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2.
Am J Public Health ; 111(3): 457-464, 2021 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33476232

RESUMEN

In 2019, San Francisco, California, prohibited the sale of electronic cigarettes lacking US Food and Drug Administration authorization. JUUL then promoted a ballot initiative (Proposition C) to replace San Francisco's e-cigarette legislation with legislation JUUL wrote that required future legislation to be approved by the voters. JUUL promoted Proposition C as a way to reduce youth e-cigarette use while allowing adult choice.Health groups argued that JUUL's measure could nullify San Francisco's prohibition on selling flavored tobacco products. Health groups benefitted from having an established campaign network that recently defended the flavor ban. They successfully framed Proposition C as a tobacco industry ploy to undo San Francisco's e-cigarette regulations, particularly the prohibition on selling flavored tobacco products. JUUL ended its campaign on September 30, 2019, and the measure failed on election day, with 82% voting against it.Lessons learned from the campaign include the importance of framing an industry initiative as a threat to local public health lawmaking and the potential for the e-cigarette issue to attract parents as new leaders and engage a powerful constituency to support tobacco control measures.


Asunto(s)
Política para Fumadores/legislación & jurisprudencia , Fumar/legislación & jurisprudencia , Productos de Tabaco/legislación & jurisprudencia , Vapeo/legislación & jurisprudencia , Adolescente , Adulto , Comercio/legislación & jurisprudencia , Sistemas Electrónicos de Liberación de Nicotina/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Salud Pública/legislación & jurisprudencia , Política Pública , San Francisco , Estados Unidos , United States Food and Drug Administration , Vapeo/epidemiología , Vapeo/prevención & control
3.
Nat Med ; 27(2): 239-243, 2021 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33479500

RESUMEN

Substantial global effort has been devoted to curtailing the tobacco epidemic over the past two decades, especially after the adoption of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control1 by the World Health Organization in 2003. In 2015, in recognition of the burden resulting from tobacco use, strengthened tobacco control was included as a global development target in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development2. Here we show that comprehensive tobacco control policies-including smoking bans, health warnings, advertising bans and tobacco taxes-are effective in reducing smoking prevalence; amplified positive effects are seen when these policies are implemented simultaneously within a given country. We find that if all 155 countries included in our counterfactual analysis had adopted smoking bans, health warnings and advertising bans at the strictest level and raised cigarette prices to at least 7.73 international dollars in 2009, there would have been about 100 million fewer smokers in the world in 2017. These findings highlight the urgent need for countries to move toward an accelerated implementation of a set of strong tobacco control practices, thus curbing the burden of smoking-attributable diseases and deaths.


Asunto(s)
Política de Salud/legislación & jurisprudencia , Política Pública/legislación & jurisprudencia , Fumar/legislación & jurisprudencia , Tabaco/efectos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Femenino , Política de Salud/economía , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Política Pública/economía , Fumar/economía , Fumar/epidemiología , Fumar/psicología , Impuestos , Organización Mundial de la Salud/economía , Adulto Joven
4.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32933121

RESUMEN

The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) developed by the State Parties to the World Health Organization was ratified in Slovakia in 2004 and in Finland in 2005. The aim of this study was to explore and compare compliance with the FCTC in Finland and Slovakia. This is a two-country comparative study of tobacco control policy based on implementation of the FCTC in Slovakia and Finland. Compliance with the FCTC was measured similarly in Slovakia and Finland in terms of their institutional structure supporting a smoking free environment and implementation of selected articles of the FCTC. In Finland the responsibilities for anti-tobacco policy are clearly assigned. Slovakia does not have specifically responsible institutions. Finland has a clear plan for achieving the goal of a smoking-free country based on empirical evidence. Slovakia meets only the minimum standard resulting from its commitment as ratified in the FCTC and data are out of date or missing completely.


