. The study investigated the burden of hardcore smokers within the LCS population, and determine the characteristics of hardcore smokers using nationally representative data in South Korea. METHODS: We used data from 2007 to 2012 from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. This study enrolled current male smokers aged 55-74 years. Among them, subjects eligible for LCS were defined as these populations with smoking histories of at least 30 PY. Hardcore smoking was defined as smoking >15 cigarettes per day, with no plan to quit, and having made no attempt to quit. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to estimate associations between hardcore smokers and various sociodemographic and other variables. RESULTS: The proportion of hardcore smokers among those who met LCS eligibility criteria decreased from 2007 to 2012 (from 39.07 to 29.47% of the population) but did not change significantly thereafter (P = 0.2770), and that proportion was consistently 10-15% higher than that of hardcore smokers among all male current smokers. The proportion without any plan to quit smoking decreased significantly from 54.35% in 2007 to 38.31% in 2012. However, the smokers who had made no intentional quit attempt in the prior year accounted for more than half of those eligible for LCS, and the proportion of such smokers did not change significantly during the study period (50.83% in 2007 and 51.03% in 2012). Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that hardcore smokers were older (OR = 1.05, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-1.09) than non-hardcore smokers. Hardcore smokers exhibited higher proportion of depression (OR = 6.55, 95% CI 1.75-24.61) and experienced extreme stress more frequently (OR = 1.93, 95% CI 1.13-3.29). Smokers who did not receive smoking cessation education within the past year were significantly more likely to be hardcore smokers (OR = 4.15, 95% CI 1.30-13.22). CONCLUSIONS: It is important to identify a subset of smokers unwilling or minimally motivated to quit within the context of lung cancer screening. Anti-smoking education should be enhanced to influence hardcore smokers' behavior.


Asunto(s)
Detección Precoz del Cáncer , Determinación de la Elegibilidad , Neoplasias Pulmonares/prevención & control , Fumadores/psicología , Fumar/psicología , Anciano , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Encuestas Nutricionales , República de Corea/epidemiología , Factores de Riesgo , Fumadores/estadística & datos numéricos , Fumar/epidemiología
14.
Pediatrics ; 145(3)2020 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32015140

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Identifying trends in smoking behaviors among youth cigarette smokers could inform youth policy and interventions. METHODS: Using 2011-2018 National Youth Tobacco Survey data, logistic/linear regressions were used to analyze trends in smoking frequency, intensity, age of first cigarette use, and electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use frequency among current smokers. Stratified analyses were conducted among male, female, middle school, and high school students and race and ethnicity subgroups separately. RESULTS: From 2011 to 2018, there was a decrease in smoking ≥10 days (50.0% to 38.3%), ≥20 days (37.2% to 26.3%), and 30 days (26.6% to 18.2%) among current smokers. Smoking prevalence decreased among male, female, high school, non-Hispanic white, and non-Hispanic other students. Overall, light smoking (≤5 cigarettes per day [CPDs]) increased (76.6% to 82.7%), and moderate smoking (6-10 CPDs) decreased (10.7% to 8.3%). Trends in light, moderate, and heavy smoking varied by demographic groups. Age at first cigarette use increased among female (12.28 to 13.29), high school (12.91 to 13.18), and non-Hispanic other students (11.64 to 12.83) and decreased among male students (12.90 to 12.57). From 2014 to 2018, there was an increase in e-cigarette use frequency for ≥10 days (20.8% to 40.9%), ≥20 days (13.5% to 31.7%), and all 30 days (9.3% to 22%). CONCLUSIONS: From 2011 to 2018, current youth cigarette smokers smoked fewer days and fewer CPDs, and age of first cigarette use increased. However, over time, male youth smoked more heavily and started smoking earlier. E-cigarette use increased from 2014 to 2018. Differences by demographic characteristics can inform future research and interventions.