Asunto(s)
Control de Medicamentos y Narcóticos/legislación & jurisprudencia , Adhesión a Directriz/estadística & datos numéricos , Prevención del Hábito de Fumar , Industria del Tabaco , Productos de Tabaco , Contaminación por Humo de Tabaco/prevención & control , Comparación Transcultural , Finlandia , Regulación Gubernamental , Cooperación Internacional , Eslovaquia , Fumar/legislación & jurisprudencia , Tabaco , Contaminación por Humo de Tabaco/legislación & jurisprudencia , Organización Mundial de la Salud
5.
Public Health ; 185: 332-337, 2020 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32721771

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: In 2017, one in four French 17-year-olds was a daily smoker, even though France prohibited the sale of tobacco to under-18 minors in 2009. This research aims to evaluate the retail violation rate for sale to minors (RVRms) and the associated factors. STUDY DESIGN: The study design used is observational mystery shopping study. METHODS: We conducted a mystery shopping study enlisting 12-year-old and 17-year-old youths in a representative sample of 527 tobacco outlets during three weeks in spring 2019. Multinomial Logit and Probit regressions were estimated on the data collected. RESULTS: The law is not respected. Two of three sellers (65.2%) were willing to make an illegal sale to a 17-year-old minor, and almost one in 12 (8.1%) were willing to sell to a 12-year-old child attempting to buy tobacco. Illegal sales were more likely to be made by male sellers, retailing in big cities, when there were no in-shop queues, and to 17-year-old females. The absence of the mandatory enforcement poster flagging up the ban on the sale of tobacco to minors appears to be a strong factor associated with RVRm. CONCLUSIONS: These findings show that progress needs to be made to better enforce tobacco control legislation to help decrease underage smoking in France. Rate of compliance with the law could be improved by stronger enforcement measures and tougher sanctions, but also by training and the provision of age-verification tools for sellers, as demonstrated by experiments in other countries.


Asunto(s)
Comercio/legislación & jurisprudencia , Menores/legislación & jurisprudencia , Productos de Tabaco/legislación & jurisprudencia , Adolescente , Conducta del Adolescente , Niño , Comercio/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Francia/epidemiología , Humanos , Masculino , Mercadotecnía , Menores/estadística & datos numéricos , Fumar/epidemiología , Fumar/legislación & jurisprudencia , Tabaco , Productos de Tabaco/economía , Productos de Tabaco/estadística & datos numéricos
7.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233417, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32442202

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In June 2019, Beverly Hills, California, became the first American city in the 21st century to pass an ordinance ending the sale of most tobacco products, including cigarettes, and it is unlikely to be the last. Knowledge of previous efforts to ban tobacco sales in the US, both successful and unsuccessful, may help inform tobacco control advocates' approach to future efforts. METHODS: We retrieved and analyzed archival tobacco industry documents. We confirmed and supplemented information from the documents with news media coverage and publicly available state and local government materials, such as meeting minutes and staff reports, related to proposed bans. RESULTS: We found 22 proposals to end the sale of cigarettes or tobacco products from 1969-2020 in the US. Proposals came from five states, twelve cities or towns, and one county. Most came from elected officials or boards of health, and were justified on public health grounds. In opposing tobacco sales bans, the tobacco industry employed no tactics or arguments that it did not also employ in campaigns against other tobacco control measures. Public health groups typically opposed sales ban proposals on the grounds that they were not evidence-based. This changed with Beverly Hills' 2019 proposal, with public health organizations supporting this and other California city proposals because of their likely positive health impacts. This support did not always translate into passage of local ordinances, as some city council members expressed reservations about the impact on small businesses. CONCLUSION: Tobacco control advocates are likely to encounter familiar tobacco industry tactics and arguments against tobacco sales ban proposals, and can rely on past experience and the results of a growing body of retail-related research to counter them. Considering how to overcome concerns about harming retailers will likely be vital if other jurisdictions are to succeed in ending tobacco sales.


Asunto(s)
Salud Pública/legislación & jurisprudencia , Fumar/legislación & jurisprudencia , Industria del Tabaco/legislación & jurisprudencia , Productos de Tabaco/legislación & jurisprudencia , Comercio/economía , Comercio/historia , Comercio/legislación & jurisprudencia , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Gobierno Local/historia , Salud Pública/historia , Fumar/economía , Fumar/historia , Tabaco , Industria del Tabaco/economía , Industria del Tabaco/historia , Productos de Tabaco/economía , Productos de Tabaco/historia , Estados Unidos
8.
Cancer Causes Control ; 31(7): 663-667, 2020 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32363571

RESUMEN

This article is a timely, concise, and unbiased analysis of the national and international responses to the spate of vaping-related lung illnesses and deaths and the epidemic of teen vaping. In view of the recent outbreak of vaping-related lung injuries and deaths in the USA and the epidemic of teen vaping, the viewpoints and recommendations presented in this article have immediate policy implications in the USA and around the world. The perspectives and recommendations are expected to assist medical communities, public health professionals, and regulatory authorities in addressing complex issues related to vaping regulation, which are intertwined with public health, economy, and politics of nations, worldwide.


Asunto(s)
Fumar/epidemiología , Vapeo , Adolescente , Sistemas Electrónicos de Liberación de Nicotina , Humanos , Salud Pública , Fumar/legislación & jurisprudencia , Prevención del Hábito de Fumar , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Vapeo/legislación & jurisprudencia , Vapeo/prevención & control
9.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 527, 2020 Apr 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32306928

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Indonesia shoulders a significant tobacco burden, with almost two million cases of tobacco-related illnesses and more than two hundred thousand tobacco-related deaths annually. Indonesian tobacco control is progressing but lags behind other countries. Our study evaluates factors that contribute to the slow progress of tobacco policy change in Indonesia from the perspective of tobacco control experts (TCEs). METHOD: We conducted qualitative interviews with four international and ten national TCEs, who have been active in tobacco control for at least 5 years. Our interview guideline included questions on the current tobacco control situation in Indonesia and explored reasons why tobacco control is progressing so slowly. The interviews were conducted either in English or Bahasa Indonesia, recorded and then transcribed verbatim. We conducted a thematic analysis based on five core causal factors for policy adoption: institutions, networks, socio-economic factors, agendas and ideas. RESULTS: The multistage delay of tobacco policy adoption is principally due to political structures and policy hierarchy, complex bureaucracy, unclear roles and responsibilities, and a high degree of corruption. The low bargaining position and lack of respect for the Ministry of Health also contributes. There are contrasting frames of tobacco as a strategic economic asset and tobacco control as a sovereignty threat. There is an imbalance of power and influence between well entrenched and resourced tobacco industry networks compared to relatively young and less established tobacco control networks. The policy agenda is likely influenced by the privileged position of tobacco in Indonesia as a socially acceptable product with high consumption. There are constraints on transferring ideas and evidence to successful policy adoption. CONCLUSION: Tobacco companies have substantially influenced both policy decisions and public perceptions, signifying a power imbalance within the government system and broader networks. Acceding to and enforcing the World Health Organization- Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO-FCTC) would enable the Indonesian government to shift the power imbalance towards public health stakeholders. Tobacco control advocates must enhance their network cohesion and embrace other community groups to improve engagement and communication with policymakers.