Asunto(s)
Fumar/epidemiología , Fumar/tendencias , Adolescente , Distribución por Edad , Grupos de Población Continentales/estadística & datos numéricos , Sistemas Electrónicos de Liberación de Nicotina/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalencia , Distribución por Sexo , Productos de Tabaco , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
15.
Pediatrics ; 145(3)2020 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32060140

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) prevalence doubled among pregnant women from 2009 to 2014, reaching 3.4 per 1000 births nationwide. Infants exposed to HCV may acquire HCV by vertical transmission. National guidelines recommend that infants exposed to HCV be tested; however, it is unclear if these recommendations are being followed. Our objectives were to determine if infants exposed to HCV were tested and to determine hospital- and patient-level factors associated with differences in testing. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study of infants exposed to HCV who were enrolled in the Tennessee Medicaid program, we used vital statistics-linked administrative data for infants born between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2014. Infants were followed until 2 years old. Multilevel logistic regression was used to assess the association of HCV testing and hospital- and patient-level characteristics. RESULTS: Only 23% of 4072 infants exposed to HCV were tested. Infants whose mothers were white versus African American (96.6% vs 3.1%; P <.001), used tobacco (78% vs 70%; P <.001), and had HIV (1.3% vs 0.4%; P = .002) were more likely to be tested. Infants exposed to HCV who had a higher median of well-child visits (7 vs 6; P <.001) were more likely to be tested. After accounting for maternal and infant characteristics and health care use patterns, African American infants were less likely to undergo general testing (adjusted odds ratio 0.32; 95% confidence interval, 0.13-0.78). CONCLUSIONS: Testing occurred in <1 in 4 infants exposed to HCV and less frequently among African American infants. Public health systems need to be bolstered to ensure that infants exposed to HCV are tested for seroconversion.


Asunto(s)
Hepatitis C/diagnóstico , Hepatitis C/transmisión , Transmisión Vertical de Enfermedad Infecciosa , Tamizaje Neonatal , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/epidemiología , Adulto , Afroamericanos/estadística & datos numéricos , Preescolar , Estudios de Cohortes , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Intercambio Materno-Fetal , Medicaid , Visita a Consultorio Médico/estadística & datos numéricos , Embarazo , Estudios Retrospectivos , Fumar/epidemiología , Tennessee/epidemiología , Estados Unidos , Adulto Joven
16.
Am J Surg ; 219(4): 578-582, 2020 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32081411

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to evaluate patient factors that contribute to increased incidence of early onset rectal cancer and analyze the short-term surgical outcomes of patients undergoing surgery. METHODS: A 2-year review (2015-2016) of the ACS-NSQIP included patients with rectal cancer who underwent surgical management. Patients were stratified into early-onset RC (<50-years) and late-onset RC (≥50-years). RESULTS: We included a total of 7538 patients in the analysis. Overall, 14% of the patients had early-onset RC. Patients with early-onset RC were more likely to be Black and Hispanic. Additionally, they were more likely to present with higher TNM stages. Patients with early-onset RC had lower 30-day complications and lower 30-day mortality. There was no difference between the two groups regarding hospital length of stay or 30-day readmission. On regression analysis, there was no difference between the two groups regarding patient outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Racial disparities do exist in the incidence of RC. Young patients tend to have more aggressive disease, however, surgical outcomes between the two groups are comparable.


Asunto(s)
Adenocarcinoma/patología , Adenocarcinoma/cirugía , Neoplasias del Recto/patología , Neoplasias del Recto/cirugía , Adulto , Anciano , Índice de Masa Corporal , Comorbilidad , Grupos de Población Continentales/estadística & datos numéricos , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiología , Disnea/epidemiología , Femenino , Insuficiencia Cardíaca/epidemiología , Humanos , Hipertensión/epidemiología , Laparoscopía/estadística & datos numéricos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Metástasis de la Neoplasia , Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica/epidemiología , Diálisis Renal/estadística & datos numéricos , Sepsis/epidemiología , Fumar/epidemiología , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Pérdida de Peso
17.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 79(4): 440-444, 2020 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32066556