Asunto(s)
Política de Salud/legislación & jurisprudencia , Política Pública/legislación & jurisprudencia , Fumar/legislación & jurisprudencia , Industria del Tabaco/legislación & jurisprudencia , Productos de Tabaco/legislación & jurisprudencia , Testimonio de Experto , Humanos , Indonesia , Investigación Cualitativa , Prevención del Hábito de Fumar/legislación & jurisprudencia , Organización Mundial de la Salud
10.
Pneumologie ; 74(5): 294-299, 2020 May.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32252110

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Since September 2007, the Federal Nonsmoker Protection Act regulates a general legal ban on smoking in federal facilities, public transport vehicles and passenger stations. Other smoking bans are not uniformly regulated and vary from state to state. In addition to places of public interest, sports venues and the workplace, particular attention in political debates has always been paid to bars and restaurants, where smoking has always been part of the picture. The situation of the Südstadt pubs in Cologne considered in this paper is governed by the expanded law for the protection of non-smokers in North Rhine Westphalia (NRW) of December 20, 2007. METHODS: A survey using a specifically created questionnaire comprising 24 items was carried out. Persons over 26 years of age visiting selected bars were interviewed in order to ensure that at the time the Nonsmoker Protection Act was introduced, participants had reached the legal age for smoking. Data acquisition was carried out both by direct surveys of participants in selected pubs in Cologne's Südstadt and by means of online surveys, attention to which had been drawn in the press, television and through social media. RESULTS: A total of 1318 completed questionnaires were evaluated. Participants were on average 49 years old (±â€Š12.1). Of the 1318 respondents, 726 were active smokers in 2007 (55.1 %). In 2018, 518 (39.3 %) (p: < 0.001) respondents stated that they were still active smokers. Of the 726 active smokers, 289 (39.8 %) had been consuming more than 20 cigarettes a day in 2007. In 2018, 179 of 518 (34.6 %) (p: < 0.001) were heavy smokers. In 2007, 303 persons (41.7 % of smokers) fell into the group of medium smokers with 10 - 19 cigarettes per day, in 2018 there were 227 (43.8 %) (p: < 0.001). The group of people who smoked less and consumed 1 - 9 cigarettes per day included a total of 134 persons (18.5 %) in 2007 and 112 (21.6 %) in 2018 (p: < 0.001). Among active smokers, the smoking ban was the most relevant cause for a change in smoking behaviour in this survey. Among non-smokers or former smokers, health aspects as well as family and friends were the decisive factors in rejecting tobacco products. SUMMARY: Based on a sample of 1318 participants among pub visitors, the study showed that the number of active smokers had significantly and distinctly decreased since the introduction of the Nonsmoker Protection Act in 2007. Furthermore, the number of people with rather low cigarette consumption showed a significant increase.


Asunto(s)
No Fumadores , Política Pública , Política para Fumadores , Cese del Hábito de Fumar , Fumar , Contaminación por Humo de Tabaco/prevención & control , Adulto , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Salud Pública , Fumar/efectos adversos , Fumar/legislación & jurisprudencia , Prevención del Hábito de Fumar , Contaminación por Humo de Tabaco/legislación & jurisprudencia
11.
Ann Afr Med ; 19(1): 53-59, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32174616

RESUMEN

Background: Smoke-free policies are increasingly being enacted in several countries. In 2014, Lagos State, the commercial capital of Nigeria, enacted a statewide smoke-free policy; however, university campuses were excluded from the list of public places where smoking would be disallowed. This study aimed to assess students' support for smoke-free campus policies, their attitudes, and exposure toward secondhand smoke (SHS). Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out among 421 university undergraduates in two premier universities in the state. Respondents were selected using a multistage sampling method, and the data were collected using a pretested self-administered questionnaire. Results: Many (55.4%) of the respondents agreed that students who are non-smokers have the right to inhale smoke-free air on campuses and expressed feelings of irritation (57.1%) or anger (17.1%) when exposed to SHS on campus. Majority (80.1%) of the respondents were in support of a smoke-free policy on their campus and in favor of a ban on smoking in enclosed spaces on campus (79.6%). Exposure to SHS on campus was high, as one in five respondents were exposed to SHS in their hostel rooms (19.9%) and 44.9% were exposed in outdoor campus spaces in the preceding week. There was a statistically significant association between respondents' age, gender, smoking status, and attitudes toward SHS and support for a smoke-free campus policy. Conclusion: Although the majority of the students were non-smokers, significant exposure to SHS on campuses still exists. There is a huge support for smoke-free campus policies. The state government should consider including campuses on the list of smoke-free public spaces in the review of the statewide smoking law.


Asunto(s)
Política para Fumadores , Estudiantes/psicología , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Contaminación por Humo de Tabaco/prevención & control , Universidades , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Política de Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Nigeria , Fumar/legislación & jurisprudencia , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Contaminación por Humo de Tabaco/legislación & jurisprudencia , Adulto Joven
12.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 22(7): 1139-1147, 2020 06 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31793996

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Parents are essential stakeholders for policy implementation. However, data on parents' support for e-cigarette- and tobacco-related policies is limited. This study examines parents' support for five e-cigarette- and tobacco-related policies targeted to prevent youth initiation and exposure to industry marketing practices. METHODS: Data were from a 2018 nationally representative sample of US parents of 11- to 18-year-old middle and high school students. Weighted adjusted logistic regression models examined correlates of support for policy outcomes, controlling for demographics. Analyses were performed among the full sample (n = 2743) and among current tobacco users (n = 355). RESULTS: The majority of parents, including current tobacco users, supported tobacco control efforts to protect adolescents. More than 90% of all parents supported restrictions on e-cigarette marketing to youth and 75% supported a ban on flavored e-cigarette sales. Additionally, more than 80% of all parents supported increasing the age of tobacco product sale to 21, limiting tobacco retailer density near schools, and keeping tobacco products out of view where youth shop. Presence of strict home tobacco rules or reporting a high priority to prevent child's e-cigarette use were significantly associated with higher odds of policy support. Results were similar among current tobacco users. CONCLUSIONS: Parents are an important group of tobacco control stakeholders and should be utilized to garner support for tobacco control policies in the context of the recent growth in youth tobacco and e-cigarette use. Parents' public support for tobacco control policies, particularly regulations on e-cigarette sales and marketing, can motivate advocates and policymakers to advance tobacco control policy agendas. IMPLICATIONS: Youth tobacco and e-cigarette use in the United States has increased in recent years. Parents are important stakeholders to inform policy agendas and advance efforts to restrict youth access and exposure to tobacco products. This study provides evidence that parents of adolescents are highly supportive of youth-centered tobacco control policies, particularly those that restrict access to youth-targeted e-cigarette marketing and the sale of youth-appealing flavored e-cigarettes. Utilizing policy support to mobilize parents may be an important advocacy strategy to advance tobacco control policy agendas and curb rising rates of youth e-cigarette and tobacco use.


Asunto(s)
Sistemas Electrónicos de Liberación de Nicotina/normas , Padres/psicología , Política para Fumadores/legislación & jurisprudencia , Fumar/legislación & jurisprudencia , Estudiantes/psicología , Productos de Tabaco/legislación & jurisprudencia , Vapeo/prevención & control , Adolescente , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Mercadotecnía/métodos , Política Pública , Instituciones Académicas , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Vapeo/epidemiología
13.
Am J Public Health ; 110(2): 209-215, 2020 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31855484

RESUMEN

Objectives. To evaluate assurances of voluntary compliance (AVCs) between state attorneys general and retail chains by assessing e-cigarette sales to underage decoys and tobacco marketing violations in corporate-owned stores (that sign AVCs) and franchise stores (that do not sign AVCs).Methods. Decoys 18 to 19 years of age attempted to purchase e-cigarettes without presenting ID in California convenience stores (n = 540). Auditors characterized the presence and content of age-of-sale signage and advertising for tobacco products. Data were collected and analyzed in 2018.Results. Corporate-owned stores were less likely than were franchise stores to violate ID requests (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.29; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.12, 0.71) and to sell e-cigarettes illegally (AOR = 0.37; 95% CI = 0.15, 0.88). Regardless of AVC category, advertising violations were common in stores (vaping products, 26.3%; other tobacco products, 74.3%).Conclusions. The differences in violation rates found in corporate and franchise stores imply that AVCs could reduce youth access to e-cigarettes. However, merchant education and routine enforcement are needed to better leverage restrictions on retail tobacco marketing in AVCs.Public Health Implications. Strengthening compliance with existing AVCs and establishing new agreements with retailers shown to be in violation through federal or state inspections could reduce youth access to e-cigarettes and exposure to tobacco marketing.