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To examine trends in the incidence of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) from 2005 to 2014 overall and by serological status as compared with 1995-2004 and 1985-1994. METHODS: We evaluated RA incidence trends in a population-based inception cohort of individuals aged ≥18 years who first fulfilled the 1987 American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria for RA between 1 January 1985 and 31 December 2014. Incidence rates were estimated and were age-adjusted and sex-adjusted to the white population in the USA in 2010. Trends in incidence were examined using Poisson regression methods. RESULTS: The 2005-2014 incidence cohort comprised 427 patients: mean age 55.4 years, 68% female, 51% rheumatoid factor (RF) positive and 50% anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody positive. The overall age-adjusted and sex-adjusted annual RA incidence in 2005-2014 was 41/100 000 population (age-adjusted incidence: 53/100 000 in women and 29/100 000 in men). While these estimates were similar to the 1995-2004 decade, there was a decline in the incidence of RF-positive RA in 2005-2014 compared with the previous two decades (p=0.004), with a corresponding increase in RF-negative cases (p<0.001). Smoking rates declined and obesity rates increased from earlier decades to more recent years. CONCLUSIONS: Significant increase in incidence of RF-negative RA and decrease in RF-positive RA in 2005-2014 compared with previous decades was found using 1987 ACR criteria. The incidence of RA overall during this period remained similar to the previous decade. The changing prevalence of environmental factors, such as smoking, obesity and others, may have contributed to these trends. Whether these trends represent a changing serological profile of RA requires further investigation.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Antiproteína Citrulinada/inmunología , Artritis Reumatoide/epidemiología , Factor Reumatoide/inmunología , Adulto , Anciano , Artritis Reumatoide/inmunología , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Obesidad/epidemiología , Crecimiento Demográfico , Fumar/epidemiología , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
18.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(6): 155-160, 2020 Feb 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32053583

RESUMEN

The prevalence of current cigarette smoking is approximately twice as high among adults enrolled in Medicaid (23.9%) as among privately insured adults (10.5%), placing Medicaid enrollees at increased risk for smoking-related disease and death (1). Medicaid spends approximately $39 billion annually on treating smoking-related diseases (2). Individual, group, and telephone counseling and seven Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved medications* are effective in helping tobacco users quit (3). Comprehensive, barrier-free, widely promoted coverage of these treatments increases use of cessation treatments and quit rates and is cost-effective (3). To monitor changes in state Medicaid cessation coverage for traditional Medicaid enrollees† over the past decade, the American Lung Association collected data on coverage of nine cessation treatments by state Medicaid programs during December 31, 2008-December 31, 2018: individual counseling, group counseling, and the seven FDA-approved cessation medications§; states that cover all nine of these treatments are considered to have comprehensive coverage. The American Lung Association also collected data on seven barriers to accessing covered treatments.¶ As of December 31, 2018, 15 states covered all nine cessation treatments for all enrollees, up from six states as of December 31, 2008. Of these 15 states, Kentucky and Missouri were the only ones to have removed all seven barriers to accessing these cessation treatments. State Medicaid programs that cover all evidence-based cessation treatments, remove barriers to accessing these treatments, and promote covered treatments to Medicaid enrollees and health care providers could reduce smoking, smoking-related disease, and smoking-attributable federal and state health care expenditures (3-7).


Asunto(s)
Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Cobertura del Seguro/estadística & datos numéricos , Medicaid/economía , Cese del Uso de Tabaco , Adulto , Humanos , Fumar/epidemiología , Prevención del Hábito de Fumar , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
20.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0227813, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32027656

RESUMEN

Despite substantial investments in public health campaigns, misunderstanding of health-related scientific information is pervasive. This is especially true in the case of tobacco use, where smokers have been found to systematically misperceive scientific information about the negative health effects of smoking, in some cases leading smokers to increase their pro-smoking bias. Here, we extend recent work on 'networked collective intelligence' by testing the hypothesis that allowing smokers and nonsmokers to collaboratively evaluate anti-smoking advertisements in online social networks can improve their ability to accurately assess the negative health effects of tobacco use. Using Amazon's Mechanical Turk, we conducted an online experiment where smokers and nonsmokers (N = 1600) were exposed to anti-smoking advertisements and asked to estimate the negative health effects of tobacco use, either on their own or in the presence of peer influence in a social network. Contrary to popular predictions, we find that both smokers and nonsmokers were surprisingly inaccurate at interpreting anti-smoking messages, and their errors persisted if they continued to interpret these messages on their own. However, smokers and nonsmokers significantly improved in their ability to accurately interpret anti-smoking messages by sharing their opinions in structured online social networks. Specifically, subjects in social networks reduced the error of their risk estimates by over 10 times more than subjects who revised solely based on individual reflection (p < 0.001, 10 experimental trials in total). These results suggest that social media networks may be used to activate social learning that improves the public's ability to accurately interpret vital public health information.


Asunto(s)
Información de Salud al Consumidor , Difusión de la Información , Inteligencia , Fumar/epidemiología , Red Social , Actitud , Humanos , Aprendizaje , Factores de Riesgo , Prevención del Hábito de Fumar
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