Asunto(s)
Sistemas Electrónicos de Liberación de Nicotina , Mercadotecnía/normas , Productos de Tabaco/legislación & jurisprudencia , Adolescente , California , Comercio/legislación & jurisprudencia , Humanos , Salud Pública , Fumar/legislación & jurisprudencia , Adulto Joven
15.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 22(6): 950-957, 2020 05 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31083716

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: From July 2013 to January 2015, the smoking ban instituted in restaurants in South Korea gradually expanded to cover all restaurants and bars, moving by size of restaurant (≤99 m2, 100-149 m2, ≥150 m2). This study measured the impacts of the smoking ban for restaurants. METHODS: This study examined credit, check, or debit card sales data for every September and October from 2012 to 2015 in 711 census tracts in Seoul, South Korea. We accounted for total restaurant sales in each census tract. Our model controlled for the sales amounts for each census tract, type of restaurant, monthly business survey index, number of restaurants, daily average temperature, daily precipitation, and day of the week, and a dummy for census tract. RESULTS: These were some positive associations with increase in total sales. However, the significance of the coefficients was not consistent over this period. Overall, our results showed no significant negative effects of smoking ban policy on restaurants. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking ban policies produced benefits in terms of health outcomes, without causing significant negative impacts on sales. IMPLICATIONS: Although the owners of restaurants anticipated negative impacts on sales from smoking ban policies, the results of this study suggest that restaurants experienced no negative economic impacts on sales from policies with health benefits, which suggest that it would be reasonable to promote and keep on the smoking ban. Also, it is important to apply smoking ban policy to all targets without exclusion.


Asunto(s)
Comercio/estadística & datos numéricos , Restaurantes/economía , Política para Fumadores/economía , Fumar/legislación & jurisprudencia , Contaminación por Humo de Tabaco/prevención & control , Humanos , República de Corea/epidemiología , Fumar/economía , Fumar/epidemiología , Prevención del Hábito de Fumar , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
16.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 22(7): 1221-1224, 2020 06 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31811294

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: In 2017, the New Zealand (NZ) Government announced its intention to liberalize the sale and promotion of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), including permitting any outlet to sell ENDS. This research estimated the proportion of tobacco outlets selling ENDS prior to legislative change, documented ENDS point-of-sale (POS) marketing, and examined associations between ENDS availability and outlet type, area-level deprivation, study region, and proximity to a secondary school. AIMS AND METHODS: After drawing a proportional random sample of 281 tobacco outlets from two NZ regions that included convenience stores, supermarkets, and petrol stations, we conducted observational in-store assessments to record ENDS product ranges and promotions. Data were collected between October and December 2017 and analyzed using descriptive statistics and regression modeling. RESULTS: Of tobacco outlets sampled, 22% sold ENDS; these were typically convenience stores (85%) and located in high deprivation areas (53%). Of stores selling ENDS, products were visible at POS in 89% of stores, including 15% with self-service displays and 15% with displays adjacent to children's products. ENDS advertising was present in 31% of the outlets and generally promoted ENDS as cheaper than smoked cigarettes. CONCLUSIONS: Liberalizing access to ENDS could reduce harms caused by smoking; however, extensive use of POS promotions will reach children and young people as well as smokers. While reducing harm among smokers is important, policy makers also need to ensure that regulations protect children from ENDS promotions. IMPLICATIONS: Careful regulation is required to ensure increases in ENDS availability are not accompanied by an increase in young people's exposure to ENDS marketing at the POS.


Asunto(s)
Sistemas Electrónicos de Liberación de Nicotina/estadística & datos numéricos , Mercadotecnía/estadística & datos numéricos , Fumadores/psicología , Fumar/epidemiología , Productos de Tabaco/economía , Adolescente , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Mercadotecnía/métodos , Nueva Zelanda/epidemiología , Fumar/economía , Fumar/legislación & jurisprudencia
17.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 206: 107730, 2020 01 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31759233

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: E-cigarettes are the most popular tobacco product among youth. As more states adopt cannabis legalization policies, youth cannabis use in e-cigarettes is a mounting concern. METHODS: Data were from the 2016 and 2017 National Youth Tobacco Survey, a nationally-representative repeated cross-sectional survey administered to US middle and high school students. Ever use groups were categorized into e-cigarette ever users, cannabis in e-cigarette ever users, other tobacco ever users, and never users. Weighted multinomial logistic regression compared ever use groups, while controlling for state-level cannabis legalization and tobacco prevention polices, tobacco perceptions and exposures, and sociodemographic variables. Weighted prevalence of ever and current, or past 30 day, tobacco product use was determined by ever use groups. RESULTS: Compared to e-cigarette ever users, cannabis in e-cigarette ever users increased (Adjusted Relative Risk Ratio (ARRR) = 1.65; p < 0.01) from 2016 to 2017. Medical-only and medical and recreational cannabis laws, and no e-cigarette minimum legal sales age (MLSA) and increased e-cigarette MLSA at 19 or 21 were positively associated with cannabis in e-cigarette ever users (ARRR = 1.34-1.85; p < 0.01, each). Ever and current use of all individual tobacco products was highest among cannabis in e-cigarette ever users compared to e-cigarette and other tobacco ever users. CONCLUSIONS: Cannabis use in e-cigarettes has increased among youth, and these trends will likely continue as e-cigarettes continue to gain popularity and cannabis legalization policies proliferate. Targeted tobacco and cannabis prevention strategies are needed for youth, especially in states that have implemented cannabis 'medical and recreational laws.


Asunto(s)
Sistemas Electrónicos de Liberación de Nicotina/estadística & datos numéricos , Uso de la Marihuana/epidemiología , Prevención del Hábito de Fumar/estadística & datos numéricos , Fumar/epidemiología , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiología , Adolescente , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Legislación de Medicamentos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Uso de la Marihuana/legislación & jurisprudencia , Oportunidad Relativa , Prevalencia , Fumar/legislación & jurisprudencia , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Uso de Tabaco/prevención & control , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
18.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 21(Suppl 1): S128-S132, 2019 12 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31867641

RESUMEN

SIGNIFICANCE: The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is considering a very low nicotine content (VLNC) product standard to substantially reduce nicotine in cigarettes. We examined whether learning about a potential VLNC standard increased smokers' interest in illicit purchases of cigarettes with regular nicotine content if such a standard were adopted. METHODS: Participants were a national convenience sample of 1712 US adult smokers. In an online experiment, we randomly assigned smokers to view information about a new VLNC standard (experimental condition) or no information (control condition). The experimental condition explained that a VLNC standard would remove 95% of the nicotine in cigarettes and would require stores to only sell VLNC cigarettes. Then, the survey assessed smokers' interest in purchasing regular cigarettes from three illicit sources. RESULTS: Smokers who learned about the VLNC standard were more likely to be very or extremely interested in purchasing regular cigarettes illicitly from a Web site compared to smokers in the control group (24% vs. 16%, p < .001). They were also more interested in illicitly buying cigarettes from a street vendor (19% vs. 13%, p < .001) and a store on an Indian reservation (28% vs. 22%, p < .05), compared to the control. The impact of learning about the VLNC standard on interest in illicit purchases did not differ by smoking frequency or current e-cigarette use. CONCLUSIONS: A VLNC standard could increase smokers' interest in illicit purchases of regular nicotine cigarettes. To prevent VLNC-induced illicit trade from undermining public health, FDA should consider proven measures such as track and trace for these products. IMPLICATIONS: Little is known about how a VLNC cigarette standard would affect consumer interest in regular content cigarettes purchased from illicit sources (eg, the Internet). We found that smokers informed about a potential VLNC product standard had greater interest in illicit cigarette purchases, compared to controls. This suggests the importance of proactive measures accompanying a VLNC standard, such as track-and-trace cigarette packaging regulations and communication campaigns, in order to maximize the standard's public health impact.


Asunto(s)
Nicotina , Fumadores , Fumar/legislación & jurisprudencia , Productos de Tabaco/legislación & jurisprudencia , Adulto , Humanos , Fumadores/psicología , Fumadores/estadística & datos numéricos , Cese del Hábito de Fumar , Estados Unidos
19.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 21(Suppl 1): S1-S4, 2019 12 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31867658

RESUMEN

This Special Issue on nicotine standards in the United States will address many of the questions raised in the Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (ANPRM) through a series of policy commentaries and timely empirical studies across a variety of topic areas within the proposed comprehensive nicotine standards plan. The questions addressed in this issue include: (1) the threshold dose of nicotine (and other constituents) that would lead to minimally addictive cigarettes; (2) the effects of a nicotine product standard in smokers with co-morbidity, youth and young adult smokers, and menthol smokers; (3) a step-down or targeted data approach to reducing nicotine in cigarettes; (4) perceptions and communications about product standards; and (5) requirements associated with the implementation of a nicotine product standard.


Asunto(s)
Nicotina , Fumar/legislación & jurisprudencia , Productos de Tabaco/legislación & jurisprudencia , Adolescente , Adulto , Humanos , Prevención del Hábito de Fumar/legislación & jurisprudencia , Prevención del Hábito de Fumar/organización & administración , Estados Unidos , Adulto Joven
20.
J Prev Med Public Health ; 52(6): 427-432, 2019 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31795619

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In Indonesia, 61 million adults smoked in 2018 and 59 million were exposed to secondhand smoke at offices or restaurants in 2011. The Presidential Decree 109/2012 encouraged local governments to implement smoke-free policy (SFP) with Jayapura city enacted a local bill (1/2015) in 2015. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate the compliance and explore the challenges in implementing. METHODS: We conducted a mixed-methods study. The quantitative method assessed the compliance to six criteria (as per the bill) including having signage, no smoking activity, no selling, no advertisement, no smoke, and no ashtray at SFP facilities. We surveyed 192 facilities including health facilities, educational facilities, places of worship, government offices, and indoor/outdoor public facilities. The qualitative method explored challenges in implementing through by interviewing 19 informants (government officers, students and community). RESULTS: The compliance rate to all six criteria was 17% overall, ranging from 0% at outdoor public facilities to 50% at health facilities. We found no spatial patterning as shown by similar compliance rates between SFP facilities within and outside of 1-kilometer around the provincial and city health offices. Implementation challenges included (a) limited budget for enforcement, (b) lack of support from local non-government organizations and universities, (c) lack of public awareness at facilities, and (c) lack of examples from local leaders. CONCLUSION: The overall compliance was low in Jayapura city due to many challenges. This provides lessons learnt for tobacco control policy in the areas that are least developed and farthest from the central government.


Asunto(s)
Adhesión a Directriz/estadística & datos numéricos , Salud Pública , Política para Fumadores , Fumar/legislación & jurisprudencia , Contaminación por Humo de Tabaco/legislación & jurisprudencia , Estudios de Evaluación como Asunto , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Humanos , Indonesia/epidemiología , Política Pública , Investigación Cualitativa
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